ArticlePDF Available

Evaluating the English Proficiency of Faculty Members of a Higher Education Institution: Using Results to Develop Responsive Professional Development Program

Authors:
  • SEAMEO Regional Language Centre (Singapore)

Abstract and Figures

Current literatures reveal that English proficiency of Filipino workforce has declined through the years. The untrained and non-proficient teachers are heavily blamed on this pressing concern. With the aim of addressing the leading cause of the problem, this study investigated the level of English proficiency of faculty members of a higher education institution in the Philippines and proposed a program that could reverse the alarming trend. Utilizing mixed methods research design with 41 full-time faculty members as samples, this study found that majority of the teachers are in B1 and B2 levels (Intermediate and Upper Intermediate). In terms of specific language skill, writing is the lowest with majority of the teachers placed in A1 and A2 levels (Basic Users). Results of the study suggest that faculty members need to undergo several language enhancement courses such as Effective Communication, Academic and Professional Communication, Academic Writing with Research, and Effective Business and Report Writing, while the higher education institution involved in this study needs to support teachers in their formal higher studies, participation in workshops and trainings, publishing in scholarly journals, and serving as speakers or presenters in various academic forums. Discussion points that arise include implications of the findings and required actions from stakeholders. The study concludes with its limitations and important recommendations.
Content may be subject to copyright.
International Journal of English Linguistics; Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
ISSN 1923-869X E-ISSN 1923-8703
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
52
Evaluating the English Proficiency of Faculty Members of a Higher
Education Institution: Using Results to Develop Responsive
Professional Development Program
Joel C. Meniado1
1 The Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Yanbu, Saudi Arabia
Correspondence: Joel C. Meniado, English Language Institute, Yanbu Industrial College, Yanbu, Al Madinah,
41912, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: meniadoj@rcyci.edu.sa
Received: November 14, 2018 Accepted: December 19, 2018 Online Published: January 30, 2019
doi:10.5539/ijel.v9n2p52 URL: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v9n2p52
Abstract
Current literatures reveal that English proficiency of Filipino workforce has declined through the years. The
untrained and non-proficient teachers are heavily blamed on this pressing concern. With the aim of addressing
the leading cause of the problem, this study investigated the level of English proficiency of faculty members of a
higher education institution in the Philippines and proposed a program that could reverse the alarming trend.
Utilizing mixed methods research design with 41 full-time faculty members as samples, this study found that
majority of the teachers are in B1 and B2 levels (Intermediate and Upper Intermediate). In terms of specific
language skill, writing is the lowest with majority of the teachers placed in A1 and A2 levels (Basic Users).
Results of the study suggest that faculty members need to undergo several language enhancement courses such
as Effective Communication, Academic and Professional Communication, Academic Writing with Research, and
Effective Business and Report Writing, while the higher education institution involved in this study needs to
support teachers in their formal higher studies, participation in workshops and trainings, publishing in scholarly
journals, and serving as speakers or presenters in various academic forums. Discussion points that arise include
implications of the findings and required actions from stakeholders. The study concludes with its limitations and
important recommendations.
Keywords: English proficiency, Philippine higher education, faculty development program, language training,
continuing professional development
1. Introduction
English has become the global lingua franca in education, business, politics, science, and technology. It is widely
used as the medium of communication in acquiring and sharing information, performing business transactions,
forging and sustaining relationships, discovering new knowledge, and creating new innovations. In a global
context, English is used for integration and mobilization, sustainable development, human empowerment,
international security, and environmental protection. At a micro level, on the other hand, English is used to
promote equity and accessibility to economic and social development (International Consultants for Education &
Fairs, 2014).
In the Philippines, English language plays a very important role in every facet of Filipino’s life. With English
being one of the country’s official languages, it is imperative that every Filipino knows how to use the language.
Moreover, with government agencies and corporate organizations putting emphasis on fluency and accuracy in
English communication as essential criteria in hiring, promoting, and developing employees, there is a need for
every citizen to proficiently master the language even more.
However, in a study conducted by HA Cervantes Knowledge Systems, Inc. (Philippine Star, 2002), it was found
that Filipino college graduates only have English proficiency at the basic working proficiency level. This was
confirmed by a similar study conducted by EF Education First (Business Mirror, 2016) revealing that the English
proficiency of Filipino workforce has indeed declined, negatively affecting Filipinos’ global employability and
foreign investment opportunities. The two previous findings were corroborated in the recent report of Hopkins
International Partners (Morallo, 2018) stating that the average proficiency level of a Philippine college graduate
is Intermediate (CEFR B1), two notches lower than the ideal proficiency level (CEFR C2). The Ateneo Center
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
53
for English Language Teaching (ACELT, 2013) also found the same and urged authorities to do necessary actions
for Filipinos not to lose one of their most useful assets in contributing to national development.
The declining English proficiency of Filipinos can be attributed to several factors. According to Wilson (2009),
the untrained and non-proficient teachers contributed heavily to the problem. In a survey conducted by the
Department of Education in 2008, it was found that 80 per cent of secondary school teachers in the Philippines
failed an English proficiency exam. This shows teachers’ low proficiency in English, hence producing graduates
with relatively the same proficiency level. Other factors such as the country’s bilingual policy, the adverse effects
of media and information technology, erroneous English textbooks, and dwindling number of English television
channels are also thought to have contributed to the problem (Wilson, 2009).
With the aim of addressing the leading cause of the problem, this study investigated the level of English
proficiency of faculty members of a higher education institution in the Philippines and proposed a program that
could alleviate the alarming concern. Specifically, it tried to answer the following questions: 1) What is the level
of English proficiency of the respondents by macro-linguistic skill and overall? and 2) What specific faculty
development program (language training) is appropriate for faculty members based on the results of their English
proficiency test?
As teachers play essential role in the language proficiency development and enhancement of Filipino students,
they must be proficient enough to influence students by serving as effective models in various instructional
functions (Richards, 2011). When teachers are proficient in English, it is possible that students become proficient,
too, as suggested in Bandura’s Social Learning Theory, Krashen’s Comprehensive Input Hypothesis, and
Schumann’s Acculturation Model of Second Language Acquisition (Orillos, 1998). Proficient teachers serving as
models of fluency and accuracy in English can address the English language deficiencies and difficulties of
students. Therefore, if the Philippine government is serious in reversing the trend of deteriorating English
proficiency of Filipino students, teachers’ English proficiency must be developed at the required threshold. Their
existing English proficiency level in all four (4) macro-linguistic skills must be analyzed and evaluated, so that
appropriate faculty development program on English language can be offered for them. It is when their linguistic
needs, strengths, and weaknesses are identified that a responsive faculty development program is put in place,
hence, this study.
This study is important to school administrators as it gives them baseline data on policy making particularly in
hiring/selecting qualified employees/faculty members, in ranking and promotion, as well as in designing
trainings and faculty development programs. It is also useful to teachers as it provides them a model or
framework in identifying their English proficiency level as well as some development opportunities that can help
them become better academic professionals. Lastly, it is valuable to future researchers since findings of this
scholarly inquiry can contribute to the growing body of literature in the fields of language assessment,
curriculum design, and teacher development. While this study investigated the English proficiency of faculty
members in tertiary level, it was delimited to collecting available data on the English proficiency test
scores/levels of the respondents and analyzing and utilizing these data in developing appropriate and relevant
faculty development programs responsive to the identified needs and weaknesses. The proposed continuing
professional development program presented was based on the results of evaluation and was designed for
teachers teaching in the context of this study.
2. Related Literature
2.1 English Proficiency
Language proficiency has been viewed and defined in different ways. Noam Chomsky viewed it in two separate
aspects—competence (grammatical knowledge) and performance (ability to use the language in actual situation)
(Llurda, 2000). Hymes (1974) expanded this view by forming the concept of communicative competence.
According to Hymes (1974), language proficiency involves knowledge about the grammatical systems of a
language and the ability to use that knowledge in actual communicative situations. Canale and Swain (1980) also
viewed language proficiency as a combination of three elements: linguistic competence, sociocultural, and
strategic competencies. Linguistic competence refers to the knowledge of lexicon and the rules of morphology,
semantics, phonology, and syntax, while sociolinguistic competence is the ability to appropriately use the
language in social interactions. Strategic competence, on the other hand, is the ability to make repairs, to
compensate communication breakdowns due to limited knowledge of rules, and to maintain communication by
performing verbal and non-verbal mechanisms such as repeating, paraphrasing, hesitating, avoiding, guessing,
and shifting registers and styles (Savignon, 1983). In addition to the three elements, Canale also introduced the
concept of discourse competence which refers to the “ability to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
54
form a meaningful whole out of a series of utterances” (Orillos, 1998, p. 78).
Harley et al. (1990), viewing in a broader perspective of communicative language teaching, define language
proficiency as the ability to use a language appropriately in various situations and to organize one’s thoughts
through the language. In addition to competencies in English grammar and lexis, it also involves sociolinguistic
and discourse competencies. The Council of Europe (2001) supports this definition through its Common
European Framework of Reference (CEFR) for languages. According to the CEFR, language proficiency
involves knowledge, skills, and characteristics acquired or learned to communicate with others (Ekola, 2016). It
is divided into two categories: general (knowledge, skills, and existential competence) and communicative
competences (linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic competences) (Ibid). Based on the above-mentioned
views and definitions, it is clear that English language proficiency does not only entail mastery of the English
language system but also the ability to use the language asserting appropriate functions in a particular social
context. Further, it also involves awareness of different norms of interaction in native English and other varieties
of English (Canagarajah, 2006).
English proficiency is categorized and described in various levels. The Common European Framework of
Reference for Language Learning, Teaching, and Assessment (CEFR) is a popular guideline used to describe
proficiency of foreign language learners worldwide (Council of Europe, 2001). It was designed to provide a
method of learning, teaching, and assessing foreign languages. In 2001, it was used to set up systems of
validation of language ability at six levels. Today, the six (6) reference levels are becoming widely accepted as
the European and world standard for grading an individual’s language proficiency. The Common European
Framework categorizes learners into three broad divisions that can be divided into six levels: A1—Beginner;
A2—Elementary; B1—Intermediate; B2—Upper Intermediate; C1—Advanced; and C2—Proficient (Ibid).
Several academic and language testing institutions exist to measure and evaluate English proficiency of learners
and workers worldwide. Benchmarked with the CEFR proficiency levels, English language tests are utilized to
determine readiness of individuals in handling tasks using English language as the medium of communication. In
addition, they are also used to identify language training needs of employees and to evaluate the effectiveness of
a language training program offered to specific employees. The International English Language Testing System
(IELTS) developed by British Council, IDP IELTS Australia, and University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations
is one of the renowned English proficiency tests worldwide. Comprising two modules (Academic and General
Training), the test is administered for academic, employment, professional affiliation, and certification purposes.
A test designed to assess language ability, it categorizes test takers into nine (9) types of users of the English
language which can be grouped according to CEFR levels: Band Scores 1.0–3.5=A1–A2; 4.0–5.0=B1; 5.5–
6.5=B2; 7.0–7.5=C1; and 8.0–9.0=C2 (Cambridge English Language Assessment, 2018).
The Test of English as a Foreign Language—Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT), another equally renowned
international English language proficiency test developed and administered by Educational Testing Service (ETS)
in USA, also has its own language proficiency-leveling scheme. Covering the four (4) macro-linguistic skills, it
categorizes test takers’ performance into three (3): Low, Intermediate, and High (Educational Testing Service,
2018). It is used by educational institutions in admitting international students and in certifying foreign
professionals who are non-native English speakers. In addition, it is also used by government and corporate
organizations in hiring new employees.
Another international English language proficiency test for people whose native language is not English is the
TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication). It measures the everyday English skills of people
working in an international environment. The scores indicate how well people can communicate in English with
others in business, commerce, and industry. It is mainly used for verifying one’s level of English proficiency,
qualifying for a new position and/or promotion in a company, enhancing one’s professional credentials,
monitoring progress in English, setting learning goals, and involving one’s employer in advancing his English
ability (Educational Testing Service, 2008).
2.2 English Proficiency in the Workplace
English is the language of power and progress. It is used to expand territories and increase human value. It is
also used to promote competitiveness in a workplace, hence the need for any employee to develop desired
proficiency level of the language. In the study of Mirabela and Ariana (2013), the value of developing English
proficiency was explored. Based on the results, it was found that English proficiency is useful for workers to
carry out effective communication, improve thinking, understand the world, get a rewarding career, attract
clients, establish connections, and achieve personal satisfaction (Ibid). In another study conducted by the
Education First (2014), it was found that English proficiency is a valuable asset in taking advantage of business
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
55
opportunities, promoting international collaboration, and fostering innovation. It was also found that it is a
strategic way to gain foothold in foreign markets and expand business territory. In another survey conducted by
an Economic Intelligence Unit, it was revealed that English proficiency can significantly increase company
profit, revenue, and market share (Ibid).
As English these days has become the de-facto language in international affairs, government and corporate
organizations consider it as the most indispensable language for worldwide communication. In a survey
conducted by Cambridge English Language Assessment (2016), it was revealed that 95% of 5,373 employers in
38 non-native English-speaking countries believe that English language skills are essential in the workplace. It
was also revealed that 56% of job tasks in abovementioned countries require at least advanced level in English,
hence the need to develop workers with high level of English proficiency (Ibid).
In Thailand, English proficiency plays an important role in professional advancement and business functions.
Workers use English in performing the following tasks in business environment: communicating through email,
reading/writing memos, making proposals, presenting facts/figures, making phone calls, making oral
presentations, reading/writing letters, making appointments, writing reports, negotiating, summarizing, greeting,
making invitations, making complaints, and placing orders (Hiranburana, 2014).
In Australia, English proficiency also plays a crucial role in employment. Proficient applicants have higher
opportunities to get a job, to perform well in the workplace, and get promoted to senior positions (Arkoudis et al.,
2009). In the study of Roshid (2013), he explored the relationship of English language proficiency and
employment of Bangladeshi immigrants in Australia. He found that one’s English proficiency influences
prospects of secure and better employment. Specifically, he found that English proficiency is a human capital
that it can be an advantage to get a job with higher salary and employment benefits.
In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, there is a positive relationship between English and the
workplace. English proficiency is perceived to be important in driving economic growth and international
development particularly in the business sector (British Council, 2013). It is also assumed that English
proficiency of workforce can help attract foreign direct investments that can improve economic conditions and
increase employment rate and earning power (Erling, 2015).
In the Philippines, English is the primary medium of communication in business and education; hence mastering
the language has become a pre-requisite to success in academic and business environment (Digap, 2016). It
opens doors for many career opportunities and helps improve one’s employability skills. Through the years,
Filipinos’ proficiency in English language has helped the country’s economy by attracting foreign investors,
tourists, and ESL students (Cabigon, 2018). To maintain the country’s advantage in the English language, the
government in partnership with other non-government agencies and business sectors is taking actions to ensure
prospective employees have at least an upper-intermediate proficiency level (CEFR B2 Level) in order to cope
with the requirements and challenges of any job where English is the language (Romero, 2018). In the education
sector, initiatives are implemented to produce and develop more qualified, highly trained English and content
area teachers (Cabigon, 2018). For example, language training programs have been offered by various foreign
missions and entities to teachers in the basic education institutions. In addition, the Department of Education has
also implemented English Proficiency Test (EPT) as entry requirement for teacher applicants to ensure that they
have the necessary proficiency level needed in producing English proficient students (Department of Education,
2018).
In the Philippine higher education, all universities, colleges, and institutes are mandated to produce globally
competitive professionals who fit into the demands of international economy (Quijano, 2012). Institutions of
higher education are compelled to develop skilled workforce who are proficient in English which is currently the
language for worldwide communication. They are also directed by law to use the English language as the
primary medium of instruction in the educational system to ensure quality education and economic growth (Besa,
2013). Therefore, all teaching and non-teaching staff are encouraged to use English in the teaching learning
process as well as in all academic-related activities. Institutional policies on the use of English in higher
education institutions require academic and non-academic professionals to be proficient in the language in order
to carry out their work effectively and develop a sense of professional legitimacy.
2.3 Faculty Development Programs in Higher Education
Teachers play important roles in developing future nation builders and leaders by providing quality training and
education. As such, they must have the necessary qualifications and competencies in order to achieve education
outcomes. In the Philippines, faculty members of higher education institutions must have at least masters’ degree
in the fields in which they teach (Commission on Higher Education, 2018). In addition, they should also have the
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
56
required 21st century skills (i.e., communication skills particularly in English, problem solving skills,
information and communication technology skills, etc.) to be able to effectively and efficiently perform their
duties and responsibilities. Unfortunately, recent data from the Commission on Higher Education (2018) show
more than half of the higher education institutions (HEIs) faculty members need qualification upgrading and
upskilling to be able to provide quality teaching in various HEIs. This calls for responsive faculty development
programs or continuing professional development mechanisms in order to make HEI faculty members
competitive agents for national transformation and economic development.
Faculty development program (FDP) is a set of activities designed to improve instruction and performance of
students and learning institutions (Amundsen et al., 2015). It is a long-term process where teachers are engaged
in various continuous professional development activities for skills improvement (i.e., curriculum development,
instructional strategies, etc.) leading to the fulfillment of students’ educational needs and school’s vision and
mission (Fink, 2013). Framed in training, mentoring, peer-coaching, and self-directed models (Yurtsever, 2013),
faculty development can be in forms of personal, instructional, organizational, and professional activities
(Amundsen et al., 2015). To be effective, a faculty development program should be theoretically and empirically
based, responsive, practical, innovative, sustainable, collaborative, and reflective (Hismanoglu, 2010). Common
types of faculty development activities include formal study in the graduate school, seminar-workshops,
conferences, in-service training, research, mentoring, peer coaching, team teaching, study groups, and
developing teaching portfolio.
Several studies have proven the effectiveness of faculty development programs in enhancing teachers’
knowledge and skills leading to better quality of teaching and learning. In the study of Kamel (2016), it was
found that professional FDP improves teaching skills in higher education by producing promising outcomes in
the learning and teaching practices. Also, Bilal, Guraya and Chen (2017), in their study investigating the impact
and effectiveness of FDP on faculty members’ knowledge and competencies, found that FDP creates a significant
and positive impact in enhancing faculty’s knowledge and professional competence. Lastly, in the study of Dee
and Daly (2009), it was shown that FDPs produce positive impact on teaching and learning, most especially
when they are grassroots initiatives led by the faculty, when they promote inclusivity in teaching and learning,
when they foster curricular and pedagogical transformation and multidisciplinary representation, and when they
build connections and collaborations between and among stakeholders of higher education institutions.
In the field of English language teaching, Giraldo (2014) examined the impact of FDP on the classroom
performance of English faculty members in a higher education institution. He found that FDPs improved faculty
members’ classroom performance as their teaching became more communicative, systematic, responsive to
students’ needs, and principled. Based on his findings, he suggested that FDPs, to be effective, ‘must be based on
teachers’ philosophies and needs and effectively articulate theory, practice, experience, and reflection’ (Giraldo,
2014, p. 1).
Since this study’s aim is to develop and propose a faculty development program that enhances English
proficiency of faculty members of a higher education institution in order to make them capable of producing
communicative and English proficient graduates ready to compete in the global labor market, it is important to
diagnose their strengths and weaknesses in using the English language. It is vital to know their language
enhancement needs reflective of their knowledge, philosophies or attitudes, experiences, and insights in using
and teaching the language. Addressing these needs can help teachers grow and develop within the concepts of
‘Teaching English in English’ and ‘English-for-Teaching’ (Richards, 2017; Freeman et al., 2015).
3. Methodology
3.1 Research Design
This study used the mixed methods approach. To determine the existing English proficiency levels of the HEI
faculty members, the descriptive method was utilized. This method was deemed appropriate since the main aim
of the study was to describe the existing phenomenon with respect to variables or conditions at a specific time
(Mitchel & Jolly, 2013). To identify relevant training programs based on the language training needs of the
faculty members, the documentary analysis method was used. Existing literatures, public or private documents
were examined thematically to use as data and references in developing the proposed FDP.
3.2 Sample
The study involved forty-one (41) full-time faculty members from the different colleges/departments of a small
multi-disciplinary higher education institution in the Philippines. No sampling was done to yield more
comprehensive and reliable results of the study.
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
57
3.3 Instrument
To answer the question What is the level of English proficiency of the respondents by macro-linguistic skill and
overall, available data on English proficiency of the faculty members were collected from records on file and
from the teachers themselves. During the conduct of this study, valid English proficiency test results were used
and were converted to CEFR Level equivalents to facilitate more unified and relevant analysis. CEFR standards
were used as benchmarks because they include descriptors that reflect academic settings. Below is the
summarized table of comparison using data from IELTS Partners (2018) and Educational Testing Service
(Papageorgiou et al., 2015).
Table 1. Comparison of CEFR Levels with IELTS and TOEFL iBT® Scores
Common European Framework (CEFR) IELTS (0 – 9.0) TOEFL iBT (0 – 120)
C2 (Proficient) 8.5–9.0 n/a
C1 (Advanced) 7.0–8.0 95
B2 (Upper Intermediate) 5.5–6.5 72
B1 (Intermediate) 4.0–5.0 42
A2 (Elementary) n/a n/a
A1 (Beginner) n/a n/a
Note. The comparison is made between the individual test and the CEFR and not between the two tests mentioned.
To answer the question What specific faculty development program (language training) is appropriate for faculty
members based on the results of their English proficiency test?, existing relevant literatures were used as sources
of required data. Data gathered were coded or classified according to types or themes.
3.4 Data Collection
Before gathering the required data, permission from the school management was sought. Upon approval,
employment records and profile of teachers were examined, including those that indicate existing proficiency
levels of teachers. Faculty members were individually approached to verify or collect further information about
their existing English proficiency test results. After gathering the English proficiency profile of teachers,
documentary analysis was conducted to identify which professional development practices can be adopted to
address language training needs of teachers on a particular proficiency level. Documents from the Commission
on Higher Education, different colleges and universities, and various training organizations were analyzed
thematically.
3.5 Data Analysis
The data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics (i.e., frequency and percentage computation). In
rendering meaning to the collected data on English proficiency of the faculty members, the following CEFR
Global Descriptors were used:
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
58
Table 2. CEFR global descriptors
Level Description Level Descriptors
C2 Proficient User–
Mastery or Proficient
Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarize information from
different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent
presentation. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating
finer shades of meaning even in more complex situations.
C1 Proficient User–
Effective Operational
Proficiency or
Advanced
Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognize implicit meaning. Can
express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions.
Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can
produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of
organizational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.
B2 Independent User–
Vantage or Upper
Intermediate
Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including
technical discussions in his/her field of specialization. Can interact with a degree of fluency and
spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for
either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint
on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
B1 Independent User–
Threshold or
Intermediate
Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered
in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an
area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are
familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions
and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
A2 Basic User–Waystage
or Elementary
Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate
relevance (e.g., very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography,
employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct
exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of
his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
A1 Basic User–
Breakthrough or
Beginner
Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the
satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and
answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and
things he/she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and
clearly and is prepared to help.
Note. Council of Europe, 2001, p. 25.
4. Results
4.1 English Proficiency Level of the Faculty Members
Table 3. Level of English proficiency of the respondents according to CEFR
CEFR Level Listening Speaking Reading Writing Overall Proficiency
F % F % F % F % F %
C2 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
C1 1 2.44 9 21.95 4 9.76 0 0.00 1 2.44
B2 18 43.90 12 29.27 22 53.66 6 14.63 15 36.58
B1 15 36.59 15 36.58 10 24.39 19 46.34 21 51.22
A2 6 14.63 5 12.20 5 12.19 14 34.14 3 7.32
A1 1 2.44 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 4.88 1 2.44
Total 41 100.00 41 100.00 41 100.00 41 100.00 41 100.00
Table 3 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the CEFR proficiency levels of the HEI faculty
members according to macro-linguistic skills and overall proficiency. Generally, in terms of overall English
proficiency performance, more than half of the subjects of this study have B1 (Independent UserIntermediate)
proficiency level while more than one-third has B2 (Independent UserUpper Intermediate) proficiency level.
Majority of the faculty members seem to be in the zones of independent users of the English language.
Closely examining the table further reveals that when proficiency levels are grouped according to
macro-linguistic skills, over half of the subjects are placed in the B1 and B2 levels combined (Independent
Users), followed by those at the A2 (Elementary) level with an average of almost 10 percent. In terms of specific
language skill, writing seems to be the weakest of the faculty members with 33 or 80.48 percent placed in the A1
and A2 levels (Basic Users). This shows that 4 in 5 teachers may have difficulty in writing using the English
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
59
language. Listening, Reading, and Speaking also seem to be areas of concern since majority of the subjects fall
in B1 and B2 levels. Only an average of 3.5 percent of the respondents are in C1 level (Advanced User) while
nobody (0%) in C2, the ideal proficiency level for HEI faculty members.
4.2 Appropriate Faculty Development Program Based on the Results of the English Language Proficiency
Evaluation
Table 4. Institutional faculty development programs for English language proficiency enhancement
Program Description
Support for Graduate Studies This program aims to raise faculty members’ qualifications, help them develop scholarly attitudes
and get exposed to higher and more complex academic discourses by supporting them to pursue
their higher studies through available institutional grants, scholarships or external funding.
Support for Advanced
Short-term English Courses
This program aims to strengthen the faculty members’ overall English proficiency particularly their
writing skill through intensive, customized language training courses such as Academic and
Professional Communication, Advanced Academic Writing, Effective Business and Report Writing,
Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary, and Powerful Presentation Skills.
Support for Local Trainings,
Seminars, and Workshops on
English Proficiency
Enhancement
This program provides various language learning opportunities for faculty members in order to
develop broader perspectives on the applicability of the English language. This includes sending
them to learner-centered, culturally sensitive, efficient, and effective language trainings, seminars,
workshops, or conferences or supporting them to become members of learning groups and
professional organizations.
Incentives for Publication in
Research Journals
With the aim of developing research-driven and innovative faculty members while enhancing their
written and critical thinking skills, this program monetarily compensates teachers who are able to
write and publish articles in local and international refereed journals.
Support for paper presentations
in conferences
This program supports faculty members when they present papers or deliver keynote presentations
or as invited speakers in prestigious conferences, workshops, symposia, and similar fora.
Table 4 shows the general faculty development programs applicable to the subjects of this study. These include
formal higher studies in the graduate school, participation in seminars, workshops, and conferences, conducting
researches publishable in scholarly journals, and serving as speakers or presenters in conferences, seminars,
workshops, and similar academic forums. These programs have direct and indirect impact on the enhancement of
English proficiency of faculty members since these provide ample opportunities for them to use the English
language. Specifically, these programs immerse and engage faculty members with plenty of writing activities,
hence addressing their identified language training need.
Table 5. Proposed language courses to enhance faculty members’ English proficiency
Course Description
Effective
Communication
This is a 48-hour course designed to enhance faculty members’ listening, speaking, reading, and writing
skills. It helps learners improve their ability to communicate effectively and gain confidence in
communicating with other people. It includes grammar brush-ups and vocabulary enrichment activities. It
also covers writing effective sentences, paragraphs, and compositions/essays. Lastly, it includes writing
business letters, emails, memos, reports, proposals, and effective presentation skills.
Academic and
Professional
Communication
This 48-hour course trains participants to: a) demonstrate desirable communicative competence in English;
b) draft, compose and present a researched report on an aspect of their major; c) conduct correspondences
relating to professional and/or academic issues; d) use appropriate vocabulary and expressions; and e)
appreciate the role of ethics in communication.
Academic Writing
(with Research)
This course is designed to help learners improve their reading and writing skills in academic context,
enhance their understanding of the theory and conventions of academic writing and research, and produce
scholarly written outputs following the universally accepted systems and standards.
Effective Business
and Report Writing
This 48-hour course allows participants to develop awareness of the importance of effective
communication in academics and business, apply the principles and conventions of business and technical
report writing in professional contexts, and improve their general usage of English as well as the mechanics
of business writing in business communication situations.
Table 5 shows the language courses designed to help faculty members improve their English proficiency in
general and writing skill in particular. These specialized in-house courses cover topics in technical, academic,
and workplace settings. While they are designed to develop faculty members’ writing skill in various contexts,
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
60
they are also integrative of other language skills such listening, speaking, and reading. Conducted by batch/group
throughout the school year, the courses can be delivered in different modes such as face-to-face, online, or
blended, in partnership with renowned language training institutions or teacher training agencies in the country
(i.e., British Council, Cambridge English, etc.)
5. Discussion
In the Philippine higher education institutions, English is the main medium of communication, instruction, and
assessment. As such, faculty members are expected to have high proficiency in English to effectively and
efficiently carryout their duties and responsibilities for the institution and for the students. However, results of
this study indicate that none of the subjects (HEI faculty members) are Proficient Users of the English language.
Majority is placed under B1 and B2 in terms of overall performance in the English proficiency tests. The results
confirm previous research findings claiming that most Filipino college/university graduates and working
professionals have English proficiency at B1 or Intermediate Level (HACKSI, 2002; Hopkins International
Partners in Morallo, 2018). However, they seem to be the opposite of the findings of Education First (Business
Mirror, 2016) in its worldwide study reporting that though there has been a slight decline in recent years Filipino
learners and workers still have very high English proficiency. Variations in findings can be attributed to the
different tools, time frame, and methodologies used in gathering data. HACKSI and Hopkins International
Partners used TOEIC results. Education First, on the other hand, used its own EFSET test, while the current
study utilized results from IELTS and TOEFL iBT tests, which are more academic in nature. Apparently, English
proficiency results can change through time with the influence of some variables.
Based on the results of the study, the subjects (faculty members) are categorized as Independent Users of the
English language. This means that they may encounter difficulties in performing linguistic tasks or functions that
are required in their work involving ‘understanding a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognizing
implicit meaning, expressing themselves fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for
expressions, using language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes, and
producing clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organizational
patterns, connectors and cohesive devices’ (Council of Europe, 2001, p. 25). Further, they may also struggle in
‘understanding with ease virtually everything heard or read, summarizing information from different spoken and
written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation, and expressing themselves
spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more complex
situations’ (Council of Europe, 2001, p. 25).
In terms of writing, majority of the faculty members are at the level of A2 (Elementary) and B1 (Intermediate),
relatively lower than the expected level for teachers working in the tertiary level. This implies that they can
easily write simple notes and messages relevant to immediate needs or simple connected texts on familiar topics
or personal interests. They can also write simple personal letters thanking someone or describing experiences or
impressions. However, they may find difficulties in performing linguistic tasks relevant to their work such as
writing informative, explanatory, or argumentative essays, reports, or letters highlighting personal significance of
events and experiences. Moreover, they may also struggle expressing themselves in clear, well-structured,
style-appropriate texts of complex subjects expressing opinions or perspectives at some length with salient issues
highlighted. Lastly, they may also find it difficult to write clear, cohesive, and complex yet style-appropriate
letters, reports, or articles (i.e., summaries and reviews of professional or literary works) which present logically
structured arguments highlighting significant points (Council of Europe, 2001).
Given the possible difficulties, faculty members need development programs that can make them more proficient
in English in general and better writers in particular. These could range from institutional policies down to
departmental professional activities designed to enhance teachers’ English proficiency. In this study, the
proposed programs include institutional support for graduate studies, participation in workshops or conferences,
faculty research and publication, and conference presentation, related to those types outlined by Hismanoglu
(2010). These commonly used programs may not have direct immediate impact on teachers’ English proficiency
but their effects are long-term and sustainable. Their continuous involvement and engagement can eventually
make them more proficient and confident in using the English language. This study also proposed specific
language courses to directly address the weakest language skill of teachers which is writing. It is important that
the courses are designed based on the identified needs of participants (Giraldo, 2014) with some considerations
on practicality, innovativeness, and sustainability in order to achieve the desired results (Hismanoglu, 2010).
6. Conclusion
Findings of the study reveal that the overall English proficiency level of the faculty members is B1 (Independent
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
61
User–Intermediate) and that writing is the weakest among the four (4) macro-linguistic skills. With majority of
faculty members categorized as Independent Users (B1 and B2 Levels), results suggest that they may encounter
some difficulties in performing complex and demanding linguistic tasks related to the nature of their work.
Results further suggest that with teachers not meeting the required or desirable proficiency threshold, they may
not be effective models of good English for tertiary level students, hence developing college graduates who are
non-proficient. It is therefore imperative that these faculty members undergo long-term and short-term faculty
development programs particularly language enhancement programs (i.e., Effective Communication, Academic
and Professional Communication, Academic Writing with Research, and Effective Business and Report Writing)
in order to improve their proficiency levels. This will allow them to become better teachers capable of producing
English proficient and globally competitive graduates.
While this study found that the proficiency levels of the faculty members by macro-linguistic skills and overall
are relatively lower than the required or desired English language proficiency threshold for the teaching
profession, it does not necessarily mean that they cannot generally and operationally communicate in English as
they carry out their duties and responsibilities in teaching. It simply implies that there seems much to be done if
the higher education institution in the context of this study aims to be at par with its national and international
counterparts in other parts of the globe. Looking back to the alarming English proficiency problem at a national
scale, Philippine higher education institutions have to develop faculty members in all aspects of their work in
order to become effective actors and players for national and international development.
Though this study yielded results that can confirm and supplement existing literatures on the current status of
English proficiency of teachers in the Philippines, it acknowledges its limitations on generalizability and
reliability considering its scope, design and methodology, and time frame. The study dealt only with proficiency
data that were collected from existing documents on file. Analysis was also limited due to the unavailability of
complete and more detailed equivalency of proficiency test scores with the CEFR. More intensive study along
this line of inquiry using single or uniform source of proficiency data should be conducted to produce more
accurate and reliable findings.
References
Amundsen, C. et al. (2005). The what and the why of faculty development in higher education: An in-depth
review of literature. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/rethinkingteaching/publications/CAmundsen.etal.pdf
Arkoudis, S. (2009). The impact of English language proficiency and workplace readiness on the employment
outcomes of tertiary international students. Retrieved from https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/217788187
Ateneo Center for English Language Teaching. (2013). ACELT. Retrieved from
https://www.ateneo.edu/ls/acelt/about-acelt
Besa, L. M. (2014). Language use in the university: A clash of policies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral
Sciences, 134, 92–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.226
Bilal, Guraya, S. Y., & Chen, S. (2017, October 18). The impact and effectiveness of faculty development
program in fostering the faculty’s knowledge, skills, and professional competence: A systematic review and
meta-analysis. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.10.024
British Council. (2013). The English Effect. Retrieved from
https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/english-effect-report-v2.pdf
Business Mirror. (2016, November 23). Our shrinking English proficient work force. Business Mirror. Retrieved
from https://businessmirror.com.ph/our-shrinking-english-proficient-work-force/
Cabigon, M. (2018). State of English in the Philippines: Should we be concerned? Retrieved from
https://www.britishcouncil.ph/teach/state-english-philippines-should-we-be-concerned-2
Cambridge English Language Assessment. (2016). English at work: Global analysis of language skills in the
workplace. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate.
Cambridge English Language Assessment. (2018). Comparing scores to IELTS: B2 first and C1 advanced.
Cambridge: University of Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate.
Canagarajah, S. (2006). Changing communicative needs, revised assessment objectives: Testing English as an
international language. Language Assessment Quarterly, 3(3), 229–242.
https://doi.org/10.1207/s15434311laq0303_1
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
62
Canale, M. (1983). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In J. C. Richards &
R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Language and Communication (pp. 2–27). London: Longman.
Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching
and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1–47. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/I.1.1
Commission on Higher Education. (2018). Faculty Development Program. Retrieved from
https://ched.gov.ph/faculty-development-program-facdev/
Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching,
assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dee, J. R., & Daly, C. J. (2009). Innovative models of organizing faculty development programs: Pedagogical
reflexivity, student learning empathy, and faculty agency. Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of
Self-Knowledge, 7(1), 1–22. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.umb.edu/humanarchitecture/vol7/iss1/2/
Department of Education. (2018). Administration of the teachers’ English proficiency test and the process skills
test in science and mathematics. Retrieved from
http://www.deped.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/DM_s2018_145.pdf
Digap, A. L. (2016). Self-efficacy, English proficiency and effectiveness of teachers of English in the secondary
schools. SMCC Higher Education Research Journal, 2(April), 72–88.
https://doi.org/10.18868/sher2j.02.00416.07
Educational Testing Service. (2008). TOEIC Examinee Handbook: Listening & Reading. New Jersey:
Educational Testing Service
Educational Testing Service. (2018). Interpret TOEFL® Scores. Retrieved from
https://www.ets.org/toefl/institutions/scores/interpret/
EF Education First. (2014). EF EPI-c: EF English Proficiency Index for Companies. Luzern: EF Learning Labs.
Retrieved from
https://www.ef.com/__/~/media/centralefcom/epi/v4/downloads/epi-c/ef-epi-c-english-191114.pdf
EF Education First. (2016). EF EPI: Education First English Proficiency Index. Retrieved from
https://www.ef.com/__/~/media/centralefcom/epi/downloads/full-reports/v6/ef-epi-2016-english.pdf
EF Education First. (2018). EF EPI: EF English Proficiency Index. Retrieved from
https://www.ef.com/__/~/media/centralefcom/epi/downloads/full-reports/v8/ef-epi-2018-english.pdf
Ekola, T. (2016). English language needs and language proficiency of academic professionals as a basis for
developing language training: A case study of environmental researchers. Retrieved from
https://jyx.jyu.fi/bitstream/handle/123456789/53038/1/URN%3ANBN%3Afi%3Ajyu-201702141439.pdf
Erling, E. (2015). The relationship between English and employability in the Middle East and North Africa.
Manchester: British Council.
Fink, L. D. (2013). The current status of faculty development internationally. International Journal for the
Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2013.070204
Freeman, D., et al. (2015). English for teaching: Rethinking teacher proficiency in the classroom. ELT Journal,
69(2), 129–139. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccu074
Giraldo, F. (2014). The impact of a professional development program on English language teachers’ classroom
performance. Profile: Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 16(1), 63.
https://doi.org/10.15446/profile.v16n1.38150
Harley et al. (1990). The development of second language proficiency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524568
Hiranburana, K. (2017). Use of English in the Thai workplace. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38, 31–38.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjss.2015.10.002
Hismanoglu, M. (2010). Effective professional development strategies of English language teachers. Procedia –
Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 990–995. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.139
Hymes, D. (1974). Foundations on linguistics: An ethnographic approach. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press.
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
63
IELTS Partners. (2018). Common European Framework: How should the CEFR be used by recognizing
institutions wishing to set language ability requirements? Retrieved from
https://www.ielts.org/ielts-for-organisations/common-european-framework
International Consultants for Education and Fairs. (2014, January 29). Global language survey links English
proficiency to economic and social development. ICEF Monitor. Retrieved from
http://monitor.icef.com/2014/01/global-language-survey-links-english-proficiency-to-economic-and-social-
development/
Kamel, A. M. (2016). Role of faculty development programs in improving teaching and learning. Saudi Journal
of Oral Sciences, 3(2), 61–68. https://doi.org/10.4103/1658-6816.188073
Llurda, E. (2000). On competence, proficiency, and communicative language ability. International Journal of
Applied Linguistics, 10(1), 85–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2000.tb00141.x
Mirabela, P. A., & Ariana, A. M. (2013). Benefits of English language learning—language proficiency
certificates: A prerequisite for the business graduate. Annals of Faculty of Economics (University of Oradea,
Faculty of Economics), 1(2), 167–176. Retrieved from
https://ideas.repec.org/a/ora/journl/v1y2013i2p167-176.html
Mitchel, M. L., & Jolley, J. M. (2013). Research design explained. California: Cengage Learning.
Morallo, A. (2018, February 8). Filipino graduates’ English skills lower than target cab drivers in Dubai, study
says. Philippine Star. Retrieved from
https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2018/02/08/1785840/filipino-graduates-english-skills-lower-target-cab-
drivers-dubai-study-says
Orillos, L. Q. (1998). Language acquisition theories, principles, and research. Quezon City: UP Open
University
Papageorgiou, S., et al. (2015). Research Memorandum ETS RM-15-06: The association between TOEFL iBT®
test scores and the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) levels. New Jersey: Educational
Testing Service.
Philippine Star. (2002, April 10). Study shows Filipino college students not proficient in English. Philippine Star.
Retrieved from
https://www.philstar.com/business/2002/04/10/156748/study-shows-filipino-college-studes-not-proficient-e
nglish
Quijano, C. (2012). Philippines: The role of language and education in globalization. Retrieved from
https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED567190.pdf
Richards, J. C. (2011). Competence and performance in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Richards, J. C. (2017). Teaching English through English: Proficiency, pedagogy and performance. RELC
Journal, 48(1), 7–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217690059
Romero, P. (2018, February 22). Senate to probe declining English proficiency. Philippine Star. Retrieved from
https://www.philstar.com/other-sections/education-and-home/2018/02/22/1790069/senate-probe-declining-
english-proficiency
Roshid, M. M. (2013). English language proficiency and employment: A case study of Bangladeshi graduates in
Australian employment market. Mevlana International Journal of Education, 3(1), 68–81.
https://doi.org/10.13054/mije.13.06.3.1
Savignon, S. J. (1983). Communicative competence: Theory and classroom practice. Reading, MA:
Addison-Wesley Publishing.
Wilson, K. (2009, November 10). Teachers blamed as English standards fall in the Philippines. The National.
Retrieved from
https://www.thenational.ae/world/asia/teachers-blamed-as-english-standards-fall-in-philippines-1.530443
Yurtsever, G. (2013). English language instructors’ beliefs on professional development models and preferences
to improve their teaching skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 666674.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.107
ijel.ccsenet.org International Journal of English Linguistics Vol. 9, No. 2; 2019
64
Copyrights
Copyright for this article is retained by the author, with first publication rights granted to the journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... Unfortunately, Filipino workers' competence in English is declining, and the disturbing part is that untrained and non-proficient teachers are heavily blamed (Meniado, 2018). In support of this declaration, the Department of Education led a study in 2008 discovering that 80 percent of secondary school teachers in the Philippines failed an English Proficiency Test. ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-efficacy is a belief in one capability in accomplishing a particular task. Most of the related studies concluded that having a high self-efficacy has something to do with high performance at work. It has something to do with an individuals' work output/ production; however, some other literature revealed that it does not have something to do with an individual's performance. On the other side, the English language is the required medium of instruction yet the most feared. This study investigated the self-efficacy towards the English Proficiency Test of the teacher applicants from the Division of Romblon. Findings showed that respondents have Low Self- efficacy status towards English Proficiency Test. It concluded that proficient respondents have a Very Low Self-efficacy among the levels of English Proficiency compared to other levels that reached the Low level. Further, the overall English Proficiency of teacher applicants was at the Beginners level.
... Sa pag-aaral ni Meniado (2019), lumabas na sa paglitaw ng mga kahirapan ng mga guro sa Gramatikang Ingles, sinasabing kailangan daw nila ng programang makapaglilinang tungo sa kanilang kahusayan rito. Inihahain ng pag-aaral na hasain pa ang kanilang kakayahan sa pagtamo ng mga yunit sa paaralang gradwado, pakikilahok sa mga worksyap at kumperensya, mga pananaliksik at mga publikasyon. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay naglalayong matukoy ang antas kakayahan ng mga guro sa Filipino at kung paano ito nagiging susi sa pagpapayaman ng kaalaman sa Gramatika ng mga mag-aaral. Konteksto ng pag-aaral ang mga ginagawa ng mga guro sa pagtuturo ng Filipino at ang mga pagtugon sa pangangailangang kakayahan sa Gramatika. Isinagawa ang pag-aaral sa mga paaralan ng ika-7 Klaster ng Sangay ng Pampanga. Ginamit ang talatanungang pagsusulit sa pagtukoy sa kakayahan ng mga guro sa Morpolohiya at Sintaks, at ang talatanungang sarbey sa paglikom ng datos hinggil sa mga kaparaanang ginagawa at mga pagtugon sa pangangailangan ng mga guro sa pagpapayaman ng kaalaman sa Gramatika ng kanilang mga mag-aaral at sa pagpapataas ng kanilang kakayahan sa Gramatika. Natuklasan sa pag-aaral na nasa katamtamang husay ang antas ng kakayahan ng mga guro sa Gramatika. Sa kabila man ng kahirapan nila sa Sintaks, nagiging maparaan sila at madalas na nagsisikap upang matugunan ang kaalamang panggramatika ng kanilang mga mag-aaral maging ng kanilang kakayahan rito.
... There is no single human activity that. [3] language is very important in human life. [1], [4] Learning English is important because all of the world use English as native or second language and as foreign language. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching materials English language has been developed for students of Elementary Teacher Education (PGSD), how effectiveness English language materials that have developed. This study was classified as research and development (R & D) by using 4-D model of development (Four-D). Data collection instrument in this study was the observation, questionnaires and documentation. Data analyzed used research instruments for further analysis of data validity and practicality of using data analysis techniques to study the instrument analyzed the data validity and effectiveness of product. The result of the stage dissemination teaching materials in English that has developed indicate a difference in mean score of student learning outcomes PGSD between a control class 19,000 and Experiment class amounted about 24,114, on the test experiment there is a significant difference between the experimental class with a control with a level of significant shows 0000, it scores mean difference, it showed show effectiveness English language teaching materials have developed used SAVI models.
... There is no single human activity that. [3] language is very important in human life. [1], [4] Learning English is important because all of the world use English as native or second language and as foreign language. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching materials English language has been developed for students of Elementary Teacher Education (PGSD), how effectiveness English language materials that have developed. This study was classified as research and development (R & D) by using 4-D model of development (Four-D). Data collection instrument in this study was the observation, questionnaires and documentation. Data analyzed used research instruments for further analysis of data validity and practicality of using data analysis techniques to study the instrument analyzed the data validity and effectiveness of product. The result of the stage dissemination teaching materials in English that has developed indicate a difference in mean score of student learning outcomes PGSD between a control class 19,000 and Experiment class amounted about 24,114, on the test experiment there is a significant difference between the experimental class with a control with a level of significant shows 0000, it scores mean difference, it showed show effectiveness English language teaching materials have developed used SAVI models.
... The four macro skills which enhance student knowledge and skills, enable them to function effectively in any situation which requires the use of English. According to Meniado (2019), English is a skill to be used for communication. Education students focused on learner-centered teaching, and are taught to ask learners to do meaningful task using English. ...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers hold central figure in the propagation of effective education in educational milieu. The present study attempted to explore the key performance indicators (KPIs) of English teachers working in government schools at elementary level of education. The KPIs were identified and determined by examining the gap between their existing performance and their expected level of proficiency. The study focused its attention to evaluate the gap in English teaching domain only. The data was collected and analyzed quantitatively in this survey oriented descriptive research. A total number of 200 students and 40 teachers were restricted as the sample of the study taken from 04 tehsils of district Bahawalpur. Furthermore, data was collected by developing and administering 02 instruments i.e. questionnaire and classroom observation. The data taken from observation checklist was quantified to obtain empirical results of the investigation. The findings of the study revealed significantly huge gap between the existing and desired level of teachers’ proficiency. This gap was relatively apparent in teachers’ language proficiencies as well as instructional capabilities. Majority of the teachers couldn’t demonstrate the optimal standards of English teaching due to multifaceted factors. Furthermore, study revealed that there is dire need of target oriented instructional workshops and teacher trainings to be arranged for teachers to get the maximum outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
This cross-sectional quantitative research was conducted to compare the average perceptions of students and teachers regarding students’ English language proficiency at the higher secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The participants were 1975 students and 108 teachers belonging to one each district of the seven divisions in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Data were collected through pre-tested questionnaire i.e., one each for students and teachers. To analyze the significance difference, if any, between the average perceptions of students and teachers about higher secondary students’ English language proficiency; independent samples t-test was applied. The findings of the study revealed significant difference in teachers’ and students’ perceptions regarding students’ partial command over English language; use of English in and beyond classroom; expressing views fluently in English; students’ listening, speaking and reading skills; while no significant difference was seen regarding students’ full command over English language and their writing skill.
Article
Full-text available
Background Faculty vitality is the main ingredient to enhance professional education and competence. Enriching the faculty vitality in key domains of teaching, assessing, research, professionalism, and administration is perceived to improve educational environment significantly and enhances the academic performance of learners. Faculty development program (FDP) has been considered as a stand-alone educational pedagogy in fostering knowledge and professional skills of faculty. However, few studies have provided objective reports about the impact of such programs in a healthcare system. Methods This research was conducted by selecting data sources of PubMed-Medline, Wiley online library, Cochrane library, Taylor & Francis Online, CINAHL, Springer link, Proquest, ISI Web of knowledge, ScienceDirect, EJS, EBSCO, Blackwell, Emerald and ABI Inform. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A total of 37 studies that explored the impact of FDPs on medical and allied health faculty’s professional development were selected. Results This meta-analysis reported a mean effect size of 0.73 that reflects a significant and positive impact of FDPs in enhancing faculty’s knowledge and professional competence (z-statistics of 4.46 significant at p-value < 0.05) using the random effects model and forest plot. Conclusion This article reiterates the incorporation of FDPs in all healthcare institutions for improving the academic performance of faculty with resultant enrichment of learners’ knowledge and skills.
Article
Full-text available
A number of features of business discourse in English in a Thai workplace, for example, in e-mail memos, are integral to modern business operations. In this study, a questionnaire was used to find the important situations in which English is used in business communication. For this purpose, Thai businesses were requested to provide samples of written business correspondence—mostly e-mails in English. These e-mails were examined using genre analysis to identify typical moves and steps in order to understand the use of English at the linguistic and discourse levels. Genre can be defined as a class of communicative events, with the members sharing some set of communicative purposes. Interviews were also conducted to gather data in order to describe in-depth, the nature of English language communication and possible problems arising in a Thai business context. The findings showed that despite a large number of errors in usage in the English samples, they rarely caused problems with the running of the business as Thai communicators employed a move/step structure in their e-mails and other communications strategies including follow-up inquiries for clarification. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Faculty development programs (FDPs) have proven to be successful for improving teaching skills in higher education. This review article summarizes literature reviews and resource books on faculty development. It tackled why FDP is important, history of FDP in the past years, and questioned whether FDP produced any positive effect on students' academic achievement as well as the different methods to assess FDPs effectiveness. The review also discussed how to establish FDP, presented its ideal structure, features that make FDP effective, and outlined the barriers to its successful implementation as well as the future vision. This report also highlighted the situation of FDP in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the review concluded that professional FDPs produce promising outcomes in the learning and teaching practices and recommended that teachers in higher education should attend FDP training activities on regular basis and that the scope of planned FDPs should extend beyond the health professions discipline, to include social skills necessary for collaboration, professional growth as well as management, and leadership abilities.
Article
Full-text available
Excerpt: One of the valuable and exciting changes that have occurred in higher education in the last few decades is the steady growth in faculty development programs internationally. From the first programs that were established in the mid-part of the 20th century, there are now several countries where essentially all colleges and universities have such programs....
Article
Full-text available
This article reports the findings of an action research study on a professional development program and its impact on the classroom performance of in-service English teachers who worked at a language institute of a Colombian state university. Questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, class observations, and a researcher’s journal were used as data collection instruments. Findings suggest that these in-service teachers improved their classroom performance as their teaching became more communicative, organized, attentive to students’ needs, and principled. In addition, theory, practice, reflection, and the role of the tutor combined effectively to help the in-service teachers improve classroom performance. It was concluded that these programs must be based on teachers’ philosophies and needs and effectively articulate theory, practice, experience, and reflection.
Article
Full-text available
The expansion of English teaching in state education systems places increasing demands on English language teachers and how they are trained. A major thrust of these efforts has focused on improving teachers’ English language proficiency. This expectation is manifested in policy and pedagogical directives that teachers ‘teach English in English’. We argue for a reconceptualization of teacher language proficiency, not as general English proficiency but as a specialized subset of language skills required to prepare and teach lessons. This concept of English-for-Teaching as a bounded form of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) for the classroom builds on what teachers know about teaching, while introducing and confirming specific classroom language. This article describes how the construct was developed and then describes sample classroom tasks and the language needed to enact them in three major areas: managing the classroom, understanding and communicating lesson content, and assessing students and giving feedback.
Article
Most of the world’s English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be an effective teacher of English? The article seeks to provide an overview of how the role of language proficiency issue has been addressed in the ELT literature. It describes the kind of specialized language skills needed to teach English through English, explores the relationship between language proficiency and teaching ability, considers the impact of language ability on different dimensions of teaching, and raises the implications for language assessment and for the design of language enhancement programmes for language teachers.