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Innovation Networks: A Tool for Food-Culture Preservation and Sustainability in the Era of Globalization


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The growing exposure to globalization, since 1990s, has initiated some significant alterations to the Lebanese economy, society, and culture. For the last two decades, it has been observed that international cuisines and eccentric menu items have been invading the local market and taking over ethnic and traditional cuisines, what threatens, if this trend continues, the identity of traditional cuisine and, consequently, the sustainability of local food culture. Departing from the case of Lebanon, this paper studies the impact of globalization on traditional cuisine and highlights the role of networks in sustaining local food culture. The findings of our empirical study revealed the necessity to modernize the traditional cuisine through a coordinated set of heterogeneous and professional actors who collectively take part in the process. The ability of these actors to innovate is found related to the organizational conditions of the networks to which they belong, and to the ability of these networks for innovation, what refers us to the concept of “innovation network” that we are proposing, through this study, as a solution to the dilemma of food - culture preservation and sustainability.
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Journal of Sustainable Development; Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
ISSN 1913-9063 E-ISSN 1913-9071
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Innovation Networks: A Tool for Food-Culture Preservation and
Sustainability in the Era of Globalization
Ibrahim Baghdadi1
1 Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
Correspondence: Ibrahim Baghdadi, Researcher in Economics of Development and Sustainability, Lebanese
University, Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Beirut, P.O. Box 6573/14 Badaro, Lebanon. E-mail:
Received: October 15, 2018 Accepted: December 28, 2018 Online Published: January 31, 2019
doi:10.5539/jsd.v12n1p10 URL:
The growing exposure to globalization, since 1990s, has initiated some significant alterations to the Lebanese
economy, society, and culture. For the last two decades, it has been observed that international cuisines and
eccentric menu items have been invading the local market and taking over ethnic and traditional cuisines, what
threatens, if this trend continues, the identity of traditional cuisine and, consequently, the sustainability of local
food culture.
Departing from the case of Lebanon, this paper studies the impact of globalization on traditional cuisine and
highlights the role of networks in sustaining local food culture. The findings of our empirical study revealed the
necessity to modernize the traditional cuisine through a coordinated set of heterogeneous and professional actors
who collectively take part in the process. The ability of these actors to innovate is found related to the
organizational conditions of the networks to which they belong, and to the ability of these networks for
innovation, what refers us to the concept of “innovation network” that we are proposing, through this study, as a
solution to the dilemma of food - culture preservation and sustainability.
Keywords: globalization, social capital, innovation networks, food culture, sustainability.
1. Introduction
The Lebanese cuisine is known for its legendary savor and its lavish food varieties, what makes it one of the
greatest cuisines of the Middle East, and particularly the Levant. These characteristics result from cultural
amalgamation and accumulation of the different civilizations that occupied Lebanon over the years, adding to
that, the traditions of local communities who developed their own recipes based on territorial specialties.
Going back into history, the Lebanese cuisine has evolved rapidly and presented a substantial inclination towards
modernization since the end of the civil war in 1990 and the apparition of internet which facilitated the openness
of the country to globalization. One of the aspects of globalization is the fast spread of international restaurants,
especially those from developed countries. According to the MOT (2018), 407 international restaurant concepts
that opened between the years 2000 and 2017, compared to 192 traditional Lebanese restaurants that opened
during the same period.
Several indicators may explain this phenomena, starting with the readiness of local market for globalization and
its openness to perfect competition that gradually outcompeted local restaurants and finally, the competitive
advantage of international cuisines (based on advanced technology, economies of scale and economies of scope,
research, creative strategic planning, high financial leverage, etc.).These indicators and others may twist the
national economy (Belasco, 2002) and threaten the national culture (Bérard & Marchenay, 2004). On a
microeconomic scale, the creativity and innovation of international restaurants have persuaded local ones
(especially those specialized in traditional food) to modernize their cuisine, what caused a gradual displacement
of the identity of traditional Lebanese cuisine and led us to wonder whether globalization represents a real threat
or an opportunity to national economy and culture.
Based on a literature review about social capital, networks and the impacts of globalization on local food culture
and sustainable development, in addition to an empirical study about the choice and preferences of local
communities in terms of restaurant type and concept, this paper aims to: 1) study the factors that affect the Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
choice of the local market and are at the origin of the changing trends, 2) determine the impacts of globalization
on local food culture and sociocultural sustainability, 3) define how globalization may contribute to enhance
local food culture or, at least, reconstruct local food values and traditions and, 4) propose the “innovation
network” as a system of collective action that favors the compromise between sociocultural sustainability and
Going back to the roots of the problem, one should question about the factors that stand behind the changing
trends of local community and whether they are endogenous or exogenous. From this standpoint a survey was
conducted on 100 restaurants (theme and ethnic) selected from different regions in Lebanon between May and
August 2018, the survey was conducted during different meal periods (breakfast, lunch and dinner) on a
randomly selected sample of 2600 diners using a questionnaire, the response rate was 89.23% (2320 respondents)
but 1990 responses were left after sorting and cleaning data. The findings of the study revealed that price,
portion size, menu choice and service (most of which are usually provided by international cuisines) are the main
determining factors of restaurant concept in Lebanon while food quality and taste, food creativity, food variety
and annual income are the determining factors of restaurant type.
Generally speaking, the results of the study have brought into sight the factors that explain the general
inclination towards modernizing the traditional cuisine. Bearing in mind the negative impacts of this
modernization on the identity of traditional cuisine and local food culture, this paper proposes the concept of
“innovation networks” as a solution.
2. Traditional Cuisine and Food Culture
“Foods are conceptualized as authentic products that symbolize the place and culture of the destination” (Sims,
2009, p. 321).
The association between, on the first hand, traditional cuisine and , on the other hand, culture and identity have
long been studied by researchers in social science such as (Richards, 1939) and (Douglas, 1971). According to
Lévi Strauss (1968), cooking is important as it transforms natural objects into cultural ones. As for Fischler
(1980), food is one of the components of culture, it represents a nation’s identity that has been formed through
successive generations, it symbolizes the exclusive history, traditions, values and ethnicity. Hippocrates (460-370
BC) once said: “ we are what we eat”, this is true as our food preferences and choices are influenced by our
culture forces (Fallon, Rozin, & Pliner, 1984). Hence, the food we eat mirrors our morals, our life style, our
civilization, our traditional values, our creativity and development. From this standpoint, it is obvious that the
food we eat doesn’t satisfy our physiological needs alone (Cohen & Farley, 2008), it is an important form of
social communication (Marrone, 2001); (Parasecoli, 2011), it defines psychological conceptions (Meule &
Voegele, 2013); (Rozin, 1996) and reflects national culture (Montanari, 2006).
In Lebanon, taste and generosity are the general traits of local community and a specific aspect of local traditions.
The influence of these traits on local food specialties has resulted in a rich assortment of savors and a wide
variety of scrumptious dishes. For instance, Lebanese “Mezze” is a variety of 35 cold and hot appetizers, with
various tastes, savor and presentation that reflect the specialty of different local communities, their tradition,
creativity and refined taste. Going back to the root of this food diversity, we could relate it to three main factors:
1) the geography of Lebanon that, through its various climate zones (Mediterranean, valleys, mountains, swamps,
etc.) and landscapes, has opened the way for food specialty by region or by territory, 2) the diversity of Lebanese
ethnic groups (Arabs, Turks, Armenians, Africans, etc.) who enriched the local food culture with their traditional
cuisine and cooking practices 3) the chronologies of national history. Generally speaking, the Lebanese cuisine
features lightness, zest, richness and aroma combined in a large variety of mouthwatering dishes that associate
the tradition and expertise of predecessors with the food specialty of different geographic areas. At the end, we
can consider that national cuisine is the key for exploring our food culture, our local traditions, our ethnicity and
history. Moreover, the way traditional food is prepared and served illustrates the behavior and the culture of
different nations, it is a “system of communication, a body of images, a protocol of usages, situations and
behavior” (Barthes, 1997).
The role that traditional cuisine plays in shaping national culture has been the subject of several studies in
Semiotics: the study of communication and behavior related to culture (R. J. Andrew, Ian Vine), Gastrophy: the
art or refined gluttony and eating habits (Fourier), Phagology: the study of habits related to eating or feeding,
Social and Culture Anthropology: the study of norms and values of societies (Richard Harvey’s, John Kersey’s)
and others. Talking about Gastrophy, it is the combination of five elements : agriculture, preservation, cooking,
gastronomy and hygiene (Walker, 2002). The practice of Gastrophy depends on the eating habits and traditions
developed historically by nations or persons, it reflects regional characteristics of food, eating traditions, cultural Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
heritage and identity (Stano, 2016). However, the development of eating habits and tradition is not an individual
effort, it is the result of the collective efforts of a group of actors who share formal and informal relationships
inside and outside their territory. These relations correspond to networks that have positive influences on the
socioeconomic development of the territory.
Having a look on Lebanese food eating habits, the Lebanese community follows a Mediterranean diet that is
based on a balanced combination of proteins (dairy products and flesh), carbs (vegetables and beans) and Fats
(olive oil). This diet has influenced the food choice and the methods of cooking for the Lebanese community and
has become part of its culture. On the other hand, the Lebanese culture, that was influenced by the traditional
cuisine, has had its impact on the behavior of the Lebanese community (rational cooking and balanced eating
behaviors) as well as on the means of communication that have become part of national traditions. In general,
food has an immense cultural and social meaning in Lebanon, it is the anchor of the family. For instance, the
traditional Barbecue that gathers family members on holidays, the Ramadan breakfast that gathers family
members every night, the sweets that assemble family members on happy and sad occasions etc. are just few
examples about family-communication means that are centered around food. As for the aspect of Phagology in
Lebanese cuisine, the Lebanese community is composed of eighteen confessions who differ with their religious
beliefs and perceptions about food (food myths and stereotypes, religious beliefs) but share common social
networks and norms of reciprocity and trust. This diversity of the Lebanese community has participated in
developing a significant social capital that enriched the Lebanese cuisine with lavish menu varieties and tastes.
Finally, beside the general consensus about the important role of traditional cuisine in shaping national culture,
preserving local food culture and protecting national eating etiquette are of the same importance.
Referring to the findings of the survey conducted for the purpose of this paper, 40% of respondents claimed that
they eat out daily, the majority of them, although favors international cuisines, the basic staple dishes for them
remain traditional. Despite the fact that the Lebanese community is attached to its culture and traditions,
particularly to its cuisine, Lebanese people love to explore new cultures and keen on creativity and innovation.
This could explain why, based on the results of our study, the choice of families has been shifting towards
international cuisines and modernized Lebanese cuisine over the last two decades (based on cross-tabulation
analyses for the favorite restaurant type and concept, 43.75% of respondents who favor fast-food prefer
international cuisines and 31.25% of these respondents favor the modernized Lebanese cuisine). In all cases, this
rise is not expected to continue as, on the first hand, it is related to the middle and high-income category of
Lebanese who, particularly, earn a higher disposable income than the previous generation but still represent a
minority. On the other hand, what is considered new now, will become old in the future. Finally, we should not
forget the rising of health consciousness in the Lebanese community, what promotes back again the traditional
cuisine on behalf of the international and may foster, at a later stage, the home-made meals.
3. The Impact of Globalization on Local Economies and Societies
Globalization is considered as a powerfully real aspect of the new world system and it has many dimensions:
economic, political, social, cultural, environmental, security and others (Gangopadhyay, 2017). Dreher (2006)
defined globalization as a process that erodes national boundaries, integrates national economies, cultures,
technologies and governance, and produces complex relations of mutual interdependence. For this author,
globalization is the process of creating networks of connections among actors at intra- or multi-continental
distances, mediated through a variety of flows including people, information and ideas, capital, and goods.
Globalization could be measured through several indices, the mostly known one is KOF. This globalization
index is composed of three sub-indices: economic (weighting: 60 percent), social (weighting: 20 percent) and
political (weighting: 20 percent). Economy sub-index is an indicator for cross border transaction ties in goods,
services and wages, as well as capital controls. The social sub-index includes indicators for cultural proximity
and personal contacts with other nations. Finally, Political sub-index is an indicator of the number of
international agreements or memberships in international organizations. For instance, Lebanon has been
considered as one of the emerging countries with a KOF globalization index of 66.52 (58th class) in 2017 (Gygli,
Haelg, & Sturm, 2018). This index was calculated based on an economic globalization sub-index of 73.3 (50th
class), a social globalization sub-index of 65.12 (55th class) and a political globalization sub-index of 59.67
(124th class).
Although the conception, among the general public about globalization is negative, there is a general consensus
among economists that the benefits associated with globalization overweight the costs, especially in the long-run, Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
in terms of GDP per capita1. Some of the benefits of globalization include: economic growth, Foreign Direct
Investments (FDI), market efficiency, development of new technology due to increasing competition, economies
of scale, peace, etc. As for the disadvantages of globalization, they include, but are not limited to: threats to local
culture, structural unemployment, monopoly power of multinationals, unparalleled growth, increased inequalities,
3.1 Benefits of Globalization
A. Foreign Direct Investment
FDI has been considered ''the peak'' of globalization process (Donciu, 2013), the globalization index released
yearly, especially by A. T Kearney, has become a very important measure of globalization for most countries.
The calculation of this index incorporates economic variables, one of which is FDI and Trade. According to the
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Lebanon was the top performer in attracting
FDI in western Asia with FDI inflows accounting for 4.94 percent of GDP in 2016. In contrast, global FDI fell to
USD 1.52 trillion in 2017, comparing to USD 1.81 trillion in 2016 (UNCTAD, 2018). This fall was probably due
to the global decrease in the value of cross-border M&As (IDAL, 2018). In fact, the trade deteriorations in
Middle-East oil exporting economies due to the dramatic fall of crude-oil prices, accompanied with the military
conflicts of GCC in Yemen, as well as the political conflicts with Qatar, not to forget the economic uncertainty in
oil-importing countries, all have participated in dropping FDI outflows of GCC countries in Lebanon. On the
other hand, the FDI inflows, registered in 2017, have revealed a clear interest by international organizations to
establish branches in Lebanon, especially in non-tourism-related industries, such as the media sector. According
to IDAL (2018), “one of the main trends characterizing these investments is a shift away from capital-intensive
projects towards knowledge-intensive ones”.
Being a capital-intensive sector, tourism has witnessed a drop in FDI in 2017. This can be noticed through the
number of issued guarantees, for tourism projects, which dropped from 125 guarantees in 2016 to 117 guarantees
in 2017 (BLOMINVEST, 2017). Consequently, the central bank has injected an additional $500 million to the
stimulus package for 2017 in order to boom the tourism sector and to attract further investments. The
intervention of the central bank has had its effects on tourist arrivals who hit their highest level since 2011 with
1.85 million tourists and 8.23 million airport passengers, but, at the same time, FDI hasn’t been improved due to
the recurrent political shocks at the country and in the region.
B. Economic Market Efficiency
Efficient markets are those, when at equilibrium, have consumer’s surplus equal to producer’s surplus. In other
terms, when markets are efficient, marginal benefits equal marginal costs, and economic efficiency occurs when
marginal social benefit equals marginal social cost (Brueckner, 1982). Due to globalization, local actors will have
the opportunity to outsource certain processes that improve their production or to import directly their raw
materials and equipment at a discounted price. Consequently, production costs will decrease, profits will increase
at a lower price and sales will increase until the consumer surplus equals the producer surplus. However, in a
perfect competitive market, such as in Lebanon, international restaurants, equipped with new production
technologies and years of experience, will be able to realize an economy of scale and will tolerate a decrease of
their surplus for the benefits of consumers, at least in the short run, what will hurt local restaurants and affect their
continuity into business. Furthermore, in the long run, with the decreasing number of local restaurants that serve
traditional cuisine, local food culture will be badly affected.
C. Development of a new technology
As previously mentioned, the modern technology adopted by international restaurants, of the developed countries,
helps improving the efficiency of processes and ameliorating the quality and the quantity of the output. These
advantages have created an incentive for traditional restaurants, of the developing countries, to seek technological
progress, to innovate and to diffuse new methods in an attempt to maximize profits through process amelioration
and product innovation. Due to the continuous process of research and development for a modern technology,
positive externalities (beneficial spillovers to a third party) will be generated and social benefits will improve.
Generally speaking, globalization enables competitive industries, such as the hospitality industry, to expand in size
but if the industry is fairly competitive, a Kaldor-Hicks gain is likely to eventuate (Tisdell, 2008). On the other flip,
Schumpeter (1942) has a different point of view about the relationship between globalization and long-term
1 Regression analyses are used to determine the correlation between sub-indices and per capita growth. In general, economic interdependence
has a significantly positive impact on economic growth, and global networking in the areas of society and politics also leads to higher per capita
growth. Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
technical progress. According to Schumpeter’s theory, that considers an inversely related function between; on the
first hand; the rate of technological progress and innovation in an industry and; on the other hand; the degree of
economic concentration, technological progress will be delayed in presence of globalization. In short terms,
Schumpeter’s theory considers no evident relationship between globalization and long-term technical progress.
D. Economies of scale
Due to globalization, large international organizations would be able to produce in different regions of the world
and to enhance their specialization which, in turn, would permit an economy of scale. Although economies of scale
are in favor of economic growth (Samimi & Jenatabadi, 2014), this is not at no cost as international organizations
will compete local ones domestically. On the other hand, globalization will help local actors to import cheaper raw
materials and will allow access to advanced and efficient technologies, what will, in turn, enable a lower average
cost of production and an economy of scale.
E. Standard of Living
Living standard is a result of globalization. By having taboo products affordable, the living standard of people
increases. On the other hand, the increasing GDP per capita, due to globalization, will encourage households to
increase their purchase of durable goods, to spend more money on restaurants and entertainment, and to ameliorate
their life style.
F. Foreign exchange reserves:
Due to globalization, international financial flows increase and foreign exchange reserves increase as well.
3.2 Threats of Globalization
As previously mentioned, globalization is able to change the global economy, society and policy, it offers an
opportunity to local actors to access global markets and to increase their efficiency. Despite its opportunities,
globalization represents some threats as accessing new markets does not necessarily guarantee that the benefits
of increased efficiency are shared by all equally (IMF, 2000). Among the various aspects of globalization
(economic, financial, technological, sociopolitical processes, etc.), this paper focuses on three main threats:
economic, social and cultural.
A. Economic Globalization:
According to Mikhailovna (2016, p. 21), economic globalization is “a combination of two processes:
globalization of markets (capital, labor resources, goods and services), and globalization of organizational
structures of economy, i.e., the establishment of global super-corporations”. For this author, globalization leads
to a new form of colonization as it brings the developing countries to the financial and economic slavery, and
contributes to weakening national states and their sovereignty, in addition to threatening national security. This
point of view was ascertained by Arrow (2018) who considers that globalization has some implications for the
preservation of international security. On the other hand, trans-border trade and free trade are other threats of
economic globalization, mainly for developing countries, due to their vulnerability in an incomplete market
structure (Hart, 1975). Recently, the effects of globalization on labor market, particularly on the mobility of labor
across borders, has been of a thorny debate among nations with the appearance of new immigration policies and
trade regulations in the context of capital mobility (Baghdadi & Banat, 2014). On the other flip, the invasion of
international restaurants, supplied with modern technology and processes; professionalism and enormous
financial backup, for local food market, is an explicit example of economic globalization.
B. Social Globalization
Researchers have different opinions about globalization and its effects on society. Some of them have determined
an inverse relationship between globalization and poverty, while others have considered that globalization
participates in widening the gap between rich and poor countries through the unbalanced economic growth. In all
cases, it was noticed, since mid-20th century, that globalization has participated to economic growth of wealthy
countries and worsened the poverty of poor countries which, in turn, had instant consequences on their
populations in terms of education, health, life style, etc. In this context, the openness of local communities, in
poor countries to international tourism has been the leverage for local economies and a relish for local
communities but a disaster for local culture. In other terms, local communities in poor countries have benefited
from the free access to information, that is provided by globalization, in order to serve the needs of the
international tourism market, but failed to limit its negative impacts on the whole society. In Lebanon, as a
matter of fact, sellers of artisanal products have generated enormous profits by importing ready-made traditional
articles at a low cost (e.g Baalbek ruins souvenirs are made in China) instead of buying them from local Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
producers. Consequently, many handicrafts and traditional specialties disappeared, what affected thereby the
source of revenue of concerned societies and communities. Looking at it from Pareto efficiency model, “no one
can be made better off without some being made worse off”, globalization could then be considered as a leverage
for local societies if the social benefits encountered from globalization are greater than its costs.
C. Cultural Globalization
Watson (2016) defines cultural globalization as a phenomenon by which the experience of everyday life, as
influenced by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, reflects a standardization of cultural expressions around
the world. Propelled by the efficiency or appeal of wireless communications, electronic commerce, popular
culture, and international travel, globalization has been seen as a trend toward homogeneity that will eventually
make human experience everywhere essentially the same. This appears, however, to be an overstatement of the
phenomenon. Although homogenizing influences do indeed exist, they are far from creating anything akin to a
single world culture.
Cultural globalization has been studied by several researchers in economics, management, sociology, political
science, international relations and geography. According to Crane (2011), the two principal theories of cultural
globalization are: imperialism ( in which a culture is imposed or dominates other cultures, beliefs, values,
behavioral norms & life style) and hybridization ( the merge between cultures result in a new version of culture).
In general, the merge between two cultures requires an integration of foreign values into local culture. The
degree of integration (cultural flow) depends on the characteristics of local culture and the level of attachment of
local societies to their culture (locals) or their openness to cultural diversity (cosmopolitans)2. Significantly,
conflicts between global and local cultures may rise, causing cultural clashes and even clashes of civilizations
(civil, religious, political, etc.)3, it all depends on the “homogeneity” and the “heterogeneity” of global culture. In
the same vein, Hannerz (1990) spoke about cultural homogenisation as a facet of global cultural development,
illustrating with the example of McDonalds and Coca Cola who reflect a form of cultural globalization that
represent the values of American culture. The influence that American culture and business processes have on
other countries, such as in commerce; trade; industry; media; cuisine; life style; art; technology or politics, have
been nominated “Americanisation” or “Americanization”, a term that has first appeared in early 20th century
with the work of Stead, W.T. (1901) and Moffett, S.E. (1907). Although Americanisation seems to be a
phenomenon of cultural globalization that attempts to export the American culture to the rest of the world, it did
not find its way in Japan due to the strong normative and cognitive structure of Japanese social capital (Delanty,
2003), what spots the lights on the ability of nations to withstand outside corruption of their cultural beliefs from
western influences.
4. The Impact of Globalization on National Food Culture
The impact of globalization on food culture, in terms of food preparation and consumption patterns, has gained a
greater attention in the last two decades with the rise of health consciousness. In the same vain, Braudel (1983)
has related food consumption patterns to the societal class structure, what raises the concern about the impact of
health consciousness and Americanization on local food culture in presence of, on the first hand, a diminishing
demand for traditional greasy food by the high-class society and, on the other hand, an increasing demand for
affordable quick meals by the lower-class society which is the mostly affected by the Americanization.
Talking about cultural interaction between nations and Americanization, Bhugra (2004, p. 129) considers that
“when people migrate from one nation or culture to another, they carry their knowledge and expressions of
distress with them. On settling down in the new culture, their cultural identity is likely to change and that
encourages a degree of belonging; migration can lead to loss of cultural norms, religious customs, and social
support system”. For instance, the Lebanese diaspora has participated, in turn, in integrating foreign food
cultures into the Lebanese cuisine and vice versa (according to the Lebanese ministry of foreign affairs, the
Lebanese diaspora exceeds 12 million worldwide, 8 million of them live in Brazil).
For years, the Lebanese cuisine has influenced, and was influenced by local, regional and even international food
cultures. Possessing idiosyncratic ingredients; particular food preparation and preservation practices; specific
methods of cooking and serving; distinguished customs and traditions; a complex combination of religious
beliefs and unique climate conditions, each area of Lebanon has developed its own identity and its distinctive
food culture. However, due to globalization, the exposure of local community to eastern and western cultures has
increased, so has been the need to modernize the traditional cuisine. Consequently, new restaurant concepts were
2 See (Strand, 2010)
3 See (Huntington, 1996). Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
developed and new styles of food consumption patterns have been embraced, what facilitated the partial
diversification of traditional cuisine and enriched the local and national food cultures. On the other flip, the
socioeconomic pressures on mid and low-class societies were in favor of the fast-food industry which, through
globalization, has boomed and managed to alter the eating habits of Lebanese society, more specifically, with
less focus on dining time and food quality.
In fact, due to economic reasons, the number of working households in Lebanon has been increasing, so was the
search for an affordable quick meal, while the time allocated for preparing home food has been in a continuous
decline. In the same vein, globalization has induced changes into business processes that became more
demanding, with more emphasis on working schedules, what shortened the lunch break and increased the need
for fast-food. In order to coop with the changing demand, food experts have been obliged to innovate and to
modernize the traditional Lebanese cuisine by introducing international ingredients and unfamiliar cooking
techniques that are unusual to the Lebanese food culture (e.g Quinoa in Tabouleh, Chocolate syrup in Kenafe,
grilling Taouk instead of charbroiling, etc.), what threatens, in turn, the original identity of the Lebanese cuisine
and risks to gradually detach it from its culture and traditions.
Despite its negative impacts on national food culture, globalization has some positive impacts that could be
illustrated with:
Globalization has helped spreading the Lebanese food culture, thanks to modern transportation and
modern communication.
Integration of local and global food culture skills and values.
The acquisition of modern technology that facilitated the specialization of Lebanese cuisine (food
processing, food preservation, etc.)
Globalization has opened the opportunity for Lebanese food and beverage makers to export to global
markets (roasted nuts, wine, sweets, canned food, etc.)
5. Social Capital & Networks: Tools for Food-Culture Preservation and Sustainability in Presence of
Local development is the set of activities undertaken by local actors whose goals may be different. One of the
most important resources in the process of local development is social capital, a term used among academic
researchers, public authorities and international organizations, such as the world bank, to express “social
networks and norms of trust and reciprocity that flourish through these networks” (Sander & Lowney, 2006, p.
23). This new type of capital is understood as “an important resource of individuals and social groups impacting
on economic growth, democratic practices, quality of governance and quality of life” (Murzyn-Kupisz & Dzialek,
2013, p. 36). The social capital of a community could be then considered as the composite of its culture,
networks and the level of mutual trust between participants of these networks. There are different forms of social
capital based on network conception: bonding, linking and bridging (Beaumont & Dredge, 2009), (Dahal &
Adhikari, 2008). The relationships that build these forms of social capital are characterized by the existence of
values and rules of conduct, such as confidence and good citizenship, between network members. In Lebanon,
various food networks are characterized by their attachment to national products and ingredients all along the
value chain. For instance, kitchen chefs still favor local ingredients and food items (sumac, pistachios, pines, red
mullet fish, local wines, etc.) over imported ones, while Lebanese customers, in general, prefer (baladi4) products
and ingredients over imported ones. This common concern for producers and customers, added to the good
citizenship that characterizes them, has strengthened the relationship between members of different food&
beverage networks and enticed them to develop new formal and informal ways of communication and
cooperation in order to ameliorate the quality and the competitiveness of national food and beverage products.
In brief, social capital represents the formal and informal relationships that exist between players inside and
outside a territory. These relations correspond to networks that have positive influences on the socio-economic
development of the territory. According to Pecqueur (1989, p. 54), local development dynamism refers to the
“consequences of a favorable combination of individual projects which partially meet on common interests.
These combinations form networks that are based on the cooperation of their partners and stand out other
systems based on total independence or on the hierarchy”. Pecqueur, for his part, distinguishes three types of
networks: material flow networks, informal networks and networks of relationships of an institutional nature. A
literature review on the various types of networks, has determined the following dimensions: flows, character
4 Baladi means local in Arabic. Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
(vertical, horizontal or mixed networks), length of the relationship, nature (formal or informal), network strength,
etc. In the search for the most active network in local development, Gouttebel (2003, p. 104) considers “business
networks in a dense SME economy".
As previously mentioned, due to globalization, the traditional Lebanese cuisine has witnessed tremendous
conceptual changes with more focus on modernization and innovation. Food experts, culinary institutions, local
municipalities and other private and public organizations (formal and informal) have played a tremendous role in
developing the traditional Lebanese cuisine while keeping attachments to the roots and traditions. The ability of
these networks in developing and modernizing the traditional Lebanese cuisine is due to their organizational
conditions that stand behind the dynamics of innovation, thus called “innovation networks” (Krohn, 1995, p. 31).
According to Ferguene (2011, p. 97): “the dynamics of innovation through network organization lead to a new
type of network that is called: the innovation network”. For its members, the innovation network is a way to
reach new territories, to access and to share common resources.
5.1 Innovation Network: The Solution to The Problem of Traditional-Cuisine Modernization and Food-Culture
According to Maillat D. et al (1994) the innovation network is a coordinated set of heterogeneous and
professional actors who collectively take part in the development, production and dissemination of processes of
production of goods and services which give rise to a transaction market. In other words, the innovation network
reflects a strategy of cooperation which, according to Gouttebel J.-Y. (2003, p. 119), “participates in an
improvement in creativity and is a pooling of risk and costs specific to the innovation process”.
From these definitions of innovation network, we can conclude its four dimensions:
An economic dimension: it corresponds to a reduction in transaction costs related to the market in
absence of a rigid hierarchy.
A historical dimension: it is a mode of organization of transactions based on relationships of trust and
knowledge, cooperation and reciprocity, that evolves over time.
A normative dimension: the existence of rules of conduct and business procedures delimits the course
of action of local actors and ensures product/service consistency.
A cognitive dimension: this dimension means that the innovation network is a breeding place of
knowledge and skills as well as a place of exchange of experiences.
What can be learned from the definition of Gouttebel is that local actors, who engage in a collective strategy, are
willing to share the risks inherent in innovation to achieve a common goal. To do this, they need a genuine
territorial policy which, according to Gouttebel J.-Y. (2003, p. 170), meets four conditions:
Involve local players beyond the companies.
Encourage the development of the specific territorial intangible capital (expertise, specialized
technology, rules of trust, etc.).
Search for and encourage synergies and, what specialists call, the learning effects between the actors.
This is to develop the advantages of proximity and the collective ability to adapt to change.
Ensure the technical environment - market relationships.
In the same framework, Boureille, B., & Guesnier, B. (1994), consider two types of indistinguishable innovation
The network leader or hierarchical, in which the leader firm controls the entire process while the
satellite institutions have no relationship between they.
Partnership networks, which aim to develop an ongoing capacity for innovation. Then it's systematic
innovation in which technology feedback on the other.
In general, different aspects of innovation networks have been studied based on: structure (Wasserman & Faust,
1994); (Newman, 2003); (Fagerberg, Mowery, & Nelson, 2006), links between actors (Granovetter, 1973);
(Smith & Ho, 2006); (Ahuja, 2000) and communication (Gloor, 2006); (Ahrweiler, Pyka, & Gilbert, 2011). In all
cases, the notion of “innovation networks” necessitates two components (Ahrweiler, 2010) : 1) structural (actors
and their relationships) and 2) a social system of dedicated communications5.
5 Refer to (Luhmann, 1987). Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
Going back to the case of Lebanon, due to globalization, famous kitchen chefs, food experts and culinary schools
have been forced to introduce international food items into national cuisine (ethnic and specialty items), new
types of ingredients into traditional food composition (avocado, quinoa, fresh cream, sweet & sour sauce, etc.)
and new processes of food preparation and preservation (grilling instead of charbroiling or roasting, steaming
instead of boiling, smoking instead of drying, etc.). In fact, the collective efforts of food industry players
(including formal and informal institutions), who: 1) share the same values and concerns about innovating and
promoting the food industry and 2) belong to formal and informal networks that seek to modernize and
ameliorate the competitiveness of traditional cuisine, have generated innovative ideas and processes that
participated in developing the traditional cuisine and enriching the local food culture while preserving its original
The process of innovation is not new to Lebanese cuisine, with reference to history, the traditional Lebanese
cuisine is a Levantine, several Lebanese specialties refer to eras of Romans (8th century B.C) and Phoenicians
(1500-300 B.C). In modern history, the Lebanese cuisine was influenced by the different foreign civilizations
that held power, namely: the Ottoman Turks who ruled Lebanon between 1516 and 1918 and introduced a
variety of foods that have become staples in the Lebanese diet6 such as cooking with lamb, and the French who
ruled from 1918 to 1943 and introduced foods such as French bread, caramel custard, cakes, croissants, etc.
(Choueiri, 2002).
The noteworthy innovations that characterized the Lebanese cuisine, in the last two decades, have been
perceived with appreciation, especially by the new generation with more focus on internationalization, and
hesitation from the part of the elder generation that is strongly attached to traditions and customs. In general, the
Lebanese food culture has witnessed several innovations and ameliorations since its appearance and will
continue to develop even more with the ever-changing demand and taste of new generations who are influenced
by the Americanization. This innovation usually goes through two steps: the first is an evaluation of the national
resources (traditional processes, techniques and ingredients) and those which can be mobilized in the area
(innovative ideas, practical processes, healthier and tastier ingredients), the second is to develop the know-how
and to improve the available resources for a better valorization. To achieve its objectives, the modernization of
traditional Lebanese cuisine has to go through an innovative process that integrates all players into a collective
action, the success of the process depends on the capacity of innovation networks to create innovative activities
and to modernize the Lebanese cuisine while preserving its identity and maintaining the traditional food culture.
According to Maillat & Lecoq (1994, p. 79): “innovative activity opens, in turn, the horizon for new innovative
activities; it is of the independent sequences of innovative processes”.
5.2 Networks as a Mean for Sustainable Territorial-Development Strategies
According to Leloup, Moyart et Pecqueur (2005), the boundaries of the territory are more defined in reference to
a political and administrative area or as a fragment of the national productive system, they define the place of:
1)intersection of networks (physical or human, formal or informal), 2)strategies and interdependencies between
partners linked together, 3) the place of production, trading, sharing a common future. The system is built on
several factors such as the proximity of these actors, the common dynamism that brings them together, the
common trust that relates them, the set of rules; standards and principles accepted and implemented by all
network members.
The importance of networks for local development is extended, not only, to facilitate the flow of information
between actors of a territory, but also to encourage a collective action in planning and implementing
development projects such as food-culture preservation. According to Gouttebel J.-Y. (2003, p. 111) : “networks
create positive externalities that favor the flexibility of the production system and the economies of
agglomeration”. The flexibility is related to the small size companies or production units, the density of the
relations between them, and their ability to quick adaptation to internal and external changes, whereas the
economies of agglomeration are based on an intensification of the division of labor and productive
In terms of sustainability, the increasing concerns about the preservation of national culture, limitation of
internationalization, and rationalization of the modernization process, have all induced a mandatory change in
business processes and restaurant conception. The focus is now on gaining a competitive advantage by adopting
business measures that preserve local food cultural and maintain a compromise between environmental,
economic and social objectives. However, to achieve these sustainable development objectives, a collective
6 Many traditional Lebanese items hold an ottoman nomination such as Tawouk “chicken”, Kebab “meat skewers”, Baklawa “Turkish sweets”,
etc. Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
strategy of food culture preservation should be adopted, by all players, within the guidelines of policy makers.
What facilitates the achievement of sustainable development objectives is the existence of common concerns,
values and culture (social capital) among different players. Hence, this collective strategy of food culture
preservation may find its application in the system of networks, where players enjoy the traditions of cooperation
and mutual trust, and present different forms of non-market coordination between them. In a dynamic
perspective, the efforts of different local actors (food experts, culinary institutions, etc.) lead to a territorial
development process. Thus, being part of active networks (formal or informal), these actors become able to
apply the collective strategy of food culture preservation, in collaboration with local authorities, in service of
The role of networks and social relationships, as elements that shape the collective learning and territorial
development, is developed by Angeon (2008) and Saxena (2003). Angeon argues that “territorial development
results of the propensity of the actors to agree and to organize for collective action in response to one or more of
the objectives they assign themselves to in common commitment” (Angeon, 2008, p. 239). As for Saxena (2003,
p.1): “It is argued that sustainable tourism product is ‘territorially embedded’ in ongoing social networks and
relationships”. This leads to the need for cooperation between local actors and networks, to implement
food-culture preservation strategies in service of sustainable development, based on synergies between territorial
development strategies and business strategies.
Talking about business strategies, they have evolved since the 1970s, from a Taylorism model to a new model
based on the concept of network. In the Fordism model, the business strategy was based on the search for ways
to increase their market share, while the new space strategy is based on the interaction between the global and
the local. In this context, the different food-service networks in Lebanon, whether formal or informal, should
promote the preservation of local food-culture by proposing sustainable development strategies that focus on a
rational modernization of traditional cuisine (based on the interaction between local and global food cultures).
6. Practical Study
This study aims to: 1) determine the factors that stand behind the preference of Lebanese community for a
particular cuisine and 2) to evaluate the impact of four independent variables (Marital status, Dining-out
frequency, Purchasing power and Food diet) on the choice of a restaurant type (Traditional, Modernized
Lebanese, International and Fusion) and a restaurant concept (Fast food, Casual Dining, Fine dining and Family
restaurant). Consequently, a regression analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of the
above-mentioned variables on the dependent variable, and an analysis of the correlation between each two
variables (dependent and independent) has been provided.
Finally, based on the results of the correlation, a cross-tabulation analysis was done in order to determine the
strength of the relationship between the specific variables that led us to the conclusion.
6.1 Regression Analysis: The Effect of Independent Variables on the Choice of Restaurant Type
Model Assumptions:
a: coefficient of dining out frequency.
b: coefficient of marital status.
c: coefficient of average annual income (purchasing power).
d: coefficient of food diet and health consciousness.
Y: The dependent variable that represent the choice of restaurant type (traditional, modernized
Lebanese, international and fusion).
X: Independent variable
o X1: Marital Status.
o X2: Dining-Out Frequency.
o X3: Average Annual Income.
o X4: Food diet Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
Table 1. Model summary for restaurant type
Model Summaryb
Model R R
Adjusted R
Std. Error of the
Change Statistics
R Square
Change df1 df2 Sig. F
1 .846a .717 .671 .95047 .076 1.961 4 1985 .107 2.186
a. Predictors: (Constant), Do you follow a particular food diet?, What is your marital status?, What is your average annual
income?, How often do you dine out?
b. Dependent Variable: What is your favorite restaurant type?
Table 2. Coefficients for restaurant type
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t Sig.B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 26.667 3.278 8.135 .000
Marital Status -.088 .018 -.733 -4.858 .123
Dining-out Frequency .138 .087 .174 1.595 .000
Average Annual Income .076 .019 .438 3.948 .001
Food Diet .544 .885 .097 .615 .045
a. Dependent Variable: what is your favorite restaurant type?
Regression analyses of the relationship between dependent and independent variables:
Based on Durbin Watson test, there is no collinearity between the independent variables.
Based on the Adjusted value of the Coefficient of Determination, there is a strong impact of the
independent variables (Dining out frequency, Average annual income and Food diet) over the choice of
restaurant type, taking into consideration that H0 is accepted for Marital status.
There is a positive and a significant correlation between “dining out frequency” and “the choice of
restaurant type”. This result indicates that when people are obliged to dine out on a daily basis (due to
time and budget constraints), they go for an international fast food concept that provides a quick meal at
an affordable price.
There is a negative relationship between “marital status” and “the choice of restaurant type”. In addition,
this negative relationship is not even significant based on the t-value.
There is a positive correlation supported by a considerable significance between “the average annual
income” and “the choice of restaurant type” which means that: 1) dining out is not considered as an
inferior good (positive income elasticity of demand) and 2) that the choice of restaurant type in
Lebanon depends on the purchasing power of customers. Hence, the need to modernize the Lebanese
cuisine in order to make it more competitive and more convenient for all socioeconomic categories.
The relationship between “food diet, health consciousness” and “the choice of restaurant type” is
positive. This means that the demand for a particular restaurant type depends on whether its food is
healthy. On the other hand, the demand for a modernized Lebanese cuisine is significantly high, what
explains the attachment of the Lebanese community to their cuisine due to its healthy food, with
ascending desires to innovate it.
6.2 Cross-tabulation Analyses: The Relationship between the Choice of Restaurant Type and the Factors
Determining It
The study has considered four factors that are in direct relation with the choice of restaurant type: food variety,
food quality and taste, the new experience and portion size. The price was not considered as an influencing factor
due to the fact that people are able to choose any restaurant type with the same budget. Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
Table 3. Cross tabulation analyses for the factors determining the choice of a restaurant type
Why do you prefer this restaurant type? Tot al
Because of
food variety
Because of food
quality and taste
like to experience
new food creativities
It serves a
large portion
What is your
favorite restaurant
100 40 80 100 320
140 200 180 90 610
International 160 140 380 40 720
Fusion 60 80 190 10 340
Total 460 460 830 240 1990
The Cross-Tabulation Analyses:
There is a strong link between the need to experience new food creativities and the choice of
international cuisine and modernized Lebanese cuisine.
There is a strong relationship between, on the first hand, food quality& taste and, on the other hand, the
choice of modernized Lebanese cuisine.
There is a strong relationship between the choice of traditional cuisine portion size and food variety.
In conclusion, the increasing demand for international cuisine and modernized Lebanese cuisine is mainly due
to their ability to provide a new dining experience (food creativity) in addition to food variety, quality and taste.
Hence, the focus of several food networks should be directed towards innovating and modernizing the
Lebanese cuisine while maintaining its traditional characteristics, namely: its food variety and generous
portion size.
6.3 Regression Analysis: The Effect of Independent Variables on the Choice of Restaurant Concept
Model Assumptions:
a: coefficient of dining out frequency.
b: coefficient of marital status.
c: coefficient of average annual income (purchasing power).
d: coefficient of food diet and health consciousness.
Y: The dependent variable that represent the choice of restaurant concept (Fast food, Casual Dining,
Fine dining and Family restaurant).
X: Independent Variable.
o X1: Marital Status.
o X2: Dining-out Frequency.
o X3: Average Annual Income.
o X4: Food Diet. Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
Table 4. Model summary for restaurant concept
Model Summaryb
Model R R
Adjusted R
Std. Error of the
Change Statistics Durbin-Watson
R Square
df1 df2 Sig. F
1 .917a .841 0.829 .27076 .030 .739 4 1985 .568 2.462
a. Predictors: (Constant), Do you follow a particular food diet?, What is your marital status?, What is your average annual
income?, How often do you dine out?
b. Dependent Variable: What is your favorite restaurant concept?
Table 5. Coefficients for restaurant concept
Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t Sig.B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.083 0.295 7.068 .000
Marital Status -.049 .059 -.036 -.828 .041
Dining-out Frequency .046 .019 .139 2.386 .019
Average Annual Income .181 .028 .435 6.546 .000
Food Diet .046 .026 .116 1.777 .047
a. Dependent Variable: what is your favorite restaurant concept?
Analyses of the relationship between the choice of restaurant concept and independent variables:
Based on Durbin Watson test, there is no collinearity between the independent variables.
Based on the Adjusted value of the Coefficient of Determination, there is a strong impact of the
independent variables (Dining out frequency, Average annual income and Food diet) over the choice of
restaurant concept.
It is obvious that the choice of restaurant concept is inversely related to marital status of respondents. In
other terms, the size of the family is inversely related to the level of complexity of restaurant concept
selected. For instance, families would prefer a traditional cuisine that offers familiar food whereas,
newly married couples, for examples, wouldn’t mind to try a new restaurant concept as part of their new
life experience.
There is a positive correlation between dining out frequency and the choice of a particular restaurant
concept. Based on the previously determined relationship between restaurant type and dining out
frequency, we can conclude that people who are obliged to dine out frequently prefer international fast
food cuisine, in the first place, and modernized Lebanese cuisine in the second place.
There is a significant positive correlation between average annual income and the choice of restaurant
concept. Being positively correlated means that the choice of a particular restaurant concept is not
inferior and, whether the income increases, the desire for a more sophisticated cuisine increases as well
(what explains the shift towards fusion concepts).
The relationship between food diet and restaurant concept is also positive as people on diet are very
selective in their choice of a cuisine that provides necessary daily nutrients.
6.4 Cross-tabulation Analyses: The Relationship between the Choice of Restaurant Concept and the Factors
Determining It
The study has considered four factors that are in direct relation with the choice of restaurant concept: ambiance,
price, portion size, service and menu choice Journal of Sustainable Development Vol. 12, No. 1; 2019
Table 6. Cross tabulation analyses for the factors determining the choice of a restaurant concept
Why is this your favorite concept? Tot al
Ambiance Price Portion size Service Menu choice
What is your favorite restaurant concept?
Fast food 20 650 80 120 60 930
Casual dining 60 40 160 200 80 540
Fine dining 100 20 0 80 0 200
Family restaurant 60 50 100 60 50 320
Total 240 760 340 460 190 1990
The Cross-tabulation analyses revealed:
A strong correlation exists between, on the first hand, the choice of fast food restaurants and, on the
other hand, price convenience and service rapidity.
A strong correlation exists between, on the first hand, the choice of casual dining concept and, on the
other hand, portion size and service quality.
The choice of a fast food concept is mainly due to price convenience and service rapidity, based on the
cross-tabulation analyses about the choice of restaurant concept, the preferred cuisine will be an international
fast food which has a convenient price, quick service and food creativity. On the other hand, there is another
choice, of similar importance, for modernized Lebanese casual dining which provides a large portion size, a
quick service, food taste and quality, in addition to food creativity.
Finally, we can conclude that traditional Lebanese cuisine, whether being a fast-food or a casual diner, should
focus on price, service standards and food creativity in its modernization process while keeping an eye on food
variety and portion size.
7. General Conclusion
The debate about the socio-cultural impact of globalization never ends. For some, globalization eradicates local
culture and affects local values, whereas for others, globalization participates in revitalizing and stimulating the
reconstruction of local and regional values. In all cases, no one ignores the impacts of globalization, whether
positive or negative, on local food culture. For the last two decades, due to globalization, the preferences of the
Lebanese community have been shifting gradually towards international cuisines. Several factors (economic and
social) have facilitated the penetration of international cuisine concepts into the local market, what started to
threaten our traditional food culture. However, due to the strong social capital that characterizes the Lebanese
society and the effective communication and coordination that exist between networks and members of these
networks (restaurateurs, food experts, culinary schools and institutions), the threats of globalization to national
food culture have turned into advantages. What facilitated this alteration is the existence of several specialized
innovation networks whose focus is on modernizing the traditional cuisine in order to accompany the
international tendencies and the changing demand. Consequently, innovative ideas have been generated and new
processes have been invented, what participated in developing the traditional cuisine and enriching the local food
culture while preserving its original identity.
Finally, the need for traditional cuisine and national food culture preservation has generated the need for a new
form of inter-firm relations that seek synergies between local/national culture-development strategies, business
strategies and sustainability. Hence, one of the important questions that arises, at the end of this research, is
about the effective mode of regulation of inter-firm relations, in other terms: local governance.
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... While opinions vary, it has also been suggested that in a globalized world, there is a constant threat to local food cultures (Beriss, 2019). According to Baghdadi (2019), globalized food (and fast food) cultures have contributed to the dilution of local food culture. This is significant, as culinary tourism experts from around the world recently expressed that the largest near-term negative impact to food tourism was globally standardized experiences (Stone et al 2020a). ...
A majority of leisure travelers (79%) learn about food and drink when they visit a destination (Stone, M. J., Migacz, S., Garibaldi, R., Stein, N., & Wolf, E. (2020a). 2020 State of the Food Travel Industry Report. Portland, OR: World Food Travel Association). In addition, it has been suggested that food tourism supports regional identities while providing insight into a region’s distinct character and culture (Jones, A., & Jenkins, I. (2003). A Taste of Wales–Blas Ar Gymru’: institutional malaise in promoting Welsh food tourism products. In A.-M. Hjalager, & G. Richards (Eds.), Tourism and gastronomy (pp. 129–145). Routledge). Although food tourism has been suggested to contribute to adding value to the travel experience while facilitating cultural sustainability, very little has been written about the development of a multi-stakeholder strategy aimed to increase food knowledge among young residents, which may help to sustain local traditions and provide benefits to tourism providers. Building on stakeholder theory, fifty-five tourism stakeholders from 29 countries provided their expert recommendations for how destinations can get younger residents more interested in food and beverage. These recommendations were coded and classified into five categories, which could be used to develop a food tourism educational strategy: (1) education / formal education; (2) hands-on experiences and activities; (3) create awareness; (4) career, job, or entrepreneurship opportunities; and (5) connections with global or local issues. Expert stakeholders also recommended conducting a comprehensive assessment of local offerings before putting specific, long-term strategies into place.
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We introduce the revised version of the KOF Globalisation Index, a composite index measuring globalization for every country in the world along the economic, social and political dimension. The original index was introduced by Dreher (Applied Economics, 38(10):1091–1110, 2006) and updated in Dreher et al. (2008). This second revision of the index distinguishes between de facto and de jure measures along the different dimensions of globalization. We also disentangle trade and financial globalization within the economic dimension of globalization and use time-varying weighting of the variables. The new index is based on 43 instead of 23 variables in the previous version. Following Dreher (Applied Economics, 38(10):1091–1110, 2006), we use the new index to examine the effect of globalization on economic growth. The results suggest that de facto and de jure globalization influence economic growth differently. Future research should use the new KOF Globalisation Index to re-examine other important consequences of globalization and why globalization was proceeding rapidly in some countries, such as South Korea, but less so in others. The KOF Globalisation Index can be downloaded from
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The article considers tendencies and consequences of economic globalization performed mainly in the interests of Western countries. The realities of the contemporary world are hardly optimistic. At the beginning of the third millennium economic globalization leads the global community to a new state defined by a number of constructive and destructive processes. According to the authors, economic globalization not so much integrates the world as strengthens deep economic inequality of regions and countries. “New third world” is represented by the countries and territories where economic and sociocultural structures are fundamentally disrupted. Peculiarities of the development of this “new world” characterize almost all countries of the post-Soviet space. Sharp aggravation of the global competitiveness for the resources, markets, strategic transport communications actualize the problem related to ensuring the economic security of Russia. The article analyzes the two-fold impact of economic globalization on national states with the domination of negative consequences for their economies that is a threat for the national security of these societies. The analysis of consequences of the world globalization for the developing countries allows to fix a new form of extremism - economic extremism. The article determines that basic threats of the economic security of Russia may include considerable dependence on the import of technologies and many kinds of consumer goods, turning the country into exclusively the exporter of natural resources, weakening of its positions on the markets of the Commonwealth of Independent States countries. © 2016, International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues. All rights reserved.
This chapter has been written within the framework of the GREMI (European Research Group on Innovative Milieux). The purpose of that Group’s investigations and reflections is to develop a territorialized analysis of innovation by highlighting the role of the environment and, more specifically, that of the milieu in technological creation processes (Aydalot, 1986; Camagni, 1991; Maillat, Quévit and Senn, 1993). The object of this chapter is specifically to understand how the milieu is transformed through multiple interactions, to highlight the various networks involved in the innovation process and, more generally, to show how relations between the productive forces on the one hand and the urban and regional milieu on the other are transformed and what the result is. This general problem hinges principally on three fields of inquiry: the innovation network: how does it come into being (federative project), what is its architecture and strategy, how does it work and, finally, how does it evolve? We shall seek to show how interactions between the various players develop, to study the rules and principles that govern their relations and, finally, to understand the way in which learning processes develop within the innovation network. relations between the milieu and the innovation network: what is the function of the milieu in the organization of the innovation network and what is its impact on its development? the effects of the innovation network on the milieu: what is the impact on the local milieu of the learning processes that are developed by the innovation networks? More specifically, how do the innovation networks help to increase the milieu’s creative abilities?
A l'exception des grands pays émergents, le rythme de l'activité économique a été pour le moins modéré dans la plupart des pays au cours des dernières décennies. Au Japon et dans les pays industriels de l'Ouest, la faiblesse et la fragilité de la croissance se traduisent par une montée de la précarité que l'on pensait dépassée. Quant aux pays pauvres ou moins avancés, les stratégies mises en œuvre tout au long des " décennies de développement " n'ont guère abouti aux résultats escomptés, que ce soit en matière de lutte contre la pauvreté, de réduction des inégalités ou d'accès aux biens et services de base pour la majorité. C'est dans ce contexte que s'inscrivent les efforts déployés en vue d'un renouvellement de l'analyse de la croissance et du développement. Croissance endogène, réexamen du rôle de l'Etat dans l'économie, importance des institutions et de la gouvernance, croissance verte et développement durable, conception du territoire (au sens infranational) comme lieu pertinent de réflexion et d'action socioéconomiques, etc., sont parmi les pistes explorées pour apporter des réponses appropriées aux difficultés rencontrées. Outre de contribuer à la prise de conscience de l'importance des questions en débat, l'ambition de ce manuel est de rendre compte clairement de ces nouvelles approches et, au-delà, de transmettre aux étudiants, et aux autres publics intéressés, les concepts et les outils qui doivent permettre d'en maîtriser les enjeux.