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Knowledge hiding as a barrier to thriving: The mediating role of psychological safety and moderating role of organizational cynicism

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Abstract

Research demonstrates that knowledge hiding has a detrimental effect on the knowledge hider him‐ or herself. Extending this area, the present research examines how and when knowledge hiders struggle to thrive at work. Integrating self‐perception theory and the socially‐embedded model of thriving, we propose that knowledge hiding negatively influences employees’ thriving through psychological safety, and this influence is contingent on organizational cynicism. In Study 1a, a cross‐sectional survey of 214 Chinese participants from a general working population supported the mediating role of psychological safety in the knowledge hiding and thriving relationship. Study 1b verified this result using two‐wave data collected from 392 working adults in a panel that recruited participants mainly in Europe and North America. In addition to confirming the mediation with a two‐wave field survey conducted among 205 employees in three Chinese organizations, Study 2 supported the moderating role of organizational cynicism. Specifically, the negative effect of knowledge hiding on psychological safety was greater under higher levels of organizational cynicism, as was the indirect effect of knowledge hiding on thriving via psychological safety. These findings contribute to both the knowledge hiding and the thriving literature and provide practical implications for both the manager and the employee.

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... low sharing intentions or a lack of knowledge itself). Knowledge hiding is more harmful (Bogilovi c et al., 2017) and can deteriorate an organization's innovation (Labafi, 2017), performance (Singh, 2019) and thriving (Jiang et al., 2019). Scholars have, therefore, paid considerable attention to the factors that cause employees to engage in knowledge hiding. ...
... With the deepening of research, scholars have started to explore the intervention mechanisms of knowledge hiding and have achieved some useful research results such as prevention focus ( Cerne et al., 2014), psychological safety (Jiang et al., 2019) and organizational identification (Zhao et al., 2019). However, the exploration of employees' cognition process is neglected. ...
... social cognitive perspective) into how PCH influences knowledge hiding by theorizing and testing the mediating role of moral identity. Third, we address Jiang et al. (2019)'s call to investigate why employees with different personal characteristics behave differently in their organization. By examining the moderating role of OBSE, we reveal the boundary for knowledge hiding, leading to a better understanding of when and why corporate hypocrisy influences employees' knowledge hiding behaviors. ...
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Purpose This paper aims to investigate a new predictor of knowledge hiding, namely, employee perceptions of corporate hypocrisy (PCH). Based on the social cognitive theory, this study constructs a moderated mediation model linking PCH and knowledge hiding. The theoretical model concentrates on the mediating role of moral identity and the moderating role of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). Design/methodology/approach Two studies with different samples and designs were used. In Study 1, the experimental method explored whether PCH could elicit knowledge hiding under the condition of OBSE (H1 and H4). Study 2, an empirical method with three stages, tested the full mediated moderation model by adding to the mediating role of moral identity (H1–H4). Findings The results showed: PCH was positively related to knowledge hiding, moral identity mediated the influence of PCH on knowledge hiding and OBSE not only moderated the relationship between PCH and moral identity but also moderated the indirect effect of PCH on knowledge hiding (via moral identity). The present research sheds valuable light on the processes (how) and contingencies (when) whereby PCH affects knowledge hiding for the first time, thus extending prior research and encouraging further explorations on the topic of PCH and knowledge hiding. It informs practitioners that taking measures to decrease corporate hypocrisy plays a vital role in preventing workers from hiding knowledge. Originality/value The study’s distinctive contribution is to examine the mediating effect of moral identity and the moderating role of OBSE on the relationship between corporate hypocrisy and knowledge hiding, which through the lens of social cognitive theory. Thus, it furthers a deeper understanding of knowledge hiding and helps the organization understand the dynamics of knowledge management, such as prohibiting employee counterproductive behaviors in the workplace.
... These studies are insufficient to examine the cumulative effect of ethical leaders on KH, and some of these use students as a research sample. In addition, explanations of the boundary conditions through which ethical leadership is associated with KH are sparse, as are investigations of the consequences of KH (Jiang et al., 2019). ...
... Taking these two variables together, we examine how employees' characteristics may influence KH behaviors when ethical supervision is experienced. Third, to address the limited research outcomes associated with KH, this study examines the impact of KH on employees' well-being (Jiang et al., 2019). A state of well-being arises from the fulfillment of an individual's psychological needs at the workplace (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). ...
... Well-being is a complex construct and is defined as experiencing a positive affect associated with satisfaction and happiness (Jiang et al., 2019). Jiang et al. (2019) have identified three dimensions of wellbeing: satisfaction at the psychological level, in the workplace, and in life (Zheng et al., 2015). ...
Article
This paper tests the mediating role of knowledge hiding in the ethical leadership–employee well-being relationship. The moderated mediation examines the impact of individual characteristics (self-enhancement motives and job involvement) on employee well-being through knowledge hiding. The hypotheses are supported by multi-source data collected at two points from 410 employee and co-worker dyads from emerging Indian multinational enterprises. Results reveal that ethical leadership reduces knowledge hiding behavior, which, in turn, strengthens the well-being of employees. Individual characteristics moderate this relationship such that the negative impact of ethical leadership on knowledge hiding is more pronounced when self-enhancement motives and job involvement are high. Finally, the moderated mediation suggests that individual characteristics act as catalysts and ameliorate the indirect negative impact of ethical leadership on employee well-being through knowledge hiding.
... Knowledge hiding is known to cause significant negative consequences (Huo et al., 2016;Jiang et al., 2019;Ellmer & Reichel, 2021). For instance, in 2018, the losses associated with knowledge hiding behavior were reported to cost American organizations up to US$ 47 million in productivity (Panopto, 2018). ...
... Moreover, employee support for organizational crises has been the key to success during change (Connelly et al., 2019). During an organizational crisis, cynicism is critical to managing as it promotes resistance to organizational change (Jiang et al., 2019). Cynical employees often doubt their value in organizations, and they tend not to share knowledge because they are less likely to think they have sufficient resources and capability to share knowledge that is valuable to others (Cartwright & Holmes, 2006). ...
... Cynical employees often doubt their value in organizations, and they tend not to share knowledge because they are less likely to think they have sufficient resources and capability to share knowledge that is valuable to others (Cartwright & Holmes, 2006). Cynics are highly likely to engage in knowledge hiding because knowledge hiding may help them protect themselves, thereby maintaining a competitive advantage (Jiang et al., 2019). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused organizational crises leading to shutdowns, mergers, downsizing or restructuring to minimize survival costs. In such organizational crises, employees tend to experience a loss or lack of resources, and they are more likely to engage in knowledge hiding to maintain their resources and competitive advantage. Knowledge hiding has often caused significant adverse consequences, and the research on knowledge hiding is limited. Drawing upon the Conservation of Resources and Transformational Leadership theories, a conceptual framework was developed to examine knowledge hiding behavior and its antecedents and consequences. We collected data from 281 Vietnamese employees working during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results show that role conflict, job insecurity, and cynicism positively impact knowledge hiding behavior. Knowledge hiding behavior negatively affects job performance and mediates the antecedents of knowledge hiding on job performance. Transformational leadership moderated the impact of role conflict on knowledge hiding.
... In addition, both evasive hiding and rationalized hiding will hinder innovation performance. Regarding psychological status and attitudes, research suggests that knowledge hiding increases employees' moral disengagement (Arain et al., 2020a) and decreases their psychological safety, well-being, job satisfaction, and sense of thriving (Jiang et al., 2019;Offergelt et al., 2019;Khoreva and Wechtler, 2020). Furthermore, knowledge hiding can trigger knowledge seekers' deviant behaviors, turnover intention, upward silence, and non-engagement in knowledge sharing (Connelly and Zweig, 2015;Offergelt et al., 2019;Singh, 2019;Arain et al., 2020a). ...
... In summary, scholars have made advancements on the impacts of knowledge hiding on the individual level, but research on its impacts on team and organizational levels is still at a nascent stage. Few scholars have recently analyzed the "boomerang effect" or "negative reinforcement cycle" of knowledge hiding-the impact of knowledge hiding on the hiders' psychological status, job performance, and creativity (e.g., Cerne et al., 2014;Jiang et al., 2019)-and its double-edged sword effect , which has opened up a new avenue for research. ...
... Supervisor knowledge hiding can also activate employee moral disengagement, prompting them to reduce OCB toward their supervisors and increase silence behaviors (Arain et al., 2020a). Jiang et al. (2019) suggest that knowledge hiding makes the hiders feel the insecurity of self-expression and interpersonal risk, thereby reducing their psychological safety and endangering their ability to thrive at work. Despite these advancements, it is necessary to develop a robust framework that integrates multipath models based on different innovative theoretical perspectives. ...
Article
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This article provides a review of scientific articles addressing the topic of knowledge hiding in organizations. Based on a descriptive analysis, bibliometric analysis, and content analysis of a sample of 81 articles published in the academic journals in the Web of Science from 2012 to 2020, we identify the main areas and current dynamics of knowledge hiding research. Our results show that the central research themes of knowledge hiding include five clusters: concept and measurement, antecedents, consequences, theories, and influence mechanisms. Based on our findings, we suggest future research should further develop the concept and dimensions of knowledge hiding; probe deeper into the consequences of knowledge hiding; explore multilateral, cross-level, and collective knowledge hiding; employ innovative theoretical perspectives and research methods to study knowledge hiding; and address how cultural and other contextual factors may shape the knowledge hiding behavior.
... Even though efforts have been made to enhance knowledge sharing within organizations, employees are still reluctant to share knowledge with other members [3,4]. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that knowledge hiding has serious implications, such as hurting relationships, eliciting negative emotions and threatening psychological safety [5][6][7]. Although knowledge hiding ubiquitously exists among organizational members, rigorous concepts, theory development and empirical research on knowledge hiding have been sporadic and stagnant until recent years, when a formal constructive concept of knowledge hiding was developed [3]. ...
... Not only is knowledge sharing [2] included in this cluster, but also, amongst others, counterproductive knowledge behavior [38], the first time "knowledge hiding" is used as a multidimensional construct to capture the dyadic situations where work-related knowledge is requested by one employee to another [3], and antecedents such as interpersonal distrust and psychological ownership [3,36,37]. The green cluster mainly focuses on findings related to knowledge hiding in the most recent five years, especifially in 2019, including antecedents, such as time presure; performance-prove goal orientation and leader-member exchange [44,81,82]; outcomes, such as thriving; self-conscious moral emotions (shame and guilt); organizational citizenship behavior; and team performance [5,7,94]. The blue cluster mainly focuses on one of the common method biases and time-lagged research design as applied to knowledge hiding [39,96]. ...
Article
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Knowledge hiding, defined as an intentional attempt to conceal requested knowledge, has become a hot topic in management and psychology in the last decade. Emerging research has suggested that knowledge hiding is not simply the opposite of knowledge sharing, such that it is crucial to clarify the concept, explore the research progress and development trend of knowledge hiding. Based on 243 relevant articles, a bibliometric analysis of knowledge-hiding research is presented via descriptive, keyword and citation analysis. Results reveal that knowledge-hiding research, mainly focusing on the disciplines of management, business and psychology, is currently in a period of rapid growth, especially in the past two or three years. The systematic review of knowledge-hiding research enables us intuitively to obtain a panoramic view, including publication performance, thematic evolution and most influential topics of the field via a set of science maps, enabling future authors to investigate knowledge hiding and focus their research more effectively.
... Possibly, employees tend to experience vitality when they are part of a relationship that encourages them to constructively listen and react to shared ideas and information. Jiang, Hu, Wang, and Jiang (2019) mentioned that thriving at work is attenuated by knowledge hiding because it requires positive interactive communications to be facilitated and supported. Xu et al. (2019) claimed that a high-quality work-based relationship provides the foundation for thriving as it enables employees to connect to a range of learning resources while feeling enthused about their given tasks and assignments. ...
... This finding supports the basic argument of the socially embedded model of thriving that job thriving is cultivated through positive interactive communications between employees at work (Spreitzer et al., 2005). It is also in accordance with the findings of related empirical works (Carmeli & Spreitzer, 2009;Jiang et al., 2019;Spreitzer et al., 2005) that thriving at work is enhanced by the quality of work relationships and relational resources, like tacit knowledge. Elahi et al. (2020) pointed out that employees who thrive focus on obtaining new resources by building strong social relationships. ...
Article
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Tacit knowledge sharing affects different employee-related outcomes, including job thriving and employee innovation. However, in public organizations, the bureaucratic constraints on knowledge sharing make its link to job thriving and innovation seem tentative. Besides, the contextual factors affecting the link between tacit knowledge and employee innovation are not fully understood. Hence, this study empirically examines the link between tacit knowledge sharing and employee innovation with job thriving as a mediator in a public organization in Delta State, Nigeria. Data from 169 mid-level staff at the Delta State Ministry of Health were collected and analyzed using the Partial Least Square (PLS) method to test the hypotheses. The study’s findings reveal that tacit knowledge sharing has a significant positive relationship with job thriving and employee innovation. Further, job thriving has a significant positive relationship with employee innovation, as well as mediating the significant positive relationship between tacit knowledge sharing and employee innovation. Importantly, practical implications for public organizations looking to improve tacit knowledge sharing, job thriving, and employee innovation emerge from these findings; principal among them is the need to foster a knowledge-sharing culture and supportive work environment.
... Creating a safe environment that facilitates and encourages contact and communication among individuals with significantly different perspectives through formal and informal procedures is one activity that may help airport staff to consider new approaches and see the organization from a variety of different perspectives (Haeckel, 2004). The creation of such a safe environment can reduce the likelihood of airport staff implementing ODRs and hence reduce the occurrence of negative behaviours such as knowledge hiding and knowledge distortion (Jiang, Hu, Wang, & Jiang, 2019). ...
... This supports the notion that the nature of work relationships between individuals (Nebus, 2006) or failure to conform to the expectations of groups (e.g., performance) (Taylor & Bright, 2011), may lead to knowledge hiding, further resulting in the restriction or distortion of the information available for decision-makers (e.g., line managers). Thus, it comes as no surprise that the presence of ODRs facilitates evasive answers, such as the refusal to give any information, complete silence, and sometimes even outright lies (Grant et al., 2009;Jiang et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Knowledge hiding is an activity that often comes naturally to humans. When we are children, our parents hide certain information to protect us. As we age, we learn to develop defensive routines to protect ourselves and our weaknesses through knowledge hiding. In this study, intentional unlearning are assemblages of knowledge structures that individuals engage in to put aside certain number defensive routines and thus minimize their effects on hiding or misapplication of knowledge. This study analyses the applicability of an unlearning model focused on the effects of defensive routines on knowledge hiding. The empirical research is conducted with 122 airline travelers using two surveys (one in Spanish and the other in English). Since the travelers flew during the pandemic, they would have experienced first-hand the presence of defensive routines in the face of the new sanitary and safety measures. Data is analyzed using SmartPLS 3 for Windows. The results suggest that intentional unlearning is negatively related to defensive routines and furthermore that these routines are positively related to knowledge hiding. The results stand to improve the quality of service within airports and are beneficial for organizations undergoing change initiatives.
... It has been concluded that there are four levels of these antecedents: (a) knowledge characteristics, such as knowledge complexity (Connelly et al., 2012), the importance of knowledge (Huo et al., 2016) and explicit and tacit knowledge (Hernaus et al., 2019); (b) the individual level, such as demographic variables (Peng, 2013), cognition and psychology (Singh, 2019); (c) the team level, such as team leadership traits (Zhao et al., 2019), relationship and climate (Banagou et al., 2021); and (d) the organisational level, such as the organisational context and culture (Connelly et al., 2012;Serenko & Bontis, 2016). Additionally, the research pertaining to the consequences of knowledge hiding has mainly concentrated on the following four aspects: (a) employees' work behaviour, such as counterproductive work behaviour (Connelly & Zweig, 2015), organisational citizenship behaviour (Arain et al., 2020) and innovative behaviour (Černe et al., 2014; Č erne et al., 2017); (b) individual creativity and task performance (Singh, 2019;Wang et al., 2019); (c) attitudes and relationships (Jiang et al., 2019;Banagou et al., 2021); and (d) team creativity and performance (Fong et al., 2018;Xiong et al., 2021). ...
... We were inspired by Singh's (2019) suggestion to differentiate tacit and explicit knowledge hiding and elucidate their effects on a firm's innovation quality, which is of great theoretical significance to understanding the perceptions of knowledge hiders and knowledge seekers, thereby shedding light on the influencing mechanism of knowledge hiding on work-related outcomes. For the most part, since past studies pertaining to knowledge hiding have generally claimed that knowledge hiding is detrimental to employees' innovation capability (Jiang et al., 2019;Arain et al., 2020), the results of our study provide a more comprehensive explanation of this controversial behaviour and elaborate on its boundary conditions. Notably, both explicit and tacit knowledge hiding have inverted U-shaped relationships with the firm's innovation quality, indicating that the effect of knowledge hiding could be bidirectional, which is contingent upon degree and duration. ...
Article
This study explores how two dimensions of employees’ knowledge-hiding behaviours, explicit knowledge hiding and tacit knowledge hiding, influence a firm’s innovation quality. Furthermore, knowledge flow within the firm is examined as a moderator in these relationships. We tested corresponding hypotheses based on a research sample of 791 respondents across different industries and regions of China. Empirical results reveal that both explicit and tacit knowledge-hiding behaviours have inverted U-shaped relationships with innovation quality, and knowledge flow within the firm positively moderates these curvilinear relationships. The theoretical contributions of the study are to provide a more advanced understanding of the link between knowledge-hiding behaviours and innovation quality, as well as the role of knowledge flow within the firm. It is therefore suggested that practitioners encourage effective knowledge flow that helps to reduce individual employees’ intentions of knowledge hiding and strengthen their innovation capability, which in turn promotes a firm’s innovation quality.
... Because of the nonavailability of the Pakistan hotel industry total employees' population and the current pandemic situation, a convenience sampling design was chosen for the selection of both hotels and data gathering. Following the precedence of earlier studies, we gathered data in three phases with a lapse of two weeks between every two consecutive phases (Jiang et al., 2019;Karatepe et al., 2020). The measurement of variables is separated by time lag as an effort to reduce biases that might show up in a cross-sectional study (Podsakoff et al., 2012). ...
... The measurement of variables is separated by time lag as an effort to reduce biases that might show up in a cross-sectional study (Podsakoff et al., 2012). The time lag of two weeks is appropriate as behavioral reactions to psychological experiences tend to show relatively swiftly (Jiang et al., 2019). ...
Purpose This study aims to examine the impact of COVID-19-related job insecurity on two types of employees’ behaviors: family undermining and withdrawal. This study also proposes emotional exhaustion as a mediator and symmetrical internal communication as a moderator in the relationship between COVID-19-related job insecurity and employees’ behaviors. Design/methodology/approach Using a time-lagged design, data were gathered from 193 employees working in Pakistan’s hospitality sector. Structural equation modeling in AMOS and PROCESS Macro were used to test the hypotheses. Findings The results show that COVID-19-related job insecurity is positively related to family undermining and withdrawal behaviors, and these associations are mediated by emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, symmetrical internal communication weakens the positive influence of COVID-19-related job insecurity on emotional exhaustion. Additionally, the indirect impact of COVID-19-related job insecurity on employees’ behavioral outcomes via emotional exhaustion is stronger for employees with low symmetrical internal communication than for those with high levels of symmetrical internal communication. Practical implications Hospitality management needs to focus on transparent and horizontal communication patterns to reduce the ensuing negative behaviors from COVID-19-related job insecurity. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the impact of COVID-19-related job insecurity on two types of employees’ behaviors: family undermining and withdrawal. This study also offers new insights via mediating mechanisms and moderators associated with the relationship between COVID-19-related job insecurity and employees’ behavioral reactions.
... Although knowledge hiding is not always necessarily destructive to the interests of others (Connelly & Zweig, 2015), knowledge hiding largely fails to serve the interests of others (e.g., Burmeister et al., 2019;Černe et al., 2017;Jiang et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2018). ...
... Employees with positive affect are likely to abandon knowledge hiding behaviors because hiding knowledge from those who request it fails to support the interests of these requestors (Connelly et al., 2012). For instance, knowledge hiding decreases psychological safety (Jiang et al., 2019) and hinders team creativity (Bogilovi c et al., 2017;Zhu et al., 2019). Furthermore, employees with positive affect are also more likely to abandon knowledge manipulating behaviors because these behaviors also largely fail to attend to the interests of others (Larson & King, 1996). ...
Article
Research indicates that relationship‐oriented HR practices can increase organizational knowledge, yet we know little about the effects of relationship‐oriented HR practices on employee knowledge management behaviors. Drawing from affective events theory, we examine the indirect effect of participation in one type of relationship‐oriented HR practice (i.e., organizational social activities) on three knowledge management behaviors (i.e., knowledge sharing, knowledge hiding, and knowledge manipulating) via positive affect, as well as the conditional indirect effect of intrinsic motivation for organizational social activities on these relationships. Utilizing a time‐separated field study (n = 163), our analysis reveals positive affect fully mediates the relationship between participation in organizational social activities and (a) knowledge sharing and (b) knowledge hiding, and partially mediates the relationship between participation in organizational social activities, and (c) knowledge manipulating. Most interestingly, we unexpectedly found a positive direct effect of participation in organizational social activities on knowledge manipulation, even though the indirect effect via positive affect was negative. The results also indicate that, for individuals with high intrinsic motivation for social activities, there is a significant indirect effect of participation in organizational social activities on all three knowledge management behaviors.
... Jahanzeb et al. (2020) elucidated organizational injustice increase knowledge hiding because employees feel disconnected from the organization's identity. Moreover, many studies revealed psychological safety as the main lens to knowledge behavior, enforcing work focus and reducing worries (Jiang et al., 2019), and boosting harmonious interpersonal trustful climate. On the contrary, scant psychological safety trigger knowledge hiding when employees suffer from intragroup relationship conflict (Peng et al., 2020) and competition (Semerci, 2019). ...
... Based on the defensive bondages, employees gained decreased intrinsic drive to disseminate knowledge. Both defensive silence and defensive voice breach employees' psychology safety (Detert and Burris, 2007;Jiang et al., 2019) that undermines the trust between knowledge disseminators and knowledge recipients. Thereafter, knowledge hiding blocks the chain of knowledge dissemination (Losada-Otálora et al., 2020), leading to a colossal waste of human capital toward the unfavorable work attitude of counterproductive work behavior. ...
Article
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Rising negative emotions are like “time bombs” that impede productivity in the workplace. The present investigation provides an insight into the effects of defensive silence and defensive voice on counterproductive work behavior through knowledge hiding in the context of knowledge workers in Chinese academic institutions. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was applied to the current samples. The study obtained conjecture the proposed mediating role of knowledge hiding between the negative working attitude and counterproductive work behavior, which is against the organizational norms and performance. The result indicates that the positive relationships exist from defensive silence and defensive voice to counterproductive work behavior, mediated by knowledge hiding. This study links knowledge hiding literature and stimulus-organism-response (SOR) to better explore the academic behavior in a knowledge setting.
... However, exploring the mediating mechanism between abusive supervision and KH behavior is not sufficient, as there could be boundary conditions that affect these relations (Ayub et al., 2021;Agarwal et al., 2021). In this aspect, Jiang et al. (2019) have suggested contextual and dispositional factors that may moderate the effects of predictors on employees KH behaviors. Further, Xu et al. (2020) stated the need to investigate different psychological states as boundary conditions in the context of abusive supervision. ...
... withholding critical and necessary information) in nature. Nonetheless, such activities hinder organizational success; therefore, recent studies have focused on identifying factors behind KH (Agarwal et al., 2021;Jiang et al., 2019;Ayub et al., 2021;Anand and Dalmasso, 2020). The literature has suggested knowledge hider's introvert personality, fear to lose the position, power, extra benefits, interpersonal relationship (Connelyy et al., 2012), organizational factors and workplace bullying as the predictors of KH behaviors. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to investigate how abusive supervisor affects knowledge hiding (KH). Specifically, this study investigates employee silence as a mediating mechanism between abusive supervision and employees’ KH. Further, psychological ownership is examined as a buffer between abusive supervision and employee silence. Design/methodology/approach KH has become a major issue for both manufacturing and service sectors. Therefore, this study collected data from 322 employees working in manufacturing and service sectors through “Google Forms” during COVID-19. The respondents were contacted through LinkedIn platform between January and July 2021. Findings This study noted that when employees working in high-power distance cultures perceive their leaders/supervisors as abusive, they avoid confrontation and engage in silent behavior, which positively affects their KH behavior. However, employees with a high level of psychological ownership are less likely to respond to their abusive supervisors through silence because such employees feel a greater sense of belongingness and prefer to benefit their organization. Research limitations/implications This study used a cross-sectional design that restricts causality. However, the findings of this study suggest management to focus on leadership style to minimize KH at the workplace. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to explore the underlying mechanism (employee silence) and boundary condition (psychological ownership) to explain the association between abusive supervision and KH.
... Past research has also investigated different knowledge behaviours using similar time lags (e.g. Burmeister, Fasbender, et al., 2018;Gerpott, Fasbender et al., 2020;Jiang, Hu, Wang, & Jiang, 2019). ...
Article
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Knowledge-related interactions between older and younger employees are crucial for business success. Although research has contributed much to understanding of why older employees share knowledge with younger colleagues, little is known about older employees’ motivation to seek knowledge. In this study, we answer the question of how age-inclusive HR practices can foster older employees’ knowledge seeking from younger colleagues. Drawing on social learning theory that conceptualises learning-oriented behaviour (i.e., knowledge seeking) as being inextricably linked to social context and person-related factors, we develop a dual pathway relation–opportunity model outlining how age-inclusive HR practices foster older employees’ development striving, which in turn promotes knowledge seeking from younger colleagues. On the one hand, we propose a relation-based pathway that identifies contact quality with younger colleagues as a socio-emotional mechanism linking age-inclusive HR practices with knowledge seeking via development striving. On the other hand, we suggest an opportunity-based pathway that identifies older employees’ future time perspective as a person-related mechanism. We find support for our hypotheses in a sample of 502 older employees who participated in a three-wave survey. We discuss theoretical implications and encourage scholars to further shift the conversation towards an inclusive perspective that overcomes stereotypical views of older employees.
... The literature certainly indicates that adherence to norms and one's comfort with behaving and speaking authentically affect psychological safety. Jiang et al., 2019). Further, Edmondson et al. (2016) established that psychological safety increases when employees believe their leaders facilitate a positive work environment. ...
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The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to investigate how highly engaged employees in a large staff group at a large public U.S. university describe how their experiences influenced their perceptions of meaningfulness, psychological safety, psychological availability, and employee engagement. In response to many calls to fully operationalize Kahn’s theory of personal engagement and disengagement, each psychological condition was explored individually and the factors that most influenced overall engagement were also examined. To further understand the phenomenon, interviews were conducted with 16 non-faculty staff and a focus group was conducted with a subset of those who were interviewed. Through reflexive thematic analysis, five study themes were identified: employee individual factors (with three subthemes of employee traits or behaviors; identity(ies); and relationships); interpersonal risk tolerance; the job itself; leader traits, behaviors, or style; and organizational culture. This study found that meaningfulness was influenced by employee traits or behaviors, employee identities, the job itself, and leader traits, behaviors, or style. Psychological safety was influenced by employee relationships, interpersonal risk tolerance, and leader traits, behaviors, or style. Additionally, it was found that psychological availability was impacted by employee traits or behaviors and leader traits, behaviors, or style. Employee engagement was influenced by employee traits or behaviors, leader traits, behaviors, or style, and organizational culture. These findings build upon existing theoretical concepts and recommendations for future research are presented.
... Political skill enables employees to better understand and use social interactions and behaviors at work to achieve their goals (Ferris et al., 2007). Our results suggest that politically skilled employees can understand the negative consequences of deceptive knowledge hiding (Jiang et al., 2019) and so tend to avoid playing dumb and evasive hiding. As expected, political skill did not predict rationalized hiding. ...
Article
Purpose Knowledge hiding, intentionally withholding work-relevant information, is detrimental to organizations, yet practiced by supervisors and employees. Based on social learning and social exchange theories, this study aims to uncover the effects of supervisor knowledge hiding, abusive supervision and employee political skill on employee knowledge hiding behaviors, namely, evasive hiding, playing dumb and rationalized hiding. We compare the two destructive supervisor behaviors in their predictive values toward employee knowledge hiding and examine the role of employee political skill in mitigating their effects. Design/methodology/approach Based on survey data collected from 598 German-speaking employees, we used path analysis to test the hypotheses. Findings The two destructive supervisor behaviors and employee political skill predicted employee evasive hiding and playing dumb; supervisor knowledge hiding additionally predicted employee rationalized hiding. The predictive value of supervisor knowledge hiding was 2.5 times larger than that of abusive supervision and political skill. The effects of destructive supervisor behaviors were weaker for more politically skilled employees. Originality/value We examine two destructive supervisor behaviors conjointly and show the differences between them regarding their predictive value toward employee knowledge hiding. Furthermore, we investigate the role of political skill in knowledge hiding.
... Similarly, a study in China reported that at least 46% of respondents once hide the knowledge in their organizations (Peng, 2012). According to Jiang et al. (2019), 60% of the US workers find difficulty in sharing knowledge, which results in an annual loss of $47m in productivity. This clearly indicates that knowledge hiding is a universal phenomenon, which is a barrier to organizational success irrespective of the industry and national culture (Pradhan et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose-Abusive supervision is found to influence the workplace negatively but how it predicts knowledge hiding behavior is an area that has not gained due attention in the literature. To this backdrop, this study aims to investigate the effect of abusive supervision on knowledge hiding behavior considering future orientation and Islamic work ethics (IWE) as moderators. Design/methodology/approach-The data from 396 employees, working in both manufacturing and service sectors, is collected through a questionnaire-based survey in two-lags between November 2019 and January 2020. Findings-Structural equation modeling highlighted that a positive relationship exists between abusive supervision and knowledge hiding behavior. Moreover, higher levels of IWE and future orientation are found to weaken the said relationship. Practical implications-This paper provides practical understandings into extenuating the destructive effects of the dark side of leadership (abusive supervision), a prevalent issue in Asian societies, through the lens of personality (future orientation) and belief (IWE). Originality/value-This study adds value by investigating the relationship between abusive supervision and knowledge hiding by demonstrating the moderating effects of IWE and future orientation in the context of Pakistan.
... For example, human resources (HR) practices such as high-performance work systems (HPWS; e.g., extensive training and performance management; Jo et al., 2020) may be perceived as supportive of employee agency through access to opportunities, information, and power (Silen et al., 2019). In such circumstances, employees feel greater feelings of certainty (Yang et al., 2021), psychological empowerment, organization-based selfesteem (Kim & Beehr, 2020), and psychological safety (Jiang, Hu, et al., 2019) and are more motivated to undertake agentic behaviors such as extra-role behaviors . Zhang et al. (2019) also found HPWS' indirect effects on performance to be stronger for employees with low levels of proactive personality, thereby corroborating our general observation that workplace environmental features manifest stronger effects on employee thriving when employees lack personal resources. ...
Article
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Thriving at work is a notable construct given its role in individual health and developmental outcomes. According to the Socially Embedded Model of Thriving (SEMT), individuals thrive at work when embedded in environments that support agentic behaviors and can self-sustain this state through positive spirals of agentic behaviors, resources, and thriving. The SEMT is inherently multilevel, yet there are two unarticulated but critical multilevel issues in existing scholarship: a paucity of research reflecting these multilevel features of the SEMT and an incipient multilevel conceptualization of thriving that has little theoretical justification. As a catalyst for progress, we present an integrative review drawing from the SEMT and other supplementary theoretical perspectives to define a multilevel conceptualization of thriving at work. Through this lens, we organize, synthesize, and evaluate the body of evidence, integrating the multilevel view of thriving within established scholarship. To substantiate our framework theoretically, we articulate how lower-level processes unfold to develop higher-level collective manifestations of thriving at work. We identify opportunities for theoretical and empirical advancement, coupled with specific, actionable recommendations, to deepen a multilevel conceptualization of thriving. Altogether, we advance thriving at work as a multilevel construct meaningful at three levels - individuals, dyads, collectives.
... High-quality relationships can increase trust and reduce fear and embarrassment among people (Tepper et al., 2018). Meanwhile, research conducted by Jiang et al. (2019) found that when individuals have confidence in their team, they have reduced fears about the possible negative consequences of their actions, thus increasing their psychological safety. Given that P-E fit has a positive effect on individual psychological safety, we propose the following hypothesis: H6: Psychological safety plays a mediating role between the congruence of person-job fit and person-organization fit and employee' safety behavior. ...
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Introduction: This study explored the relationship between person-job fit and safety behavior, as well as the mediating role played by psychological safety, from the perspective of social cognitive theory and person-environment fit theory. Method: A total of 800 employees from petroleum enterprises were recruited, with cluster random sampling used to collect data in two stages. Results: The results showed that employees' safety behavior is higher under the condition of "high person-job fit-high person-organization fit" than under that of "low person-job fit-low person-organization fit." In other words, the more congruent the level of person-job fit and person-organization fit for a given employee, the higher their level of safety behavior. Practical Applications: Psychological safety plays a mediating role between the congruence of both person-job fit and person-organization fit and employees' safety behavior.
... rough regression analysis, Ghani et al. [28] found that abusive management would destroy the psychological contract of organizational members, which would lead to knowledge hiding. Jiang et al. [29] used regression analysis to verify that the higher the degree of organizational cynicism, the greater the negative impact of knowledge hiding on employees' psychological security, and the greater the negative impact on employees' personal development. Zhu et al. [30] used regression analysis to prove that individual-centered performance feedback will produce knowledge hiding behavior, while team-centered performance feedback will not. ...
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In the era of the knowledge economy, it is urgent for organizations to solve the problem of knowledge hiding of internal members to accelerate the speed and efficiency of knowledge dissemination and innovation and adapt to rapid changes in the market. At present, research on knowledge hiding has received extensive attention from Western countries, but there are few relevant studies in China. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper constructs an evolutionary game model of second-level knowledge hiding of organizational members and analyzes the main factors affecting the stable equilibrium point using MATLAB numerical simulation. The results show that knowledge leakage risk is positively correlated with knowledge hiding. The ability of knowledge absorption and transformation is positively correlated with the behavior of knowledge hiding. There is a negative correlation between collaborative innovation ability and knowledge hiding. There is a negative correlation between knowledge stock and knowledge hiding. Only when the incentive reaches a certain level can organizational members be encouraged to give up knowledge hiding. This paper provides a more comprehensive and dynamic picture of the evolutionary game of knowledge hiding among members in the organization and provides a new idea of knowledge management for organizational managers.
... These actors, or the motives that drive knowledge stewards to hide knowledge from them, have not been explicitly addressed in studies of knowledge hiding. Second, while existing work has focused on individual employees knowledge hiding within larger organizations (e.g., Gagné et al., 2019;Jiang et al., 2019;Offergelt et al., 2019;Zhao et al., 2019;Zhu et al., 2019), our work is the first to address the hiding of firm-level knowledge. Our findings highlight that in small family firms, business families act as stewards of firmlevel knowledge, which they attempt to hide and/or share. ...
Article
The way knowledge hiding co-exists with knowledge sharing in organizations remains under-researched and under-theorized. We focus on family farms, a context where knowledge sharing has been previously heralded as a critical activity for business continuity. We frame our study within stewardship theory and adopt a multiple case study research design. We draw on 51 in-depth interviews from 12 rural family farms in Cyprus. Our findings illustrate that members of farming business families act as stewards and behave in ways that facilitate the sharing or hiding of business knowledge. Business families act in secrecy and exhibit behaviors that can hide business knowledge in the presence of actors who are distrusted, since they carry a risk of knowledge appropriation. Conversely, they share knowledge with individuals they trust to fill resource gaps through behaving in an open manner. Our study contributes theoretically and empirically to the fields of knowledge management and family business.
... Knowledge hiding is defined as the intentional withholding or concealing of knowledge on others' requests, distinguis hing it from the lack of knowledge sharing (Connelly et al., 2012;Webster et al., 2008). In the past decade, knowledge hiding has attracted the attention of many scholars and business practitioners since the related literature has identified the undesirable effects of knowledge hiding on key outcomes, such as individual-and team-level creativity (Connelly et al., 2019;Connelly & Zweig, 2015;Jiang et al., 2019;Serenko & Bontis, 2016;Sukumaran & Lanke, 2021). ...
Article
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Most knowledge hiding studies focus on its dark side. In contrast, we theorize the potential positive effect of rationalized knowledge hiding in the context of entrepreneurial firms’ new product development (NPD) speed. We extended and integrated theoretical perspectives of rationalized knowledge hiding and trust in theorizing that rationalized knowledge hiding accelerates NPD—a component considered critical to firm survival and growth. We developed and analyzed two datasets on the founder CEOs and the founder CTOs of 279 high-technology entrepreneurial firms in China to test this assumption. Empirical results suggest that CTOs’ rationalized knowledge hiding from CEOs accelerates these firms’ NPD. Further, such acceleration is slower (faster) when CEOs’ affective (cognitive) trust in CTOs is higher. Overall, we theorize that rationalized knowledge hiding has a positive impact on entrepreneurial firms’ NPD. The study offers a unique contribution to understanding the link between knowledge hiding and NPD, and practical implications for entrepreneurial firms.
... Employees who concentrate on workplace friendships to promote the firm's interests are more likely to be honest with one another, which discourages detrimental work attitudes such as information concealing and knowledge retaining (Rhee and Choi, 2017). Similarly, firms may encourage workers to form professional friendships since such bonds generally result in strong dedication, which may serve as a valuable deterrent to KH behavior (Jiang et al., 2019). According to a new study, while KH is a severe problem in many firms, managers may limit the negative effects by cultivating personal interactions (Zhang and Min, 2019). ...
Article
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Studies related to knowledge hiding prevention are limited and need attention. Hence, the present study attempts to measure the direct impact of workplace friendship and altruistic leadership on preventing the knowledge hiding behavior; and also, in the presence of positive emotions. The study has also checked the mediating role of positive emotions in these relationships. The target population of the study is the employees working in the government sector (sample size of 496). The present study has employed quantitative research techniques for testing the hypotheses. Smart-PLS 3 software has been employed to run the partial least square structural equation modeling. Findings of the study have given major indications about the positive role of workplace friendship and altruistic leadership in preventing the hiding of knowledge among employees. It has also been revealed that positive emotions play a significant role in augmenting the relationship of workplace friendship and altruistic leadership with knowledge hiding behavior. This study adds a significant contribution to the body of knowledge by measuring the mediating role of positive emotions in decreasing the knowledge hiding behavior in the presence of workplace friendship and altruistic leadership.
... Some workplace environments may foster knowledge disclosure whereas others foster knowledge hiding behaviours. Jiang et al. (2019) found that "knowledge hiding" erodes the psychological safety of the individual specialist. This reinforces an organisational culture that solicits and celebrates knowledge disclosure and through it knowledge acquisition within the team. ...
Article
Transactive knowledge systems and psychological safety are important requirements for the effective functioning of organisations. However, both constructs have not yet been discussed in conjunction. This contribution presents both constructs and develops a theoretical approach that allows both further empirical exploration and practical application. Several propositions are made that intend to foster the further development of empirical study and related theory.
... Likewise, to reduce the common method bias, data from employees were collected in two rounds (two months apart) (Podsakoff et al. 2003). The two-month lag is neither too short nor too long, and thus appropriate for avoiding common method bias (Peng 2013) and other contaminating factors (Jiang et al. 2019;Usman et al. 2019). According to Podsakoff et al. (2003), a short lag may not help avoid common method bias, as in such a case, respondents can remember their previous responses and associate them with current responses that can confound the results. ...
Article
In the present study, we propose a negative association between spiritual leadership and work alienation. We also propose service employee social capital as a mediator of the spiritual leadership-work alienation link and political skill as a boundary condition of the direct association between spiritual leadership and social capital and the indirect association between spiritual leadership and work alienation. Time-lagged (three rounds, three weeks apart) survey data collected from 283 service sector employees supported our proposed hypotheses. Despite the prevalence of work alienation in service organizations and the recognition that it can lead to several negative outcomes, little is known about how managers can address service employees’ feelings of work alienation. We address this crucial theoretical gap and offer several practical implications that can help managers in service organizations enhance employees’ social capital and undermine their feelings of alienation at work.
... Considerably, knowledge hiding behavior (KHB) alludes to an act of intentionally withholding the knowledge as requested by a fellow member. Knowledge hiding is an accepted phenomenon that is widely prevalent in the work setting (Jiang et al., 2019;Ajaz et al., 2020). Given the articulation, the research states that employees face difficulty sharing important information with their subordinates, thus predicting increased interpersonal competitiveness . ...
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The knowledge hiding behavior (KHB) can obstruct the stream of information to decrease the creativity in the organization. This study examines the effect of interpersonal competition on KHB, moral disengagement (MD), and work overload (WO). Moreover, this study also examines the impact of MD and WO on KHB. Also, the study examines the mediating role of MD and WO between interpersonal competition and KHB. The study was carried out by quantitative methodology, and 361 employees were engaged to fill the questionnaires employed in manufacturing companies from China. A convenient sampling technique had used for data collection. The findings of this study indicate that interpersonal competition positively and significantly affects KHB, MD, and WO. Moreover, this study established that MD and WO positively and significantly impact KHB. According to the results, MD WO significantly mediates interpersonal competition and KHB. This research is valuable for government, policymakers, and executives of manufacturing companies to establish the appropriate strategies for employees and provide a sustainable environment. This research also offers new visions to managers to know the current events and predict the possible causes that lead to the KHB and what is the possible strategies to eliminate this kind of behavior.
... Previous studies found that the individuals will try to cope with the undermining feeling by protecting their limited resources (Connelly et al., 2012;Dahling, 2017;Feng and Wang, 2019). Following this logic, we argue that organizational dehumanization will result in detrimental psychological consequences in the form of psychological distress, which will then instigate sufferers to take knowledge hiding as a form of resource loss preventing actions (Jiang et al., 2019;Bari et al., 2020;Rezwan and Takahashi, 2021). Knowledge hiding is being studied as a dormant form of deviant behavior responding to organizational stressors (Škerlavaj et al., 2018;Livne-Ofer et al., 2019;Khoreva and Wechtler, 2020). ...
Article
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Knowledge hiding has become an alarming issue for the organizations. Knowledge hiding is an employee’s intentional attempt to conceal knowledge requested by others at the workplace. Employee knowledge hiding significantly influences an organization’s effective functioning. This research is an attempt to extend previous work on antecedents of knowledge hiding. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, it is proposed that receiving poor treatment by organizations in the form of organizational dehumanization creates psychological distress among employees toward the organization. Distress among workers in turn intervenes the path and increases the likelihood of engaging in knowledge hiding behaviors. An employee’s felt obligation for constructive change (FOCC) may moderate the relationship between organizational dehumanization and employee psychological distress. Data for the current study were collected from 245 employees of the telecommunication sector in three-time lags. The results support the direct and indirect effect of organizational dehumanization on employee knowledge hiding behaviors through the mediation of psychological distress. The results also support the moderation of FOCC between organizational dehumanization and psychological distress. Furthermore, the findings of the study may help organizational practitioners and managers about the value of effective organizational climate and practices for better organizational functioning through knowledge sharing and providing insight into undesirable repercussions of organizational dehumanization. Implications for organizations and practitioners are discussed.
... For example, employees are more likely to engage in knowledge hiding when they feel a heightened sense of psychological ownership over the information (Huo et al., 2016;Peng, 2013). Meanwhile, other factors have been found to mitigate knowledge hiding tendencies, including ethical leadership (Tang et al., 2015;Zhao et al., 2019), psychological safety (Jiang, Hu, Wang and Jiang, 2019;Peng et al., 2018), the absence of organisational politics (Malik et al., 2019) and the lack of time pressure (Š kerlavaj et al., 2018). Dynamic cultural strength coupled with prosocial motivation also reduces knowledge hiding (Babi c et al., 2018;Issac and Baral, 2019). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this research study is to determine the ways in which employees’ personal power-expert and referent power influences their knowledge sharing and hiding behaviour. There are hardly any studies that have investigated the effects of employee power and expectations regarding the consequences of divulging knowledge. In this study, the authors investigate whether expected gains and losses in employee personal power influence employees’ willingness to participate in knowledge transfer. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopted a two-wave survey design and collected critical data from 288 employees of knowledge-intensive industries identified through online techno-groups, such as Stack Exchange. In the first wave, out of the total, 192 knowledge workers attended the follow-up survey. The authors apply polynomial regression followed by surface response analysis to establish the effects of any discrepancy between the current levels of employees’ personal power and their expected levels if they divulge their unique critical knowledge. Findings The authors find out that employees having relatively strong personal power are more likely to share knowledge, and the expected losses in power are categorically associated with a reduced intention to share knowledge. The authors also observed an increased knowledge hiding with expected losses in power. Surprisingly, the authors find that these established negative outcomes are also specifically associated with the expected gains in personal power. Research limitations/implications The most significant contribution of this study is to establish that power plays an important but complex role in determining the employees’ participation in knowledge transfer activities. The authors specifically conclude that the optimal scenario for knowledge sharing is one in which the employees’ contributions are fairly valued and their reputation is not expected to change because of knowledge sharing. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the first comprehensive studies that link power to both sharing and hiding of knowledge. This study is also unique in terms of its investigation of the effects of any discrepancy between current levels of employees’ personal power and their expected levels if they share or hide their unique critical knowledge. Thus, this research study is a unique contribution in terms of what and why of an untouched area in the entire knowledge management literature with a special focus on knowledge sharing and hiding.
... In this study, we treat cynicism as a determinant. Third, studies related to cynicism have been carried out in several contexts, including developed countries (Burton, 2005;Jiang et al., 2019) and developing countries (Rayan et al., 2018). This study is conducted in Indonesia, where high power distance is the norm, and politeness is highly valued (Sendjaya et al., 2019). ...
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... Second, few studies have assessed the mediating effect of psychological safety in the hospitality industry in reference to developing countries. Those studies which have looked at it were concentrating more on developed countries, and hence looking at specific sectors like state-owned enterprises, general working population, transport industry, telecom industry and brick manufacturing industry (Ahmad et al., 2019;Cheng et al., 2014;Jiang and Wang, 2019;Liu et al., 2016). The hospitality industry is among industries with high labour turnover, which is a serious indication of employee disengagement (Mkono, 2010). ...
Article
Purpose This paper assesses the inclusive leadership and employee engagement nexus in the hospitality industry, using psychological safety as a mediator. Design/methodology/approach The study conveniently sampled 247 employees from the hospitality industry in Zimbabwe. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire with the aid of trained research assistants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were generated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Regression analysis was used. Findings The findings of this study indicate that the predictor variable (inclusive leadership) directly affects the outcome variable (employee engagement) in the presence of the mediator. In addition, these findings depict that the indirect coefficient was partially significant, which shows that psychological safety partially affects employee engagement in the presence of inclusive leadership. Research limitations/implications The study came up with essential conclusions on the link between inclusive leadership and employee engagement in the hospitality industry. However, there is a need to exercise caution when generalising the findings to a different setting. The results represent the opinions of a sample drawn from Zimbabwe, a developing country in Southern Africa. Future research can carry out a comparative study on the same variables in the context of developed and developing countries. Further, future research can execute a longitudinal analysis to better understand if inclusive leadership directly affects employee engagement in the presence of psychological safety. This would help hospitality management to employ relevant leadership strategies that enhance employee engagement. Practical implications This research has pertinent implications for both academics and human resource practitioners. The study results revealed that there is a direct effect on inclusive leadership and employee engagement. Practically, if leaders avail themselves to work with employees and discuss business operations and social issues affecting them, employees will be committed to exerting more energy towards their work and productivity will be improved. Moreover, it is understandable that mistakes always happen, but errors will be minimised and controlled in such an environment. The results also revealed that the connection between inclusive leadership on employee engagement is partly enhanced by the moderator. This may be taken as a good strategy that can be employed by human resources practitioners in the hospitality industry. Originality/value The study significantly contributes to researchers and practitioners because it develops strategies for enhancing employee engagement in the hospitality sector. In addition, there is scant research that explores the mediating relationship of psychological safety between inclusive leadership and employee engagement in developing countries, particularly in the hospitality sector.
... Most studies on the consequences of KH have looked at it as a whole (Arain et al., 2020b;Butt, 2020;Jiang et al., 2019;Li et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2019b;Zhu et al., 2019). Offergelt et al. (2019) and studies like (Burmeister et al., 2019;Khoreva and Wechtler, 2020) have focused on the consequences of all types of KH, while according to Connelly and Zweig (2015), people can engage in three different forms of KH when asked a question. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to examine the relationship between intra-organizational knowledge hiding (I-OKH) and turnover intention via the mediating role of organizational embeddedness. Design/methodology/approach A model was developed and tested with data collected from 276 knowledge workers from the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) using Smart PLS3 to test the hypotheses. Findings Results show that organizational embeddedness mediates the relationship between intra-organizational knowledge hiding and turnover intention because intra-organizational knowledge hiding relates negatively to organizational embeddedness, which, in turn, has a negative effect on turnover intentions. Practical implications This study can be beneficial for organizations that employ knowledge workers. The management should pay attention to the existence and consequences of intra-organizational knowledge hiding to control one of the causing factors of weakened organizational embeddedness, which, in turn, increases employee turnover intentions. Originality/value This study is the first attempt to analyze knowledge hiding from a third-person point of view. Moreover, this is the first to examine the mediating role of organizational embeddedness in the relationship between intra-organizational knowledge hiding and employee turnover intentions, enriched by employing the data from the knowledge workers beyond the Anglo-American-European world.
... Knowledge transfer is emphasized as a strategic issue for sustainable competitive advantage of an organization (Zhang and Jasimuddin, 2008;Jasimuddin and Zhang, 2009;Jasimuddin and Zhang, 2011). Contrarily, knowledge hiding is a counter-productive workplace behavior that has significant negative consequences on organizational performance (Huo et al., 2016;Jiang et al., 2019;Ellmer and Reichel, 2021;Xiong et al., 2021). Knowledge hiding was negatively associated with creativity of an organization (Černe et al., 2014;Rhee and Choi, 2017;Xiong et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Knowledge hiding is known to have negative consequences on organizational performance. The existing literature mainly focuses on the identification of antecedents and consequences of knowledge hiding. The studies pertaining to the top management role in creating a culture that stops concealing knowledge within an organization are limited. To fill that gap, the paper empirically address the knowledge sharing culture and to explore the management support to avoid knowledge hiding culture in an organization. This study based on an empirical study carried out in a United Kingdom-based laboratory within a high-tech global corporation, in which the atmosphere appeared conducive to knowledge sharing, and knowledge transfer appeared voluntary and spontaneous. The paper seeks to address why members of the case organization is reluctant about knowledge hiding among themselves. The study reveals that the management role is important in creating a culture that help discourage employees to withhold knowledge. The paper identifies the actions that top management takes to stop concealing knowledge within an organization. This study has provided several contributions. The findings of the study may be useful to managers and practitioners. For managers, this paper presents some important organizational factors that can be nurtured to avoid a knowledge-hiding culture in the organization. They can also take the management actions of the case organization as lessons to create a culture that encourage their employees to avoid knowledge hiding behavior.
... Kleine et al., 2019;Rahaman et al., 2021) because the existing literature has largely neglected the contextual barriers to thriving. Understanding the influence of these barriers is particularly important because the level of thriving is reduced under undesirable contexts, and consolidating contextual enablers may be insufficient to offset the detrimental effects of contextual barriers (Jiang, Hu, et al., 2019a;Spreitzer & Porath, 2014). ...
Article
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Drawing on the socially embedded model of thriving and conservation of resources theory, we explore the negative effect of workplace ostracism on employee thriving. We model organization‐based self‐esteem (OBSE) as a moderator and extend our examination to the downstream implications of thriving for employee creativity. Using a scenario‐based experiment (Study 1) with 387 working adults, we find that workplace ostracism is more likely to prevent workers with higher levels of OBSE from thriving at work. This finding is verified in Study 2, in which we use multiwave, multisource data collected from 207 employees and their supervisors to test the proposed model. The results further show that for employees with higher levels of OBSE, thriving at work is more likely to mediate the relationship between workplace ostracism and employee creativity. These findings provide important practical implications for fostering employee thriving and promoting creativity in the workplace by managing workplace ostracism.
... Specifically, individuals perform an implicit calculus at the micro behavioral decision point to assess interpersonal risks associated with behaviors such as asking questions, seeking feedback, reporting errors, or coming up with new ideas, because they may be regarded by others as ignorant, disruptive, and even incompetent . A high level of psychological safety allows people to relax and think that the workplace is safe for interpersonal risk-taking and is willing to participate openly in knowledge sharing and problemsolving as the basis for innovation (Frazier et al., 2017;Jiang et al., 2019). Considering that this paper pays attention to the formation mechanism of creativity in project-based learning, which is mainly in the form of student collaboration, from the cognitive level, it is more suitable for the research background and research focus of this paper to emphasize the psychological safety of voluntary contribution and active participation within the team through minimizing interpersonal risk. ...
Article
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Creative-oriented new educational model will shape the direction and appearance of world development. This study focuses on the role of psychological safety and psychological empowerment in improving students' creativity in the context of project-based learning from the perspective of student empowerment. Based on self-determination theory, we propose that psychological safety positively affects students' creativity through psychological empowerment, and fault-tolerant culture plays a positive role in it. In this study, 238 students who participated in project-based learning were randomly selected to conduct a questionnaire survey. The results show that there is a positive correlation between psychological safety and creativity, and psychological empowerment plays an intermediary role in the relationship between them. The fault-tolerant culture enhances the direct influence of psychological safety on psychological empowerment and the indirect influence of psychological safety on creativity. Theoretical and practical implications were also discussed.
Article
Knowledge hiding research has traditionally focused on the ways in which knowledge is hidden in the context of interactions between employees. This study advances knowledge hiding research by highlighting the benefits of moving away from the dyadic level of analysis to a multilevel analysis across individuals, groups, and organizations. We also elaborate how knowledge hiding is influenced both by the nature of knowledge and by the modes of knowledge creation in organizations. We propose a theoretical framework that juxtaposes the nature of knowledge – tacit vs. explicit and component vs. architectural – against the four modes – socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization – of the knowledge creating process in organizations. The framework developed in our study also enables us to identify four distinct root causes of knowledge hiding in organizations – functional bias, misaligned incentives, dysfunctional resource allocations, and value incongruence.
In the face of increasing environmental pressures, environmentally friendly behaviour can help companies achieve truly sustainable growth. The issue of how to promote environmental behaviour among employees is a new challenge for leaders. However, studies do not systematically reveal the mechanisms of the effects of self-sacrificial leadership on employees’ organisational citizenship behaviour for the environment (OCBE). Based on social learning theory and the attitude–behaviour–context model, we investigated the impact of self-sacrificial leadership on employees’ OCBE by focusing on the mediating role of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) as perceived by employees, and the moderating role of the pro-environmental organisational climate (PEOC). The results of a field survey of 461 employees (small- and medium-sized enterprises) in China indicate that self-sacrificial leadership was positively related to employees’ OCBE; this relationship was partially mediated by employees’ perception of CSR. Moreover, PEOC strengthened the effect of employees’ perceived CSR on OCBE, and the mediating effect of employees’ perceived CSR on the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and OCBE. Our findings not only help scholars understand the mechanism of the effect of self-sacrificial leadership on employees’ OCBE, but also provide insights for recommending integrated management models, social responsibility, and environmental protection.
Article
Purpose Organizations worldwide use virtual teams to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic and capitalize on distributed members' unique expertise to accomplish essential tasks. A critical reason that inhibits virtual team members from leveraging each other’s knowledge is a lack of psychological safety. Specifically, individuals are unwilling to speak out for fear of negative repercussions, such as embarrassment to one’s image and rejection from others in their teams. The purpose of this study is to advance the importance of distinct awareness (task knowledge and presence) enabled by information technologies in developing the psychological safety of men and women in virtual teams. Design/methodology/approach This study tested the hypotheses using a survey study of 94 participants from 19 graduate student virtual teams. Findings This study found that task knowledge awareness predicted psychological safety for men, whereas it was presence awareness for women. By demonstrating the role of awareness in promoting psychological safety for men and women in virtual teams, this study also sheds light on reducing online gender inequitable issues. Practical implications First, organizational managers need to incorporate gender when deciding the awareness type to promote psychological safety in virtual teams. For men, it is task knowledge awareness, whereas for women, it is presence awareness. Second, as there is a wide range of information technologies (ITs) available, managers need to identify if the provided ITs enable virtual team members to develop the specific type of knowledge awareness critical for psychological safety development. Third, managers can incorporate rewards and apply interventions at regular temporal periods to encourage team members to increase their online presence as well as question and share task-related content. Originality/value It is imperative to identify ways to encourage men and women working in virtual teams to speak up so that the expertise held by the members can be better leveraged. This study represents an important step in this direction.
Article
Purpose-Because of its impact on organisational growth, innovation and employee performance, knowledge hiding (KH) as a construct has gained increased attention from scholars and practitioners in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic review of the existing literature on KH and take the stock of the current literature, identify research streams and offer recommendations on areas where KH may be investigated further. Design/methodology/approach-In this study, the authors used systematic review methods to investigate the current state of KH research, and using thematic coding, the authors identified the current research streams and offer directions for future research. Findings-The review of literature identified geographic representation of KH research, methodological approaches to explore KH and the prominent theories adopted to investigate KH, and through research synthesis, the antecedents and moderators/mediators of KH were identified. Subsequently, the authors also found seven research streams where KH has been predominantly studied. Finally, the authors provide suggestions of where the future research in KH might be headed. Originality/value-This paper is one of the few to offer systematic review of KH literature and identify unexplored areas to be investigated in future research-which is the integral part of knowledge management process.
Article
Thriving at work has been linked to a wide range of positive individual and organizational outcomes. However, research to date has primarily focused on its individual and work‐related antecedents, overlooking family‐related issues that constitute an essential part of social interactions. To advance our understanding of socio‐relational sources of employee thriving at work, we investigate the differential effects of family incivility and family support on thriving at work. Integrating the work‐home resources (W‐HR) model with boundary theory, we develop and test a research model where family incivility and family support influence thriving at work via family‐work conflict (FWC) and family‐work enrichment (FWE), respectively. We further propose that employee segmentation boundary management preference moderates these mediating processes. Results from two survey data collected from employees working in Nigeria and the United Kingdom provide support for our hypothesized relationships. The findings contribute to a richer understanding of how and when thriving at work is influenced by social relationships in family life. We discuss implications for theory and practice, limitations, and avenues for future research.
Conference Paper
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Knowledge hiding is one of the topics that has received attention from many scholars in the fields of knowledge management and human resource management. Knowledge hiding is an intentional attempt by a person to conceal or withhold knowledge requested by someone else. The spread of this negative human behavior can have harmful outcomes for organizations, such as diminished creativity, individual and team performance, and increased employee turnover. Therefore, the managers must be aware of the causing factors of knowledge hiding and its negative consequences. The purpose of this study is to offer a model of antecedents and negative consequences of knowledge hiding. To this end, we have analyzed all studies in knowledge hiding literature between 2012 and 2020 through a systematic literature review. Besides, this paper has categorized the extracted antecedents of knowledge hiding from the studies into a Delphi panel in 8 levels using experts' opinions: "organizational culture," "personal attitude," "personality traits and behavioral characteristics," "leadership," "supervision," "interpersonal relationships," "characteristics of knowledge," and "job" related factors. This study will help organizations face knowledge hiding behaviors to gain a correct understanding of the antecedents of knowledge hiding and its harmful consequences. Finally, this paper will be helpful for the academic community in the path of further exploration in this field.
Article
Purpose Although scholars have provided sufficient empirical evidence on the effect of peer knowledge hiding on new product development (NPD) project team outcomes, little attention has been given to the relationship between project manager knowledge hiding and individual outcomes. Drawing on the job resources-demands model and a dyadic stressor perspective, this study aims to explore the effect of project manager knowledge hiding on subordinates’ turnover intentions as well as the mediating roles of challenge- and hindrance-related stress. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted a multiple-source survey of NPD project managers and their subordinates in China. Hypotheses were tested by using data collected from 171 manager–subordinate dyads in NPD projects. Findings The findings revealed that project manager knowledge hiding was positively associated with subordinates’ turnover intentions, challenge-related stress and hindrance-related stress. Project manager knowledge hiding imposed a positive indirect effect on turnover intentions through hindrance-related stress, whereas the mediating effect of challenge-related stress was not significant. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the first to investigate the individual outcomes of top-down knowledge hiding as well as the mediating roles of challenge- and hindrance-related stress in the context of NPD projects.
Article
Research on knowledge hiding has rapidly increased over the past decade, but findings have thus far not been systematically synthesized. This, therefore, has not only hampered the clarity surrounding the construct but also restricted growth in this line of research. The current study thus attempts to integrate the scattered KH literature through a systematic literature review to understand the growth of the KH construct, thereby synthesizing the extant research findings, as well as uncovering areas that require future research. Accordingly, 92 research papers were systematically searched, critically evaluated, and synthesized to make the available knowledge and evidence more accessible to scholars and practitioners. The synthesis not only answers some fundamental, yet blurred questions around the construct, but also provides a composite sense of diverse findings recorded in the extant literature that would assist in drawing conclusions and future decision-making around knowledge hiding behaviors. It also maps out the relatively neglected areas that require more attention going forward and consequently proposes that the next decade should look forward to more compare and contrast studies from a socio-economic, cultural, product-specific, and industrial sector perspective. The study is expected to motivate academicians and researchers to advance the field theoretically by providing a constructive platform for future studies, in the process, advance the literature in this field. Further, it builds a worthwhile case for organizations to recognize the existence of knowledge hiding and judge the associated risks, benefits, and harms to make informed decisions.
Article
In this study, the authors have conducted a multiple-case study on four Chinese enterprises in different industries, to explore how to build data-driven dynamic capabilities from the perspective of knowledge management, with a focus on how to arrest knowledge hiding. This research constructs a comprehensive theoretical framework of “data-driven context – dynamic capabilities – knowledge hiding,” proposing three dimensions of “institutional environment – organizational innovation – executive/individual cognition” on building dynamic capabilities, with original contributions on expanding and enriching knowledge hiding theory and dynamic capabilities theory in the data-driven context. As for practical implications, this research provides guidance on how to build dynamic capabilities to arrest or mitigate knowledge hiding for executives or individuals in the workplace, and gives enlightenment to how firms in emerging economies can construct dynamic capabilities in the data-driven context.
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Purpose This study aims to build a framework of the influencing factors of construction workers' career promotion and identifies the critical determinants so as to propose suggestions for the government and enterprises to offer construction workers a path for career promotion. Design/methodology/approach In line with the theory of human resources, such as Herzberg's two-factor theory, this study constructs a theoretical framework that affects the career promotion of construction workers. Using evidence from Guangzhou city, valid data provided by 464 workers from 50 sites were collected by a questionnaire survey, and the significance test on the influencing factors of construction workers' career promotion was taken by binary logistic regression. Findings The overall career development of construction workers in Guangzhou is worrying. The binary logistic regression indicates that age, working years, type of work, career development awareness, legal awareness, professional mentality, vocational psychological training and career development path are critical factors that affect construction workers' career promotion. Originality/value This study for the first time explores the career promotion of frontline construction workers. Specifically, it identifies the critical factors that affect the career promotion of workers and thus lays a foundation for further research and the promotion and continuous and healthy development of the construction industry. Thus, this study is original and has theoretical and practical significance.
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Community capacity and knowledge hiding are important for community governance and ethnic unity in multi-ethnic communities. However, existing research is fragmented about what influences community capacity and knowledge hiding. Using social quality theory as a systematic analysis framework, we propose that social quality influences knowledge hiding and community capacity in different ways. We study 19 multi-ethnic communities in China to empirically examine social quality and its impact on community capacity and knowledge hiding, using a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) method. Our findings suggest that socio-economic security, social inclusion, social cohesion, and social empowerment are complementary; their various combinations can promote community capacity and reduce knowledge hiding. Social inclusion and social cohesion are the primary factors in improving community capacity, while the former is the principal factor in reducing knowledge hiding. Furthermore, different types of communities enhance community capacity and reduce knowledge hiding through different paths.
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Organizations grow and excel with knowledge sharing; on the other hand, knowledge hiding is a negative behavior that impedes innovation, growth, problem solving, and timely correct decision making in organizations. It becomes more critical in the case of teaching hospitals, where, besides patient care, medical students are taught and trained. We assume that negative emotions lead employees to hide explicit knowledge, and in the same vein, this study has attempted to explain the hiding of explicit knowledge in the presence of relational conflicts, frustration, and irritability. We collected data from 290 employees of a public sector healthcare organization on adopted scales to test conjectured relationships among selected variables. Statistical treatments were applied to determine the quality of the data and inferential statistics were used to test hypotheses. The findings reveal that relationship conflicts positively affect knowledge hiding, and frustration partially mediates the relationship between relationship conflicts and knowledge hiding. Irritability moderates the relationship between relationship conflicts and frustration. The findings have both theoretical and empirical implications. Theoretically, the study tests a novel combination of variables, and adds details regarding the intensity of their relationships to the existing body of literature. Practically, the study guides hospital administrators in managing knowledge hiding, and informs on how to maintain it at the lowest possible level.
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Purpose This study aims to identify the counterproductive knowledge behavior (CKB) of volunteers in nonprofit organizations and its influencing factors, based on the theories of planned behavior and well-being. Design/methodology/approach An online survey was used to collect 496 valid responses. A structural equation model was constructed, and the relationships among the constructs were estimated via the maximum likelihood method. To analyze the direct and indirect effects, 2,000 bootstrapping runs were conducted. A Kruskal-Wallis test was also conducted to analyze the relationship between the variables. Findings A combination of organizational factors and individual attitudes and perceptions can be used to explain CKB. Insecurity about knowledge sharing had the greatest impact on CKB. A competitive organizational norm induced CKB while a knowledge-sharing organizational norm did not have a significant impact. Further, the more self-determined the volunteer activity was, the more the CKB was suppressed. However, well-being did not have a significant direct effect. Volunteers with high levels of well-being and self-determination had significantly lower levels of insecurity about knowledge sharing compared to those who did not. Practical implications Well-being arising from volunteering did not directly suppress CKB. To improve organizational efficiency by reducing CKB, nonprofit organization managers should provide intrinsically motivating tasks and interact with the volunteers. Originality/value There is a lack of empirical research on CKB in volunteer organizations; therefore, the authors propose a new approach to knowledge management in volunteer activities.
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This study establishes a theoretical and integrative framework for analyzing the relationship between knowledge hiding and task performance. The existing literature indicates that knowledge hiding is prominent in service sector firms and impedes knowledge transfer. However, the potential determinants and consequences have not been extensively investigated. The objectives of this study are threefold: First, examining the effect of distrust and the complexity of knowledge on knowledge hiding. Second, examining the effect of knowledge hiding on task performance. Third, examining the conditional effect of task relatedness in the relationship between distrust, knowledge complexity, and knowledge hiding. We conducted an online survey by using a Google form to collect our data. We gathered data from 325 salespersons in the business departments of a single firm in Indonesia. To test our hypotheses, we employed Partial Least Square (PLS). The results revealed that distrust and knowledge complexity are critical factors in predicting knowledge hiding. Interestingly, knowledge hiding positively affects task performance. The rationale behind this result is that employees tend to believe that hiding knowledge is a strategy to boost their performance in the short run. The contribution of this study is the suggestion that organizations should implement a knowledge-sharing culture to minimize knowledge hiding.
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There has been a significant increase in studies on personal energy at work. Yet, research efforts are fragmented, given that scholars employ a diversity of related concepts. To bring clarity, we executed a two-fold systematic literature review. We crafted a definition of personal energy at work and a theoretical framework, outlining the dimensions, antecedents and boundary conditions. The theoretical implication of the framework is that it allows one to explain why—given similar work—some employees feel energized whereas others do not. The difference depends on the context that the employer offers, the personal characteristics of employees and the processes of strain and recovery. The paper concludes with a discussion of how future research can build on the proposed framework to advance the theoretical depth and empirical investigation of personal energy at work.
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This research examines the effect of making similarity or difference comparisons on perceptions after bicultural exposure and consumer reactions to culture mixing. Results indicate that after bicultural exposure, focusing on differences bolstered ingroup cultural stereotyping (Study 1) and enhanced perceived differences between cultures (Study 2), whereas focusing on similarity comparison reduced perceived differences between cultures (Study 2). Moreover, a similarity focus reduced positive reactions to a culturally mixed product, and this effect was mediated by reduced creativity perception of the product (Studies 1 and 3). These findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the boundary conditions of the bicultural exposure effect and suggest a new mechanism of integrative consumer reactions to culturally mixed products.
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Publisher Summary Individuals come to “know” their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behavior and/ or the circumstances in which this behavior occurs. Thus, to the extent that internal cues are weak, ambiguous, or uninterpretable, the individual is functionally in the same position as an outside observer, an observer who must necessarily rely upon those same external cues to infer the individual's inner states. This chapter traces the conceptual antecedents and empirical consequences of these propositions, attempts to place the theory in a slightly enlarged frame of reference, and clarifies just what phenomena the theory can and cannot account for in the rapidly growing experimental literature of self-attribution phenomena. Several experiments and paradigms from the cognitive dissonance literature are amenable to self-perception interpretations. But precisely because such experiments are subject to alternative interpretations, they cannot be used as unequivocal evidence for self-perception theory. The reinterpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena and other self-perception phenomena have been discussed. The chapter highlights some differences between self-perception and interpersonal perception and shift of paradigm in social psychology. It discusses some unsolved problems, such as the conceptual status of noncognitive response classes and the strategy of functional analysis.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether employee attitudes, prior engagement in workplace romances, conscientiousness, and organizational policies predicted the willingness to engage in workplace romances. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 148 full-time employees completed an online survey measuring antecedents of workplace romances. Participants were also randomly assigned to read vignettes that varied the strictness of organizational workplace romance policies. Then, participants completed measures of their willingness to engage in a workplace romance. Findings – Favorable attitudes about, and prior engagement in, workplace romances were positively related to the willingness to engage in a workplace romance. Prior engagement in workplace romances and conscientiousness were both related to attitudes about workplace romances. Additionally, the interaction between conscientiousness and organizational workplace romance policies significantly predicted the willingness to engage in a workplace romance. Research limitations/implications – The current study used hypothetical scenarios and a convenience sample to collect data, which may affect the study’s external validity. Practical implications – Organizations grappling with the issue of workplace romances should consider how employee characteristics may interact with policies regulating workplace romances. Originality/value – This study is the first to examine the links between both prior engagement in workplace romances and personality variables (i.e. conscientiousness) and their relation to the willingness to engage in workplace romances. In addition, this is the first experimental study to examine the interaction between personality (i.e. conscientiousness) and organizational policy in predicting the willingness to engage workplace romances.
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Deontology and utilitarianism are two competing principles that guide our moral judgment. Recently, deontology is thought to be intuitive and is based on an error-prone and biased approach, whereas utilitarianism is relatively reflective and a suitable framework for making decision. In this research, the authors explored the relationship among moral identity, moral decision, and moral behavior to see how a preference for the deontological solution can lead to moral behavior. In study 1, a Web-based survey demonstrated that when making decisions, individuals who viewed themselves as moral people preferred deontological ideals to the utilitarian framework. In study 2, the authors investigated the effect of moral identity and moral decision on moral behavior in an experimental study. The results showed that when deontology was coupled with the motivational power of moral identity, individuals were most likely to behave morally.
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Research has begun to document the negative organizational consequences of knowledge hiding, or the intentional attempt to conceal knowledge, among employees. However, different knowledge hiding behaviours exist, and we explore whether some types of knowledge hiding are more harmful than others. Although theory would suggest that knowledge hiders rationalize their behaviours and fail to anticipate the negative consequences of their behaviours, we found that they did anticipate harmed relationships and retaliation. In addition, targets of knowledge hiding did not always construe the behaviour as harmful or as necessitating retaliation. Overall, our research suggests that not all knowledge hiding is equally harmful. Some types of knowledge hiding may actually enhance the relationships between colleagues and might break the cycle of knowledge hiding in organizations.
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Many theories in management, psychology, and other disciplines rely on moderating variables: those which affect the strength or nature of the relationship between two other variables. Despite the near-ubiquitous nature of such effects, the methods for testing and interpreting them are not always well understood. This article introduces the concept of moderation and describes how moderator effects are tested and interpreted for a series of model types, beginning with straightforward two-way interactions with Normal outcomes, moving to three-way and curvilinear interactions, and then to models with non-Normal outcomes including binary logistic regression and Poisson regression. In particular, methods of interpreting and probing these latter model types, such as simple slope analysis and slope difference tests, are described. It then gives answers to twelve frequently asked questions about testing and interpreting moderator effects.
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Models of the work-to-family and family-to-work interface were tested in two heterogeneous samples of workers, one from North America (N = 408) and one from China (N = 442), using the same measures translated from English to Chinese using back translation. Consistent with proposed differences in the centrality of work and family, tolerance of work demands, and the availability of family support, work-to-family spillover effects tended to be stronger in the North American sample, whereas family-to-work spillover effects tended to be stronger in the Chinese sample. However, some inconsistencies across cultures did not conform to this generalization. Results point to asymmetric differences between North America and China in the work–family interface. Theoretical implications for resource scarcity and expansionist perspectives are discussed, as well as those for the applicability of work–family interventions across North America and China.
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Knowledge seeking and knowledge contributing are two distinct types of behaviors, both of which must occur for the presumed benefits of knowledge sharing to be realized. Self-perception theory posits that individuals come to ‘know’ their own internal beliefs by inferring them partially from observations of their own overt behavior. Building on self-perception theory and adhering to the principle that knowledge sharing facilitates knowledge creation, we develop a research model to explore the consequences of both knowledge seeking and knowledge contributing behavior given the consideration that flow plays a lubricating role in the formation of creativity. Data collected from 232 users of Web 2.0 virtual communities were used to test the model. We found that both knowledge seeking and knowledge contributing can lead to a state of flow and can further result in creativity at work. These findings and their implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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Knowledge hiding prevents colleagues from generating creative ideas, but it may also have negative consequences for the creativity of the knowledge hider. Drawing on social exchange theory, we propose that when employees hide knowledge, they trigger a reciprocal distrust loop in which coworkers are unwilling to share knowledge with them. We further suggest that these effects are contingent on the motivational climate such that the negative effects of hiding knowledge on one’s own creativity are enhanced in a performance climate and attenuated in a mastery climate. A field study of 240 employees, nested into 34 groups, revealed a negative relationship between knowledge hiding and the knowledge hider’s creativity as well as the moderating role of a mastery climate. Study 2 replicated these findings in an experimental study of 132 undergraduate students, testing a reciprocal distrust loop and comparing it with an alternative intra-psychic explanatory process based on situational regulatory focus. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
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A taxonomy of covariance structure models for rep resenting multitrait-multimethod data is presented. Us ing this taxonomy, it is possible to formulate alternate series of hierarchically ordered, or nested, models for such data. By specifying hierarchically nested models, significance tests of differences between competing models are available. Within the proposed framework, specific model comparisons may be formulated to test the significance of the convergent and the discriminant validity shown by a set of measures as well as the ex tent of method variance. Application of the proposed framework to three multitrait-multimethod matrices al lowed resolution of contradictory conclusions drawn in previously published work, demonstrating the utility of the present approach.
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Two alternative methods for parceling questionnaire items for use in confirmatory analyses are presented. The first method requires that parcels must (a) pass a minimum standard of reliability and (b) provide indications of unidimensionality to be retained for analysis. The second method requires that parcels be equally representative of the multiple aspects of a domain. The parcels may then serve as adequate indicators for the general construct. The latter method is consistent with the rationale underlying aggregation of measures, a procedure currently recommended for improving the psychometric properties of behavioral measures of personality. The two methods for parceling and a comparison are illustrated with an empirical example.
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This paper presents a model of team learning and tests it in a multimethod field study. It introduces the construct of team psychological safety—a shared belief held by members of a team that the team is safe for interpersonal risk taking—and models the effects of team psychological safety and team efficacy together on learning and performance in organizational work teams. Results of a study of 51 work teams in a manufacturing company, measuring antecedent, process, and outcome variables, show that team psychological safety is associated with learning behavior, but team efficacy is not, when controlling for team psychological safety. As predicted, learning behavior mediates between team psychological safety and team performance. The results support an integrative perspective in which both team structures, such as context support and team leader coaching, and shared beliefs shape team outcomes.
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Researchers in a variety of disciplines use Amazon’s crowdsourcing platform called Mechanical Turk as a way to collect data from a respondent pool that is much more diverse than a typical student sample. The platform also provides cost efficiencies over other online panel services and data can be collected very quickly. However, some researchers have been slower to try the platform, perhaps because of a lack of awareness of its functions or concerns with validity. This article provides an overview of Mechanical Turk as an academic research platform and a critical examination of its strengths and weaknesses for research. Guidelines for collecting data that address issues of validity, reliability, and ethics are presented.
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Culturally diverse colleagues can be valuable sources for stimulating creativity at work, yet only if they decide to share their knowledge. Drawing on the social exchange theory, we propose that cross-cultural interactions among individuals from different national backgrounds can act as a salient contingency in the relationship between knowledge hiding and creativity (individual and team). We further suggest, based on the social categorization theory (e.g., the categorization process of “us” against “them” based on national differences), that cultural intelligence enhances the likelihood of high-quality social exchanges between culturally diverse individuals and, therefore, remedies the otherwise negative relationship between individual knowledge hiding and individual creativity. Two studies using field and experimental data offer consistent support for this argument. First, a field study of 621 employees nested among 70 teams revealed that individual knowledge hiding is negatively related to individual creativity and that cultural intelligence moderates the relationship between knowledge hiding and creativity at an individual level. A quasi-experimental study of 104 international students nested in 24 teams replicated and extended these findings by implying that individual knowledge hiding is also negatively related to team creativity. We discuss the implications for practice and future research.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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Creativity is an increasingly important domain of performance largely based on knowledge held and exchanged among employees. Despite the necessity of knowledge exchange, individual employees tend to experience mixed motivation caused by the inherent social dilemma of knowledge sharing. To pragmatically explain how individuals deal with this motivational dilemma, we propose an expanded framework of knowledge management behavior (KMB) that includes knowledge sharing, hiding, and manipulation. Individual choices among these KMBs may be driven by dispositional goal orientations. We also propose that the effects of KMB on creativity of employees vary depending on their social status in a work group. Our analyses based on 214 employees from 37 teams reveal that (i) learning goal orientation increases knowledge sharing and decreases knowledge manipulation; (ii) avoiding goal orientation increases knowledge sharing and manipulation; and (iii) proving goal orientation increases knowledge hiding and manipulation. Knowledge hiding is negatively related to employee creativity, particularly for employees with high social status. Knowledge manipulation is positively related to creativity, particularly for those with high social status. This study develops and validates a theoretical framework explaining the formative process and distinct outcomes of the multifaceted and strategic approaches to KMB at the individual level. Copyright
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This study investigates the multilevel interplay among team-level, job-related, and individual characteristics in stimulating employees' innovative work behavior (IWB) based on the theoretical frameworks of achievement goal theory (AGT) and job characteristics theory (JCT). A multilevel two-source study of 240 employees and their 34 direct supervisors in two medium-sized Slovenian companies revealed significant two- and three-way interactions, where a mastery climate, task interdependence, and decision autonomy moderated the relationship between knowledge hiding and IWB. When employees hide knowledge, a team mastery climate only facilitates high levels of IWB if accompanied by either high task interdependence or high decision autonomy. In the absence of one of these job characteristics, knowledge hiding prevents higher levels of IWB even in the case of strong team mastery climate. The results suggest that multiple job design antecedents are necessary to neutralize the negative influence of knowledge hiding on micro-innovation processes within organizations.
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This article examines how workplace cynicism moderates the relationship between interactional fairness and perceptions of organizational support (POS). Using a sample of full-time employees, I found a positive, direct effect between interactional fairness and POS. Furthermore, the moderating effect suggests the relation between interactional fairness and POS was stronger for less cynical employees. Incorporating a social exchange framework, this article discusses how the typically positive effect of interactional fairness is lost on cynical employees. This result was confirmed using a controlled scenario-based protocol, which replicated the results of the field study. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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Although helping behaviors have increased in importance as work has become more interdependent, employees may be hesitant to help others for fear of it affecting their ability to complete their own tasks. Drawing from social learning theory and self-determination theory, we propose and test a multilevel model that examines the effects of supervisor prosocial motivation and psychological safety on employee psychological safety, thriving, and helping behaviors. Using data collected from 245 employees and 83 supervisors, the results of our study demonstrate support for a positive relationship between supervisor psychological safety and employee psychological safety. We also found positive indirect effects of supervisor prosocial motivation on employee psychological safety. Finally, we found that the relationship between employee psychological safety and both helping behaviors and task performance occurred indirectly through employee thriving. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings and also make suggestions for future research directions.
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With the exploding use of Internet surveys, research efforts and data quality are increasingly subject to the effects of respondents who do not give the required attention to survey questions and who speed through the survey, or who intentionally cheat with their answers. We investigate respondent integrity and data quality for samples drawn from a “Regular” online panel and from Amazon's MTurk. New metrics for assessing sample integrity and online data quality are introduced. Overall, MTurk respondents in both respondent groups took less time to answer questions. The non-USA MTurk group deviated most from correct answers in attention filter questions and had more duplicate IP addresses. In addition, the results from the three Internet sample sources are substantively different. The choice of an Internet survey sample vendor is critical, as it can impact sample composition, respondent integrity, data quality, data structure and substantive results.
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Emotional exhaustion and depression pose a threat to employees' psychological health. Social relationships at work are important potential buffers against these threats, but the corresponding psychological processes are still unclear. We propose that the subjective experience of high-quality relationships with supervisors (i.e., Leader–Member Exchange [LMX]) is one of the protective factors against psychological health issues at work and that this effect is mediated by psychological empowerment. We tested these assumptions with two studies (one cross-sectional and one time lagged) on diverse samples of employees from different organizations. The first study employed emotional exhaustion as the outcome measure; the second used depression. Results from both studies support the proposed process by showing that LMX positively affects empowerment, which negatively affects emotional exhaustion (Study 1) and depression (Study 2). Additionally , Study 2 also showed that Team–Member Exchange is as important as LMX for preventing psychological health issues among employees.
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This study was designed to test the relationship between perceived social impact, social worth, supervisor-rated job performance (one month later), and mediating effects by commitment to customers and work engagement. The hypotheses were tested with SEM analysis in a field study with 370 customer service employees from bank, retail, and sales positions. Results confirm that perceived social impact is associated with better job performance and that this relationship is mediated by work engagement. Furthermore, results support a second mediating mechanism in which perceived social impact and social worth are associated with engagement through affective commitment to customers. Finally, it was found that engaged employees are rated as better performers by supervisors one month later. This study supports the motivational approach to performance and highlights the role that interactions with customers may play in motivating service employees. Practical implications are discussed highlighting the need to consider the social dynamics in service contexts.
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This study tested a framework in which goals are proposed to be central determinants of achievement patterns. Learning goals, in which individuals seek to increase their competence, were predicted to promote challenge-seeking and a mastery-oriented response to failure regardless of perceived ability. Performance goals, in which individuals seek to gain favorable judgments of their competence or avoid negative judgments, were predicted to produce challenge-avoidance and learned helplessness when perceived ability was low and to promote certain forms of risk-avoidance even when perceived ability was high. Manipulations of relative goal value (learning vs. performance) and perceived ability (high vs. low) resulted in the predicted differences on measures of task choice, performance during difficulty, and spontaneous verbalizations during difficulty. Particularly striking was the way in which the performance goal-low perceived ability condition produced the same pattern of strategy deterioration, failure attribution, and negative affect found in naturally occurring learned helplessness. Implications for theories of motivation and achievement are discussed.
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This study began with the premise that people can use varying degrees of their selves. physically. cognitively. and emotionally. in work role performances. which has implications for both their work and experi­ ences. Two qualitative. theory-generating studies of summer camp counselors and members of an architecture firm were conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage. or express and employ their personal selves. and disengage. or withdraw and defend their personal selves. This article describes and illustrates three psychological conditions-meaningfulness. safety. and availabil­ ity-and their individual and contextual sources. These psychological conditions are linked to existing theoretical concepts. and directions for future research are described. People occupy roles at work; they are the occupants of the houses that roles provide. These events are relatively well understood; researchers have focused on "role sending" and "receiving" (Katz & Kahn. 1978). role sets (Merton. 1957). role taking and socialization (Van Maanen. 1976), and on how people and their roles shape each other (Graen. 1976). Researchers have given less attention to how people occupy roles to varying degrees-to how fully they are psychologically present during particular moments of role performances. People can use varying degrees of their selves. physically, cognitively, and emotionally. in the roles they perform. even as they main­ tain the integrity of the boundaries between who they are and the roles they occupy. Presumably, the more people draw on their selves to perform their roles within those boundaries. the more stirring are their performances and the more content they are with the fit of the costumes they don. The research reported here was designed to generate a theoretical frame­ work within which to understand these "self-in-role" processes and to sug­ gest directions for future research. My specific concern was the moments in which people bring themselves into or remove themselves from particular task behaviors, My guiding assumption was that people are constantly bring­ ing in and leaving out various depths of their selves during the course of The guidance and support of David Berg, Richard Hackman, and Seymour Sarason in the research described here are gratefully acknowledged. I also greatly appreciated the personal engagements of this journal's two anonymous reviewers in their roles, as well as the comments on an earlier draft of Tim Hall, Kathy Kram, and Vicky Parker.
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Provides a comprehensive analysis of cynicism in the workforce and tells how to identify and successfully combat it in organizations. Offers case studies of companies ranging from Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream to Unisys and Caterpillar Tractor to show how businesses of all types and sizes can effectively rebuild trust and restore confidence in organizational life.
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I describe a test of linear moderated mediation in path analysis based on an interval estimate of the parameter of a function linking the indirect effect to values of a moderator—a parameter that I call the index of moderated mediation. This test can be used for models that integrate moderation and mediation in which the relationship between the indirect effect and the moderator is estimated as linear, including many of the models described by Edwards and Lambert (200710. Edwards, J.R., & Lambert, L.S. (2007). Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis. Psychological Methods, 12, 1–22.[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]View all references) and Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes (200743. Preacher, K.J., Rucker, D.D., & Hayes, A.F. (2007). Assessing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185–227.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®]View all references) as well as extensions of these models to processes involving multiple mediators operating in parallel or in serial. Generalization of the method to latent variable models is straightforward. Three empirical examples describe the computation of the index and the test, and its implementation is illustrated using Mplus and the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS.
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This study addresses coping processes as explanation of age-related differences in strain experience. Based on the life-span theory of control, we posit that older workers employ more active problem-focused and more active emotion-focused coping strategies than younger workers, which should mediate age effects on strain at work. The correlation between age and passive avoidance coping, in contrast, is expected to be qualified by external resources such as job control. Hypotheses were tested in a two-wave panel study (8 months lag) with 634 workers (age range 16–65 years). Job demands were considered as control variables. As predicted, older as compared with younger workers reported more active problem-focused coping, which mediated age differences on strain in the longitudinal analysis. No mediation was found for active emotion-focused coping. Moreover, age-contingent effects of passive avoidance coping were moderated by job control. When job control was low, younger as compared with older workers reported more avoidance coping, which in turn decreased strain in the longitudinal analysis. Finally, reverse longitudinal effects of age-contingent strain on active problem-focused and active emotion-focused coping provide initial evidence for age-contingent resource spirals. Together, the results reveal specific strengths of older workers for stress management at work. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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What is the nature of the extremely negative attitudes expressed by so many employees toward their organizations? To respond to this question, we introduce the concept of organizational cynicism. We review the literature from several disciplines on this concept and suggest that organizational cynicism is an attitude composed of beliefs, affect, and behavioral tendencies toward an organization. Following our review and conceptualization, we derive implications of this concept and propose a research agenda for organizational cynicism.
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This study examines how trust, connectivity and thriving drive employees' innovative behaviors in the workplace. Using a sample of one hundred and seventy two employees across a variety of jobs and industries, we investigated the relationship between trust, connectivity (both measured at Time 1), thriving and innovative work behaviors (both measured at Time 2). Trust and connectivity were hypothesized to create a nurturing environment that enables people to thrive and be innovative in their work. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) indicate a sequential mediation model in which connectivity mediates the relationship between trust and thriving, and thriving mediates the relationship between connectivity and innovative behaviors. The theoretical and practical implications for employee thriving and innovative behaviors at work are discussed.
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Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to examine why and when employees hide knowledge. Individuals may tend to hide knowledge when they have strong psychological ownership feelings over knowledge. Therefore, this research builds and tests a theoretical model linking knowledge-based psychological ownership with knowledge hiding via territoriality.Design/methodology/approach ‐ Data were collected from knowledge workers in China via a three-wave web-based survey. The final sample was 190 cases. Hierarchical regression models and a bootstrapping approach were used to test the hypotheses.Findings ‐ The results show that knowledge-based psychological ownership positively affects knowledge hiding. Territoriality fully mediates the link between knowledge-based psychological ownership and knowledge hiding. Moreover, organization-based psychological ownership moderates the positive link between territoriality and knowledge hiding. Specifically, territoriality will mediate the indirect effect of knowledge-based psychological ownership on knowledge hiding when organization-based psychological ownership is low, but not when it is high.Research limitations/implications ‐ The research reflects that to reduce knowledge hiding, organizations should focus on practices that can decrease employees' self-perception of possession of knowledge and territoriality and that can strengthen employees' psychological ownership for organizations.Originality/value ‐ Although many actions have been adopted to foster knowledge management in companies, knowledge hiding is still prevalent in work settings. This paper highlights the predictive power of knowledge-based psychological ownership on knowledge hiding, and the mediating role of territoriality in the link between knowledge-based psychological ownership and knowledge hiding.