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Co-processing of Alternative Fuels and Resources in Indian Cement Industry—Baseline and Potential: 7th IconSWM—ISWMAW 2017, Volume 2

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... Moreover, process investigation is essential to find the most suitable RDF for a specific plant, according to the cost, availability of the fuel, continuity, heat content, physical and chemical properties, and finally, the impact on the quality of the clinker and cement. It is estimated that co-processing of 25,000 tons of AF instead of 7000 tons will increase the =TSR from 5% in 2020 to 20% in 2030 to produce one million tonnes of cement (Saha and Karstensen, 2019). Fig. 1 shows the TSR % of utilization of alternative fuels in various countries worldwide where the highest contributor is Austria followed by Norway. ...
... Average thermal substitution rate resulting from biomass, alternative fossil wastes, and mixed wastes in different countries worldwide(Saha and Karstensen, 2019). ...
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Refused derived fuel (RDF) is one of the products of the MSWs that is effectively used as an energy source, especially in the cement industry. This work discusses the role of the RDF in the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the circular economy. Moreover, the barriers that challenge the widespread of the RDF are indicated. The RDF positively contributes to the most SDGs. However, the main contribution would be in SDGl, SDG3, SDG6, SDG7, SDG8, SDG9, SDG11, SDG12, SDG14 and SDG15. While in the main contribution of the circular economy comes from its ability to reuse municipal solid wastes, industrial solid waste, non-recyclable plastics, waste tires, biomass, paper/card, waste oils, and waste textiles. In addition, RDF will reduce the CO2 by up to 2,155.3 10⁶ Kt CO2/year and recover heat content from 2 to 5.5 Gcal/t. Moreover, the RDF will save up to 15% of the fuel that equals 4.92 tons/h. Such fuel reduction will save 486 USD/h in petcoke costs, with 2.27 tons/h of CO2 being emitted into the atmosphere at a net saving of 389 USD/h. The results guide academic researchers, policymakers, and stakeholders worldwide to evaluate solid wastes as alternative fuels concerning their overall sustainability and cheapness. Moreover, this work introduces some future research directions to involve solid wastes in circular economy and SDGs. Furthermore, a set of indicators are proposed to guide the stakeholder to increase the RDF contribution to SDGs and lower the possible trade-off.
... Plastic waste generates < 2 mass % ash content with high calorific values (38.64 kJ/g) while rubber waste shows 21.2 mass % ash contents, with 36 kJ /g calorific value. Reduction in setting times, an enhancement in compressive strength and acceleration of the hydration reactions can be attributed to the pozzolanic properties of RDF ash [72,73]. Higher generation rates, treatment and disposal of industrial wastes have become a critical environmental problem. ...
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In India, waste generation is increasing due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. For ensuring the safety of environment and sustainable management of waste, the statutory guidelines, rules, and principles are set. It is very important that how effectively these rules are implemented. The Environment Protection Act (EPA) in 1986 and subsequently a number of other rules supporting sustainable management of wastes were established in India to protect environmental quality and reduction of pollution from all potential sources in India. Based on the 3Rs (reduce–reuse–recycle) and circular economy concepts, the recirculation of wastes through different recycling and recovery techniques developing business models is being promoted in the country. Several technologies have been in practice in India for effective utilization of waste, e.g., waste-to-energy, transfer–storage–dispose–facility (TSDF), composting, biomethanation, co-processing, and a few other processes which are playing vital role. The successful management of waste has turned into business models in waste management streams introducing integrated waste management facilities, which supports the treatment of multiple wastes at single facility, with time and cost effectiveness. India has experienced a robust economic performance in recent decades and could enable a significant reduction in poverty levels, citizen’s better accessibility to energy, and enhanced accessibility to clean energy across the economy with a 9% growth rate target. India is on a growth path to achieve a USD 5 trillion economies by 2024–2025, making it the fastest-growing biggest democracy and large economy worldwide. However, the very recent pandemic COVID-19 in 2020 probably retards the growth to certain extent. The Government of India (GoI) in 2018 announced a target of renewable capacities of 227 GW to be achieved by 2022 and 275 GW to be achieved by 2027. However, the electricity generated from WtE plants is only 66.4 MW per day, of which the 52 MW per day is generated in Delhi by its three existing plants. The water in surface and ground water courses is being polluted by the discharge of untreated sewage. Sewage generated is 38,000 million liter per day but the treatment capacity exists for nearly 12,000 million liter per day. However, 100% utilization of the existing capacity has not been achieved due to operation and maintenance problem. Sewage discharge without treatment in some cities is a big challenge in India. The main initiatives supporting the circular economy implementation are Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) initiated in 2014, establishing set of six documents on waste management rules, incorporation of zero defects and zero effect (ZED) in SMEs, renewable energy targets, and the very recent release of draft of Nations Resource Efficiency 2019 and draft Battery Waste Management Rules 2020. The present study focuses on the trend followed in India regarding the implementation of circular economy and resource circulation.
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