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Soymilk as source of nutrient for malnourished population of developing country: A review

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The aqueous extract of whole soybeans is very close to dairy milk in physical appearance, composition and source of energy, known as soymilk. Properly processed soymilk offered many neutraceutsical and health benefits. Soymilk is important source of high-quality protein for a long time. Soymilk is also used as an important replacer of milk for lactose-intolerant peoples well as a low-cost source of good-quality protein and energy, mainly in developing countries. The present article focuses on nutritional and non-nutritional such as phytochemicals aspects of soymilk and the probable use of soymilk as a source of protein, vitamins and minerals for malnourished people. Soymilk contained considerable amount of essential and branched chain amino acids except methionine and good source of B-vitamins particularly niacin, pyridoxine and folacin. Soymilk contains calcium lower than cow's milk but higher amount of iron though iron has low absorbance from soymilk. Nonetheless, a growing number of calcium-fortified soymilks are available. However, soymilk are rich in copper, zinc and magnesium
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Soymilk as source of nutrient for malnourished population
of developing country: A review
Md. Anisur Rahman Mazumder#1, Anjuman Ara Begum#2
#1 Department of Food Technology and Rural Industries, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering
and Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh- 2202, Bangladesh,
Phone no.: +8801754146914; Email: anis_engg@bau.edu.bd
#2 Department of Food Technology and Rural Industries, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering
and Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh- 2202, Bangladesh,
Phone no.: +8801717337974; Email: linabau1@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The aqueous extract of whole soybeans is very close to dairy milk in physical
appearance, composition and source of energy, known as soymilk. Properly processed
soymilk offered many neutraceutsical and health benefits. Soymilk is important source of
high-quality protein for a long time. Soymilk is also used as an important replacer of milk for
lactose-intolerant peoples well as a low-cost source of good-quality protein and energy,
mainly in developing countries. The present article focuses on nutritional and non-nutritional
such as phytochemicals aspects of soymilk and the probable use of soymilk as a source of
protein, vitamins and minerals for malnourished people. Soymilk contained considerable
amount of essential and branched chain amino acids except methionine and good source of B-
vitamins particularly niacin, pyridoxine and folacin. Soymilk contains calcium lower than
cow’s milk but higher amount of iron though iron has low absorbance from soymilk.
Nonetheless, a growing number of calcium-fortified soymilks are available. However,
soymilk are rich in copper, zinc and magnesium
Key words: Amino acids, Developing country, Calcium, Phytochemicals, Protein, Soymilk.
Corresponding Author: Md. Anisur Rahman Mazumder
INTRODUCTION
Soybean is the best source of plant protein containing about 40% of protein (dry basis), highest
among all legumes and cereals, and also rich in nutritive minerals and dietary fiber [1]. Soy
proteins are highly digestible after proper heat treatment, and amino acid profile is almost well
balanced except methionine to meet the requirements for human nutrition. Soybeans may
transform into different varieties of soyfoods to provide tasty and easily digestible products.
Soymilk is the most popular as a healthy food drink and an important high-quality protein
source in the diet of Eastern people for a long time. Soymilk contains high amounts of protein,
iron, unsaturated fatty acids, and niacin, but low amounts of fat, carbohydrates, and calcium as
compared with cow milk and human milk. Soymilk has high concentration of
fosfatidylcholine, vitamins and isoflavones, which are strong antioxidants.
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The properly processed soymilk and its derivatives offer many nutraceutical and health
benefits. In 1999, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a health claim for the
cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein, largely based on a meta-analysis of 38 clinical
trials that reported significant decreases in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
and triglycerides with soy protein intake (25 g/day) compared with animal protein consumption
[2]. Several studies have demonstrated that the use of soy products could prevent the heart
disease, obesity, blood cholesterol, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, osteoporosis, and blood
pressure regulation [3-6]. As soymilk contained high amounts of protein, poly -unsaturated
fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals, it could be easily used as good source of
nutrition food for malnourished people especially in developing countries. This article try to
find the nutritional factors that can help the developing countries to reduce malnutrition
problem through use of soymilk or soy drinks.
MALNUTRITION PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Malnutrition arises from eating a diet which cannot provide sufficient nutrients or provide too
much nutrients. The nutrients re calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. Lack of
enough calories, protein or micronutrients specifically refer as under nutrition. However,
malnutrition also includes over nutrition. Permanent physical and mental development
problems may results if under nutrition occurs during either pregnancy or before the two years
of age. Extreme under nourishment called starvation. It may have several symptoms such as
short height, thin body, very poor energy levels, and swollen legs and abdomen. Micronutrient
deficiencies symptoms mainly depend on the micronutrient that is lacking. However, common
deficiencies of micronutrient are lack of iron, iodine, and vitamin A [7]. During pregnancy
stage the deficiencies become more common and severe due to increased demand of nutrition
[8]. On the other hand, some developing countries obesity is the over nutrition within the same
communities as under nutrition. But the elderly malnutrition arises due to physical,
psychological and social factors [9]. Undernourishment is the result due to not enough high
quality food available to eat. This might be related to high food prices and poverty [10].
Undernutrition is common sign of daily life in developing countries [11]. In Bangladesh,
chronic malnutrition is associated with poor socioeconomic position which retards the
purchasing power of nutritious foods such as milk, meat, poultry, and fruits [12]. Food
shortage might also be a contributing factor to malnutrition in developing countries with lack
of proper technology. Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that eighty percent of
malnourished children living in the developing world even those countries produce food
surpluses [13]. Nowadays, famine is one of the most critical problems for food distribution
and/or poverty. Though there has been sufficient food to feed the whole population of the
world, malnutrition and famine are more related to problems of food distribution and
purchasing power [14].
PROTEIN SOURCES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Proteins are very much essential component of the diet needed for survival of both animals and
humans. The basic functions of protein’s in nutrition system to supply adequate amounts of
essential and non-essential amino acids. However, the protein quality depends on its amino
acid content and on the physiological utilization of specific amino acids after digestion,
absorption, and minimal obligatory rates of oxidation. Table 1 shows the protein consumption
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in underdeveloped countries vs developing countries. Underdeveloped countries humans
consume more low-quality proteins compared to those living in developed countries [15].
However, soymilk could be a good source of protein for developing countries.
Table1. Sources of protein in the developing and developed countries (USDA, 1993)
Source
Developing (%)
Developed (%)
Cereals
58.8
29.1
Meat
8.6
26.4
Pulses
7.4
1.7
Milk and dairy
5.6
16.7
Fish, seafood
4.1
7.3
Oil crops
3.8
1.9
Vegetables
3.5
3.5
Starchy roots
3.1
3.2
Eggs
1.6
4.3
Offals
1.2
2.2
Fruit
1.0
1.1
SOYBEAN AND SOYMILK
Soybean composition includes varying amounts of protein content (3840%), carbohydrates
(30%) and fat (18%) [1]. Among soy protein glycinin and β-conglycinin are the most important
and in combination they represent more than 70% of the total soy proteins [5]. In soybean and
its derivatives contained unsaturated fatty acids. Other component is soybean includes varying
concentration of isoflavone; high levels of minerals including iron, calcium, zinc; vitamins
including α-tocopherol, niacin, pyridoxine, and folacin. Soybeans are also a source of anti-
nutrient factors such as saponins, phospholipids, protease inhibitors, phytates and trypsin
inhibitors [1] and most of them could be destroyed by either heat treatment or other processing
methods.
Soybeans could be easily transformed into many different varieties of foods to create versatility
and provide tasty and easily digestible products. Among these soy foods, soymilk has gained
much popularity as a healthy food drink. The aqueous extract of whole soybeans, is known as
soymilk, which closely resembles dairy milk in physical appearance and composition [16].
Soymilk is a stable emulsion of oil, water and protein. The traditional soymilk is made from
soaking the beans in water, wet grinding the beans, steaming the wet mash to improve flavor
and nutritional value, and filtering [17]. Flavored versions of soymilk have received acceptance
in mainstream market as meal replacement beverages and cow milk replacer. Soymilk is used
as a base in a wide variety of soy dairy analogues, including tofu, soy yogurt/curd, ice cream,
and soy-based cheeses [4]. Commercial soymilks and related products may be classified,
according to their composition:
a) Plain (or traditional) soymilk: Made by water extraction of whole soybeans, using different
ratio of bean to water. Contain approximately 4% protein which depends on process, soybean
variety, amount of water and bean ratio.
b) Dairy-type soymilk: Formulated soymilk, however, composition roughly similar to that of
dairy milk. Basically, bean to water ratio is 1:7. Protein content 3.5%, slightly sweetened,
contains added oil and salt. Nonetheless, it may contain imitation milk flavor.
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c) Soy beverages: Its sweet and flavored drinks, containing about 1% protein. High bean to
water ratio 1:20.
d) Cultured products: Any of the above type after lactic fermentation or acidification with
lactic acid.
e) Blends: Mixtures of soymilk and other vegetable or dairy milks.
WHY SOYMILK?
Basically, there are two main types of under nutrition i) protein-energy malnutrition and ii)
dietary deficiencies. Protein-energy malnutrition also has two severe forms: i) lack of protein
and calories, known as marasmus and ii) lack of just protein, called kwashiorkor [7]. Soymilk
could be a good source of high quality protein with production low cost. Soymilk is very
popular healthy drink and is important source of high-quality protein for a long time. Soymilk
contains high amounts of protein, iron, unsaturated fatty acids, and niacin, but low amounts of
fat, carbohydrates, and calcium as compared with cow milk and human milk. Nonetheless,
Soymilk is also used as an important replacer of milk for lactose-intolerant people, as well as a
low-cost source of good-quality protein and energy, mainly in developing countries [4, 18-19].
More importantly, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats of soymilk do not lead to
deposition of fats in blood vessels including those in heart, and are therefore do not lead to
heart diseases [1]. Soymilk is very good source of fosfatidylcholine and vitamins. It also
contains considerable amount of isoflavones, which are strong antioxidants. The properly
processed soymilk and its derivatives thus offer many health benefits.
COMPOSITION OF SOYMILK
Both soymilk and cow’s milk were collected from local market and analysis for different
composition. The composition of soymilk depends on milk extraction procedure, variety of
soybean, water and bean ratio and so on. Cow’s milk composition varies considerably among
breeds of dairy cattle, interval of milking, age of cattle, stage of lactation and feeding regime
and Completeness of milking. Soymilk contains high amounts of protein and unsaturated fatty
acids but low amounts of fat and carbohydrates as compared to cow milk (Table 2).
Table 2. Composition and comparison between soymilk and cow’s milk
Nutritional value per 100 g
Cow's milk
Soymilk
Energy, Kcal
67.0±0.5
52.0±0.5
Protein (g)
3.5±0.04
3.9±0.08
Fat (g)
3.7±0.6
2.4±0.1
Cholesterol (g)
11.0±0.06
0
Lactose (g)
4.8±0.03
0
Saturated fatty acids (%)
63.5±1.0
14.0±1.2
Mono-unsaturated fatty acids (%)
33.5±0.9
21.6±0.7
Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (%)
3.0±0.2
63.5±0.9
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EXTRACTION OF SOYMILK
The basic steps of preparation of soymilk include selection of soybeans, soaking of beans, wet
grinding and separation of soymilk from fiber (okara), cooking to inactivate lipoxygenase and
trypsin inhibitors, formulation and fortification, and packaging of the soymilk. Various
methods were developed to extract soymilk especially to remove the beany flavor of soymilk.
Wilkens et al. [20] developed the Cornell process and later the Illinois process was developed
by Nelson et al. [19] for the manufacture of soymilk. These conventional processes basically
involve the soaking, grinding, filtering, and cooking steps. But now many process
modifications have taken place over the years with the advancement of new processing
technologies and considering consumer requirements. In large-scale production, mostly
continuous high-temperature short-time (HTST) processes often takes place rather than normal
low-temperature, long-time thermal processes. The ultra high-temperature (UHT) heating and
aseptic packaging has further contributed to the production of long life soymilk. They are more
convenient for transportation, distribution, and storage [21].
In this paper we discussed, the effect of extraction methods on characteristics soymilk for
extraction of maximum solid content including protein and fat content. Soak the soybeans
(Raitip brand, Nonthaburi, Thailand) prior to grinding in 0.5% sodium bicarbonate solution at
the 50oC for 2 h in a water bath (Schufzart DIN 40050IP20; MembartGmBH+ Co.,
Bϋchenbach, Germany). The ratio between soybean and water for soaking was 1:3. The beans
were drained well afterwards. After discarding the water, the soaked soybean was dehulled
before grinding of soybean. Soaked soybean was dehulled to remove unwanted substances
using hands. Three methods were applied for blanching of hydrated soybeans to inactivate
lipoxygenase and off flavor. Hydrated beans were blanched in 0.5% sodium bicarbonate
solution at 80oC and 95oC for 10 min and 121oC for 15 min in a gas retort (Ngowhuatyoo,
Bangkok, Thailand) solution was drained well and washed with water for three times. The
blanched soybean was ground with the addition of hot water (95C) using super mass colloider
(Masuko Sangyo Co., Ltd. MK- PB6-2, Kawaguchi, Japan) and a basket centrifuge (Wasino,
Samutprakarn, Thailand). The ratio of soybean to water was 1:4. Soymilk was obtained after
filtering through double layers of cheese cloths. Soymilk was pasteurized by low temperature
long time (LTLT) method. LTLT involves heating the milk to 63C and holding for 30 min.
The pasteurized soymilk was in -20C for further studies. Soymilk prepared by different
methods was analyzed for the following parameters: refractive index, total solid, peroxide
value and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) was determined immediately after
extraction of soymilk (day 0). On the other hand, protein and fat were determined on the 2nd
day after extraction of soymilk.
The composition of extracted soymilk by three different treatment methods is shown in Table
3. Although the treatments did not significantly affect the refractive index, soymilk had
different total solid, protein, fat, and TBARs. Soymilk obtained from blanching at 80oC for 10
min showed the highest solid content. However, Table 4 shows that increasing the temperature
during blanching decreased the extracted solid content. This might be due to the formation of
matrices capable of holding water. When the matrices are formed before extraction of soymilk,
the amount of solid extraction reduced along with liquid content. Increasing blanching
temperature to 95oC could not increase the extraction of soymilk due to fixation of matrix at
high temperature. Blanching and autoclaving at high temperature (95oC and 121oC,
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respectively) denatured soy protein and increased the water holding capacity of soybean,
extraction of protein was dramatically reduced after denaturation and matrix formation.
Table 3. Composition of extracted soy milk by three different treatments
Blanching conditions
80oC 10 min
95oC 10 min
121oC 15 min
1.345a ±0.005
1.339a ±0.001
1.3336a±0.007
7.65a±0.03
5.37b±0.05
4.05c ±0.03
4.46a±0.07
4.02b ±0.05
2.13c ±0.06
2.15a ±0.06
1.80b ±0.10
0.93c ±0.06
0.027b±0.07
0.025b±0.05
0.057a ±0.03
< detection limit
Means in the same row followed by different superscript are significantly different (P<0.05).
AMINO ACID PROFILE
Soymilk obtained from blanching at 80oC for 10 min and pasteurized at 63C holding for 30
min were used for analysis of amino acid profile. However, heat processing time and
temperature of heating significantly changed the amino acids profile of soymilk protein.
Protein source, processing treatment and interaction with other components of the diet might
affect the availability of amino acids. in general, proteins deficient in one or more amino acids
are called poor quality proteins. For example, tryptophan and lysine are nutritionally limiting
in corn, lysine in wheat and other cereals, and methionine in soybeans and other legumes.
Soymilk contained considerable amount of essential and branched chain amino acids (Table 4).
But the low content of the essential amino acid L-methionine in soy protein limits its nutritive
value. Soy contains methionine for only 1.39 g/16 g of N; while the recommendation by the
FAO is 3.5 g/16 g of N [22-23], much lower than that of cereal and meat proteins. Although
cystine has a sparing effect on methionine, it does not make up for low methionine levels. Two
reasons are identified for low methionine in soy proteins:
i) During food processing and storage, L-methionine and other amino acids are chemically
modified, resulted reducing the nutritional quality. Methionine undergoes oxidation to
methionine sulfoxides and methionine sulfone, racemization to D-methionine and general
degradation to compounds with undesirable odors and flavors such as methional.
ii) Protein-bound methionine from some plants is poorly utilized, presumably because of poor
digestibility [24-26]. To overcome these problems, efforts are being made to develop soybean
lines that over express methionine-rich proteins [27-28].
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Table 4. Composition and comparison between soymilk and cow’s milk
Amino acid
Amount g/16 N
FAO,a
g/16 g of N
mg/kg
per day
mg/g
protein1
Alanine
3.07±0.05
-
-
Arginine
5.38±0.04
-
-
-
Aspartic Acid
8.98±0.03
-
-
-
Cystine
1.61±0.06
-
-
-
Glutamic Acid
14.99±0.07
-
-
-
Glycine
3.20±0.02
-
-
-
Histidine
2.06±0.09
-
-
-
Isoleucine
4.03±0.01
4.0
20
30
Leucine
7.89±0.04
7.0
39
59
Lysine
5.65±0.09
5.5
30
45
Methionine
1.44±0.11
3.5b
10
16
Phenylalanine
4.07±0.07
-
-
-
Proline
7.30±0.03
-
-
-
Serine
4.34±0.05
-
-
-
Threonine
3.07±0.02
4.0
15
23
Tryptophan
1.35±0.06
4
6
Tyrosine
2.90±0.08
6.0c
25
38
Valine
3.89±0.09
5.0
26
39
a Scoring pattern for an ideal protein [15, 22]
1 Mean nitrogen requirement of 105 mg nitrogen/kg per day (0.66 g protein/kg per day).
b Cys + Met; c Tyr + Phe.
SOY ISOFLAVONE
Soymilk contains approximately 47 mg total isoflavones with considerable variations both in
composition and content [29-30]. Isoflavones are generally consisting of two benzyl rings
joined by a three-carbon bridge, which may or may not be closed in a pyran ring. They are
known as flavonoids, which are the largest and found in wide range of plant phenolics [5, 31].
The isoflavones have basically three types, with each type being present in four chemical
forms. Isoflavones in soybean are mainly found as aglycones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein)
(Figure 1), β-glucosides (daidzin, genistin, glycitin), malonyl-β-glucosides (6´´-O-
malonyldaidzin, 6´´-O-malonylgenistin, 6´´-O-malonylglycitin) and acetyl-β-glucosides (6´´-
O-acetyldaidzin, 6´´-O-acetylgenistin, 6´´-O-acetylglycitin) [32]. Aglycones are flavonoid
molecules without any attached sugars or other derivatives and important among other
isoflavone due to their bioavailability to humans [32]. β-glucosides may also carry additional
small molecular modifiers, such as malonyl and acetyl groups. Sugar-linked flavonoids are
called glucosides due to their glucose linkage to flavonoids.
Researches revealed that soy isoflavones and their glycosides which are available on soymilk
are associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease [33], hormone-dependent
breast and prostate cancers [34], colon cancer [35], menopausal symptoms [36] and
osteoporosis [37]. Glycosidic isoflavones are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, due to
their higher molecular weight and hydrophilicity. However, gut bacteria in the intestine could
biologically activate by action of β-glucosidase to their corresponding bioactive aglycone
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forms. Hydrolyzed aglycone isoflavones are absorbed in the upper small intestine by passive
diffusion. Healthy adults can absorb isoflavones rapidly and efficiently. The average time to
ingested aglycones reach peak plasma concentrations is about 47 h, which is delayed to 811
h for the corresponding β-glycosides [38].
Fig 1: Chemical structure of genistein, diadzein, genistin and diadzin
VITAMINS CONTENT OF SOYMILK
Soymilk is very good source of B-vitamins particularly niacin, pyridoxine, folacin, vitamin E
and negligible amount of vitamin A as pro-vitamin A (Table 5), which are very low in terms of
per day requirements. Provitamin A is non-animal source vitamin A which turned into vitamin
A by the liver following the oxidation process. Under the name of “provitamin A” are grouped
different molecules and the body uses them to produce vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A in
animal foods occurs as retinyl esters of fatty acids and pro-vitamin A carotenoids in foods of
vegetable origin are also associated with cellular lipids. However, pro-vitamin A are embedded
in complex cellular structures such as the cellulose-containing matrix of chloroplasts or the
pigment containing portion of chromoplasts. Vitamin A functions in the visual cycle in the
retina of the eye and systematic maintain of growth and the soundness of cells.
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Table 5. Vitamin content of soymilk [39]
Components
Amounts/ 100g
soymilk
FAO/WHO, Recommended nutrient intake (mg/day)
Adults
(Men) 19+
Adults
(Women) 19+
Pregnant
Lactation
Thiamin (vitamin
B1)1
0.20±0.4 (mg)
1.2
1.1
1.4
1.5
Riboflavin (vitamin
B2)1
0.1.0±0.3 (mg)
1.3
1.1
1.4
1.6
Niacin (vitamin B3)*
0.15 (mg)
16
14
18
17
Panthotenic acid
(vitamin B5)
0.05 (mg)
5
5
6
7
Vitamin B6
0.04 (mg)
1.3-1.7
1.3-1.5
1.9
2.0
Folic acid (vitamin
B9)
1.5 (μg)
200
200
420
270
Vitamin A**
3.0 (μg)
600
600
600
850
Vitamin E
0.01 (mg)
-
-
-
-
* NEs: niacin equivalents; ** Vitamin A as pro-vitamin
1Thaiamin and riboflabin were determined in the laboratory after soymilk extracted at 80oC
for 10 min and pasteurized at 63C holding for 30 min.
MINERALS CONTENT OF SOYMILK
Soymilk contains about 4 mg of calcium per 100 g soymilk (Table 6). Nowadays growing
number of calcium-fortified soymilks are available; these might be contained around 200 to
300 mg of calcium per serving. But soyfoods are rich in both oxalates and phytate, could
inhibit the calcium absorption, the calcium from soyfoods is very well absorbed and has a
fractional absorption rate equal to that of milk. Both phytate and soy protein reduce iron
absorption, resulted the iron in soyfoods is generally poorly absorbed. However, vitamin C can
increase the amount of iron absorbed from soyfoods, although absorption rates are still low.
Iron may be better absorbed from fermented soyfoods like tempeh and miso than soymilk. Zinc
also poorly absorbed from soyfoods.
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Table 6. Minerals content of soymilk [39]
Component
Amounts/
100g
soymilk
FAO/WHO, Recommended nutrient intake (mg/day)
10-18
years
Men,
Years
Women, years
Pregnant
Lactation
Boy
Girl
19-
65
65+
19-
Menopau
Post-
menopause
Calcium,
Ca A
4.7±0.7
(mg)
1000
750
800
750
800
800
750
Iron, Fe A
1.0±0.4
(mg)
23*
48*
23
23
48**
19***
76
26
Magnesium,
Mg
19.0 (mg)
220
230
260
224
2201
1902
220
270
Phosphorus,
P
49.0 (mg)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Potassium,
K
141.0
(mg)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Manganese,
Mn
0.17 (mg)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Sodium, Na
12.0 (mg)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Zinc, Zn
0.23 (mg)
7.2
8.6
7.0
7.0
4.9
4.9
5.57
7.08
10.09
9.5a
8.8b
7.2c
Copper, Cu
0.12 (mg)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Selenium,
Se
1.3 (μg)
26
32
34
33
261
252
283
304
355
426
A Calcium and iron were determined in the laboratory soymilk extracted at 80oC for 10 min and
pasteurized at 63C holding for 30 min .
Menopau = Menopause;
Calcium (theoretical) allowances based on an animal protein intake of 2040 g
* 1618 years; ** Non pregnant or lactating women;*** above 60 years
1 Adults, 1965 years; 2above 65 years
3 2nd trimester; 4 3rd trimester; 5 0–6 months’ post-partum; 6 712 months post-partum
7 1sttrimester; 8 2nd trimester; 9 3rd trimester
a03 months; b 36 months; c 912 months
CONCLUSION
Soymilk is a good source of low-cost protein and poly unsaturated fatty acids. Soymilk also
contained high amount of vitamin B-complex but very low or negligible amount of vitamin A
as pro-vitamin A and minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc. Even at low content but useful
for pregnant and lactating women. Nonetheless, lack of iodine, low vitamins and minerals
could be minimized by fortification of iodine and enrichment of vitamin A, iron and zinc.
However, it’s an easy method to enrichment of minerals as calcium fortified minerals are
available in the market.
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... Soybean can be regarded as an oil crop considering the fact that it contains about 18% to 22% oil [2]. it has also been recorded to be a good protein source with possession of 40% of protein (dry basis), which has been recorded to be the highest compared to other legumes. Soybeans have also been recorded to be having high mineral and roughages content [4]. ...
... The nutritive protein properties of Soymilk have made it one of the most popular drinks [2]. Nutrients such as omega-3-fatty acid, dietary fibre, iso-flavones, Vitamin C, proteins, carotenoids and oligosaccharides are abundant in the Soymilk [4]. Production of the soymilk involves aqueous extraction of whole or dehulled soybeans, and it has been used to make processed soy foods, including tofu and fermented soymilk. ...
... When soymilk is properly processed, it offers a lot of nutraceutical and health benefits. In 1999, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a health claim for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein, largely based on the unsaturated fat as compared to the saturated fat of animal origin and a meta-analysis of 38 clinical trials that reported significant decreases in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides with soy protein intake (25 g/day) compared with animal protein consumption [4]. ...
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This research work is aimed at evaluating microbial quality of soy milk taken by the populace in Enugu and verifying the safety standard of soymilk consumed by Nigerians in general.
... Soya is grown all over the world and is a nutrient-dense food that is also a good source of protein, providing vital dietary amino acids [7]. According to Mazumder and Begum [8], soya milk contains significant amounts of essential and branched-chain amino acids. The differences in amino acids between cow and soya milk are further reported in their study. ...
... The values of these minerals in samples with 6% turmeric agreed with previous research [43]. The value was higher than commonly reported in the literature [8,44]. The differences in the absorption of iron result not only from individual variability but also from the type of food in which it is supplied. ...
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We studied plant-based milk from soya beans as a means to release and convey the bound antioxidants in turmeric to benefit consumer health. This was compared to cow milk as a carrier because soya milk consumption as an alternative to cow milk is increasing globally. Hence, turmeric paste was added to milk to investigate the release of turmeric antioxidants when changing the matrix (cow vs. soy), the amount of turmeric paste (0%, 2%, and 6%), and the effect of heating (with and without). Proximate, physicochemical, and mineral analysis were carried out for all samples. The total phenol content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity were measured using Folin–Ciocalteu and Quencher methods. Protein ranged from 2.0% to 4.0%, and minerals ranged from 17.8 to 85.1, 0.37 to 0.53, and 0.29 to 0.30 mg/100 mL for calcium, iron, and zinc, respectively. TPC ranged from 0.01 to 0.147 GAE (g/kg) and antioxidant activity from 7.5 to 17.7 TEAC (mmol Trolox/kg sample). Overall, turmeric added nutritional and chemical value to all the samples with and without heat treatment. However, turmeric-fortified soya milk samples showed the highest protein, iron, zinc, TPC, and antioxidant activity. This study identified a cheap, additional nutrient source for developing-countries’ malnourished populations by utilizing soya bean milk to produce golden milk.
... The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight as the beverage that is lactosefree, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products [12][13][14]. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented) including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism [15]. ...
... There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented) including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism [15]. Soy Milk is rich in essential and branched amino acids except Met, and good source of B-vitamins especially, niacin, pyridoxine and folic acid/folacin [13]. Asia represents high demand of vegetable beverages, included fermented vegetable milk as Soymilk [12]. ...
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Fermented milk has been developing alongside the history of human civilization. It is observed having positive effect on gastrointestinal health. It has reaches at the steps of explaining what happens in the process, despite some information is still unclear. Fermentation involves many organisms, technique, biochemical reactions, tool and apparatus as well as cultural diversity among people and regions due to differences and changes in climate. Fermented milks, using milk as the raw material from bovine and non-bovine dairy species, and in some regions, especially in Asia and Africa, they also use materials from vegetable extracts. Some progress in Fermented Milk Science, has explained the role of such fermented foods for human health. These benefits have been more and more progressing to select specific microbes, known as probiotic cultures, which combined with specific substances from vegetable extract (prebiotic) could improve lactose digestion, role anti-cancer, anti-hypercholesteremic and anti-pathogenic bacteria as well as anti-virus were discussed in this article.
... The exact mechanism explaining the effect of soy milk supplementation on skeletal muscle regulators is unknown. Soy milk contains chemical compounds including amino acids, vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, iron, and niacin, and also has high concentrations of phosphatidylcholine and isoflavones, which can alter molecular mechanisms by affecting transcription factors, growth factors, and diverse intracellular signaling pathways (Mazumder & Begum, 2016). Previous evidence suggests that compounds of soy milk can activate mTOR, which lead to an increase in the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, S6K1, and binding mRNAs that are involved in protein synthesis; thereby increasing the rate of MPS by improvement in levels of muscle regulator markers (Soori et al., 2017). ...
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... Furthermore, soymilk yoghurt contained the highest level of the essential fatty acids; oleic acid (26:80% ± 0:1), linoleic acid (32:03% ± 0:1), and αlinolenic acid (3:74% ± 0:1), followed by the mixed yoghurt. Hence, adding soymilk may help lowering the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids thus lowering the cholesterol level, specifically lowdensity cholesterol (LDL) in yoghurt, yielding healthier yoghurt [21,22] Table 7. The sensory test showed that there was a significant difference among the samples according to all sensory criteria, :86 e ± 0:02 6:72 f ± 0:06 6:57 g ± 0:02 C (50%cow milk + 50%soy milk) yoghurt 8:41 b ± 0:1 7 :23 d ± 0:06 6:54 g ± 0:01 Different small letters in the same row refer to a significant difference at (p < 0:05). ...
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... The analysis result of fat content soy milk was 1.188% and had fulfilled SNI 01-3830-1995 requirements which was a minimum of 1%. The fat content in soy milk was high in unsaturated fatty acid and low in saturated fatty acid [23]. ...
... Due to its high nutritional value, soy milk is a suitable milk-substitute for vegans/vegetarians and those who suffer from milk allergy or lactose intolerance. It is also regarded as a low-cost and high-quality source of protein and energy for malnourished subjects, as well as in populations with an insufficient supply of cow milk (Mazumder & Begum, 2016;Sethi, Tyagi, & Anurag, 2016). Soy milk contains some beneficial components such as isoflavones and polyphenols which can exert favorable effects on the cardiovascular health (Takatsuka et al., 2000). ...
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... Soymilk is one of the most widely available plant-based beverages worldwide and can be obtained from soybeans without complicated processes. It has long been acknowledged as the best alternative to the significant obstacles of dairy milk consumption: lactose intolerance, defined as the inability to digest lactose due to lack of lactose-decomposing enzymes, and milk protein allergy (Mazumder & Begum, 2016;. In recent years, with the rapid rise in popularity of plant-based diets, the demand for soymilk has continuously increased across the world (Euromonitor International, 2020;Mordor Intelligence, 2019). ...
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Soymilk is well known for its health and nutritional benefits and is one of the best plant substitutes for cow milk. Soymilk is high in protein, low in cholesterol, lactose-free, and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The bioactive compounds in soybean contribute to the beneficial effects of soymilk and are reported to exert various bioactivities. With the rising interest in health-conscious lifestyles, the development of soymilk with high nutritional quality is a critical task of the soymilk industry. Therefore, research on novel and advanced technologies is underway to develop soymilk with maximal nutritional quality. This review aims to present the recent findings on the beneficial effects of the bioactive compounds in soymilk and to introduce the latest technological advances that enhance the nutritional quality of soymilk, focusing on increasing the amount of nutrients and bioactive compounds, anti-nutrient removal, fortification with bioactive ingredients, and bio-enrichment.
... Nonetheless, isoflavones have received considerable attention nowadays as phytoestrogens. To date, isoflavones have received attentions as to play significant roles in the prevention of several diseases and they are considered as health-promoting substances (Mazumder and Begum, 2016). This is because of their weak estrogenic property and other beneficial functions (Rahman Mazumder and Hongsprabhas, 2016;Bedell et al., 2014;Rietjens et al., 2013). ...
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Genistein proposed as a treatment for osteoporosis for postmenopausal women, elderly men, lowering cardiovascular disease and reduces hormone dependent cancers. Genistein also exerted inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced in vitro by pro-oxidant agents on model and natural membranes on cultured cells and on low density lipoprotein. Genistein detection in soy products is very much important for Food Scientist. Gensitein can be detected by UV-Visible spectrophotometric and HPLC method. This study focused on the detection of genistein by HPLC and spectrophotometric methods. Genistein content of both soy protein isolate (SPI) and spray dried soy milk powder (SMP) was determined by spectrophotometry (93.12±1.15 and 74.78±0.75 mg/100g, respectively) were slightly higher but not significantly differ than HPLC analysis (89.67±5.16 and 72.34±0.27 mg/100g, respectively). This study suggested that genistein and its glycoside could be detected by spectrophotometric methods with high accuracy.
Book
More than two decades ago, in response to the special healthcare needs of the aging Ameriean population, interest in the field of geriatrie medieine began to grow and blossom in the United States. In 1984 and 1985, under the editorialleadership of Christine K. Cassel and William R. Hazzard, respectively, two major textbooks devoted to the medieal care of aged patients were published. These scholarly, comprehensive texts provided insight into the principles of aging and guidance in the care of the geriatrie patient. Three editions later, the need to understand the special issues involved in the medieal care of the elderly is widely accepted by intemists, primary care providers, and medieal specialists. For the editors of this book, the special issues involved in the surgieal care of the elderly have been apparent for nearly as long. Although there have been a few scholarly texts on the subject, including one in 1990 by Mark R. Katlic, general acceptance of the concept of geriatrie surgery by our surgieal and medieal colleagues has, however, lagged. This is not the result of a proportionately smaller number of older patients with surgieal disease, because cancer, cardiovascular disease, and orthopedie problems are diseases, of the aged. It is rather the result of uncertainty about the value of surgery in the elderly and concems about the risks of operations. In the past, such concems prevented primary care givers from referring patients for surgieal care and prevented surgeons from agreeing to operate.
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Soymilk is the aqueous extract of whole soybeans, resembling dairy milk in physical appearance and composition. The basic steps of its preparation include selection of soybeans, soaking in water, wet grinding, separation of soymilk from fiber (okara), cooking to inactivate lipoxygenase and trypsin inhibitors, formulation and fortification, and packaging. The properly processed soymilk and its derivatives offer many neutraceutical and health benefits. The type of processing and ensuing processing conditions such as high or low temperatures, short or prolonged temperature and cooking time, ultra high temperature, spray-drying parameters, processing treatment combinations with alkali or other chemicals etc. affect the properties of soymilk. The present article focuses on various processing aspects like soaking, blanching, heat treatments, chemical and enzyme treatments, fermentation, homogenization, filtration, spray-drying etc., and their effects on the composition, anti-nutrients, physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, microbial load, and shelf-life of liquid and powdered soymilk. The applications of some novel techniques such as high-pressure processing, pulsed electric field, ultra high-pressure homogenization, ultrasound, and membrane separations on soymilk processing are also discussed.
Article
Distributions of isoflavones in soybeans treated with oven-drying, roasting, or explosive puffing were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As oven-drying time increased from 0 to 120 min at 100 °C, concentration (μmol/g) of malonyl derivatives of isoflavones decreased and β-glucosides increased significantly with over 0.99 coefficient of determination (R2) (P < 0.05). Roasting at 200 °C for 7, 14, and 21 min and explosive puffing at 490, 588, and 686 kPa decreased malonyl derivatives significantly and increased acetyl-β-glucosides and β-glucosides significantly (P < 0.05). Total isoflavones (TI) in 21 min roasted and 686 kPa puffed soybeans decreased by 25.46% and 10.42%, respectively, while TI in 120 min oven-dried soybeans was not significantly different (P > 0.05) compared to untreated samples. Regression analysis showed that malonyl-β-genistin had higher slopes of decreases (μmol/g/min) than malonyl-β-daidzin in oven-dried soybeans. This is the first report on the effects of explosive puffing and the changes of isoflavone profiles in soybeans.
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Heating conditions are the most important variables in the processing of soymilk. the heat treatments given to soymilk during extraction, cooking, and subsequent pasteurization or sterilization, principally influence (1) the yields and nutritive quality of solids and proteins, (2) destruction of spoilage microorganisms, and (3) the colour and the flavour of the milk. the qualities of other soy products derived from soymilk, e.g. the texture of tofu and the suitability for lactic acid fermentation, may also be affected by the net heat treatment received by the milk. Excess heating generally leads to the destruction of amino acids and vitamins, browning and the development of cooked flavour. Considerable research efforts have been devoted to establish the effects of heat on the elimination of off-flavours, inactivation of antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors, and the recovery of solids and proteins in soymilk. Other heat-induced chemical changes such as loss of vitamins, Maillard reaction and protein denaturation have not been studied as extensively. Published studies show that higher temperature heating and UHT treatment may have beneficial effects on the yields of solids and proteins, retention of the nutrients, and minimizing chemical changes in soymilk, provided that optimum processing conditions are used. Process optimization is only possible if data on the kinetics of various chemical reactions involved are available. However, such data are lacking, especially in the UHT range.