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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the physical activity performed by students, its frequency and intensity and how this physical activity may relate to their physical fitness and academic success. Methods: The sample consisted of 297 undergraduate students from 20 to 22 years of age (mean 20.5 ± 0.7) from the University of Maribor. The type and frequency of physical activity in which they engaged were measured using the IPAQ. Academic performance was defined as regular admission to the second year of study. Students’ physical fitness was determined using Eurofit and FitnessGram tests. Results: Analysis of the IPAQ questionnaire shows that the majority of students reported being physically active in the afternoon. Nevertheless, according to the WHO’s guidelines, 79.8 % of students were insufficiently physically active. The results show that males performed better than females in nearly all of the physical fitness tests. Periods of two to three hours of weekly physical activity were positively associated with academic success, while four hours or more resulted in no contribution. Conclusion: Correlations between physical activity and physical fitness were primarily found in higher duration physical activity and in higher frequency of vigorous exercise. The results of this study are similar to those of other countries regarding the insufficient physical activity of young people. The influence of physical activity on academic success was analyzed by binary logistic regression. The majority of students were academically successful and regularly admitted to the second year of study (86.5 %).
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Original scientic article UDC: 796.011.1:378.011.3-052
received: 2018-11-07
Silvester LIPOŠEK 1, Jurij PLANINŠEC 2, Bojan LESKOŠEK 3,
Aleksander PAJTLER 4
1University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Slovenia
2University of Maribor, Faculty of Education, Slovenia
3University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport, Slovenia
4University of Maribor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Transportation Engineering and
Architecture, Slovenia
Corresponding Author:
Silvester LIPOŠEK
University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Phone: +386 31 651 868
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the physical activity per-
formed by students, its frequency and intensity and how this physical activity may relate
Methods: The sample consisted of 297 undergraduate students from 20 to 22 years
   
Results: Analysis of the IPAQ questionnaire shows that the majority of students re-
 
riods of two to three hours of weekly physical activity were positively associated with
Conclusion: -
marily found in higher duration physical activity and in higher frequency of vigorous
Namen: Cilj raziskave je bil ugotoviti pogostost in intenzivnost izvedene telesne
aktivnosti študentov ter kako ta telesna aktivnost vpliva na njihovo telesno kondicijo in
Metode: V vzorec merjencev je bilo zajetih 297 dodiplomskih študentov in študentk
Rezultati: 
     
       
     
    
Zaključek: -
     -
         
Ključne besede
Past research studies conrm that regular physical activity performed by children,
adolescents and adults has a positive effect on health (Boreham & Roddoch, 2001; Pori
et al., 2013) and reduces the risk of developing various diseases (Hallal, Victora, Aze-
vedo & Wells, 2006; Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). Generally, physical tness and
physical activity excerpt a positive impact on perception and concentration (Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010; Trudeau & Shephard, 2008). Additionally,
consistent physical activity has a positive inuence on self-esteem (Crocker, Sabiston,
Kowalski, McDonough & Kowalski, 2006; Dunton, Jamner & Cooper, 2003; More-
no, Cervelló & Moreno, 2008; Weiss & Williams, 2004), while lowering anxiety and
stress (Dolenc, 2015; Flook, Repetti & Ullman, 2005). However, it must be taken into
account that vigorous physical activity is time-consuming, requires recovery and the-
refore might reduce learning and studying time. The extended use of the internet and
computer games (i.e., screen-time) poses a huge threat to a healthy lifestyle; therefore,
only a small proportion of adolescents regularly participate in physical activity (Aslan
& Arslan Cansever, 2012; Madell & Muncer, 2004).
Many studies have attempted to identify a relationship between physical activity
and academic achievement. However, these studies have had diverse and even contra-
dictory conclusions: a signicant positive correlation between the duration of physical
activity and academic success (Coe, Pivarnik, Womack, Reeves & Malina, 2006; Kim
et al., 2003), small correlation between them (Daley & Ryan, 2000; Sallis et al., 1999)
and a negative correlation (Tremblay, Inman & Williams, 2000). Research has also
established that physical activity itself has many positive effects (better self-image,
self-esteem, behavioural changes, better motivation in other areas, etc.), all of which
inuence academic success (Trudeau & Shephard, 2008).
In the literature, the FitnessGram assessment was primarily used in the USA (Ren-
frow, Caputo, Otto, Farley & Eveland-Sayers, 2011; Shriver et al., 2011). In Europe,
for example, tness tests were usually combined with FitnessGram and Eurot items
alongside some national recommendations (Aires et al., 2010). Recent results of he-
alth-related tness tests on children show that results are progressively worsening and
are accompanied by growing obesity and low physical activity (Shriver et al., 2011).
A comparison between obesity and health-related tness is easier to conduct because
the measures are well-dened, whereas physical activity can be measured by various
means, for example, by weekly duration, frequency, intensity or variety.
The study of physical activity of the university student population is especially
interesting, as in Slovenia and several other countries (Cardinal, Sorensen & Cardinal,
2012; Hardman, 2008), physical education is no longer a mandatory subject at tertiary
level, as it is in secondary schools. Therefore, it is important to establish if one of the
most important objectives of mandatory physical education, i.e., educating students to
accept physical activity as one of their regular life-long habits, has actually been full-
led and if the decision to drop physical education from university curricula, a decision
made several years ago, has resulted in a large proportion of students becoming insuf-
ciently active or even inactive.
The aim of our study was twofold: 1) to explore the current state of physical activity
and the physical tness of university students and their anthropometric data and 2) to
explore the relationship between physical activity, physical tness and the academic
success of university students. There has been little research on the effect of physical
activity on academic performance in Slovenia. On the basis of research results elsew-
here, we assume that our study will demonstrate the positive effects of physical activity
on academic performance.
The sample consisted of second-year undergraduate students from fourteen facul-
ties of the University of Maribor. Approximately 10 % of all full-time second-year
undergraduate students, between 20 and 22 (mean 20.5 ± 0.7) years of age, agreed to
participate in the study (n = 297, 114 or 38.4 % males and 183 or 61.6 % females).
Data Collection Procedure
To collect information about students’ physical activities in the week before tness
testing, we used the IPAQ questionnaire (Bailey, Mckay, Mirwald, Crocker & Faulkner,
1999) with certain modications (questions about the time of day and the type of physi-
cal activities were added). The time aspect of physical activity execution is divided as
follows: pre-noon physical activities happen before 12 o’clock, afternoon physical ac-
tivities are performed between 12 and 6 pm, while evening physical activities are exe-
cuted after 6 pm and later. Physical tness testing took place at the University Sports
Centre and was carried out by staff trained in measurement procedures. The two-day
testing was open to all second-year students at the University of Maribor. Participation
was voluntary; all of the participants gave written consent. Individual tness tests were
carried out at stations set up as a polygon. The order of tness tests and conducted me-
asurements were the same for all participants. We administered the following twelve
physical tness test items to measure motor performance FitnessGram (Meredith &
Welk, 2010), EuroFit (Topend Sports, 2016) and national recommendations SLOFit
(Strel et al., 1996): plate tapping test (20”), polygon backwards, the wall toss test,
standing forward bend and reach exibility test, sit and reach exibility test, standing
shoulder rotation exibility test, standing long jump test, sit-ups in 60” test, exed arm
hang test, the amingo balance test, 20-meter sprint and the 20-meter shuttle run. The
20-meter shuttle run results were converted to VO2 max volumes according to the in-
structions set out by Ramsbottom et al. (1988). The following anthropometric measures
were taken (Topend Sports, 2016): body height, body weight, upper arm circumference,
thigh circumference and abdominal circumference. To estimate the amount of subcuta-
neous fat, we measured each participant’s upper arm (triceps) skinfold, thigh skinfold
(suprapatellar), abdomen skinfold (abdominal and suprailiac skinfold) and back skin-
The weekly duration of physical activity (number of hours of physical activity in
the previous week), frequency of vigorous physical activity (number of sessions of vi-
gorous physical activity lasting at least 15 minutes in the previous week), frequency of
moderate physical activity (number of sessions of moderate physical activity lasting at
least 15 minutes in the previous week), frequency of low effort physical activity (num-
ber of sessions of low effort physical activity lasting at least 15 minutes in the previous
week) and sports club membership were used as indicators of physical activity. Criteria
suggested by Janssen (2001) were employed to measure the intensity of physical acti-
vity (vigorous, moderate, low effort).
The dependent variable of academic success was dened as the regular admission
to the second year of study (coded as 1 if a student was regularly admitted from the rst
to the second year of study and 0 otherwise).
Data Analysis
The collected data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 20.0 software (IBM Corp., Ar-
monk, NY). Physical tness test results were compared by gender using an independent
samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U test in case the Shapiro–Wilks test did not conrm
the normal distribution of data. To determine the relationship between physical activity
and physical tness tests, Spearman’s correlation coefcient was used. The inuence
of physical activity on academic success was calculated by a binary logistic regression.
The odds ratio, 95 % condence interval and P value were calculated for each variable
included in the logistic model. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically signicant.
Analysis of the IPAQ questionnaire results shows that the majority of students re-
ported being physically active in the afternoon (from 12 to 6 pm), as 161 (54.2 %)
reported being active 2 to 3 times a week or more; in the evening (after 6 pm), this
gure was 94 (31.6 %), and in the morning (before noon), 43 (14.5 %) reported being
physically active. Eleven (3.7 %) students were completely inactive during the previous
week. Figure 1 also shows that males and females reported a similar physical activity
pattern during the week.
For vigorous exercise of at least 15 minutes, 79 (26.6 %) students reported no enga-
gement, and 82 (27.6 %) students exercised vigorously only once a week. For moderate
exercise of at least 15 minutes, 106 (35.7 %) students reported exercising once a week,
while 62 (20.9 %) reported never exercising at this intensity level. 78 (26.3%) students
engaged in exercises requiring low effort once a week, while 94 (31.6 %) students re-
ported no engagement (Figure 2). Based on the criteria set forth in the WHO’s guideli-
nes (WHO, 2004), 237 (79.8 %) students were inactive or insufciently active because
they were not physically active for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity, or at least
75 minutes of vigorous-intensity, exercise throughout the week. Among these students,
approximately half expressed a lack of free time and being overburdened with study as
the reasons for their inactivity.
The anthropometric data results in Table 1 show that male students were higher,
heavier and had a higher body mass index. Males also had larger circumferences and
lower skinfolds with the exception of the abdominal skinfold. There were also no diffe-
rences in age between the groups.
n=183 p-value*
mean SD mean SD
Age (years) 20.4 0.7 20.5 0.7 ns
Body height (cm) 180.7 6.7 166.2 5.9 <0.001
Body weight (kg) 80.0 10.5 64.0 12.3 <0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.5 3.0 23.1 4.3 <0.001
Upper arm circumference (mm) 305.1 27.7 272.8 34.5 <0.001
Thigh circumference (mm) 576.1 44.8 558.9 60.5 0.006
Abdominal circumference (mm) 871.7 83.7 824.5 119.4 <0.001
Upper arm skinfold (mm) 10.5 4.9 17.0 8.0 <0.001#
Back skinfold (mm) 13.9 5.8 16.3 8.9 0.006#
Thigh skinfold (mm) 18.0 9.0 24.3 8.7 <0.001#
Abdominal skinfold (mm) 18.7 8.5 19.2 8.4 ns#
Suprailiac skinfold (mm) 17.4 8.2 20.4 7.9 0.002#
* independent samples t-test; # Mann-Whitney U test; ns = not signicant
The results in Table 2 show that males performed statistically signicantly better
than females in most of the twelve physical tness tests, except in three exibility tests
(Standing forward bend and reach, Sit and reach, Shoulder rotation), where female
students performed better than males and in Flamingo balance test where the difference
is not signicant.
m s m s
Plate tapping 20« (count) 48.9 4.9 46.2 4.7 <0.001
Polygon backwards (seconds) 9.0 1.6 11.9 2.2 <0.001
Wall toss test (count) 22.9 4.9 15.9 4.7 <0.001
Standing forward bend and reach (cm) 46.6 7.8 49.7 7.3 0.001
Sit and reach (cm) 22.6 7.9 26.6 7.3 <0.001
Shoulder rotation (cm) 109.4 15.5 88.5 16.7 <0.001
Standing long jump (cm) 225.9 24.1 161.8 22.5 <0.001
Sit-ups 60 (count) 49.8 9.2 41.1 9.1 <0.001
Flexed arm hang test (seconds) 24.6 17.0 11.5 13.6 <0.001#
Flamingo balance test (count) 9.3 5.0 9.7 4.7 ns #
20-m sprint (seconds) 3.2 0.2 4.1 0.4 <0.001
20-m shuttle run (VO2 max, ml/kg/min) 38.2 6.4 27.4 1.4 <0.001
M = mean; SD = standard deviation; * independent samples t-test; # Mann-Whitney U test;
ns = not signicant
To nd out how physical activity correlates with physical tness, we analyzed three
different parameters describing the extent of physical activity: a) weekly duration of
physical activity; b) the weekly frequency of vigorous exercise lasting at least 15 mi-
nutes and c) weekly frequency of moderate exercise lasting at least 15 minutes. As the
signicant differences between males and females in physical tness were found, we
decided to analyze this relation separately, by gender. The results in Table 3 provided
several signicant relationships between the duration and intensity of physical activity
and tness with primarily weak correlation coefcients.
    -
weekly duration of
physical activity in
weekly frequency of
vigorous exercise la-
sting at least 15 min
weekly frequency of
moderate exercise la-
sting at least 15 min
Plate tapping 0.20# 0.11 0.26* 0.13 -0.12 -0.03
Polygon backwards -0.14 -0.15# -0.19# -0.18# 0.08 0.04
Wall toss test 0.36* 0.17# 0.28* 0.12 0.18 -0.09
Standing forward
bend and reach 0.11 0.15# 0.02 0.14 0.00 0.04
Sit and reach 0.13 0.13 -0.04 0.04 0.11 0.06
Shoulder rotation -0.03 0.00 0.00 -0.10 0.13 -0.10
Standing long jump 0.21# 0.14 0.26* 0.19* -0.03 -0.01
Pull-up 600.24* 0.17# 0.32* 0.21* -0.05 0.11
Flexed arm hang test 0.25* 0.30* 0.25* 0.23* 0.11 0.21*
Flamingo balance
test -0.20# -0.10 -0.14 -0.19* 0.05 0.02
20-m sprint -0.06 -0.22* -0.14 -0.22* 0.02 -0.08
20-m shuttle run 0.29* 0.23* 0.37* 0.28* -0.01 0.00
r** = Spearman’s correlation coefcient; * = p < 0.001; # = p < 0.05
The inuence of physical activity on academic success was analyzed by binary lo-
gistic regression (Table 4). The majority of students were academically successful and
regularly admitted to the second year of study (86.5n%). Two or three hours of weekly
physical activity had a positive inuence on regular admission to the second year of stu-
dy (OR = 3.37, 95 %, CI = 1.18–9.62, P = 0.024 and OR = 4.37, 95 % CI = 1.44–13.24,
P = 0.009, respectively). Neither vigorous physical activity nor sports club membership
had any inuence on academic success (OR = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.21–1.43, P = 0.220 and
OR = 0.81, 95 % CI = 0.30–2.18, P = 0.674, respectively). Regarding the anthropome-
tric data, being overweight (as indicated by body mass index) also had no inuence on
academic success (OR = 0.72, 95 % CI = 0.31–1.69, P = 0.452).
Regular admission to the
2nd year of study OR (95% CI) p-value
n=40 (%)
n=257 (%)
Weekly PA
1 hour or less 11 (27.5) 30 (11.7) 1.00 (reference)
2 hours 8 (20.0) 64 (24.9) 3.37 (1.18 – 9.62) 0.024
3 hours 7 (17.5) 75 (29.2) 4.37 (1.44 – 13.24) 0.009
4 hours 5 (12.5) 37 (14.4) 3.54 (0.99 – 12.59) 0.051
5 hours or more 9 (22.5) 51 (19.8) 3.26 (0.86 – 12.45) 0.083
Vigorous PA
2x weekly or less 28 (70.0) 199 (77.4) 1.00 (reference)
3x weekly or more 12 (30.0) 58 (22.6) 0.55 (0.21 – 1.43) 0.220
Moderate PA
2x weekly or less 34 (85.0) 208 (80.9) 1.00 (reference)
3x weekly or more 6 (15.0) 49 (19.1) 1.09 (0.38 – 3.11) 0.875
Low effort PA
2x weekly or less 31 (77.5) 179 (69.6) 1.00 (reference)
3x weekly or more 9 (22.5) 78 (30.4) 1.18 (0.51 – 2.76) 0.700
Sports club membership
No 30 (75.0) 206 (80.2) 1.00 (reference)
Yes 10 (25.0) 51 (19.8) 0.81 (0.30 – 2.18) 0.674
Body mass index
<25 (normal) 27 (67.5) 187 (72.8) 1.00 (reference)
≥ 25 (overweight) 9 (22.5) 51 (19.8) 0.72 (0.31 – 1.69) 0.452
≥ 30 (obese) 4 (10.0) 19 (7.4) 0.56 (0.17 – 1.88) 0.349
Male 16 (40.0) 98 (38.1) 1.00 (reference)
Female 24 (60.0) 159 (61.9) 0.94 (0.43 – 2.03) 0.868
OR = odds ratio, 95%CI = 95% condence interval, PA = physical activity
International studies have shown that the percentage of physically inactive students
varies from country to country: 23 % in Western Europe and the U.S., 30 % in Central
and Eastern Europe, 39 % in Mediterranean countries, 42 % in the countries of the
Asia-Pacic region and 44 % in developing countries (Haase, Steptoe, Sallis & Wardle,
2004). Guthold published data on levels of physical inactivity in 51 countries, most of
which were low or middle income, and observed several trends (Guthold, Ono, Strong,
Chatterji, & Morabia, 2008). Globally, with the exception of several Eastern European
countries, women were more likely to be physically inactive than men. Few studies
have explored the reasons for decreasing levels of physical activity in developing co-
untries. Ng et al. (2009) estimate that between 1991 and 2006, average weekly physical
activity fell by 32 per cent. Globally, around 23 % of adults aged 18 and over were not
active enough in 2010 (men 20 % and women 27 %). In high-income countries, 26 % of
men and 35 % of women were insufciently physically active, as compared to 12 % of
men and 24 % of women in low-income countries (World Health Organization, 2016).
The results of our study showed a more positive picture as only 7.4 % of students
reported not being involved in vigorous or moderate exercise; however, 26.6 % of stu-
dents reported not performing any vigorous exercise. The results of our study on the
physical activity of students may therefore be considered similar to previous studies.
With respect to the WHO recommendations (World Health Organization, 2004), with
the time component of adequate physical activity included (150 minutes of moderate-
-intensity, or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity throughout the week), our results
are worse, showing that only 20.2 % of students reported adequate physical activity.
For example, this percentage was similar to a national survey conducted by Casper-
sen, Fereira, and Curran (2000), who found that only 25 % of Americans reach the re-
commended level of physical activity. Regarding organized physical activity, our study
showed that only 20.5 % of the students were active in a sports club. The percentage
of students active in sports clubs is close to the gure in Croatia (23 %) (Andrijašević,
Paušić, Bavčević & Ciliga, 2005), although another study has suggested that only 16 %
of Slovene students are actually active in sports clubs (Golja & Robič, 2014).
In Sweden, however, it was reported that the percentage of young people enga-
ged in sport clubs is increasing, as 66 % of boys and 53 % of girls were active in
them (Westerståhl, Barnekow-Berkvist, Hedberg & Jansson, 2003), a percentage that
is considerably higher than the levels in Slovenia or Croatia. Our results showed that
students were under-active, considering that a healthy adult requires a minimum physi-
cal activity time of at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise per week (such as fast
walking, cycling on at terrain, or even mowing the lawn) or 75 minutes of vigorous
exercise (running, swimming, rough terrain biking, playing basketball or tennis) (Jans-
sen, 2001), where only approximately 20.2 % of students reported sufciently frequent
Since the results of the physical tness tests indicated signicant differences betwe-
en males and females, we decided to calculate the correlation between physical activity
and tness tests results by gender. The results show that in this gender comparison,
there is on average a smaller share of women who take part in no physical activity, but
a higher percentage who take part in physical activity once or two to three times per
week. The study demonstrates that male students outperformed their female counter-
parts in almost all motor tests except the amingo, which measures balance, where no
signicant difference was found and in exibility, where female students performed
better than male.
The second purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between the repor-
ted extent of weekly physical activity and physical tness. In most cases, especially in
overall weekly duration of physical activity and weekly frequency of vigorous exercise
lasting at least 15 minutes, physical activity is positively correlated to physical tness,
however most correlation coefcients were low and, in some cases, also not statistically
signicant. Even weaker correlation was found between weekly frequency of moderate
exercise lasting at least 15 minutes and physical tness. The only coefcients excee-
ding 0.3 were those between overall duration of physical activity and the frequency of
vigorous exercise with the wall toss test, pull-up 60” and 20-m shuttle run among male
students. Similarly, Renfrow et al. (2011) found that males who played more sports
achieved signicantly better FitnessGram overall scores. In a longitudinal study, Aires
et al. (2010) found that an increased physical activity index contributed to improved
physical tness. Associations between physical activity and physical tness tests, as
documented in available studies such as Martinez-Vizcaino & Sanchez-Lopez, (2008),
Fang et al. (2017) show the positive effects of increased physical activity for improved
health-related physical tness in children and young people (Martínez-Vizcaíno & Sán-
chez-López, 2008; Malina, Bouchard & Bar-Or, 2004).
Our last research aim was to explore whether the extent of physical activity inuences
academic success, which was dened as regular admission from the rst to the second
year of study. In previous researches, physical activity has not clearly been associated
with academic performance (Daley & Ryan, 2000; Sallis et al., 1999; Tremblay et al.,
2000). Our results provided some evidence that higher duration of physical activity may
positively inuence academic performance, which was similar to Coe et al. (2006), Kim
et al. (2003) California Department of Education (2001), Sibley & Eitner (2003), Castelli,
Hillman, Buck & Erwin (2007) and Trost (2016). On the other hand, our results regarding
comprehensive vigorous physical activity or sports club membership provided no proof
of their positive inuence on academic success. This might suggest that two to three hour
weekly recreational physical activity is positive for one’s academic success, while spor-
ting physical activity is probably too exhausting and time- consuming.
Study Limitations
Measuring weekly physical activity among the population is difcult because its
duration, intensity, frequency, and type of exercise performed are seldom recorded.
Physical activity is usually performed with less consistency, more often in some we-
eks, in others less, sometimes physical activity is performed on weekends, sometimes
during the week, etc. Therefore, participants face difculties in reliability and reporting
every detail of their weekly physical activity. To reduce bias, we gathered data about
physical activity with several measures: weekly duration in hours, frequency by inten-
sity of exercise (vigorous and moderate), larger sample, the greater number of faculties
and different level of exercise (low effort PA, moderate PA, vigorous PA).
This study indicates that the duration of physical activity has only a limited in-
uence on the academic performance of undergraduate students. Two to three hour
weekly recreational physical activity proved benecial, while comprehensive vigo-
rous exercise and sports club participation did not. According to the literature, we
expected stronger correlations between the reported extent of weekly physical activi-
ty and tness test performance. Similarly, we did not expect such negative / bad re-
sults about the extent of physical activity among students, as they in general reported
physical activity below international recommendations. In Slovenia, the number of
physically active students would most certainly increase if each faculty had adequate
sports facilities and equipment which students could use in their leisure time free of
Both society in general and individuals can take action to increase physical activity.
In 2013, WHO Member States agreed to a target of reducing insufcient physical acti-
vity by 10 % by 2025 and included strategies to achieve this goal in the „Global Action
Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases 2013-2020“. Slo-
venia should also adhere to this action plan.
The study had no accessional nancial support.
Written informed consent was obtained from all tested students
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... 3.2.1 Effects on students' physical health. 38.5% (n = 352) reported a deterioration in their physical health including 4.9% (n = 45) declaring a strong deterioration. 18.0% (n = 165) stated an improvement in their physical health. ...
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... Si bien la actividad física mínima recomendada por la OMS para este rango etario es de 150 minutos de actividad física moderada a la semana (Bull et al., 2020), existen resultados dispares respecto a su asociación con el rendimiento académico. Un estudio de diseño transversal encontró que realizar de dos hasta tres horas de actividad física semanal se correlacionó significativamente con un mayor desempeño académico en estudiantes en su segundo año de universidad (Lipošek et al., 2019). Por otra parte, una revisión sistemática determinó que no existió una relación significativa entre actividad física y rendimiento académico al analizar solo cuatro estudios en población universitaria (Wunsch et al., 2021). ...
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... Two studies among university students also did not find a correlation between PA and academic achievement (Aweau et al., 2013;Bulqini et al., 2021). However, one cross-sectional study in Slovenia found that undergraduate students' academic achievement only correlated with the recommended amount of PA participation but no more correlated with PA participation for more than 4 h (Lipošek et al., 2019). The null findings from the two studies are similar to our research, which the categorization of PA participation could cause without considering a higher amount than WHO recommendation of PA participation. ...
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Several studies have highlighted the link between sleep, learning, and memory. Strong evidence shows that sleep deprivation can affect a student’s ability to learn and academic performance. While delayed sleep-wake phase disorder was prevalent among young adults, available evidence showed an inconclusive association between sleep times and academic performance in university students. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study among university students in Indonesia to collect their sleep duration, bedtime, wake-up time, and academic performance. An analysis of 588 university students in Indonesia found that only 38.6% of students sufficiently slept, and their median bedtime and wake-up time was 11:30 pm and 5:30 am, respectively. Gender and wake-up time accounted for a 5.8% variation in academic performance (adjusted R2 = 4.5%) after controlling for sleep duration, bedtime, body mass index, the field of study, batch year, and physical activity. Male had 0.116 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) −0.167 to −0.064] lower grade point average (p < 0.001) than female and students who wake up later had 0.077 (95% Confidence Interval 0.025 to 0.129) greater grade point average (p = 0.004) than students who wake-up earlier. The prevalence of sleep deprivation related to the delayed sleep-wake phase among university students in Indonesia was high. Since wake-up time was related to the increased grade point average, the university should consider developing sleep-friendly policies and interventions to improve their academic performance.
... Bahkan para ahli bidang kesehatan dan kedokteran memperhatikan penurunan yang signifikan dalam tingkat aktivitas fisik harian penduduk (Fagaras et al., 2015), selama karantina, mahasiswa menunjukkan tingkat aktivitas fisik yang tinggi, kebanyakan perempuan dari daerah pedesaan tingkat aktivitas rendah dari pada daerah perkotaan (Moreno-Quispe et al., 2021). Data penelitian penilaian tingkat aktifitas fisik siswa menunjukkan kurang pada anak muda moderen (Lipošek et al., 2019). Berdasarkan fakta di atas, konsekuensi negatif dari penurunan aktivitas fisik juga tercermin pada populasi siswa, dimana pengurangan aktivitas fisik juga dapat menyebabkan penurunan kebugaran jasmani. ...
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Physical fitness is one of the most important aspects to improve sports performance. However, currently extracurricular at school is that there is no clear planning, goals and objectives for conducting physical fitness tests. This study aims to compare the level of extracurricular physical fitness of basketball and futsal. This research method uses a quantitative approach through a survey where the researcher gives tests and measurements to basketball and futsal extracurricular students. The sampling technique used purposive sampling so that a sample of 40 students consisted of 20 extracurricular basketball students and 20 futsal students at Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri 1 Pontianak. The research instrument is the Indonesian Physical Fitness Test (TKJI) aged 13-15 years. The research was conducted on 19-25 February 2021. Data analysis used descriptive percentage, assisted by using Microsoft Excel software application. The results of the physical fitness test showed an average difference of 2.5, so there was a significant difference between basketball extracurricular students and futsal extracurricular students. This needs to be considered and taken into account by coaches and sports teachers in providing training programs to students. Based on the results of this study, it can be interpreted that basketball extracurricular has a good contribution compared to futsal extracurricular for students' physical fitness.
In March 2020, an official international declaration of a global pandemic resulted in worldwide uncertainty as our everyday experiences, including those within academia, were being hijacked by a contagion. Herein, I merge a philosophy of phenomenology with the methodology of autoethnography to elicit my personal story by recounting my academic experiences throughout the pandemic. This chapter describes how the first lockdown compelled a swift resignation from my revered, yet altered, academic position followed by an enrolment in PhD studies while simultaneously registering for Karate. Unexpectedly, training in Karate has proven to be a key ally in sculpting my academic identity, presenting as academic salvation during a time of professional crisis and global despondency.KeywordsAutoethnographyAcademic identityPhenomenologyKarateCOVID-19
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The current study aimed to evaluate the Italian university students’ lifestyle during the COVID-19 pandemic, considering the degree courses, chronotype, and sex. Five-hundred thirty-three participants (21.46 ± 0.18 yrs, 335 females) filled out: Godin-Shephard Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (GSL-TPAQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED), Reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ) to assess physical activity, sleep, nutrition and chronotype. Use of electronic devices, smoking, and drinking habits were also evaluated. Sports science students were more active (60.92 ± 2.96), slept better (4.40 ± 0.15), showed greater Mediterranean diet adherence (5.98 ± 0.31), and smoked less (smokers: 14.5%) than nursing students (GSL-TPAQ: 38.62 ± 2.92, PSQI: 5.29 ± 0.18, KIDMED: 4.23 ± 0.33, smokers: 27.9%). They displayed a higher percentage of beer drinkers (40% vs. 28.7%) and lower use of electronic devices (5.92 ± 0.17 vs. 9.07 ± 1.17). Evening-type students showed worse sleep (5.96 ± 0.30) and lower Mediterranean diet adherence (4.32 ± 0.52) than Neither- (PSQI: 4.58 ± 0.13, KIDMED: 5.13 ± 0.28) and Morning-types (PSQI: 4.33 ± 0.33, KIDMED: 6.71 ± 0.64). Evening-types also showed a higher percentage of smokers (29.9%) and drinkers (beer: 53.3%, wine: 45.8%, alcohol: 40.2%) than Neither- (smokers: 20.3%, beer: 31.4%, wine: 31.4%, alcohol: 23.5%) and Morning-types (smokers: 8.9%, beer: 19.6%, wine: 19.6%, alcohol: 8.9%). Evening-type males used electronic devices longer (9.10 ± 3.05) than females (6.71 ± 0.41). Females showed fewer drinkers (beer: 26.6%, wine: 29.6%) than males (beer: 49.0%, wine: 38.9%). Maintaining a correct lifestyle even in this unusual condition is essential, in particular among the Evening-type students.
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Physical activity levels remain significantly low in the adult population and especially on university campuses. One potential strategy to counter low physical activity levels and poor mental health on university campuses is Physical Activity Counselling (PAC), which aims to enhance one’s motivation for physical activity. The purpose of this mixed method study was to describe the implementation, acceptability, and impact of an on-campus PAC program, on both the clients and counsellors. Inactive university students and faculty/staff were recruited to receive individualized PAC. Quantitative data was collected from clients using online validated questionnaires. Qualitative data was collected from counsellors using semi-structured interviews. Effect sizes (d) were conducted for quantitative data whereas all qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Increases in physical activity and mental health, as well as emotional, social, and psychological well-being were found in clients from baseline to end-point. Changes in physical activity were positively associated with changes in mental health and social well-being. Counsellors indicated that participating in the PAC program provided them with the opportunity to practice key behaviour change techniques which led to an increased confidence in delivering PAC. This study provides important information related to the implementation of a PAC on-campus program, and results support the positive impact on both clients and counsellors. Other institutions are encouraged to offer a PAC course and replicate this program to increase physical activity levels and improve mental health among university students and faculty/staff.
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Introduction and purpose of the study. The problem of physical fitness in general and physical fitness of students in particular is one of the key issues for physical education. It was studied by many specialists. At the same time, many questions remain. So, in particular, the issue of determining the dynamics of physical fitness of students during their studies at a higher education institution is relevant. The purpose of the research is to reveal existing trends regarding the dynamics of indicators of physical fitness of students during the period of their studies from the first to the fourth year. Methodology. 30 students of the Dnipro National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan participated in the study. The age of the research participants was 17-20 years. Diagnostics of the indicators of physical fitness of students was carried out using the tests proposed in the State tests and standards for assessing the physical fitness of the population of Ukraine. The Student's t-test for dependent samples was used for statistical processing of the obtained data. Scientific novelty. Trends regarding the dynamics of students' physical fitness have been established. Conclusions. During the first year of study, students experience a significant increase in all indicators of physical fitness. In the second year, the students continue to see significant positive changes in the level of physical fitness according to all indicators. At the end of the second year, students reach the maximum level in the development of physical qualities. During the third year of study, stabilization of the results in the test "leaning forward from a sitting position" is characteristic for students. According to other indicators, there is a significant decrease in the level of results. In the fourth year, the students have a stabilization of the results in such tests as "leaning forward from a sitting position" and "shuttle run 4x9 meters". According to other indicators, there is a significant decrease in the level of results. The level of physical fitness of students after the end of the fourth year is significantly higher than before the beginning of the first year according to all indicators.
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Purpose: To evaluate the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and physical fitness among preschool children. Methods: A total of 346 participants (201 boys and 145 girls) aged 3.5-5.5 years (M = 4.5 yr, SD = 0.47) from Shanghai, China, completed physical fitness assessments, including triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT), grip strength, tennis throwing, sit and reach test, standing long jump, balance beam, 10mSRT, and 20mSRT. Physical activity was objectively measured by ActiGraphGT3X+ accelerometer. Multiple linear regression models were used to explore the cross-sectional associations between PA and physical fitness after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and valid wearing time. Results: Positive associations were observed between stand long jump (p < .01), tennis throwing (p < .01), laps in 20mSRT (p < .01), and MVPA. However, TSFT (p < .05), time in 10mSRT (p < .01), and balance beam (p < .05) were negatively associated with MVPA. Furthermore, positive associations were found between stand long jump (p < .01), tennis throwing (p < .01), and MVPA only in boys. Negative associations were found between time on balance beam (p < .01) and MVPA only in girls. Conclusions: MVPA appears to be an effective and reliable predictor of preschoolers' physical fitness. Boys' body composition, muscular strength, explosive strength, agility, aerobic fitness, girls' agility, aerobic fitness, and balance could improve as MVPA increases.
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Aim: The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. Methods: The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Self-esteem Scale. Results: Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identied with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Conclusions: Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems.
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This article draws from the Second Worldwide Survey of the situation of physical education (PE) in schools. The Survey was undertaken as a contribution to the UN dedicated 2005 Year of Sport and PE and in response to inter-governmental agencies' calls for regular monitoring of developments in school PE in the form of a 'reality check'. The overall purpose of the Survey was to assess the worldwide situation of school PE as well as developments since the Physical Education World Summit held in November 1999 in Berlin for which a multi-method/pluralistic approach was adopted with analysis of a range of sources comprising globally and regionally as well as on-line disseminated questionnaires, national surveys, continental regional and national PE-related projects, case studies and a comprehensive literature review. The pluralistic methods facilitated data collection on national level policies and practice-related issues in school PE, the PE curricu-lum, resources (human and material), the PE environment (school subject and PE teacher status; and path-way links to PE activity in out-of-school settings) and 'Best Practice' exemplars. The data generated provide an indication of patterns and trends in school PE in countries and regions across the world. The 'reality check' indicates that positive developments and policy rhetoric are juxtaposed with adverse practice shortcomings. Thus, the overall scenario is one of 'mixed messages' with evidence that national and/or regional governments have committed themselves through legislation to making provision for PE but some have been either slow or reticent in translating this into action through actual implementation and as-surance of quality of delivery. Essentially, the situation especially in economically under-developed and de-veloping regions has changed little since the 1999 Berlin Physical Education Summit. Continuing concerns embrace: insufficient curriculum time allocation, perceived inferior subject status, insufficient competent qualified and/or inadequately trained teachers (particularly in primary schools), inadequate provision of fa-cilities and equipment and teaching materials frequently associated with under-funding, large class sizes and funding cuts and, in some countries, inadequate provision or awareness of pathway links to wider commu-nity programmes and facilities outside of schools. More generally, there is disquiet over the falling fitness standards of young people, rising levels of obesity amongst children of school age and high youth dropout rates from physical/sporting activity engagement. Whilst some improvements in inclusion (related to gender and disability) policy and practice can be identified since the Berlin Physical Education Summit, barriers to equal provision and access opportunities for all still remain. However, current intergovernmental initiatives (European Parliament's 2007 Resolution on the Role of Sport in Education and UNESCO advocacy action) place PE on the political agenda. With such inter-governmental commitments to policy principles and ac-tion advocacy, a secure and sustainable future for PE appears to be realizable.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of using a 20 m progressive shuttle run test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Running ability was described as the final level attained on the shuttle run test and as time on a 5 km run. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was determined directly for seventy-four volunteers (36 men, 38 women) who also completed the shuttle run test. Maximal oxygen uptake values were 58.5 +/- 7.0 and 47.4 +/- 6.1 for the men and women respectively (mean +/- SD, P less than 0.01). The levels attained on the shuttle run test were 12.6 +/- 1.5 (men) and 9.6 +/- 1.8 (women; P less than 0.01). The correlation between VO2 max and shuttle level was 0.92. The correlation between VO2 max and the 5 km run was -0.94 and the correlation between both field tests was -0.96. The results of this study suggest that a progressive shuttle run test provides a valid estimate of VO2 max and indicates 5 km running potential in active men and women.
The second edition of "Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity" has been expanded with almost 300 new pages of material, making it the most comprehensive text on the biological growth, maturation, physical performance, and physical activity of children and adolescents. The new edition retains all the best features of the original text, including the helpful outlines at the beginning of each chapter that allow students to review major concepts. This edition features updates on basic content, expanded and modified chapters, and the latest research findings to meet the needs of upper undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers and professionals working with children and young adults. The second edition also includes these new features: -10 lab activities that encourage students to investigate subject matter outside of class and save teachers time-A complete reference list at the end of each chapter -Chapter-ending summaries to make the review process easy for students-New chapters that contain updates on thermoregulation, methods for the assessment of physical activity, undernutrition, obesity, children with clinical conditions, and trends in growth and performance-Discussions that span current problems in public health, such as the quantification of physical activity and energy expenditure, persistent undernutrition in developing countries, and the obesity epidemic in developed countriesThe authors are three of the world's foremost authorities on children's growth and development. In 29 chapters, they address introductory concepts and prenatal growth, postnatal growth, functional development, biological maturation, influencing factors in growth, maturation and development, and specific applications to public health and sport. In addition, secular trends in growth, maturation, and performance over the past 150 years are considered. You'll be able to recognize risk factors that may affect young athletes; you'll also be able to make informed decisions about appropriate physical activities, program delivery, and performance expectations. "Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity, Second Edition, " covers many additional topics, including new techniques for the assessment of body composition, the latest advances in the study of skeletal muscle, the human genome, the hormonal regulation of growth and maturation, clarification of dietary reference intakes, and the study of risk factors for several adult diseases. This is the only text to focus on the biological growth and maturation process of children and adolescents as it relates to physical activity and performance. With over 300 new pages of material, this text expertly builds on the successful first edition.
Between 1991 and 2006, average weekly physical activity among adults in China fell by 32%. This paper discusses why total and occupational physical activity levels have fallen, and models the association between the rapid decline and various dimensions of exogenous community urbanization. We hypothesize that a) physical activity levels are negatively associated with urbanization; b) urbanization domains that affect job functions and opportunities will contribute most to changes in physical activity levels; and c) these urbanization domains will be more strongly associated for men than for women because home activities account for a larger proportion of physical activity for women. To test these hypotheses, we used longitudinal data from individuals aged 18-55 in the 1991-2006 China Health and Nutrition Surveys. We find that physical activity declines were strongly associated with greater availability of higher educational institutions, housing infrastructure, sanitation improvements and the economic wellbeing of the community in which people function. These urbanization factors predict more than four-fifths of the decline in occupational physical activity over the 1991-2006 period for men and nearly two-thirds of the decline for women. They are also associated with 57% of the decline in total physical activity for men and 40% of the decline for women. Intervention strategies to promote physical activity in the workplace, at home, for transit and via exercise should be considered a major health priority in China.
This study investigated the relationship between adolescents' academic performance and participation in physical activity. 232 boys and girls from Years 8-11 (ages 13-16 years) were randomly selected, and their academic performance was assessed on previous examination scores in English, Mathematics, and Science. Participants were also asked to list all the sports based physical activities in which they normally participated during a typical week and to indicate how many times per week they took part in each activity and the duration of each. Overall, no significant correlations were found, although weak negative correlations were recorded between the amount of time (in minutes) in sport and exercise and English scores for children ages 13, 14, and 16 years. A similar association was also noted for Science scores of children 16 years old.
The purpose of this study was to obtain a fuller understanding of the association of dietary behaviours, physical status and socio-economic status with academic performance in Korean teenagers. The subjects in this study were 6,463 boys and girls, in grade 5, 8, and 11 in Korea. A self-administered questionnaire and the food-frequency form were used. Grade point average (GPA), height, weight, and physical fitness score for the year were recorded from the school record. The academic performance of students was strongly associated with dietary behaviours, especially with regularity of three meals even after control for parent's education level. Regular breakfast and lunch were more important in grades 5 and 8, while regular dinner was more related with academic performance in grade 11. Small, positive associations of height and physical fitness to academic performance were also found. The relative importance of regularity of meals was greater than that of socio-economic status and physical status in older teenagers. The results of this study suggest that accommodation of better dietary environment and nutrition education for three regular meals is recommended.
To study the secular trend (time changes) in participation in leisure-time sports activities and in attitudes towards sports activities and physical education in a representative sample of Swedish adolescents between 1974 and 1995. A questionnaire was distributed to 16-y-old girls and boys (n = 395 in 1974, n = 542 in 1995) to assess participation in leisure-time sports activity, attitudes towards sports activities and attitudes towards physical education at school. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Compared with 1974, more subjects in 1995 answered that they were engaged in leisure-time sports activities, and that they were members of sports clubs. BMI increased from 1974 to 1995. By 1995, adolescents participated in and had become more interested in individual sports activities, including keep-fit activities (e.g. strength training and aerobics) compared with 1974. A gender difference in the feeling of anxiety towards physical education, with more girls experiencing it, appeared in 1995, but not in 1974. Although more adolescents participated in leisure-time sports activity in 1995 than in 1974, the lifestyle of adolescents between sports training sessions may have become more sedentary. This is negative in a health perspective, since the benefits of physical activity on health are largely correlated to the total energy expenditure. However, the increased interest in keep-fit activities is important, since these activities have the potential to be continued into adulthood.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical education class enrollment and physical activity on academic achievement in middle school children. Participants were 214 sixth-grade students randomly assigned to physical education during either first or second semesters. Moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (number of 30-min time blocks) outside of school was assessed using the 3-d physical activity recall (3DPAR). The 3DPAR time blocks were converted to ordinal data with scores of 1 (no activity), 2 (some activity), or 3 (activity meeting Healthy People 2010 guidelines). Academic achievement was assessed using grades from four core academic classes and standardized test scores (Terra Nova percentiles). Grades were similar regardless of whether students were enrolled in physical education during first or second semesters. Physical education classes averaged only 19 min of MVPA. Students who either performed some or met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for vigorous activity had significantly higher grades (P < 0.05) than students who performed no vigorous activity in both semesters. Moderate physical activity did not affect grades. Standardized test scores were not significantly related to physical education class enrollment or physical activity levels. Although academic achievement was not significantly related to physical education enrollment, higher grades were associated with vigorous physical activity, particularly activity meeting recommended Healthy People 2010 levels.