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Two new species in the South American sun-spider family Mummuciidae are herein described. Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. is known from the Chancaní Provincial Park and Forest Reserve, Córdoba province, Argentina, and further reported for a single locality to the northeast, in Santiago del Estero province. The systematic position of this species is uncertain and it is not assigned to any species-group of Gaucha Mello-Leitão, 1924. The other species, Gaucha santana sp. nov., is only known from the Ibirapuitã Environmental Protection Area, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, and is a member of the fasciata species-group. With these descriptions, the number of known species of Gaucha is raised to eleven.
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180
Accepted by L. Prendini: 7 Dec. 2018; published: 31 Jan. 2019
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN
1175-5334
(online edition)
Copyright © 2019 Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 4551 (2): 180
194
https://www.mapress.com/j/zt/
Article
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4551.2.3
http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:23CD3A2F-8E89-4324-A81C-511BE02C0559
Two new species of the sun-spider genus Gaucha from Argentina and Brazil
(Solifugae, Mummuciidae)
RICARDO BOTERO-TRUJILLO
1,2,6
, RICARDO OTT
3
, CAMILO I. MATTONI
4
,
MÓNICA F. NIME
4, 5
& ANDRÉS A. OJANGUREN-AFFILASTRO
2
1
Current address: Theodore Roosevelt Postdoctoral Research Fellow. Division of Invertebrate Zoology and Richard Gilder Graduate
School, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192, USA
2
División Aracnología, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”—CONICET, Av. Ángel Gallardo 470, CP:
1405DJR, C.A.B.A., Buenos Aires, Argentina
3
Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Dr. Salvador França, 1427, 90690-000 Porto
Alegre, RS, Brazil
4
Laboratorio de Biología Reproductiva y Evolución, Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA, CONICET—UNC), Facultad
de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Vélez Sársfield 299, CP: X5000JJC, Córdoba,
Argentina
5
Centro de Relevamiento y Evaluación de Recursos Agrícolas y Naturales (IMBIV, CONICET—UNC), Facultad de Ciencias Agropec-
uarias, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ing. Agr. Félix Aldo Marrone 746, CP: X5000JJC, Córdoba, Argentina
6
Corresponding author. E-mail: rbotero-trujillo@amnh.org, pachyurus@yahoo.com
Abstract
Two new species in the South American sun-spider family Mummuciidae are herein described. Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov.
is known from the Chancaní Provincial Park and Forest Reserve, Córdoba province, Argentina, and further reported for a
single locality to the northeast, in Santiago del Estero province. The systematic position of this species is uncertain and it
is not assigned to any species-group of Gaucha Mello-Leitão, 1924. The other species, Gaucha santana sp. nov., is only
known from the Ibirapuitã Environmental Protection Area, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, and is a
member of the fasciata species-group. With these descriptions, the number of known species of Gaucha is raised to eleven.
Key words: Solifuges, Chancaní Park and Reserve, Ibirapuitã Environmental Protection Area, Santana do Livramento,
taxonomy, DNA barcode
Introduction
Mummuciidae is one of four solifuge families present in the New World and the only one which is unique to South
America. Members of this family have been recorded from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay,
Peru and Uruguay (Roewer 1934; Mello-Leitão 1938; Harvey 2003; Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017). Four of seven
genera thus far recognized still remain monotypic: Cordobulgida Mello-Leitão, 1938, Mummucipes Roewer, 1934,
Uspallata Mello-Leitão, 1938 and Vempironiella Botero-Trujillo, 2016. Two others, Mummucia Simon, 1879 and
Mummucina Roewer, 1934, comprise five species each; however, the former has been demonstrated to be not
monophyletic (Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017). One other genus, Gaucha Mello-Leitão, 1924, remains as the most
speciose thus far, with nine known species.
The known taxonomic diversity of Mummuciidae is far from being an accurate estimation of this family’s
generic and specific diversity, as revealed in a comprehensive revisionary study (Botero-Trujillo 2018
[unpublished]). With only one published work having addressed the classification of Mummuciidae in a
phylogenetic framework (Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017), insights on the phylogenetic structure of this family is in its
very early stages.
Botero-Trujillo et al. (2017) recovered the monophyly of Gaucha, for which they proposed a morphological
redefinition and revised its taxonomic composition. The authors further organized its known diversity, nine species
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at that time, into two species-groups. The fasciata species-group comprises the type species of Gaucha and four
others, and is present in Brazil (three species), Argentina (one species) and Bolivia (one species). The ibirapemussu
species-group comprises four species, all from Brazil. Both groups are currently defined upon aspects of the
cheliceral morphology; however, whereas each is supported by transformations on the shape configurations of the
fixed and movable fingers, only the fasciata species-group is supported by a combination of apomorphic discrete-
and landmark data.
In this contribution, we describe two new species of Gaucha based on several male and female specimens of
both. Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. is described from the Chancaní Provincial Park and Forest Reserve and additionally
reported for Copo National Park, respectively in the Argentine provinces of Córdoba and Santiago del Estero (Fig.
1). This is the second species of Gaucha known from Argentina (the other being G. ca s u h a t i Botero-Trujillo, Ott &
Carvalho, 2017 from Sierra de La Ventana, in Buenos Aires province) and the second mummuciid recorded from
Córdoba province (the other is Cordobulgida bruchi Mello-Leitão, 1938); meanwhile, it also becomes the first
record of this family from Santiago del Estero province. The other species, Gaucha santana sp. nov., is described
from the Ibirapuitã Environmental Protection Area, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Fig. 1), and becomes the third
species of Gaucha known from this Brazilian state (others are G. fasciata Mello-Leitão, 1924 and G. c ur u pi Botero-
Trujillo, Ott & Carvalho, 2017). With these descriptions, the number of known species of Gaucha is raised to
eleven, two of which are from Argentina and eight from Brazil.
The additions herein presented make necessary to amend the morphological diagnosis of Gaucha. Botero-
Trujillo et al. (2017) reported the presence of black marks on the whitish bands of the opisthosomal pleural
membranes as one among various diagnostic features of the genus. While this aspect is shared by all species of
Gaucha known at that time, G. ramirezi sp. nov. exhibits white marks on the blackish band (i.e., the inverse
pattern), something hitherto restricted to Mummucina in “stricto sensu” and Vempironiella (Botero-Trujillo 2016;
Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017). For all other aspects, however, this species fits well in Gaucha and into no any other
genus, prompting us to minimize the importance that this character has in the generic diagnosis in effect. On
account of this very characteristic feature of G. ramirezi sp. nov. and uncertain about this species’ affinities to other
members of the genus, we conservatively abstain from assigning it into any of the two species-groups.
FIGURE 1. Map plotting known locality records of Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. and Gaucha santana sp. nov.
Material and methods
Specimens studied and specifically referred in the present work belong to the following collections:
Arachnological Collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires,
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Argentina (MACN-Ar); Laboratorio de Biología Reproductiva y Evolución, Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología
Animal, CONICET—Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina (LBRE); Museu de Ciências
Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil (MCN). Apart from the two species
herein dealt with, specimens belonging to other Gaucha species considered by Botero-Trujillo et al. (2017) were
examined and directly compared to the new species.
Style and terminology used for the species descriptions follow the most recent taxonomic works on
Mummuciidae (Botero-Trujillo 2016; Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017). Terminology used for identifying teeth and other
structures in the chelicerae follows Bird et al. (2015). Identification of individual teeth used Bird et al.’s (2015: 83)
criteria for primary homology assessment of dentition. In line with recent works (e.g., Bird & Wharton 2015;
Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017) we use the terms basi- and telotarsus for the pedipalp segments traditionally referred to
as metatarsus and tarsus. The term ‘ctenidia’ stands for long, single-tipped (non-bifid) and flexible setiform
structures present on some opisthosomal sternites. It is used in a way different to that of Maury (1984, 1998), who
applied this term to a different structure that in members of this family is present along posterior margin of 4
th
post-
genital sternite, and which subsequently has come to be known as a ‘row of rigid hairs’ (Botero-Trujillo 2016;
Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017).
Specimens were examined with Leica M165 C and Leica S8AP0 stereomicroscopes. Photographs under
visible light and scanning electron micrographs were obtained at the MACN following Botero-Trujillo et al. (2017:
10). Photographs of the chelicerae were obtained under the same positioning parameters specified by Botero-
Trujillo et al. (2017: 10); therefore, these can be used along with images of the chelicerae of other Gaucha species
published by the mentioned authors, in any shape-based morphometric approach to come in the future. Metric data,
in millimeters, were obtained using an ocular micrometer fitted to a Leitz Wetzlar stereomicroscope.
In light of the current interest to inventory biodiversity through DNA barcodes, tissues dissected from selected
specimens of Gaucha were processed by the International Barcode of Life (iBOL) Argentina (http://ibol.org/
argentina/) team at the MACN. DNA-quality tissues of G. ramirezi sp. nov. were not available, and attempts to
obtain DNA from 80% ethanol-preserved specimens of this species were unsuccessful. Genomic DNA was
extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was performed according to standard procedures summarized by Ramírez
& Grismado (2015). Sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) fragment was
performed at the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding—CCDB (Canada). Sequences were analyzed in the BOLD
Systems platform (http://www.boldsystems.org/). A Neighbor-Joining clustering of the sequences was generated
there, using Kimura 2-parameter distance model and MUSCLE alignment method. BOLD process IDs (i.e.,
SSA###-##) are specific identifiers within the project “Solifugae of South America,” whereby the data and
photographic record of voucher specimens are stored.
Data for voucher specimens sequenced for COI marker are as follow:
Gaucha curupi Botero-Trujillo, Ott & Carvalho, 2017: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul: São Francisco de Assis,
Cerro Sul, sandy soil derived from the Arenito Botucatu, 160–170 m elev., 29°30′48.99″ S 55°07′15.79″ W,
pitfall, xii.2014, R. Ott & R. Botero Trujillo, 1 juvenile (MCN-Sol-032, tissue sample Sol-M00059, BOLD
process ID SSA059-16). São Francisco de Assis, iv–v.2005, R. Ott, 1 juvenile (MCN-Sol-034, tissue sample
Sol-M00058, BOLD process ID SSA058-16). São Francisco de Assis, Jacaquá, sandy soil derived from the
Arenito Botucatu, 210–220 m elev., 29°36′40.98″ S 55°08′09.15″ W, 27.xi.2009, R. Ott, 1 juvenile (MCN-Sol-
033, tissue sample Sol-M00057, BOLD process ID SSA057-16).
Gaucha fasciata Mello-Leitão, 1924: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul: Porto Alegre, Reserva Biológica do Lami,
sandy restinga, 8 m elev., 30°14′08.77″ S 51°06′12.29″ W, 16.xii.2009, R. Ott, 1 juvenile (MCN-Sol-036,
tissue sample Sol-M00060, BOLD process ID SSA060-16); 1 juvenile (MCN-Sol-037, tissue sample Sol-
M00061, BOLD process ID SSA061-16). Porto Alegre, Jardim Botânico, granito, 46 m elev., 30°03′13.11″ S
51°10′35.18″ W, xii.2014, R. Ott & R. Botero Trujillo, 1 male (MCN-Sol-035, tissue sample Sol-M00062,
BOLD process ID SSA062-16). Viamão, Águas Claras, between Estrada da Pimenta and Estrada da Faxina,
1.5 km SW of the Brahma brewery factory (Itapuã Formation, paleodune), 63 m elev., 30°11′05.74″ S
50°52′52.60″ W, xii.2014, R. Ott & R. Botero Trujillo, 1 juvenile (MCN-Sol-048, tissue sample Sol-M00063,
BOLD process ID SSA063-16).
Gaucha santana sp. nov.: See the ‘type material’ section for this species below.
All COI sequences were deposited in GenBank database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) with the
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following accession numbers, i.e., BOLD process IDs [GenBank accession #]: SSA054-16 [MK246630], SSA055-
16 [MK246631], SSA056-16 [MK246632], SSA057-16 [MK246633], SSA058-16 [MK246634], SSA059-16
[MK246635], SSA060-16 [MK246636], SSA061-16 [MK246637], SSA062-16 [MK246638], SSA063-16
[MK246639].
Taxonomy
Family Mummuciidae Roewer, 1934
Genus Gaucha Mello-Leitão, 1924
Gaucha Mello-Leitão, 1924: 140–141 (as Gaùcha [sic]).
Gauchella Mello-Leitão, 1937: 84 (synonymized by Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017: 13).
Metacleobis Roewer, 1934: 589 (synonymized by Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017: 13).
Mummuciella Roewer, 1934: 583, 587 (synonymized by Mello-Leitão 1937: 84).
Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov.
Figures 1, 2–4; Table 1
Type material. Holotype: male from ARGENTINA: Córdoba: Pocho, Parque Natural Provincial y Reserva
Forestal Natural Chancaní, forest with livestock, 31°22′21.788″ S 65°29′20.706″ W, 05–13.xii.2010, M.F. Nime &
C.I. Mattoni, pitfall (MACN-Ar 39101). Paratypes: same data of holotype, 8 males, 6 females (MACN-Ar); 9
males, 1 female, 2 juveniles (LBRE 401); 7 males, 1 female, 1 juvenile (LBRE 402); 4 males, 1 female, 1 juvenile
(LBRE 403); 1 male, 2 females, 1 juvenile (LBRE 404).
Additional material examined. ARGENTINA: Córdoba: Same locality and data of holotype but, 03–
09.ii.2011, 1 male, 1 juvenile (LBRE). Parque Natural Provincial y Reserva Forestal Natural Chancaní, mature
forest, 31°21′1.192″ S 65°28′56.755″ W, 12–19.i.2010, M.F. Nime & C.I. Mattoni, pitfall, 7 males, 2 females
(MACN-Ar); 5 males, 2 females, 2 juveniles (MACN-Ar); 6 males, 1 female, 1 juvenile (LBRE); 2 males, 1
juvenile (LBRE); 1 female (LBRE); 1 juvenile (LBRE); 1 male (LBRE); 6 males, 8 juveniles (LBRE); 6 males, 1
female, 2 juveniles (LBRE); 1 male, 1 juvenile (LBRE); 2 males, 1 female, 1 juvenile (LBRE); 7 males (LBRE); 2
males (LBRE); 1 male (LBRE). Same locality and data but, 03–11.xi.2010, 2 males (LBRE); 1 male (LBRE).
Parque Natural Provincial y Reserva Forestal Natural Chancaní, secondary forest, 31°21′28.847″ S 65°29′17.282″
W, 04–12.xii.2010, M.F. Nime & C.I. Mattoni, pitfall, 4 males, 1 female, 2 juveniles (LBRE). Parque Natural
Provincial y Reserva Forestal Natural Chancaní, Jarillal, 31°23′26.617″ S 65°27′17.758″ W, 05–13.xii.2010, M.F.
Nime & C.I. Mattoni, pitfall, 1 male (LBRE). Parque Natural Provincial y Reserva Forestal Natural Chancaní, 10–
14.xi.2010, M.F. Nime & C.I. Mattoni, pitfall, 12 males, 1 juvenile (LBRE). Santiago del Estero: Parque Nacional
Copo, 26°04′ S 61°44′ W, 23–25.x.2003, collector unspecified, pitfall, 1 male (MACN-Ar 30501).
Etymology. The species name is dedicated to the arachnologist Martín J. Ramírez, from the Museo Argentino
de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”—CONICET (Buenos Aires, Argentina). RBT wants to specially
thank him for his academic guidance during the former’s stay at the MACN.
Diagnosis. Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. differs from the remaining species in the genus by having white marks on
the black band of the opisthosomal pleural membranes (Fig. 3D), whereas species in the fasciata and ibirapemussu
species-groups have black marks on the white band. The flagellum is ovoid in shape (Figs. 4E,F), somewhat
similar to that of G. fulvipes (Roewer, 1934) and G. casuhati; however, in the male of G. ramirezi sp. nov. the fixed
finger lacks the subterminal flange (STF) that is present in G. fulvipes, and the flagellum is considerably less
inflated than in G. casuhati (Figs. 4C,D). The flagellum of G. ramirezi sp. nov. has a very broad apex on dorsal
aspect and is densely coated with conspicuous spicules, especially on the dorsal surface and subdistal region of the
prolateral surface (Fig. 4F). In this respect, the surface ornamentation of the flagellum resembles that of G. avexada
Botero-Trujillo, Ott & Carvalho, 2017, although the spicules are notably longer in the latter species.
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FIGURE 2. Habitat of Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. in Parque Natural Provincial y Reserva Forestal Natural Chancaní and
surroundings, Córdoba, Argentina. A. Mature forest. B, C. Secondary forest. D. Forest with livestock.
Systematic position. The presence of white marks on the opisthosomal pleura of G. ramirezi sp. nov., prevents
us from confidently placing this species into any of the species-groups of Gaucha thus far defined. Currently, only
the fasciata species-group is supported by a combination of apomorphic discrete-character states and shape
configurations of the chelicera of males, whereas the monophyly of the ibirapemussu group is supported by
landmark data only (Botero-Trujillo et al.’s 2017: fig. 8). The internal classification of Mummuciidae is on its early
stages, and we find premature to place G. ramirezi sp. nov. into one or the other species-groups of Gaucha. While
this species may belong to either of the species groups, having developed the characteristic white marks, it is also
possible that it may represent a basal lineage in the Gaucha clade (e.g., with these marks being plesiomorphic).
Description. For most aspects the general morphology fits that described for the genus by Botero-Trujillo et
al. (2017). Color: Propeltidium color predominantly whitish, with yellowish-to-brown median area without well-
defined borders; ocular tubercle dark except for a median longitudinal light band. Chelicerae with manus
predominantly yellowish to brown, with some white areas; limits between the setose and asetose areas often
darkened; fingers reddish, especially on the teeth. Meso-, metapeltidium and dorsal surface of opisthosoma with a
three-dark-band design typical of the family: tergites with median, longitudinal brown band, and a pair of lateral
whitish bands; pleural membranes with sub-dorsal black and sub-ventral white bands; black band of opisthosomal
pleural membrane with white marks surrounding the socket of most setae, especially on posterior half; sternites
yellowish, immaculate except for posterior margin of one–three posteriormost sternites which is darkened. Ventral
surface of prosoma uniformly yellowish; sternum lighter than coxae. Pedipalps and legs yellow to brown;
pedipalps progressively becoming darker towards the apex, such that the telotarsus is nearly black. Malleoli
whitish, often with distal margin darkened. Morphology: Opisthosoma with ctenidia present, at least on 2
nd
to 4
th
post-genital sternites (spiracular sternite II and post-spiracular sternites I–II), scarce in spiracular II but more
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abundant in the others; ctenidia filiform and setiform, similar in thickness to the bifid setae (in male and female);
although ctenidia are apparently absent from spiracular sternite I, this is not clear due to the current state of
preservation of the material, e.g., ctenidia, if any, may have fallen off. Chelicerae, fixed finger with median teeth
series comprising all primary teeth, i.e., FP, FM, FD; with one (FSM) secondary teeth series and without FSD teeth.
Legs II and III: basitarsus with row of three proventral, row of three retroventral, and one distal subventral
spiniform setae, in a 2.2.3 rather staggered pattern; telotarsus bi-segmented with pro- and retroventral rows of five
and four spiniform setae respectively, in a 1.2.2/2.2 pattern. Leg IV: basitarsus with row of four proventral and one
distal retroventral spiniform setae, in a 1.1.1.2 pattern; telotarsus bi-segmented with incomplete (ventral)
segmentation on first (basal) tarsomere, with pro- and retroventral rows of six spiniform setae each, in a 2.2.2-2/2.2
pattern. Male: Metric data as in Table 1. Cheliceral fixed finger with primary teeth of normal size for the genus,
graded as FP≈FM>FD or FP>FM>FD; mucron moderately long, without subterminal flange (STF). Movable
finger MP tooth pronounced, markedly taller than MM; mucron short (as compared to that of the ibirapemussu
species-group described by Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017), with gnathal edge carina very prominent and convex on
lateral aspect. Flagellum inflated and narrowing anteriorly, conspicuously covered with abundant spicules on
dorsal and prolateral surfaces. Female: Metric data as in Table 1. Similar to male but without male-specific
secondary sexual characters. Chelicera on lateral aspect, fixed finger dorsal margin strongly curved and without
angular dorsal crest, with highest elevation near the level of FM tooth. Fixed finger robust, with mucron distinctly
curved towards the venter. Movable finger MP tooth moderately taller than MM tooth.
Distribution and habitat. Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. is primarily known from the Chancaní Provincial Park
and Forest Reserve, located in the southernmost portion of the Arid Chaco ecoregion (NT0701 in Olson et al.
2001) in Córdoba province, Argentina. A specimen from the Copo National Park, in Santiago del Estero province,
northern Argentina, was also available for this study. Both localities share a similar xerophytic environment and
belong to the same biome: Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands (Olson et al. 2001).
Although the latter specimen is herein presumed to be conspecific to those from the type locality, additional
scrutiny, when other specimens become available, may be necessary to clarify the specific identity of that
population.
The Chancaní Park and Reserve was created and fenced in 1986, and since, its vegetation has been protected
from human disturbance (Cabido & Pacha 2002). Vegetation in the reserve is dry xerophilous woodland. The
canopy is discontinuous and ~15 m high, whereas the shrub stratum (~4 m high) is thorny, dense, and almost
continuous (Carranza et al. 1992). The climate in the reserve is highly seasonal, with a pronounced dry season.
In the Arid Chaco ecoregion, the fire season usually coincides with the frost season, from May to September
(Kunst & Bravo 2003). Wildfire affected the Chancaní Reserve in December 1994. It was an out of season, high-
intensity fire that started under extremely dry conditions due to a long delay in the onset of the rainy season. The
fire covered 32,000 ha of Arid Chaco forest, affecting 230 ha within the western boundaries of the Chancaní
Reserve. This fire generated a secondary forest area next to the main forest area.
There are four different ecological-type sites within the study site. (1) The mature forest site shows forest
formations that are close to climax conditions, mainly with trees such as Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco and
Prosopis flexuosa. The shrub layer is dominated by Larrea divaricata, Mymozyganthus carinatus and Acacia
furcatispina (Carranza et al. 1992). (2) The secondary forest site shows dense and homogeneous vegetation,
dominated by high grasses (about 1 m tall) and shrubs of about 2.5 m in height. In this area, young trees are
common and dead trees are still standing (Pelegrin & Bucher 2010). (3) The Jarillal site is located in the central
area of the reserve. In the past, this area was used for the logging of large trees for fuel and charcoal. Currently, it is
dominated by shrubs of the genus Larrea (“jarilla”); the area is not used for any activities and is recovering. (4) The
forest with livestock is a private area facing the reserve that has been used for years for raising livestock, hence the
site is much degraded with low, scattered shrubs.
Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. appears to be much more abundant in the mature forest (49 males, 8 females, 17
juveniles) and in the forest with livestock (31 males, 11 females, 6 juvs.), compared to the secondary forest (4
males, 1 female, 2 juvs.) and Jarillal (1 male).
Notes. Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. was found in sympatry with Cordobulgida bruchi, the latter being much less
abundant in the sample studied at a ratio of 18:1 specimens, respectively.
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FIGURE 3. Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. A. Male holotype, habitus, dorsal aspect (MACN-Ar 39101). B. Male paratype,
propeltidium and chelicerae, dorsal aspect (LBRE 402). C. Ibid. for female paratype (LBRE 402). D. Female paratype,
opisthosoma, dorsal aspect (LBRE 402). E. Male, opisthosoma, 3
rd
and 4
th
post-genital sternites (LBRE); selected ctenidia are
indicated by arrows (zooming-in is recommended for proper visualization). Scale bars: 1 mm (A, C, D); 0.5 mm (B); 0.2 mm
(E).
Gaucha santana sp. nov.
Figures 1, 5–9; Table 1
Gaucha sp.: Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017: 39 [in part, records from Santana do Livramento only], figs. 3c–f.
Type material. Holotype: male from BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul: Santana do Livramento—Área de Proteção
Ambiental do Rio Ibirapuitã, Fazenda Rincão dos Moraes, 185 m elev., 30°29′08.99″ S 55°34′35.51″ W,
30.xi.2013, R. Ott (MCN-Sol-018). Paratypes: same data of holotype, 1 male (MCN-Sol-016); 1 female (MCN-
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Sol-017); 2 males, 1 female, 3 juveniles (MCN-Sol-041). Same locality and data but, xii.2014, R. Ott & R. Botero
Trujillo, 1 male, 1 female, 10 juveniles (MCN-Sol-047); 1 male (MCN-Sol-046, tissue sample Sol-M00054, BOLD
process ID SSA054-16); 1 male (MCN-Sol-044, tissue sample Sol-M00055, BOLD process ID SSA055-16); 1
subadult female (MCN-Sol-043, tissue sample Sol-M00056, BOLD process ID SSA056-16). Same locality and
data but, Fazenda Sr. Caio, 185 m elev., 29.xi.2013, R. Ott, 4 males, 2 females, 4 juveniles (MCN-Sol-015).
Additional material examined. BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul: Santana do Livramento—Área de Proteção
Ambiental do Rio Ibirapuitã, “Cerrito Reserva”, 263 m elev., 30°36′33.87″ S 55°38′30.18″ W, xii.2014, R. Ott & R.
Botero Trujillo, 1 male (MCN-Sol-045); unknown date, R. Ott, 1 female (MCN-Sol-042). Área de Proteção
Ambiental do Rio Ibirapuitã, “Afloramento Passo do Ferrão”, 174 m elev., 30°27′15.97″ S 55°43′25.71″ W,
14.xi.2011, 2 males, 2 females, 2 juveniles (MCN-Sol-019). Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Ibirapuitã,
01.xi.2013, R. Ott, 1 male, 1 female (MACN-Ar).
FIGURE 4. Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov., chelicerae. A, B. Right chelicera of female paratype (MACN-Ar). A. Retrolateral
aspect. B. Prolateral aspect. CF. Right chelicera of male paratype (MACN-Ar). C. Retrolateral aspect. D. Prolateral aspect
(under SEM). E. Flagellum. F. Ibid. (under SEM). Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A–D); 0.2 mm (E, F).
Etymology. Noun in apposition taken from the municipality ‘Santana do Livramento’, part of whose territory
forms the Ibirapuitã Environmental Protection Area where this species was collected.
Diagnosis. Gaucha santana sp. nov. belongs to the fasciata species-group of Gaucha, as defined by Botero-
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Trujillo et al. (2017: 15). In various respects, males of G. santana sp. nov. most closely resemble those of G. curupi
among species in this group. These include that the fixed finger FP and FM teeth are elongated, whereas the FD
tooth is much smaller, such that primary teeth are graded as FP≈FM>>FD (Fig. 8C). Likewise, the fixed finger
mucron is markedly long, similarly shaped in males of both species, and a subterminal flange (STF) is not present
in either (Figs. 8C,E), besides both have the flagellum moderately inflated (Figs. 8E,F) (e.g., unlike that of G.
casuhati). Gaucha santana sp. nov. can be recognized by the absence of the fixed finger FSD tooth (regardless of
sex or maturity of the specimens) (Figs. 8A,C); in contrast, females of G. curupi always bear the FSD tooth, while
FSD is most often present (though reduced) in males. Furthermore, the FD tooth, which is reduced in males of the
two species, is comparatively larger in those of G. santana sp. nov. (Fig. 8C).
FIGURE 5. Live specimens of Gaucha santana sp. nov., photographed in the field. A. Male. B, C. Two different females.
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FIGURE 6. Habitat of Gaucha santana sp. nov. in Santana do Livramento—Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Ibirapuitã,
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A, B. Fazenda Rincão dos Moraes, showing typical sandy and stony soils. C, D. Large basalt
outcrops, “Afloramento Passo do Ferrão”.
Description. For most aspects the general morphology fits that described for the genus and the fasciata
species-group by Botero-Trujillo et al. (2017). Color: Propeltidium brown, with some slightly lighter areas; ocular
tubercle brown to black. Chelicerae with manus predominantly brown and fingers reddish. Meso-, metapeltidium
and dorsal surface of opisthosoma with a three-dark-band design typical of the family: tergites with broad, median,
longitudinal brown band, and paired, thinner lateral whitish bands; pleural membranes with sub-dorsal black and
sub-ventral white bands; white band of opisthosomal pleural membrane with black marks surrounding the socket of
most setae, and black pigment along the inter-segmental transversal vertices especially on posterior half; sternites
yellowish brown, with lateral margins conspicuously darkened, especially on two/three posteriormost sternites.
Ventral surface of prosoma uniformly yellowish; sternum lighter than coxae. Pedipalps and legs dark brown
especially on dorsal and prolateral surfaces, lighter on ventral and retrolateral surfaces; pedipalp with telotarsus
darker than the rest of pedipalp. Malleoli whitish, often with distal margin darkened. Morphology: Opisthosoma
with scarce ctenidia on 1
st
and 2
nd
post-genital sternites (spiracular sternites), more abundant on 3
rd
and 4
th
post-
genital sternites (post-spiracular sternites I–II); ctenidia filiform and setiform, similar in thickness to the bifid setae
(in male and female). Chelicerae, fixed finger with median teeth series comprising all primary teeth, i.e., FP, FM,
FD; with one (FSM) secondary teeth series and without FSD teeth. Legs II and III: basitarsus with row of three
proventral, row of three retroventral, and one distal subventral spiniform setae, in a 2.2.3 rather staggered pattern;
telotarsus bi-segmented with pro- and retroventral rows of five and four spiniform setae respectively, in a 1.2.2/2.2
pattern. Leg IV: basitarsus with row of four proventral and one distal retroventral spiniform setae, in a 1.1.1.2
pattern; telotarsus bi-segmented with incomplete (ventral) segmentation on first (basal) tarsomere, with pro- and
retroventral rows of six spiniform setae each, in a 2.2.2-2/2.2 pattern. Male: Metric data as in Table 1. Cheliceral
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fixed finger with well-developed FP and FM primary teeth, FD tooth much smaller, graded as FP≈FM>>FD;
mucron markedly long, without subterminal flange (STF). Movable finger MP tooth pronounced, markedly taller
than MM; mucron short, typical of the fasciata species-group, with gnathal edge carina very prominent and convex
on lateral aspect. Flagellum inflated and narrowing anteriorly, with minute spicules along prodorsal and proventral
margins. Female: Metric data as in Table 1. Similar to male but without male-specific secondary sexual characters.
Chelicera on lateral aspect, fixed finger dorsal margin moderately curved and without angular dorsal crest, with
highest elevation at level between FM and FD teeth. Fixed finger robust, with mucron distinctly curved towards the
venter. Movable finger MP tooth moderately taller than MM tooth.
FIGURE 7. Gaucha santana sp. nov. A. Male holotype, habitus, dorsal aspect (MCN-Sol-018). B. Male paratype,
propeltidium and chelicerae, dorsal aspect (MCN-Sol-044). C. Ibid. for female paratype (MCN-Sol-047). D. Male paratype,
opisthosoma, lateral aspect (MCN-Sol-044). E. Male paratype, opisthosoma, 1
st
to 4
th
post-genital sternites (MCN-Sol-044);
selected ctenidia are indicated by arrows (zooming-in is recommended for proper visualization). Scale bars: 2 mm (A); 1 mm
(B–D); 0.25 mm (E).
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TABLE 1. Metric data for Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. and Gaucha santana sp. nov. Measurements in millimeters for one
male and one female. L = length; W = width; H = height.
1
Measured along medial axis, from the propeltidium anterior
margin to the opisthosoma posterior margin.
2
Measured in dorsal view at widest point.
3
Measured in retrolateral view
parallel to longitudinal axis of chelicera, from the fixed finger apex to anterolateral propeltidial lobe anterior margin.
4
Measured in retrolateral view, along vertical axis at highest part of manus.
5
Sum of individual segment lengths.
6
Maximum height.
7
Measurement excludes claws.
Distribution, habitat and biological observations. Gaucha santana sp. nov. is known only from the type
locality, Santana do Livramento—Área de Proteção Ambiental do Rio Ibirapuitã, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul,
southern Brazil. The Ibirapuitã Environmental Protection Area is a conservation unit located in the northernmost
portion of the Uruguayan Savanna ecoregion (NT0710 in Olson et al. 2001), into the biome of Tropical and
Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands. Grasslands dominate the area, and local geology is
characterized by shallow, sandy or stony soils with low capacity for water retention (Overbeck et al. 2015). Rocky
outcrops of basalt are notable formations; in the easternmost part of the protected area there is a place where
sandstone emerges below the basalt cover, in a formation known as "Costa do Haedo". Specimens of G. santana sp.
nov. have been observed in open fields of stony soils with little grassy vegetation, often resembling small rocky
islands, or running on large basalt outcrops.
No specimens of G. santana sp. nov. were found in morning hours. The peak of activity of this species
seemingly starts at noon, and activity can be noticed until right before twilight begins. With respect to seasonality,
the species exhibits the greatest activity in spring and summer, especially from November to January, and this
presumably coincides with the breeding season.
In the field, adult females were sometimes observed digging burrows in the late afternoon. In early December
2012, one of these specimens was taken to the laboratory where shortly afterwards, in its new place over a litter
Species Gaucha ramirezi sp. nov. Gaucha santana sp. nov.
Voucher Male holotype MACN-Ar 39101
[Female paratype MACN-Ar]
Male holotype MCN-Sol-018
[Female paratype MCN-Sol-041]
Total body L (w/o chelicerae)
1
8.11[9.58] 8.51[15.16]
Propeltidium L 1.57[1.77] 1.97[2.50]
W
2
1.67[2.17] 2.37[3.59]
Chelicera L
3
2.10[2.80] 2.50[4.52]
W
2
0.75[1.00] 1.13[1.63]
H
4
0.77[1.00] 1.17[1.67]
Pedipalp total L
5
4.90[5.33] 6.59[7.87]
Femur L 1.80[1.83] 2.53[2.87]
Tibia L 1.43[1.57] 1.93[2.33]
Tibia W
2
0.42[0.48] 0.55[0.67]
Basitarsus + telotarsus L 1.67[1.93] 2.13[2.67]
Leg I total L
5
3.73[4.00] 5.31[5.93]
Patella L 1.10[1.17] 1.67[1.60]
Tibia L 1.23[1.33] 1.67[2.10]
Basitarsus L 0.77[0.87] 1.07[1.33]
Telotarsus L 0.63[0.63] 0.90[0.90]
Leg IV total L (w/o claws)
5
6.24[5.90] 8.67[9.84]
Patella L 2.07[1.97] 2.87[3.10]
Patella H
6
0.57[0.65] 0.80[0.97]
Tibia L 1.83[1.83] 2.63[3.07]
Basitarsus L 1.47[1.37] 2.00[2.30]
Telotarsus L
7
0.87[0.73] 1.17[1.37]
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layer, laid 73 eggs, but none hatched. A year later, in December 2013, another female was captured in digging
behavior and taken to the laboratory; there she laid 25 eggs, 23 from which larvae emerged after 37 days. All larvae
died and no other observations could be performed. Images of the cited egg-laying females are available in Botero-
Trujillo et al. (2017: figs. 3E,F).
Notes. No any other mummuciid species was found in the area inhabited by G. santana sp. nov.
FIGURE 8. Gaucha santana sp. nov., chelicerae. A, B. Right chelicera of female paratype (MCN-Sol-015). A. Retrolateral
aspect. B. Prolateral aspect. CF. Right chelicera of male paratype (MCN-Sol-041). C. Retrolateral aspect. D. Prolateral aspect
(under SEM). E. Flagellum. F. Ibid. (under SEM). Scale bars: 1 mm (A,B); 0.5 mm (C,D); 0.2 mm (E,F).
Barcode. Three COI sequences (657 bp) obtained from different specimens of G. santana sp. nov. had
identical nucleotide composition (0% intra-specific divergence). An identification search in BOLD Systems for
this sequence (Barcode Index Number: BOLD:ADD5797) indicated closer match with Gaucha fasciata
(BIN:BOLD:ADD5134) followed by Gaucha curupi (BIN:BOLD:ADD8503), with 90.66–90.67% and 89.76–
90.21% similarity range values, respectively. Figure 9 shows the clustering pattern of sequences of the three
species.
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Acknowledgments
The authors are thankful to the curators of institutional collections who loaned specimens of Gaucha species, most
importantly type specimens, especially: Peter Jäger (SMF, Germany), Adalberto Santos (UFMG, Brazil), Leonardo
S. Carvalho (UFPI, Brazil), Ricardo Pinto da Rocha (MZUSP, Brazil), and Alexandre B. Bonaldo (MPEG, Brazil).
We are grateful to the Secretarı́a de Ambiente, Gobierno de la Provincia de Córdoba (Argentina), for granting
access to conduct work in the Chancanı́ Reserve. We thank Cristian J. Grismado (MACN) and two anonymous
referees for providing valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. A pre-submission review was
also performed by Martín J. Ramírez (MACN), to whom the homage herein made to him was not revealed at that
time. RBT was supported by a 3-year Doctoral Fellowship associated to PICT 2011-01007 from the “Fondo para la
Investigación Científica y Tecnológica—FONCyT”, Argentina, and a 2-year Doctoral Fellowship from the
“Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas—CONICET”, Argentina. Financial support was
received from PICT 2010-1764 to AAOA, and PICT 2011-1007 and PIP 2012-0943 to Martín J. Ramírez. COI
sequences were processed into the project entitled “Taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on solifuges (Arachnida;
Solifugae), based on morphological and molecular data using DNA barcode”; iBOL Argentina—2012, to AAOA.
We wish to thank Elisabet Vilacoba and Darío A. Lijtmaer (MACN) for speedy handling of the DNA plate for
barcoding. Fieldwork in the Chancaní Reserve was supported by a Rufford Small Grant Foundation award to MFN,
and by SECYT (UNC) grant 214/10 to CIM. RBT’s trip to Rio Grande do Sul was partially supported by a 2014
grant of the American Arachnological Society, for which he is thankful.
FIGURE 9. Neighbor-Joining clustering for selected species of the fasciata species-group of Gaucha Mello-Leitão, 1924.
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... To compare the morphology of the spicules and the tegument of the male chelicerae flagellum, we also examined SEM images kindly provided by Ricardo Botero-Trujillo, and produced at the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" (MACN, Buenos Aires, Argentina), as described in previous papers (Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017, 2019b. These images were taken from a male paratype of Gaucha ramirezi Botero-Trujillo, Ott, Mattoni, Nime, Ojanguren-Affilastro, 2019, from the type-locality (Argentina, Córdoba, Pocho, Parque Natural ...
... These spicules in the prodorsal and prolateral margins are inserted on an apparently rough tegument, in M. titschacki, though this rough area is not exclusive to the area covered by spicules (Botero-Trujillo 2014, figs 13 and 15). A similar pattern appears to be present in G. santana (Botero-Trujillo et al. 2019b, fig. 8E, SEM original file examined). ...
... Morphology of flagellum tegument and spicules among Gaucha species and other representatives of Mummuciidae and Ammotrechidae. Data from other taxa taken from literature Botero-Trujillo 2014, 2016Botero-Trujillo et al. 2017, 2019ba;Carvalho & Botero-Trujillo 2019;Iuri et al. 2014;Maury 1980). n/a: not applicable. ...
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The South American sun-spider genus Gaucha Mello-Leitão, 1924 is herein studied from a combined approach of cladistics and traditional taxonomy. This is the first cladistic analysis for a group of mummuciid solifuges, and it is pioneer in integrating traditional morphological characters with landmark data for inferring the phylogeny of any group of Solifugae. As a result, Gaucha is redefined and its monophyly demonstrated. Gaucha fasciata Mello-Leitão, 1924, type species of this formerly monotypic genus, is redescribed based on specimens from the type locality, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Three new species are described from Brazil: Gaucha avexada sp.nov. from Bahia and Tocantins, Gaucha curupi sp.nov. from Rio Grande do Sul, and Gaucha eremolembra sp.nov. from Minas Gerais. A fourth new species, Gaucha casuhati sp.nov., is described from Buenos Aires province, Argentina. In addition, Metacleobis Roewer, 1934 and Gauchella Mello-Leitão, 1937 are synonymized with Gaucha, following the examination of the type specimens and based upon evidence from the cladistic analysis. Gaucha fulvipes (Roewer, 1934) comb.nov., from Mato Grosso (Brazil), is therefore proposed, whereas Gaucha stoeckeli Roewer, 1934 comb.rest., from Luribay (Bolivia), is restored into its original name combination. Gaucha ibirapemussu (Carvalho et al., 2010) comb.nov. and Gaucha mauryi (Rocha, 2001) comb.nov., from the Brazilian states of Piauí and Bahia, are also transferred, from Mummucia Simon, 1879. Gaucha is here defined, among other characters, by the large size of the cheliceral movable finger MP tooth as compared to MM tooth, and by the presence of a pronounced gnathal edge carina on the movable finger mucron of males. Two speciesgroups are herein defined within the genus: the fasciata group, for G. casuhati sp.nov., G. curupi sp.nov., G. fasciata, G. fulvipes comb. nov. and G. stoeckeli comb.rest., and the ibirapemussu group, for G. avexada sp.nov., G. eremolembra sp.nov., G. ibirapemussu comb. nov. and G. mauryi comb.nov. A key to the identification of Gaucha species is included.
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A new genus and species in the South American sun-spider family Mummuciidae, Vempironiella aguilari gen. nov., sp. nov., is herein described from a series of specimens from the coastal desert of Punta Hermosa, Peru. Vempironiella can be readily distinguished from all other known mummuciid genera, by the absence of the cheliceral movable finger MM tooth and the presence of a diastema between the RFA and RFP teeth on the fixed finger. With this description, the number of valid species of mummuciids is 19, three of which have been described from Peru. Males of V. aguilari measure 3.90-5.85 mm in total body length making it the smallest solifuge species known to date. The cheliceral morphology of V. aguilari is discussed and some hypotheses on the function of morphology are provided.
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Melanoblossiidae Roewer, 1933 is a small family of solifuges (Solifugae, Arachnida), comprising two subfamilies: Melanoblossiinae Roewer, 1933 and the monotypic Dinorhaxinae Roewer, 1933. The Mela-no blossiinae consists of 15 currently recognised species, restricted to southern Africa. A new species, Melanoblossia ansie sp. n., placed in the Melanoblossiinae, is described from Namibia. This brings to five the number of species in Melanoblossia Purcell, 1903, and is the first record of Melanoblossia from Namibia. The flagellum and principal seta of the setiform flagellar complex characteristic of Melanoblossiinae are discussed.
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This authoritative catalogue will greatly assist readers in finding the correct taxonomic name for any given family, genus or species within each of the six arachnid orders treated. It contains a valuable summary of bibliographic information, enabling readers to access the worldwide literature for these smaller orders. The catalogue presents full bibliographic data on each of the taxa named thus far, treating over 1600 species. It contains the most current classification system for each group, some of which have not been catalogued on a world scale for over 70 years. A summary of taxonomic changes is included. This quality reference will be of immense value to arachnologists, systematists, taxonomists, ecologists and biodiversity professionals, especially those interested in tropical rainforest communities.
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Arachnids of the order Solifugae (solifuges, false spiders, sun spiders, camel spiders, Walzenspinne, wind spiders) possess the largest jaws for body size among the Chelicerata. The chelicerae provide the most important character systems for solifuge systematics, including dentition and the male cheliceral flagellum, both used extensively for species delimitation and diagnosis. However, the terminology used for cheliceral characters is not standardized and often contradictory, in part because it fails to represent homologous structures among taxa. Misinterpretation of character homology may introduce errors in phylogenetic analyses concerning relationships within Solifugae and among the orders of Chelicerata. This contribution presents the first comprehensive analysis of cheliceral morphology across the order Solifugae, the aims of which were to provide a broad survey of cheliceral characters for solifuge systematics, to identify and reinterpret structures based on primary homology, to revise the terminology to be consistent with homology hypotheses, and to provide a guide to terminological synonyms and character interpretations in the literature. Chelicerae were studied in 188 exemplar species (17% of the total), representing all 12 solifuge families, 17 of the 19 subfamilies, 64 genera (46% of the total), and the full range of variation in cheliceral morphology across the order. In total, 157 species representing 49 genera and 17 subfamilies are illustrated. Hypotheses of character transformation, particularly concerning the male flagellum, and a standardized terminology, are presented. The functional morphology of the chelicerae is discussed and the role of sexually dimorphic modifications to the male chelicerae in mating behavior emphasized. The revised terminology, based on hypotheses of primary homology, will facilitate solifuge revisionary systematics and provide a stronger basis for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships within the order Solifugae and testing the phylogenetic position of the order within Chelicerata.
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The long-term (14 years) effects of a high-intensity wildfire on a lizard assemblage were studied in Chancaní Provincial Natural Park and Forest Natural Reserve (Córdoba, Argentina), by comparing a burned area with an unburned one within the protected area. Lizard diversity and abundance were measured using 25 drift-fence pitfall traps in the burned area and in a portion of the unburned forest during two summers (2006-2007 and 2007-2008). A total of 426 lizards belonging to eight species were captured. Total captures were 40% higher in the unburned area than in the burned one. From the eight species recorded, five (Homonota fasciata, Leiosaurus paronae, Stenocercus doellojuradoi, Liolaemus chacoensis, and Teius teyou) were more abundant in the unburned area, whereas the remaining species (Tropidurus etheridgei, Mabuya dorsivittata and Vanzosaura rubricauda) did not differ between areas. The differences observed in lizard numbers between sites may be related to fire-driven changes. A marked increase in grass cover determining the reduced availability of bare and litter-covered ground, fallen logs and dead wood, favorite microhabitats for most lizard species, is of particular significance.
Revisión Sistemática y Filogenia de los Solífugos de la Familia Mummuciidae
  • R Botero-Trujillo
Botero-Trujillo, R. (2018) Revisión Sistemática y Filogenia de los Solífugos de la Familia Mummuciidae (Arachnida, Solifugae). Vol. 1 & 2. PhD Thesis, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 336 pp. & 209 pp. [unpublished]
Vegetación y Flora de la Reserva Natural Chancaní
  • M Cabido
  • M J Pacha
Cabido, M. & Pacha, M.J. (2002) Vegetación y Flora de la Reserva Natural Chancaní. Agencia Córdoba Ambiente, Córdoba, 50 pp.