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Abstract

Importance: Excessive screen time is associated with delays in development; however, it is unclear if greater screen time predicts lower performance scores on developmental screening tests or if children with poor developmental performance receive added screen time as a way to modulate challenging behavior. Objective: To assess the directional association between screen time and child development in a population of mothers and children. Design, setting, and participants: This longitudinal cohort study used a 3-wave, cross-lagged panel model in 2441 mothers and children in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, drawn from the All Our Families study. Data were available when children were aged 24, 36, and 60 months. Data were collected between October 20, 2011, and October 6, 2016. Statistical analyses were conducted from July 31 to November 15, 2018. Exposures: Media. Main outcomes and measures: At age 24, 36, and 60 months, children's screen-time behavior (total hours per week) and developmental outcomes (Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition) were assessed via maternal report. Results: Of the 2441 children included in the analysis, 1169 (47.9%) were boys. A random-intercepts, cross-lagged panel model revealed that higher levels of screen time at 24 and 36 months were significantly associated with poorer performance on developmental screening tests at 36 months (β, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.02) and 60 months (β, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.02), respectively. These within-person (time-varying) associations statistically controlled for between-person (stable) differences. Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study support the directional association between screen time and child development. Recommendations include encouraging family media plans, as well as managing screen time, to offset the potential consequences of excess use.

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... While children's use of screen-based media is ubiquitous across high-income countries, and seems to have increased since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic [1], growing evidence suggests that exposure in infancy and early childhood is associated with unfavourable developmental outcomes over the short and mid-term [2][3][4][5]. In particular, there has been suggestion that high levels of screen-based media viewing are related to a higher level of risk of autismspectrum disorder (ASD) [2,6]. ...
... Although genetics play an important role with regard to the risk of ASD and symptoms of neurodevelopmental delay, evidence suggests that certain environmental exposures could also be involved [7]. Media screen exposure is a candidate, as children who early on in life spend a lot of time watching screens -particularly if their content is poor and/or if they are unsupervised-are less likely to play, be physically active, and engage in interactions with other children and adults, all of which could be related to worse neurodevelopmental outcomes [3,5]. However, Open Access *Correspondence: maria.melchior@inserm.fr 1 Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie Et de Santé Publique (IPLESP), Paris, France Full list of author information is available at the end of the article while it has been documented that children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD are more exposed to screens [2], research examining whether early screen exposure precedes later ASD diagnosis has been limited. ...
... Risk of neurodevelopmental difficulties at 2 years was assessed using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), a validated 23-item screening instrument [10,11]. We used the recommended cut-offs to define risk of ASD: low (0-2), intermediate (3)(4)(5)(6), and high (7-23) risk. ...
Article
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Background Screen media use in early childhood has largely increased in recent years, even more so during the COVID-19 epidemic, and there is much discussion regarding its influence on neurodevelopment, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Methods We examined the relationship between use of TV, computer, tablet and smartphone at age 2 years and risk of ASD assessed in telephone-based questionnaires among 12,950 children participating in the nationally representative ELFE (‘Etude Longitudinale Française sur les Enfants’) birth cohort study in France. Results In inverse-probability weighted (IPW) multinomial regression analyses, children’s weekly or daily screen media use was associated with an increased likelihood of an intermediate risk of ASD (IPW-controlled OR for weekly use:1.07, 95% CI 1.02—1.12; IPW-controlled OR for daily use:1.05, 95% CI 1.02—1.08) but inversely associated with a high risk (IPW-controlled OR for weekly use: 0.60, 95% CI 0.50—0.73; IPW-controlled OR for daily use: 0.75, 95% CI 0.62—0.91), as ascertained by the M-CHAT. This was confirmed when studying TV as well as computer/tablet exposure separately. Conclusions Overall, our nationally-representative study conducted among a large sample of 2-year-old children, indicates a complex relationship between screen exposure and ASD risk.
... Although research indicates that gross motor skill is negatively associated with high screen media use ( McArthur, Browne, Tough, & Madigan, 2020 ;True et al., 2017 ), it has been argued that newer television, computer, gaming consoles, smartphones, and tablets ( Madigan, Browne, Racine, Mori, & Tough, 2019 ;Webster et al., 2019 ). ...
... Regarding studies with younger children, media usage has been associated with performance in general development, although mechanisms are complicated ( Kostyrka-Allchorne et al., 2017 ). Further, studies often use data from parent-report questionnaires, such as from parts of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID, Lin, Cherng, Chen, Chen, & Yang, 2015 ) or the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ, Madigan et al., 2019 ), which contain self-report bias (e.g., Lin et al., 2015 ;Madigan et al., 2019 ;True et al., 2017 ). Fine motor skills, in particular, are difficult to estimate subjectively and require direct, standardized, and normed assessments. ...
... Regarding studies with younger children, media usage has been associated with performance in general development, although mechanisms are complicated ( Kostyrka-Allchorne et al., 2017 ). Further, studies often use data from parent-report questionnaires, such as from parts of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID, Lin, Cherng, Chen, Chen, & Yang, 2015 ) or the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ, Madigan et al., 2019 ), which contain self-report bias (e.g., Lin et al., 2015 ;Madigan et al., 2019 ;True et al., 2017 ). Fine motor skills, in particular, are difficult to estimate subjectively and require direct, standardized, and normed assessments. ...
Article
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Media form an integral part of children's environments and represent, amongst other domains, altered sensorimotor experiences. Fine motor skills (FMS) represent a fundamental prerequisite for learning and cognition and initial work has begun to show links with screen media usage-although work is scarce and the directionality is uncertain. Therefore, using a cross-lagged-panel design with 2 waves 1 year apart, we examined longitudinal links between media usage and FMS in 141 preschool children. Results show a negative cross-lagged path from media usage to FMS, which was also statistically significant when only newer media were examined, after controlling for parental educational attainment, immigrant status , device ownership, age of first use, working memory, and vocabulary. The study contributes to our understanding of links between media usage and FMS development.
... Converging evidence from biopsychosocial research in humans and in animal models demonstrates that chronic sensory stimulation via excessive screen time (i.e., defined as more than 2-3 h/day exposure to electronic media including television, computers, and mobile electronic devices) affects brain development, increasing the risk of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural disorders in adolescents and young adults [4]. Excessive screen time negatively impacts learning [6][7][8], memory [9][10][11], attention [12][13][14][15], concentration [12,13,16], emotional regulation and social functioning [17][18][19][20][21]. Effects of excessive screen time appear similar to symptoms of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) seen in adults in the early stages of dementia, including impaired concentration, orientation, acquisition of recent memories (anterograde amnesia), recall of memories (retrograde amnesia), social functioning, and self-care [4,22,23]. Excessive screen time is also known to increase the risk of mental disorders [20,24], and substance use [25,26] which are known risk factors for dementia [27,28]. ...
... Excessive screen time was found to be associated with problems in meeting developmental milestones for motor skills, spatio-temporal abilities, problem solving and language acquisition [7]. Content, pace, and degree of exposure were associated with dysfunction in attention, learning, and memory for both infants and children [6,13]. ...
... Data shows that institutional aid motivates students and encourages persistence towards program completion and graduation [130]. Additionally, education should be created to focus more on enriched environments promoting spatio-temporal learning and higher order analytic abilities, which both contribute to minimizing the risk of developing ADRD [7,106]. Legislature can be implemented such that there are legal and economic costs (i.e., fines and incarceration) for individuals/companies who exploit the addictive nature of technology. ...
Article
Converging evidence from biopsychosocial research in humans and animals demonstrates that chronic sensory stimulation (via excessive screen exposure) affects brain development increasing the risk of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural disorders in adolescents and young adults. Emerging evidence suggests that some of these effects are similar to those seen in adults with symptoms of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the early stages of dementia, including impaired concentration, orientation, acquisition of recent memories (anterograde amnesia), recall of past memories (retrograde amnesia), social functioning, and self-care. Excessive screen time is known to alter gray matter and white volumes in the brain, increase the risk of mental disorders, and impair acquisition of memories and learning which are known risk factors for dementia. Chronic sensory overstimulation (i.e., excessive screen time) during brain development increases the risk of accelerated neurodegeneration in adulthood (i.e., amnesia, early onset dementia). This relationship is affected by several mediating/moderating factors (e.g., IQ decline, learning impairments and mental illness). We hypothesize that excessive screen exposure during critical periods of development in Generation Z will lead to mild cognitive impairments in early to middle adulthood resulting in substantially increased rates of early onset dementia in later adulthood. We predict that from 2060 to 2100, the rates of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) will increase significantly, far above the Centres for Disease Control (CDC) projected estimates of a two-fold increase, to upwards of a four-to-six-fold increase. The CDC estimates are based entirely on factors related to the age, sex, race and ethnicity of individuals born before 1950 who did not have access to mobile digital technology during critical periods of brain development. Compared to previous generations, the average 17–19-year-old spends approximately 6 hours a day on mobile digital devices (MDD) (smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers) whereas individuals born before 1950 at the same age spent zero. Our estimates include the documented effects of excessive screen time on individuals born after 1980, Millennials and Generation Z, who will be the majority of individuals ≥65 years old. An estimated 4-to-6-fold increase in rates of ADRD post-2060 will result in widespread societal and economic distress and the complete collapse of already overburdened healthcare systems in developed countries. Preventative measures must be set in place immediately including investments and interventions in public education, social policy, laws, and healthcare.
... Screen time by young children has been linked to negative developmental outcomes (Pagani et al., 2013;Madigan et al., 2019), yet research has yet to examine its contribution to effortful control. From a prevention perspective, a focus on preschool children is advantageous because screen time habits adopted early on are likely to be carried forward later in life (Jones et al., 2013). ...
... There is evidence that non-adherence to pediatric screen time recommendations between the ages of 3 and 5 is associated with suboptimal development in the frontal-occipital fasciculus, a brain area involved in cognitive control (Hutton et al., 2020). Furthermore, real world longitudinal research supports these findings by indicating that children who accumulate too much time in front of screens may experience developmental delays across cognitive, social, and motor domains and are more at risk of arriving less well prepared to learn in kindergarten (Pagani et al., 2013;Madigan et al., 2019). Research has also linked early childhood screen time to reduced executive function ability in preschoolers (Nathanson et al., 2014;Ribner et al., 2017;Konok et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Individual differences in effortful control, a component of temperament, reflecting the ability to use attention and other cognitive processes to self-regulate emotion and behavior, contribute to child academic adjustment, social competence, and wellbeing. Research has linked excessive screen time in early childhood to reduced self-regulation ability. Furthermore, research suggests that parents are more likely to use screens with children who have more challenging temperaments, such as low levels of effortful control. Since screen time by children between the ages of 0 and 18 has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, it remains timely to investigate the developmental pattern of association between child screen media use and effortful control. We hypothesize that higher levels of screen media intake at age 3.5 will be associated with lower effortful control at age 4.5 and that lower effortful control at 3.5 will contribute to more screen media intake at age 4.5. This study draws on participants followed longitudinally over the span of 2-years for an investigation of Canadian preschoolers’ screen media use during the pandemic (N = 316, Wave 1). A follow-up with this sample was completed in 2021 (N = 265, Wave 2). Analyses using a cross-lagged panel model revealed stability in child screen time and effortful control between the ages of 3.5 and 4.5. Child screen time at age 3.5 significantly contributed to decreased effortful control scores at the age of 4.5, whereas effortful control at age 3.5 did not contribute to screen time at age 4.5. Our results partially confirmed our hypothesis and indicated that higher levels of screen time intake were detrimental to the development of effortful control. These results suggest that screen media use, an exceedingly frequent activity, may play an enduring role in development by shaping young children’s temperaments.
... Child development research has long sought to identify factors that interfere with healthy development. Screen time has received considerable attention ( Madigan, Browne, Racine, Mori, & Tough, 2019 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ), with most screen time research focused on the effect of traditional screen media (e.g., television, video gaming consoles) on young children's well-being and development (e.g., Hinkley et al., 2014 ;Madigan et al., 2019 ;Madigan, McArthur, Anhorn, Eirich & Christakis, 2020 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ;Thompson & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007 ). However, the potential for smartphone and tablet use to adversely affect development in early childhood has been given relatively less attention. ...
... Child development research has long sought to identify factors that interfere with healthy development. Screen time has received considerable attention ( Madigan, Browne, Racine, Mori, & Tough, 2019 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ), with most screen time research focused on the effect of traditional screen media (e.g., television, video gaming consoles) on young children's well-being and development (e.g., Hinkley et al., 2014 ;Madigan et al., 2019 ;Madigan, McArthur, Anhorn, Eirich & Christakis, 2020 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ;Thompson & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007 ). However, the potential for smartphone and tablet use to adversely affect development in early childhood has been given relatively less attention. ...
Preprint
The current study provides the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the associations of smartphone and tablet use with psychosocial, cognitive, and sleep-related factors in early childhood development. The meta-analysis aimed to provide an overall assessment of the evidence while the systematic review offered a rich overview of the methodological approaches adopted to assess these associations. Studies were included in the review if they examined the association of smartphone or tablet use with a measure of psychosocial development, cognitive development, or sleep in toddlers or preschoolers. Out of 1050 articles that were initially identified, 26 studies were included in the final sample of the systematic review, of which 19 were included in the meta-analysis. Data were screened, extracted, and synthesized according to PRISMA guidelines. A random-effects meta-analysis of correlations found a significant yet weak association of increased smartphone and tablet use with poorer overall child developmental factors. Additionally, a similar but stronger association was found between parental perceptions of problematic device use and poorer overall child factors. Meta-correlations with device use were significant for sleep, but not for psychosocial and cognitive factors. Overall, the results suggest that longitudinal cohort and experimental investigations would elucidate more causal relationships of child factors with smartphone and tablet use. Employing multiple methods of screen-use assessment, and considering the multiple levels of proximal and distal influences on child smartphone and tablet use, would also be useful. Adopting more rigorous research practices in the future, will facilitate deeper insights into the potential developmental implications of smartphone and tablet use in early childhood.
... Child development research has long sought to identify factors that interfere with healthy development. Screen time has received considerable attention ( Madigan, Browne, Racine, Mori, & Tough, 2019 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ), with most screen time research focused on the effect of traditional screen media (e.g., television, video gaming consoles) on young children's well-being and development (e.g., Hinkley et al., 2014 ;Madigan et al., 2019 ;Madigan, McArthur, Anhorn, Eirich & Christakis, 2020 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ;Thompson & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007 ). However, the potential for smartphone and tablet use to adversely affect development in early childhood has been given relatively less attention. ...
... Child development research has long sought to identify factors that interfere with healthy development. Screen time has received considerable attention ( Madigan, Browne, Racine, Mori, & Tough, 2019 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ), with most screen time research focused on the effect of traditional screen media (e.g., television, video gaming consoles) on young children's well-being and development (e.g., Hinkley et al., 2014 ;Madigan et al., 2019 ;Madigan, McArthur, Anhorn, Eirich & Christakis, 2020 ;Radesky & Christakis, 2016 ;Thompson & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005 ;Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007 ). However, the potential for smartphone and tablet use to adversely affect development in early childhood has been given relatively less attention. ...
Article
The current study provides the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the associations of smartphone and tablet use with psychosocial, cognitive, and sleep-related factors in early childhood development. The meta-analysis aimed to provide an overall assessment of the evidence while the systematic review offered a rich overview of the methodological approaches adopted to assess these associations. Studies were included in the review if they examined the association of smartphone or tablet use with a measure of psychosocial development, cognitive development, or sleep in toddlers or preschoolers. Out of 1050 articles that were initially identified, 26 studies were included in the final sample of the systematic review, of which 19 were included in the meta-analysis. Data were screened, extracted, and synthesized according to PRISMA guidelines. A random-effects meta-analysis of correlations found a significant yet weak association of increased smartphone and tablet use with poorer overall child developmental factors. Additionally, a similar but stronger association was found between parental perceptions of problematic device use and poorer overall child factors. Meta-correlations with device use were significant for sleep, but not for psychosocial and cognitive factors. Overall, the results suggest that longitudinal cohort and experimental investigations would elucidate more causal relationships of child factors with smartphone and tablet use. Employing multiple methods of screen-use assessment, and considering the multiple levels of proximal and distal influences on child smartphone and tablet use, would also be useful. Adopting more rigorous research practices in the future, will facilitate deeper insights into the potential developmental implications of smartphone and tablet use in early childhood.
... Screen time was the main exposure variable of interest. Sleep, physical activity, family ethnicity, child sex, family annual household income, and rural versus urban community were included as covariates based on their role as potential confounders in predicting developmental health [17,[26][27][28][29]. Information on outcome variables (i.e., physical health/wellbeing, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive development, communication skills) was obtained from the EDI. ...
... In building the multivariable models, all the covariates were entered simultaneously into the model based on their role as potential confounder and bivariate association with the outcome [17,[26][27][28][29]. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CIs) were reported for each developmental health outcome. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Research has shown that longer hours of screen time are negatively associated with children’s healthy development. Whereas most research has focused on school-age children, less is known about this association in early childhood. To fill this gap, we examined the association between screen time and developmental health in preschool-aged children. Methods This study draws from a data linkage on children ( N = 2983; Mean age = 5.2, SD = 0.3 years, 51% male) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, who entered Kindergarten in public elementary schools in 2019. Parent reports on children’s screen time, health behaviors, demographics, and family income collected upon kindergarten entry (09/2019), were linked to teacher reports on children’s developmental health, collected halfway through the school year (02/2020). Screen time was assessed with the Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. Developmental vulnerability versus developmental health in five domains (physical, social, emotional, language and cognition, and communication skills) was measured with the Early Development Instrument. Results Logistic regression analyses using generalized estimating equation showed that children with more than one hour of daily screen time were more likely to be vulnerable in all five developmental health domains: physical health and wellbeing (odds ratio [ OR ] =1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99 - 2.0; p= 0.058), social competence ( OR= 1.60; 95% CI, 1.16 – 2.2; p= 0.004), emotional maturity ( OR= 1.29; 95% CI, 0.96 - 1.73; p= 0.097), language and cognitive development ( OR= 1.81; 95% CI, 1.19 - 2.74; p= 0.006) and communication skills ( OR= 1.60; 95% CI, 1.1 – 2.34; p= 0.015) compared to children reporting up to one hour of screen time/day. An interaction effect between income and screen time on developmental health outcomes was non-significant. Results were adjusted for child demographics, family income, and other health behaviors. Conclusions Daily screen time that exceeds the recommended one-hour limit for young children, as suggested by the Canadian 24-h Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth (Tremblay et al. BMC Public Health. 17:874, 2017; Tremblay J Physical Activity Health. 17:92–5, 2020) is negatively associated with developmental health outcomes in early childhood. Screen-based activities should thus be limited for young children. Future research needs to examine the underlying mechanisms through which screen time is linked to developmental vulnerabilities.
... Screens are highly integrated in every facet of modern life, especially for young people 1,2 . Yet, despite growing concern over the detrimental effects of high screen time, previous studies have largely focused on the cognitive and behavioral effects of screen use and have exclusively relied on self-report data [8][9][10][11] , with only a few studies utilizing imaging techniques [14][15][16][17] . In this study, we explored the fecal microbiome and metabolome of a diverse www.nature.com/scientificreports/ group of college students, classified by high (≥ 75 min/day) or low (0-75 min/day) screen time. ...
... Metabolite profiling of disease states also showed significant enrichment of metabolite sets related to obesity (p = 0.016) and chronic fatigue syndrome (p = 0.043). Many previous studies have demonstrated a strong, positive association between screen time and obesity risk and incidence 4,5,10,11,17,57 , while others have shown similarly strong associations between screen time, disordered sleep and fatigue 4,5,[8][9][10]17,57 . Although no previous studies have indicated potential effects of screen time on GI diseases, many metabolites flagged as significant in the current study have been previously implicated in the onset and progression of GI disorders. ...
Article
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As screens are increasingly integrated into every facet of modern life, there is growing concern over the potential effects of high screen time. Previous studies have largely utilized self-report data on mood and behavioral aspects of screen time, and no molecular theory has yet been developed. In this study, we explored the fecal microbiome and metabolome of a diverse group of 60 college students, classified by high (≥ 75 min/day) or low (0–75 min/day) self-reported screen time using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and targeted detection of short-chain fatty acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several key taxa and metabolites were significantly altered between groups and found to be highly co-occurrent. Results of pathway and enzyme enrichment analyses were synthesized to articulate an integrated hypothesis indicating widespread mitochondrial dysfunction and aberrant amino acid metabolism. High screen time was also predicted to be significantly associated with type I diabetes, obesity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and various manifestations of inflammatory bowel. This is the first-ever study to report the effects of high screen time at the molecular level, and these results provide a data-driven hypothesis for future experimental research.
... There are numerous recent examples of publications applying these methods in top journals [e.g., (7)(8)(9)(10)]. While several excellent review papers and books provide an in depth look at the theory and application of SEM with respect to modelling of developmental processes and transactions (6,(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16), our aim is to provide an introductory overview of these methods as they apply to CLPMs, for a non-statistical audience including clinicians. The goal is to facilitate the accessible interpretation of results and critical appraisal of these methods more broadly. ...
... The magnitude of the estimates of non-significant results can also be informative at times. In the study examples discussed previously (8,9,18), standardized estimates for stability paths ranged from 0.30 to 0.75 across time points, while significant cross-lagged estimates between variables had standardized estimates between 0.06 and 0.25. ...
Article
Transactional models employing cross-lagged panels have been used for over 40 years to examine the longitudinal relations and directional associations between variables of interest to child and adolescent mental health. Through a narrative synthesis of the literature, we provide an accessible overview of cross-lagged panels with attention to developing a research question, study design and assumptions, dynamic effects (including the random-intercept cross-lagged panel model), and reporting and interpretation of results. Implications and critical appraisal guidelines for readers are discussed throughout. Overall, several key points are highlighted, with particular emphasis on the intended level of inference, model and measure selection, and timing of assessments. Despite limitations in establishing causation, cross-lagged panel models are fundamental to non-experimental epidemiologic research in child mental health and development.
... There have been reports of a relationship between screen time and early literacy development (Hillman & Marshall, 2009;Hisrich & Blanchard, 2009;McManis & Gunnewig, 2012;van der Kooy-Hofland et al., 2012). Although some benefits of high-quality screen time have been identified (Neumann, 2014;Shamir & Korat, 2007), excessive screen time has been associated with a number of deleterious cognitive and academic outcomes (Dias et al., 2016;Madigan et al., 2019;McManis & Gunnewig, 2012;van der Kooy-Hofland et al., 2012). ...
... On the other hand, the age effect has seldom been examined in research on screen time with children (e.g., Madigan et al., 2019;Neumann, 2018;Shamir & Korat, 2007). Thus, the current study also examined whether there was an age difference in the role of screen time in the BOI effect. ...
Article
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A sample of 144 s- and 150 fourth-grade Chinese children was recruited to investigate the influence of body–object interactions (BOIs) on word recognition, i.e., how easily they could interact physically with each word’s referent. The moderation on this relationship of children’s screen time for entertainment purposes (i.e., the viewing or use of any device with a screen) was also examined. In a lexical decision task, the children were asked to judge whether each item was a real Chinese word. Each real word was assigned a BOI rating score. Model analysis showed that the BOI rating was a significant predictor of the children’s word recognition performances. The children recognized the words with higher BOI ratings at higher accuracy rates and higher response speeds more than the words with lower BOI ratings, showing a BOI effect. These results suggest an involvement of sensorimotor information in processing concepts. As well, the results showed a moderating effect of screen time on the BOI effect. With the increase of screen time, the BOI effect was reduced in terms of response speed. Moreover, the influence of the screen time on the BOI effect was larger in the second graders than in the fourth graders.
... 'Two hours per day' was used as the cut-off point for excessive use, as per previous AAP recommendation and related literature reviews. 4,5,12 To report screen time, the parents were asked to fill in a 24-hour chart for their child's activities including screen time in a typical schooling and/or working week. Parents were also asked whether they thought their child had increasing screen use, whether they wished to cut down their child's screen time, whether they controlled child's screen use, whether the screen time affected child's activities, whether the child slept with gadgets, and whether the child had temper tantrums or irritability when their gadgets were taken away. ...
... Meanwhile, a longitudinal cohort study in Canada showed greater screen time in children aged 24 and 36 months was associated with lower scores on developmental screening test on 36 and 60 months. 12 Takeuchi et al. found that frequent internet use in children may be associated with reduced verbal intelligence and development to smaller grey matter volume at later stages, although there is evidence that internet use may help to develop primitive language skills in certain conditions (e.g. children without primitive language skills). ...
Article
Background Studies suggest excessive screen time is linked to speech and language delay. This study explored socio-demographics of children with speech delay in Kuantan, Malaysia, and association of screen time with speech and other developmental delays. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted July-November 2019 at the child psychiatry and speech therapy clinics, Kuantan Hospital. Parents of children with speech delay <72 months old gave information on children’s and parents’ screen times. Speech and other developmental skills were assessed using Schedule of Growing Skills II with scores reported as Developmental Quotient (DQ). Results The study included 91 children (67 boys, 24 girls), of which 54.9% had primary speech delay and 45.1% neurodevelopmental disorders. The mean age was 39.9 ± 11.52 months. The mean children’s screen time was 2.26 ± 1.98 hours daily, with 36.3% exceeding 2 hours. Higher children’s screen time was moderately-correlated with higher parental screen time (rs = 0.479, p < 0.01). Household income was positively-correlated with screen times of both children and parents (rs = 0.243, p = 0.02 and rs = 0.390, p < 0.01). Parents with intention to reduce children’s screen time reported higher screen time in their children (t(89) = 2.322, p = 0.023). Children’s age was positively-correlated with the number of types of screen media (rs = 0.225, p = 0.032). The mean speech DQ was 54.76 ± 24.06%. Lower speech DQ was associated with lower DQs in other skills (p < 0.01). No significant correlation was shown between children’s and parents’ screen time with DQ’s of speech and other skills (p > 0.05). Conclusion Correlation between parental and child screen time provides an opportunity for intervention. Larger studies are required.
... Greater usage of mobile touchscreen devices has been associated with poorer scores for Theory of Mindthat is, skills related to perspective-takingin preschoolers (Konok et al., 2021). Greater screen time (including television viewing) at 24 months and 36 monthsexceeding the one-hour recommendationswas also linked to poorer performance on developmental tests at 36 and 60 months respectively; however, poorer performance at the earlier time points was not found to be linked to greater screen usage at the later time points, suggesting that the association is unidirectional (Madigan et al., 2019). There are even neurobiological effectsusage of screen-based media beyond the American Association of Pediatrics' (AAP) guidelines have been associated with lower integrity of white matter in brain areas supporting language and literacy skills as well as attentional control (Hutton et al., 2020). ...
... QQ-MediaSEED is distinguishable from existing instruments in 3 main areas. First, while past instruments have focused on a broader use of technology at home, including television and computers (for example, Duch et al., 2013;Madigan et al., 2019;Poitras et al., 2017), our questionnaire focused on children's use of interactive digital screen media, with the responses drawn from their parents. The sole focus on digital screen media allows us to understand the use of this new and popular media, given its different nature and interactional affordances compared to the television, which promotes more passive and observational engagement. ...
Article
Full-text available
The quantity and quality of children's digital screen media exposure is an emerging area of early childhood studies because of its strong social relevance, and this has been particularly true since the COVID-19 pandemic. The few existing parental questionnaires on children's digital screen media exposure mainly focus on mono-lingual children's media habits and address either the quantity or quality of children's media exposure. Inspired by the existing instruments, the current study introduces a new parental questionnaire to comprehensively assess the duration, frequency, content, design, and use of bilingual children's digital screen media exposure at home, before and since the COVID-19 pandemic. Focus group discussions and the first wave of our data collection on 141 3-6 years old Singaporean bilingual children indicate good face validity and internal consistency of the parental questionnaire. Our results reveal substantial differences in children's quantity and quality of daily digital screen media exposure, as well as the discrepancies in their digital media habits between English and their mother tongue languages, before and since the COVID-19 pandemic.
... 10 Recently, excessive use of gadgets was found to cause physical growth and development disorders in children, such as gross motor development, fine motor skills, language speaking, personal social interaction, emotional, mental, and academic achievement. 14,15 Physical disorders that can occur are in the form of growth disorders, such as malnutrition or overnutrition was caused by undisciplined eating and drinking patterns, limited movement, and excessive sensory stimulation and sleep disturbances. 9 The use of gadgets, especially handphones, continues to increase in children aged 0-8 years. ...
... Excessive gadget utilization in preschool children can cause obesity due to a sedentary lifestyle, inhibiting children's ability to interact with people around them, leading to developmental disorders such as delays in expressive speech. 15,[21][22][23] The introduction of gadgets is expected to introduce many new technologies as well as new educational and teaching methods to children. However, a good introduction process and adequate monitoring from parents must be made a guideline so that the positive impact obtained by the child exceeds the negative impact that may arise from the use of this device. ...
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The gadget utilization among preschoolers in connection with technological advances is known to have positive and negative effects on growth and development. This study aims to identify the overview of gadget utilization and its effect on growth and development in preschool children. An analytic survey with a cross-sectional design was conducted by filling out questionnaires carried out by parents. The anthropometric measurements and developmental assessments were carried out using Indonesia Developmental Pre-screening Questionnaire (IDPQ). A hundred children and their parents participated in this study. It was found that 82% of parents lent their gadgets, and 89% taught their children to use gadgets. There were similarities in gadget utilization between parents and children, namely watching videos (73% and 90%) and communicating (92% and 40.4%). The duration of the gadget utilization by children was high, 3.7±2.2 hours/day. However, no significant correlation in the analysis between the duration of smartphone usage and nutritional status (p: 0.599). In children with different IDPQ values, there was no significant difference in the duration of device usage (p: 0.991). It can concluded the duration of the gadget utilization in children carried out by their parents did not affect the growth and development of the children.
... Sin embargo, en la última década, pese a que el uso de estas herramientas ha ido en ascenso el RA no ha mejorado (Madigan et al., 2019). Aunque el impacto de las nuevas tecnologías sobre la vida de los adolescentes ha sido tratado en estudios previos (Hancox et al., 2005), desconocemos si el alumnado español de ESO y Bachillerato puede presentar diferentes perfiles en función del acceso a estos recursos digitales (ordenador, teléfono y conexión a Internet) y el RA, así como si esos perfiles pueden estar relacionados con diferencias en su salud mental. ...
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El acceso a los recursos digitales y el rendimiento académico (RA) son variables de gran interés en la sociedad actual. Sin embargo, hacen falta estudios que profundicen en la asociación entre ellos y la salud mental. Este estudio tiene como objetivo a) conocer si existen diferencias en el RA en función del acceso a los recursos digitales (móvil, ordenador, acceso a Internet y tiempo de conexión diario a Internet). b) Establecer perfiles de estudiantes según su RA y el acceso o no a dichos recursos digitales y, por último, analizar la relación de estos perfiles con la salud mental. Se seleccionó una muestra de 1448 alumnos españoles de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) y de Bachillerato, de los que 708 eran hombres (48.90 %), con una edad media de 14.5 años (DT = 1.57). Se utilizó un cuestionario sociodemográfico, se midieron las calificaciones en el curso anterior y se utilizó la escala SDQ para la medición de la salud mental. El RA se ve influenciado positivamente por el tiempo de conexión a Internet, acceso al ordenador, Internet y móvil. Sin embargo, las diferencias entre los alumnos con buen RA y un RA bajo no vienen asociados exclusivamente al acceso a los recursos digitales sino a la presencia de dificultades en salud mental. Los alumnos con bajo RA presentan mayores dificultades emocionales, hiperactividad, problemas de conducta y problemas con compañeros. Por último, parece que los problemas emocionales destacan exclusivamente en aquellos alumnos con bajo RA que disponen de recursos digitales por lo que podría ser la variable más relevante para futuras intervenciones educativas.
... Some research has shown that electronic devices can help children learn and develop [54,55]. However, constant stimulation and absorption of visual content on screens have also been shown to impact young children's focus and concentration [56]. Television viewing time has been negatively associated with the development of physical and cognitive abilities, and positively associated with obesity, sleep problems, depression and anxiety in children [57]. ...
The early years of a child's life are the foundation for their future capability development. Poor health, hunger, poverty, low parental education, lack of parental interaction, high screen time, and poor housing environment hamper their development. There is little evidence of a link between early child development (ECD) and sociodemographic factors in Thailand. In response to monitoring the achievement of SDG target 4.2.1 (the proportion of young children who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being) as required by all UN Member States, this study analyses the prevalence of appropriate levels of ECD and its correlates of Thai children aged 3 to 4 years. A cross-sectional study of the 6th Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data in 2019 conducted by the National Statistical Office was employed. Face-to-face interviews with mothers and/or legal guardians were conducted. A total of 5787 children aged 3 to 4 were enrolled in this study. The majority of participants, approximately 92.3%, had achieved an appropriate level of ECD index, defined as children who were developmentally on track in at least three out of these four domains: cognitive, physical, social, and learning. Multivariate logistic regression showed that girls had a higher appropriate development index than boys (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.56, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.28-1.90; children living in the 5th wealth quintile had a higher appropriate index than those in a less well-off family the first wealth quintile (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.86-4.58. Univariate logistic regression showed children living with parents achieving post-secondary education had a significantly greater appropriate index than children living with parents completing secondary education or below (Crude OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.47-2.58); children who had appropriate parental interactions of more than four out of six interactions, had a significantly higher chance of having an appropriate index than less than four interactions (Crude OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.14-2.04). Multi-sectoral policies to support child development in low socio-economic households should be strengthened. In addition, family and community should promote parental interactions through reading and playing with young children. Future studies which directly measure ECD in conjunction with regular monitoring through MICS are recommended.
... Moreover, excessive exposure to digital screens negatively affects the duration and quality of sleep in childhood [21,22,32]. The link between screen time and poorer psychomotor and cognitive development has been also revealed [21,33]. On the other hand, although excessive screen time was associated with poorer language skills, the high-quality use of media was beneficial for child language [34]. ...
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Background: Over the last few decades, the time children spend using electronic devices has increased significantly. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of screen time on dietary behaviors and physical activity in children and adolescents. Methods: An online survey was conducted among parents of preschool and school-aged children during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland. There were 3127 surveys used in the analysis. Results: Survey responses referred to 1662 (53%) boys and 1465 (47%) girls, with a mean age of 12.1 ± 3.4 years. During a routine weekday, most children (71%) spent >4 h on educational activities using electronic devices, and 43% of children spent 1-2 h using devices for recreational purposes. The majority of children (89%) were exposed to screens during meals, and ate snacks between main meals (77%). There was an association between screen time and the exposure to screens during meals, and between screen time and time spent performing physical activity. Conclusions: This study revealed that the majority of children were exposed to screens during meals, which is a risk factor of obesity. The promotion of the judicious use of digital devices and healthy dietary habits associated with the use of screens may be an important component of obesity prevention strategies.
... For infants and toddlers, in particular, the effects of high screen use may include cognitive delays and specific EF difficulties, although most existing data comes from correlational studies, which cannot rule out that differences in screen exposures may themselves be driven by differences in children's EF profiles-see Piccardi et al. (2020). Several longitudinal studies have found greater exposure to media and television in infancy and toddlerhood associates with worse cognitive outcomes later (Aishworiya et al., 2019;Christakis et al., 2004;Madigan et al., 2019;McHarg et al., 2020b;Supanitayanon et al., 2020;Tomopoulos et al., 2010;Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005). Although positive concurrent associations between touchscreen use and cognitive EF have been observed among 10-month-olds (Lui et al., 2021), high touchscreen use is associated with poor sleep quality in infancy (Cheung et al., 2017)-a likely important factor in the development of EF (Bernier et al., 2010(Bernier et al., , 2013-as well as with poorer cognitive flexibility and parent-reported effortful control at age 3.5 years (Portugal et al., 2020). ...
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Early executive functions (EFs) lay the foundations for academic and social outcomes. In this parent‐report study of 575 UK‐based 8‐ to 36 month olds (218 followed longitudinally), we investigate how variation in the home environment before and during the 2020 pandemic relates to infants’ emerging EFs. Parent‐infant enriching activities were positively associated with infant Cognitive Executive Function (CEF) (encompassing inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility). During the most‐restrictive UK lockdown—but not subsequently—socioeconomic status (SES) was positively associated with levels of parent‐infant enriching activities. Parents who regard fostering early learning, affection, and attachment as important were more likely to engage in parent‐infant enriching activities, yet there was no significant pathway from parental attitudes or SES to CEF via activities. Infant screen use was negatively associated with CEF and Regulation. Screen use fully mediated the effect of SES on CEF, and partially mediated the effect of SES on regulation. Parental attitudes toward early learning, affection, and attachment did not significantly influence screen use. These results indicate that although parental attitudes influence the development of early EFs, interventions targeting attitudes as a means of increasing enriching activities, and thus EF are likely to be less effective than reducing barriers to engaging in enriching activities.
... On the one hand, population-based studies suggested a negative association between excessive screen time in early childhood and children's language development 27 , especially with regards to children's expressive (but not receptive) vocabulary 46 (but see 33 for similar results), as well as a negative association between screen time and children's receptive vocabulary 47 . On the other hand, a recent meta-analysis found that while increased screen time was associated with lower language skills, quality screen time (educational programs) and caregiver scaffolding during screen time was associated with stronger language skills in children under twelve years of age 48 . Thus, there is a need for further examination of the association between children's screen time and language development during lockdown. ...
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Older children with online schooling requirements, unsurprisingly, were reported to have increased screen time during the first COVID-19 lockdown in many countries. Here, we ask whether younger children with no similar online schooling requirements also had increased screen time during lockdown. We examined children’s screen time during the first COVID-19 lockdown in a large cohort (n = 2209) of 8-to-36-month-olds sampled from 15 labs across 12 countries. Caregivers reported that toddlers with no online schooling requirements were exposed to more screen time during lockdown than before lockdown. While this was exacerbated for countries with longer lockdowns, there was no evidence that the increase in screen time during lockdown was associated with socio-demographic variables, such as child age and socio-economic status (SES). However, screen time during lockdown was negatively associated with SES and positively associated with child age, caregiver screen time, and attitudes towards children’s screen time. The results highlight the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on young children’s screen time.
... This method might not be feasible for children at a very young age. Higher screen time is also associated with poorer young children's development, including limiting children's opportunities for verbal and nonverbal social exchanges with caregivers (Madigan et al., 2019). ...
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This paper presents a framework that can be used to guide digital short stories development that focuses on the computational thinking theme suitable for young children, aged between 3-4 years old. Stories can be used to convey information and send messages to their listeners, or readers. Digital short stories are very commonly used for children's learning. However, to effectively send the right messages, any stories including digital stories will require story engineering that helps produce a thoughtful story structure design. Meanwhile, computational thinking is considered a valuable ability for reasoning and problem-solving. With consideration of nurturing computational thinking among the young listeners or readers, the structure design of a story can be engineered to fulfil the objective, and later it can be reused to create new and different stories with similar objectives. Thus, in this study, the Digital Short Stories Engineering (D2SE) framework was derived, and a checklist to support the framework was developed and tested using expert review. Only four experts were involved to validate the items which must be deemed suitable for young children, from several perspectives including linguistic, content and storyline, visualization, and computational thinking aspects. Several examples of digital stories that were derived based on the framework were sent to another three experts who evaluated the stories using the checklist. The results showed that all of the aspects of the framework have been successfully implemented. In conclusion, the framework can be used not only to guide story creators in creating suitable stories for young children in general but also can be used to assist people in engineering stories that can expose children to computational thinking at young ages. In addition, the framework may also be used by nursery teachers or parents when choosing suitable reading materials for their children.
... Early childhood is an important period in child development; high levels of daily sedentary behaviours may inimitably influence the health and learning outcomes during this period [4]. It is still unclear as to whether screen use should be touted as an aid or impediment during early childhood, and whether such decisions are dependent on the quantity or quality of screen use, or possibly both [5,6]. A review (n = 76 studies) by Kostyrka-Allchorne et al. [7], which examined the association between television viewing, cognition and behaviour in children, reported that early onset of viewing and inappropriate content may be related to negative outcomes. ...
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Background The primary aim of this study was to determine if screen use in early childhood is associated with overall vulnerability in school readiness at ages 4 to 6 years, as measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). Secondary aims were to: (1) determine if screen use was associated with individual EDI domains scores, and (2) examine the association between screen use and EDI domains scores among a subgroup of high screen users. Methods This prospective cohort study was carried out using data from young children participating in a large primary care practice-based research network in Canada. Logistic regression analyses were run to investigate the association between screen use and overall vulnerability in school readiness. Separate linear regression models examined the relationships between children’s daily screen use and each separate continuous EDI domain. Results A total of 876 Canadian participants participated in this study. Adjusted logistic regression revealed an association between increased screen use and increased vulnerability in school readiness (p = 0.05). Results from adjusted linear regression demonstrated an association between higher screen use and reduced language and cognitive development domain scores (p = 0.004). Among high screen users, adjusted linear regression models revealed associations between increased screen use and reduced language and cognitive development (p = 0.004) and communication skills and general knowledge domain scores (p = 0.042). Conclusions Screen use in early childhood is associated with increased vulnerability in developmental readiness for school, with increased risk for poorer language and cognitive development in kindergarten, especially among high users.
... It is remarkable that an increased use of screens in the center correlates negatively with performance, contrary to what was happening at the level of the student body. Higher screen consumption would be associated with worse development [79][80][81], especially when the use is for entertainment [82], so this result deserves further investigation. At first, it could be inferred that it would be evidence of a greater possession of resources, however, students from more disadvantaged families seem to use devices more, perhaps because their families have fewer resources and skills to educate or entertain their students, so they would impose fewer limitations [78,82]. ...
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School effectiveness is a topic of interest addressed by numerous research projects focused on clarifying which variables contribute to the explanation of educational performance. This research aims to find out to what extent social, cultural, and academic variables at the student and school levels, as perceived by families, influence performance, and to evaluate the relevance of high residual and gross score criteria in the selection of effective or ineffective schools. Census data from diagnostic evaluations of the Mathematical Reasoning and Linguistic Communication of students in a certain Spanish region, over five academic years, have been used. The multilevel hierarchical analyses carried out have enabled the detection of centers of high and low efficiency, as well as the identification of which factors, related to the idiosyncrasy of the students and the educational center they attend, significantly influence the performance of the students. It was concluded that the socioeconomic and cultural level of the families, the family expectations, the commitment to reading and the educational agreement were significant variables in the explanation of the students’ educational performance, and that the residual score of the educational centers was a valid criterion to estimate their level of effectiveness once the socio-cultural factors have been controlled.
... 4 Cross-sectional studies have associated the use of screen media in early childhood with weaker social-emotional development. These have included lower scores on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 5 more externalising behaviour problems, 6 and poorer performance on delay of gratification tasks. 7 The associations are likely to have been bidirectional, as young children with difficult temperaments 7 or self-regulation problems 8,9 tend to develop heavier media habits. ...
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Aim: Young children with weaker self-regulation use more digital media, but studies have been limited by parent-reported screen time measures. We examine associations between early childhood executive functioning and objective mobile device usage. Methods: The parents of 368 American children (51.6% male) aged 3-4 years of age completed standardised measures of executive functioning, parenting stress and household chaos. They provided mobile sampling data for 1 week in 2018-2019 and reported how often the children used mobile devices to calm themselves. Results: The children's mean age was about 3.8 years. A third of the children who were given devices to calm them down had weaker executive functioning in the overall and multivariable models, including working memory, planning and organisation. So did 39.7% of the children who used educational apps. Streaming videos, using age-inappropriate apps and using the mobile device for more than1 hour per day were not associated with executive functioning levels. Parenting stress and household chaos did not moderate the associations. Conclusion: This study confirms previous studies that suggesting that children with weaker overall executive functioning used devices more for calming purposes. It also raises questions about whether children with weaker executive functioning should use educational apps.
... 31 32 Parents and families of children with NDD may require access to in-person support services and specialised advice to manage their child's behavioural and MH difficulties which may have become unavailable or virtual during the pandemic, apart from those in acute settings such as emergency departments. 33 34 In addition, concerns about prolonged use of screens, [35][36][37][38][39][40][41] social media [42][43][44][45][46] and increased sedentary behaviour 45 47-49 among children and adolescents have been raised. The potential impact on parent stress and family routines and dynamics, 50-54 as well as concerns regarding the disproportionate impacts of EMs on children within racialised groups and lower income families 50 55 56 have also been highlighted during the pandemic. ...
Article
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health (MH) of children, adolescents and parents. Whereas youth with MH disorders and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) may be at higher risk for exacerbations in emotional and behavioural distress, children and adolescents without pre-existing MH disorders or NDD may also experience MH deterioration due to increases in stress, changes in health behaviours, loss of activities/school closures or loss of resources. Little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 emergency measures (EMs) on children's MH over the course of the pandemic. Methods and analysis: Longitudinal study of four well-established, pre-existing cohorts in Ontario (two recruited in clinical settings, two recruited in community settings). Primary outcomes include the impact of EMs on six MH domains: depression, anxiety, irritability, inattention, hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive behaviours. Risk and protective factors related to youth MH profiles and trajectories will be identified. In addition, the effects of school mitigation strategies, changes in MH services and family factors (ie, parental MH, economic deprivation and family functioning) on children's MH will be examined. Data will be collected via repeated online survey measures selected to ensure reliability and validity for the proposed populations and distributed through the pandemic periods. Ethics and dissemination: The study was approved by institutional research ethics boards at participating research sites. Results will be disseminated through a robust knowledge translation partnership with key knowledge users. Materials to inform public awareness will be co-developed with educators, public health, and MH and health service providers. Connections with professional associations and MH advocacy groups will be leveraged to support youth MH policy in relation to EMs. Findings will further be shared through conference presentations, peer-reviewed journals and open-access publications.
... A study by Thorell [54], for example, found that preschool children's working memory improved after they participated in computer-based training. On the other hand, studies have also linked television-only screen time (i.e., watching TV rather than playing video games) with deficits in language development, a decrease in cognitive performance [53,[55][56][57] and an increase in obesity [58]. ...
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Sedentary behaviour has a negative impact on children's physical and mental health. However, limited data are available on language development. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to analyse the associations between language development and possible predictors such as motor skills and leisure time behaviour in preschool-aged children. Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis, motor skills and speech development status were assessed in 49 healthy preschool children. Physical activity and screen time were assessed via a parental questionnaire. Results: On average, physical activity was 8.2 ± 6.5 h/week; mean screen time was 154.2 ± 136.2 min/week. A positive relationship between the results in the item 'One-leg stand' and 'Phonological working memory for nonwords' (β-coefficient -0.513; p < 0.001) resp. 'Formation of morphological rules' (β-coefficient -0.626; p = 0.004) was shown within backward stepwise regression. 'Lateral jumping', resp. 'Sit and Reach' were positively associated with 'Understanding sentences' (β-coefficient 0.519; p = 0.001 resp. β-coefficient 0.735; p = 0.002). 'Physical inactivity' correlated negatively with all language development subtests (each p < 0.05). Media consumption had a negative predictive effect on the subdomain 'Understanding Sentences' (β-coefficient -0.530, p = 0.003). Conclusions: An inactive lifestyle correlated negatively with selected subtests of language development in early childhood. These results should be verified in larger groups and longitudinally but support the need for early health promotion.
... As a result, the WHO recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2, and no more than one hour a day for those aged 2 to 4 years [39]. Excessive screen time impinges on children's ability to develop optimally [40]. Moreover, parents should ensure that the content with which their children interact through electronic devices is free of violence and appropriate for their age. ...
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Parental interactions through play contributes significantly to child development of cognitive and executive functioning skills. In Thailand, there is little evidence of factors contributing to parental–child interactions. In response to SDG target 4.2.3 monitoring (the percentage of children under 5 years experiencing positive and stimulating home learning environments), this study aimed to assess the prevalence and profile of parental interactions with their children under the age of five. We analysed data from the 6th Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted by the National Statistical Office in 2019. Face-to-face interviews with mothers and/or legal guardians were conducted. A total of 8856 children under the age of five were enrolled in this survey. Most participants, 90.3%, had engaged in at least four out of six activities with their children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that children raised by parents with secondary or post-secondary educations had a significantly greater chance to have parental interactions than children raised by parents who completed primary education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.66, and AOR = 2.34 for secondary and post-secondary education). Children who possessed three or more children’s books and had experience of toy play had a significantly higher chance of having parental interactions (AOR = 3.08 for book possessing, and AOR = 1.50 for the experience of toy play). Children who spent 1–3 h daily screen time had a significantly lower chance of having parental interactions than those who spent less than one hour of screen time (AOR = 0.67). In conclusion, with the emerging influence of digital technology, we recommend family and community promote parental interactions through play with young children.
... Chez les enfants, une exposition excessive aux écrans est corrélée avec des retards développementaux (langage, déficit de l'attention) ainsi que des troubles de type anxiodépressif (Domingues-Montanari, 2017; Hermawati et al., 2018;Madigan et al., 2019). Certaines études en IRMf démontrent qu'une augmentation du temps passé devant les écrans est corrélée avec une diminution de la connectivité fonctionnelle dans les régions du langage, de la vision et du contrôle cognitif (Horowitz-Kraus and Hutton, 2018). ...
Thesis
Les cellules ganglionnaires intrinsèquement photosensibles (ipRGCs) constituent une interface majeure dans la régulation de la physiologie et des comportements par la lumière. Ces travaux démontrent que la présence de ces cellules dans la rétine est suffisante pour permettre à des souris d’intégrer les variations saisonnières de la photopériode. De plus, nous décrivons des modifications dépendantes de la photopériode au sein des ipRGCs. Ces résultats suggèrent que la rétine pourrait intégrer les variations de la photopériode, afin d’assurer au mieux les fonctions visuelles et non-visuelles à travers les saisons. Par ailleurs, ces travaux ont exploré les effets de la surexposition aux écrans et notamment à un enrichissement en lumière bleue sur le comportement de type anxieux/agressif. Les ipRGCs, sensibles à la lumière bleue (460-480nm), sont connectées avec de nombreuses structures cérébrales impliquées dans la régulation des comportements. Nos résultats montrent qu’une exposition prolongée à un environnement enrichi en lumière bleue peut modifier les comportements de type agressif.
... The picture of family life is becoming more complex, and the economic conditions in which the family lives are the most important factor in family dynamics, just when they are unfavorable. The quality of father-mother partnerships is related to the quality of motherhood [26]. The protection and emotional support that the father provides form the basis of the mother's sense of selfsufficiency in the role of partner and parent. ...
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The connection between parental educational procedures and children's behavior can be observed through the influence of parental actions on children's behavior, as well as through the influence of children's behavior on parental behavior. The respondents in this research were students of the eighth grade of primary schools in the urban area of the municipality of Milići. A total of 210 students participated in the survey. The questionnaires used for the purposes of the paper are: CRPBI Questionnaire and Revised USA-r Questionnaire. The aim of the study was to examine the contribution of parental behavior to the development and behavior of children, and to examine gender differences in the perception of parental behavior. Reliability data were verified using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and data obtained by testing the normality of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution test for concordance. Predictors of parental behavior did not prove significant in predicting children's assertiveness; However, both correlations are relatively low and become insignificant in a set of multiple predictors.
... in digital media run the risk of displacing time for more enriching activities. Research indicates that digital media use between the ages of 2 and 5 is associated with developmental delays and later academic and social difficulties [4,5]. Furthermore, research has linked unhealthy media habits in in 3-to 5-year-olds to reduced white matter integrity in brain areas that support language and the control of attention [6]. ...
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Background Risky media use in terms of accumulating too much time in front of screens and usage before bedtime in early childhood is linked to developmental delays, reduced sleep quality, and unhealthy media use in later childhood and adulthood. For this reason, we examine patterns of media use in pre-school children and the extent to which child and family characteristics contribute to media use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A cross-sectional study of digital media use by Canadian preschool-aged children (mean age = 3.45, N = 316) was conducted at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic between April and August of 2020. Parents completed a questionnaire and 24-h recall diary in the context of an ongoing study of child digital media use. From these responses we estimated hours of average daily screen time, screen time in the past 24 h, average daily mobile device use, and media use before bedtime. Parents also answered questions about their child (i.e., age, sex, temperament), family characteristics (parental mediation style, parental screen time, education, income), and contextual features of the pandemic (ex., remote work, shared childcare). Daycare closures were directly assessed using a government website. Results Our results indicate that 64% of preschoolers used more than 2 h of digital media hours/day on average during the pandemic. A majority (56%) of children were also exposed to media within the hour before bedtime. Logistic and multinomial regressions revealed that child age and temperament, restrictive parental mediation, as well as parent digital media use, education, satisfaction with the division of childcare, remote work, and number of siblings and family income were all correlates of risky digital media use by preschoolers. Conclusions Our results suggest widespread risky media use by preschoolers during the pandemic. Parenting practices that include using more restrictive mediation strategies may foster benefits in regulating young children’s screen time.
... One important observation of our study is that over 60% of the preschoolers were using screen devices for more than the recommended time limit of one hour per day. These proportions are comparable to the figures reported by preschoolers in many high-income countries [21][22][23]. Excessive screen time has been associated with a negative impact on language development, cognitive development, social interactions, sleep, learning, behaviour, and non-communicable diseases [1]. Therefore, it is likely that the majority of our preschool kids are at risk of developing these health hazards. ...
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Background Excessive use of screen devices and screen time are increasing health problems in children. We aim to describe the electronic screen device usage and determine the factors associated with their use among preschool-attending children in a suburban population in Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a suburban Medical Officer of Health area of Sri Lanka from January to March 2020. All children aged between 36–59 months attending ten randomly selected preschools were recruited. Data were collected using a parent-administered questionnaire and analysed using binary logistic regression in SPSS. The prevalence of electronic device usage, the average time spent on each device, and factors associated with individual device usage were analysed. Results A total of 340 children (Male-48%; mean age-50.1 ± 6.9 months) were recruited. Electronic devices were used by 96% of children. The most common devices were the television (87%) and the smartphone (63%). Of the children who used electronic devices, 60% exceeded the recommended screen time limit of one hour per day, 21% used devices for more than two hours per day, and 51% commenced using devices by two years of age. The higher education level of the father was independently associated with the use of smartphones and laptops and daily screen time of more than one hour (p < 0.05 for all). Male sex and being the only child were significantly associated with the use of smartphones, whereas maternal employment was associated with the use of laptops (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Electronic screen devices were used by 96% of preschool-attending children, and over 60% used them for more than the recommended daily upper limit of one hour. Higher paternal education, maternal employment and being the only child were significantly associated with electronic screen device use.
... Evidence from surveys in Canada, Germany, China, and Italy found that COVID-19 measures have led to increased sedentary behaviors in children, including an increase in the use of electronic devices and screen time (Moore et al., 2020;Pietrobelli et al., 2020;Schmidt et al., 2020;Xiang, Zhang, & Kuwahara, 2020). Increased screen time due to COVID-19 measures concerns, given its associated increased risk of obesity, depressive symptoms, and suboptimal development outcomes (Madigan, Browne, Racine, Mori, & Tough, 2019;Stiglic & Viner, 2019). Hence, it is crucial to characterize the potential increase in screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic to understand the potential magnitude of the long-term consequences on health and well-being. ...
Article
In the present study, we assessed changes in screen time exposure among 3–6-year-old children in Ceará, Brazil, in 2017 and in 2020 during the pandemic. We analyzed data from a state-wide repeated cross-sectional survey. The COVID impact research was conducted by phone interviews. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines were used to define elevated screen exposure. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of children with screen exposure above recommended levels was 96.8% among 3–4-year-old and 84.2% among 5–6-year-old children. There was a significant increase in proportion of 3–4-year-old children with elevated screen time (risk difference 15.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 12.3–19.2; p-value < 0.001). Children participating in remote learning activities had significantly lower television time with a mean difference of −0.8 hours daily (95% CI −0.3 – −1.3; p-value: 0.003) as compared to children not participating in remote learning. The necessary COVID-19 response measures appear to increase screen time among 3–6-year-old children in Ceará, Brazil. Interventions to reduce excess screen time, potentially participation in remote early learning activities should be developed and evaluated in Brazil. Prior State of Knowledge: The necessary COVID-19 response measures appear to increase sedentary time in children in developed countries. Novel contributions: COVID-19 response measures (social distancing and school closures) appear to increase screen time among 3–6-year-old children in Ceará, Brazil. In addition, children participating in remote learning activities had significantly lower television time than children not participating in remote learning. Practical implications: Public health officials should engage in helping support parents by creating safe areas for children to increase physical activity and reduce screen time, monitoring/setting limits on screen time that does not promote learning, and counsel and promote parents to be creative to engage children at home in active play during the COVID-19 pandemic. ABBREVIATIONS: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19)
... Furthermore, a meta-analysis of 24 cross-sectional studies showed that television viewing was inversely associated with composite academic performance scores, language, and mathematics 3 . Note, however, that some of the studies on video watching aggregate it together with other measures of screen time 60 . The studies that do analyze screen time types separately usually measure data on TV but not on online videos-the latter is arguably much more tailored to the user and can better match their preferences, which could matter to cognitive effects. ...
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Digital media defines modern childhood, but its cognitive effects are unclear and hotly debated. We believe that studies with genetic data could clarify causal claims and correct for the typically unaccounted role of genetic predispositions. Here, we estimated the impact of different types of screen time (watching, socializing, or gaming) on children’s intelligence while controlling for the confounding effects of genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic status. We analyzed 9855 children from the USA who were part of the ABCD dataset with measures of intelligence at baseline (ages 9–10) and after two years. At baseline, time watching (r = − 0.12) and socializing (r = − 0.10) were negatively correlated with intelligence, while gaming did not correlate. After two years, gaming positively impacted intelligence (standardized β = + 0.17), but socializing had no effect. This is consistent with cognitive benefits documented in experimental studies on video gaming. Unexpectedly, watching videos also benefited intelligence (standardized β = + 0.12), contrary to prior research on the effect of watching TV. Although, in a posthoc analysis, this was not significant if parental education (instead of SES) was controlled for. Broadly, our results are in line with research on the malleability of cognitive abilities from environmental factors, such as cognitive training and the Flynn effect.
... These changes have led to more people receiving a diagnosis, with prevalence increasing from 4 per 10,000 in the 1970s to 1 to 2% in most countries today (Stoltenberg et al. 2010). Increased awareness of the condition and complex sociological factors may also be contributing to this increase (Madigan et al. 2019). The social advocacy movement for neurodiversity has also gained momentum worldwide, rightly arguing for the representation and inclusion of autistic people in every part of society including in the workplace (Baron-Cohen 2017). ...
Thesis
Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition that is more frequently diagnosed in males than females. To explain this, in 2014, the prenatal sex steroid theory was proposed. This extended the fetal testosterone theory, published in 2004. The prenatal sex steroid theory proposes that exposure to higher levels of prenatal sex steroids (e.g., prenatal androgens and estrogens) that are on average higher in male fetuses are associated with higher likelihood for autism and elevated autistic traits. This background literature is reported in Chapter 1. In this thesis, eight novel studies are reported that test and extend the prenatal sex steroid theory by investigating perinatal factors related to sex differences in physiology. Study 1 (described in Chapter 2) reports a case-control analysis of steroid levels in the amniotic fluid of males who were later diagnosed as autistic, linked with the Danish Biobank (n = 98 cases, n = 177 controls). This included univariate analyses of both prenatal androgens and estrogens, as well as the aromatisation ratio. All estrogens, but not testosterone, on average were elevated in autistic males. Study 2 (described in Chapter 3) reports a prospective cohort study (the Cambridge Ultrasound and Pregnancy [CUSP] study) of pregnant women and their infants in Cambridge (n=219), who were assessed for their autistic traits during pregnancy and late infancy. Steroid hormone levels were assessed in maternal serum. Estradiol levels correlated with both maternal autistic traits and the male infants’ autistic traits, but there was no correlation with female infants’ autistic traits. Study 3 (described in Chapter 4) reports a large prospective cohort study in Rotterdam (Generation-R) that studied the levels of placental function markers in maternal serum (n=3469), their sex differences in the general population, their association with both autistic traits in childhood (assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale - SRS), and with likelihood for autism in males. Male-like patterns in placental angiogenic markers, high placental growth factor (PlGF) and low soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) levels, respectively correlated with higher autistic traits in females and an autism diagnosis in males. Chapter 5 describes Studies 4, 5, and 6, all based on a longitudinal cohort, the Cambridge Human Infant Longitudinal Development [CHILD] Study. This included prenatal (n=41) and postnatal (n=27) brain MRI imaging and salivary testosterone measurements during mini-puberty. Study 4 found that both male and female infants experienced transient increases in testosterone postnatally (2 to 6 months), but this did not correlate to their autistic traits at 18 months. Study 5 focused on total brain volume and surface area in infancy, as well as rate of brain growth perinatally, all of which correlated negatively with the infant’s autistic traits. Study 6 found that this was driven by low volume in regions that show sex differences and are involved in face recognition. Chapter 6 describes two genetic studies, which found that autism-related genetic variance (rare and common variance respectively) overlaps with X-linked genes that show sex differences in the placenta (Study 7) and correlates with the genetics for early age of menarche (Study 8). Chapter 7 brings all of the findings from Studies 1 to 8 together to draw conclusions and consider limitations and future directions. Based on these analyses, I then propose a new theory on the role of the placenta in mediating sex differences in human perinatal development and autism.
... Review тестов развития в 36 и 60 мес соответственно, и статистический анализ на основе моделирования с использованием панельной модели случайных перехватов и перекрестной задержки (RI-CLPM) показывает, что экранное время, вероятно, оказывает прямое воздействие [10]. ...
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The other contributors confirmed the absence of a reportable conflict of interests The influence of dynamically changing habits associated with the use of digital devices (DD) on the child’s brain is one of the most topical issues of the last decade. Ambiguous or contradictory data on this issue indicate the need of systematizing all the results of scientific research. This analysis shows negative effect of large amount of screen time on the development of children at early age, their academic performance, and attention at older ages due to media absenteeism, as well as the correlation between the use of digital devices with delayed reward. It is necessary to update and to conduct qualitative research to understand the issue in more comprehensive way.
... De acordo com estudos, um aumento de 30 minutos por dia no uso de dispositivos de mídia móvel foi associado a um risco 2 ou 3 vezes maior de atraso de fala expressivo relatado pelos pais (Van den Helvel, 2019). Uma revisão de 42 estudos, evidenciou que a maior quantidade de uso da tela foi negativamente associada à linguagem infantil, enquanto melhor qualidade do uso da tela, ou seja, programas educacionais e com cuidadores associaram-se positivamente às habilidades de linguagem infantil (Madigan, 2019). ...
Article
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Objetivos: Desenvolver e validar o conteúdo do instrumento “Tempo de Tela” destinado a pais e/ou responsáveis por crianças no período pré-escolar. Metodologia: Foram selecionados 5 especialistas na área de interesse para julgar o instrumento através de um formulário com 12 questões dicotômicas. A análise descritiva foi realizada calculando a frequência simples e para as respostas dissertativas foi realizada a análise de conteúdo. Resultados: 100% dos juízes julgaram a abordagem ao tema, direcionamento ao conteúdo, clareza, coerência e coesão, distribuição das questões e aspecto visual como itens adequados. As modificações consideradas foram: adicionar uma questão (40%) e propostas de mudanças estéticas (40%). Dentre as sugestões de adição de questões: grau de escolaridade da criança; se estuda em escola pública ou privada; nível socioeconômico dos pais; percepção dos pais em relação ao tempo de tela. Em relação às mudanças estéticas foram citadas: maior espaço para questões abertas; maior espaço entre uma questão e outra; alinhamento ao meio das frases dos tópicos; utilizar escala Likert; manterá mesma questão em uma única página. Conclusão: O instrumento foi submetido às etapas de validação de conteúdo preconizadas em literatura e preenche os requisitos quanto à sua face e conteúdo.
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Aim Parents’ psychological problems may affect children’s screen time, but research has been scarce. We examined the association between parental psychological problems and children’s screen media behaviours in a nationally representative sample. Methods The participants were from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, recruited by probability sampling from the USA population. Children reported their use of TV, videos, video games, social media, and mature-rated media. The parents (85% mothers) reported psychological problems using the Adult Self-Report questionnaire. Results In 10,650 children (5,112 girls, 5,538 boys) aged 9.9±0.6 years, presence of parental psychological problems was associated with children spending more daily time on screen media and with meeting the recommendation of ≤2 daily hours less often than children whose parents did not have psychological problems. Parental psychological problems were associated with children’s TV watching, video watching and gaming but not with using social media. Parental internalising problems were associated with children watching mature-rated movies (odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00, 1.30) and playing mature-rated games (OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.11, 1.45). Conclusion Presence of parental psychological problems is associated with higher screen time and use of mature-rated media in children. This cross-sectional study was not able to examine causal associations
Article
Socio-demographic risks are associated with higher child screen time and higher screen time is associated with poor socioemotional and developmental health. Existing studies have not examined children’s screen time as a mechanism through which distal risks may be associated with child outcomes. In the current study, we examined whether two proximal factors, screen time and parenting quality, mediate the relation between distal cumulative risk and child outcomes. Participants (N = 1992) were drawn from a birth cohort of mothers and their children (81% white; 46% female). Mothers reported on cumulative risk factors (maternal income, education, depression, stress, marital status, housing instability, unemployment, and maternal history of childhood adversity) during the prenatal period. Parenting quality (ineffective/hostile, positive interactions) and children’s screen time (hours/week) were assessed when children were three years of age. Child socioemotional (internalizing and externalizing problems) and developmental (achievement of developmental milestones) outcomes were measured at five years of age. Path analysis revealed indirect effects from cumulative risk to internalizing symptoms and achievement of developmental milestones via screen time. Indirect effects were observed from cumulative risk to internalizing and externalizing behavior via hostile parenting behavior. Over and above the effects of parenting, screen time may be a factor that links structural forms of social disadvantage during the prenatal period to child socioemotional and developmental outcomes. Due to modest effect sizes of screen time, it remains the case that child socioemotional and developmental health should be conceptualized within the context of distal cumulative risk factors such as caregiver psychological and material resources.
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Los juegos lúdicos es un tema muy interesante, debido a su importancia en el desarrollo social y cognitivo en la sociedad actual. Este estudio busca comprender las experiencias de niños de 5 años en una institución educativa de Antioquia, Colombia. Se utilizó una metodología de tipo cualitativa fenomenológica, se recolectó la información a través de la entrevista a profundidad, los datos se analizaron por medio de codificación abierta y axial finalizando con conclusiones y discusiones. Se concluyó que los niños sienten un gusto importante hacia los juegos lúdicos y su uso es de manera constante en el contexto escolar.
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Children and teenagers are becoming increasingly dependent on their mobile devices, which they use for entertainment, education, and self-expression in addition to keeping in touch with friends and family. The prolonged use of mobile phones can have deleterious effects on children. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate these effects on specific areas of the children. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at the outpatient department during the study period from September 2019 to February 2020. Children below the age of 2 years or mentally challenged children were excluded. Informed consent was taken from parents who participated in the activity. The child and the parents are explained the research purpose and data collected in the pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. SPSS version 21.0 was used to enter and analyses the data. Results: A total of 399 participants of age 2 to 12 years were included in the study. In 50.3 % of children who were using mobile for more than 2 hours, 55.1% of children slept less than 6 hours a day with 68.9% of children having a disturbance in sleep pattern. 33.9% of children reported having been wearing glasses and 34.8% of children showed an increase in weight. Regarding social interaction and behavior, 39.9% of children showed rude behavior towards their parents.53.2% of children using mobiles were associated with behavioral issues like isolation thus avoiding gathering while 77.3% were addicted to mobiles and showed anger and frustration when mobiles were taken away from them. Conclusion: The use of the mobile phone negatively impacts the various aspects of a child’s life.
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Importance: It is unclear to what extent the duration of screen time in infancy is associated with the subsequent diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Objective: To examine the association between screen time in infancy and the development of autism spectrum disorder at 3 years of age. Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study analyzed data from mother-child dyads in a large birth cohort in Japan. This study included children born to women recruited between January 2011 and March 2014, and data were analyzed in December 2020. The study was conducted by the Japan Environment and Children's Study Group in collaboration with 15 regional centers across Japan. Exposures: Screen time at 1 year of age. Main outcomes and measures: The outcome variable, children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at 3 years of age, was assessed using a questionnaire administered to mothers of the participating children. Results: A total of 84 030 mother-child dyads were analyzed. The prevalence of children with autism spectrum disorder at 3 years of age was 392 per 100 000 (0.4%), and boys were 3 times more likely to have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder than were girls. Logistic regression analysis showed that among boys, when "no screen" was the reference, the adjusted odds ratios were as follows: less than 1 hour, odds ratio, 1.38 (95 % CI, 0.71-2.69; P = .35), 1 hour to less than 2 hours, odds ratio, 2.16 (95 % CI, 1.13-4.14; P = .02), 2 hours to less than 4 hours, odds ratio, 3.48 (95% CI, 1.83-6.65; P < .001), and more than 4 hours, odds ratio, 3.02 (95% CI, 1.44-6.34; P = .04). Among girls, however, there was no association between autism spectrum disorder and screen time. Conclusions and relevance: Among boys, longer screen time at 1 year of age was significantly associated with autism spectrum disorder at 3 years of age. With the rapid increase in device usage, it is necessary to review the health effects of screen time on infants and to control excessive screen time.
Article
Importance: Pediatric guidelines suggest that infants younger than 2 years avoid screen time altogether, while children aged 2 to 5 years receive no more than 1 hour per day. Although these guidelines have been adopted around the world, substantial variability exists in adherence to the guidelines, and precise estimates are needed to inform public health and policy initiatives. Objective: To derive the pooled prevalence via meta-analytic methods of children younger than 2 years and children aged 2 to 5 years who are meeting guidelines about screen time. Data sources: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase up to March 2020. Study selection: Studies were included if participants were 5 years and younger and the prevalence of meeting (or exceeding) screen time guidelines was reported. Data extraction and synthesis: Data extraction followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Two independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to derive the mean prevalence rates. Main outcomes and measures: Prevalence of meeting screen time guidelines. Results: From 63 studies, 95 nonoverlapping samples with a total of 89 163 participants were included. For children younger than 2 years, the pooled prevalence of meeting the screen time guideline (0 h/d) was 24.7% (95% CI, 19.0%-31.5%). Moderator analyses revealed that prevalence of meeting screen time guidelines varied as a function of year of data collection (increased over time), measurement method (higher when questionnaires compared with interview), and type of device use (higher when a combination of screen use activities compared with television/movies only). For children aged 2 to 5 years, the mean prevalence of meeting the screen time guideline (1 h/d) was 35.6% (95% CI, 30.6%-40.9%). Moderator analyses revealed that the prevalence of meeting screen time guidelines varied as a function of type of device use (higher when screen time was television/movies only compared with a combination of screen use activities). Conclusions and relevance: The findings of this meta-analysis indicate that only a minority of children 5 years and younger are meeting screen time guidelines. This highlights the need to provide support and resources to families to best fit evidence-based recommendations into their lives.
Article
Children’s early language development is under the influence of several positive and negative factors including television as an input source and family’s socio-economic status. Considering that, this study investigated the effects of these variables on children’s vocabulary development using a quasi-experimental design. To this end, 60 Iranian children, 30 from high and 30 from low socio-economic status, were selected using stratified random sampling. They were divided into four groups based on their background TV exposure and socio-economic status. TOLD-3 was given to the groups as a vocabulary development test before and after a 6-week observation. Results indicated that the high socio-economic-low background group scored higher than the other groups in the vocabulary development posttest while the low socio-economic-low background group scored lower that the other groups. Furthermore, while high background TV had a negative influence on the children’s vocabulary development in families with a high socio-economic status, it had a positive influence on the children in families with a low socio-economic status. These results have some implications for families, first and second language studies.
Article
Aim: This study determined whether higher screen time was associated with the development of 3-year-old children in Taiwan. It also examined whether differences would be found between television and other screen-based media in the probability of lagged development. Methods: We examined 2,139 children aged 3 years and their parents. The association between daily screen time was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. All the odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the rates of lagged developmental achievement, with the group who used screens for less than 1 hour a day as the reference category. Screen time comprised television and other screen-based media, such as smart phones, touch screens, computers and laptops. Results: Children who used screens for more than 3 hours per day had the lowest developmental scores and highest probabilities of lagged development. The children who used other screen-based media for more than 1 hour per day had greater probabilities of lagged developmental achievements (ORs 1.85-4.98, all p<0.05) than those who watched television for the same amount of time (OR 1.41-2.77, all p<0.05). Conclusion: Increased screen time was associated with higher probabilities of lagged developmental achievement in multiple development domains in 3-year-old children, particularly other screen-based media.
Chapter
School counselors are tasked with promoting the responsible use of technology in collaboration with families and educators to increase student safety. However, there are significant challenges dealing with technology use in the schools. Youth from underserved backgrounds, including LGBTQ+ youth, youth of color, and youth living in poverty, may find support and connection through technology. This chapter includes an overview on technology use among youth, cultural considerations in technology and digital media use, and collaborative interventions to promote tech safety and digital citizenship. Final case examples outline culturally responsive, student-centered interventions to promote tech safety and digital citizenships within schools.
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Objective: Screen time in early childhood has been associated with children's prosocial and behavioral skills; however, the directionality of this relationship is unclear. We aimed to determine the direction of the relationship between screen time, social skills, and nonsocial behavioral traits in young children. Methods: This was a population-based, prospective cohort study with data across 5 time points. We examined the reciprocal relationships between caregiver-reported children's screen time at 12, 18, 24, 36, and 54 months and social behaviors collected using the Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment at 12 months; the Quantitative Checklist for Autism at 18, 24, and 36 months; and the Social Responsiveness Scale at 54 months. Cross-lagged path models were used for analysis. Results: A multiple imputation data set and complete data from 229 participants were included in the analyses. Screen time at 12, 18, and 36 months predicted nonsocial behavioral traits at 54 months. Cross-lagged path models showed a clear direction from increased screen time at earlier time points to both poorer social skills and atypical behaviors at later time points (Akaike information criterion 18936.55, Bayesian information criterion 19210.73, root mean square error of approximation 0.037, and comparative fit index 0.943). Social skills or behavioral traits at a younger age did not predict later screen time at any of the time points. Conclusion: Screen time in early childhood has lagged influences on social skills and nonsocial behaviors; the reverse relationship is not found. Close monitoring of social behaviors may be warranted in the setting of excessive screen time during early childhood.
Article
Aim: Digital media use is prevalent among children and linked to potential developmental and health risks, but validated measures of children's digital media use are lacking. The aim of this study was to validate the Portuguese version of the ScreenQ with three distinct children's age groups. Methods: Parents of children living in Portugal completed an online survey including the 16-item version of the ScreenQ and items related to home activities and digital media use. A combination of classical and modern theory (Rasch) methods was used for analysis. Results: A total of 549 mothers and 51 fathers of 325 girls and 322 boys from 6 months to 9 years and 11 months-old responded to the survey. Point-measure correlations were all positive and endorsement of item values were within acceptable ranges. Cronbach's coefficient α was acceptable for a new measure and test-retest reliability was high. Statistically significant correlations were found between ScreenQ total scores and relevant demographic, play-related, parenting, and digital media-use items. Conclusion: The Portuguese version of the ScreenQ exhibited sound psychometric properties, including internal consistency and concurrent validity referenced to external items. Higher ScreenQ scores were correlated with higher digital media multitasking, lower parent-child interaction, and higher concerns regarding child's learning and behaviour.
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Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and is often thought as an entry point into a negative life trajectory, including risk for comorbid disorders, poor educational achievement or low income. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the causal relationship between ADHD and a comprehensive range of related traits. Methods We used genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics for ADHD (n = 53 293) and 124 traits related to anthropometry, cognitive function and intelligence, early life exposures, education and employment, lifestyle and environment, longevity, neurological, and psychiatric and mental health or personality and psychosocial factors available in the MR-Base database (16 067 ≤n ≤766 345). To investigate their causal relationship with ADHD, we used two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) with a range of sensitivity analyses, and validated MR findings using causal analysis using summary effect estimates (CAUSE), aiming to avoid potential false-positive results. Results Our findings strengthen previous evidence of a causal effect of ADHD liability on smoking and major depression, and are consistent with a causal effect on odds of decreased average total household income [odds ratio (OR) = 0.966, 95% credible interval (CrI) = (0.954, 0.979)] and increased lifetime number of sexual partners [OR = 1.023, 95% CrI = (1.013, 1.033)]. We also found evidence for a causal effect on ADHD for liability of arm predicted mass and weight [OR = 1.452, 95% CrI = (1.307, 1.614) and OR = 1.430, 95% CrI = (1.326, 1.539), respectively] and time spent watching television [OR = 1.862, 95% CrI = (1.545, 2.246)], and evidence for a bidirectional effect for age of first sexual intercourse [beta = −0.058, 95% CrI = (−0.072, −0.044) and OR = 0.413, 95% CrI = (0.372, 0.457), respectively], odds of decreased age completed full-time education [OR = 0.972, 95% CrI = (0.962, 0.981) and OR = 0.435, 95% CrI = (0.356, 0.533), respectively] and years of schooling [beta = -0.036, 95% CrI = (−0.048, −0.024) and OR = 0.458, 95% CrI = (0.411, 0.511), respectively]. Conclusions Our results may contribute to explain part of the widespread co-occurring traits and comorbid disorders across the lifespan of individuals with ADHD and may open new opportunities for developing preventive strategies for ADHD and for negative ADHD trajectories.
Article
Background and aims Internet addiction (IA) among teenagers has been reported frequently in China, although research has seldom focused on vocational high school students. This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors among this special adolescent population. Moreover, we illustrate the complex relationship between obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, insomnia, psychological states, and IA. Methods A cross-sectional design was applied to collect information from three different vocational high schools in Hunan Province, China. Socio-demographic characteristics, OC symptoms, insomnia, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms were compared between the IA and non-IA groups. Then, a structural equation model (SEM) was established to test our hypothesis regarding different paths from OC symptoms to IA. Results IA prevalence was 13.4% among 7990 vocational high school students. Individuals with IA were more likely to be male and students with more severe depression, stress, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms (all p < 0.001). SEM verified that OC symptoms were related to IA both directly and indirectly, where the latter relationship was mediated through insomnia or mental disorders. Limitations This study cannot confirm the causal relationships among the variables and should be generalized cautiously to other groups. Conclusions More attention should be paid to Chinese vocational high school students, especially those with more severe OC symptoms, poor mental health, and insomnia. We should consider OC symptoms, insomnia, psychological suffering, and IA together when addressing related problems.
Article
INTRODUCTION: The recent increase in childhood obesity has reached severe levels. High screen exposure times are one of the factors contributing to the development of obesity. However, it additional parameters that could have a role were not adequately examined in the clinical sample. METHODS: The research sample consisted of 51 adolescents with obesity and 49 healthy controls aged 11-17 years who applied to Pediatric Endocrinology Department. Participants were asked to fill in the sociodemographic data form and the screen use questionnaire prepared by the researchers. RESULTS: In obese patients, the age of first exposure to television was earlier (median: 1), average daily television watching time (median: 2.5,) and total screen exposure time (mean: 5.8). After adjustment in the regression analysis, mother's educational status, the child's age at first exposure to television, and the total screen exposure were found significant. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The age at which children are first exposed to television, the education level of the mother and the duration of total screen exposure are among the important determinants of obesity risk.
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now among the most commonly diagnosed chronic psychological dysfunctions of childhood. By varying estimates, it has increased by 30% in the past 20 years. Environmental factors that might explain this increase have been explored. One such factor may be audiovisual media exposure during early childhood. Observational studies in humans have linked exposure to fast-paced television in the first 3 years of life with subsequent attentional deficits in later childhood. Although longitudinal and well controlled, the observational nature of these studies precludes definitive conclusions regarding a causal relationship. As experimental studies in humans are neither ethical nor practical, mouse models of excessive sensory stimulation (ESS) during childhood, akin to the enrichment studies that have previously shown benefits of stimulation in rodents, have been developed. Experimental studies using this model have corroborated that ESS leads to cognitive and behavioral deficits, some of which may be potentially detrimental. Given the ubiquity of media during childhood, these findings in humansand rodents perhaps have important implications for public health.
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The cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) is believed by many to overcome the problems associated with the use of cross-lagged correlations as a way to study causal influences in longitudinal panel data. The current article, however, shows that if stability of constructs is to some extent of a trait-like, time-invariant nature, the autoregressive relationships of the CLPM fail to adequately account for this. As a result, the lagged parameters that are obtained with the CLPM do not represent the actual within-person relationships over time, and this may lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the presence, predominance, and sign of causal influences. In this article we present an alternative model that separates the within-person process from stable between-person differences through the inclusion of random intercepts, and we discuss how this model is related to existing structural equation models that include cross-lagged relationships. We derive the analytical relationship between the cross-lagged parameters from the CLPM and the alternative model, and use simulations to demonstrate the spurious results that may arise when using the CLPM to analyze data that include stable, trait-like individual differences. We also present a modeling strategy to avoid this pitfall and illustrate this using an empirical data set. The implications for both existing and future cross-lagged panel research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Prior research has identified negative effects of background television (TV) exposure on toddler toy play and parent–child interactions and has documented a negative association between early TV exposure and language development. It is hypothesized that background, adult-directed TV reduces the quantity and quality of parent language addressed to their young children. To test this hypothesis, the current study compared parent language directed at 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old toddlers (N = 49) in the presence and absence of background TV. In the presence of background TV, the number of words and utterances spoken per minute by the parent decreased as did the number of new words per minute. However, mean length of utterances did not differ. Because parent input is an important factor for language acquisition, development may be negatively affected by background TV exposure.
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Children with complex disabilities require comprehensive, coordinated and integrated services. However, parents often find themselves navigating fragmentary service systems—a process that may be more difficult when children exhibit behavioral problems such as hyperactivity and inattention. Such problems are more common among children with disabilities. Thus, the present study examined the familial and economic impact of service integration and child hyperactivity among 111 families involved with a children’s treatment network over 2 years. The most dysfunctional families over time were involved with low-integration teams and had children who were highly hyperactive. Children who were hyperactive and their parents had the highest levels of service utilization at baseline, though these patterns reversed or disappeared over time, respectively. Family functioning was also associated with higher service costs for parents, over time. Results highlight the importance of considering the impact of child hyperactivity and inattention, even when children are receiving services for other primary diagnoses.
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This study examined the association between screen media use, media content, and language development among 119 Hispanic infants and toddlers. Children and their caregivers were recruited through an urban, Early Head Start program. Duration and content of screen media exposure was measured through a 24-hour recall questionnaire, and language development was measured at baseline and at 1-year follow up. Children in the sample spent an average of 3.29 hours engaged with screen media (median 2.5 hours per day). In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, children who watched over 2 hours of television per day had increased odds of low communication scores. Whereas child-directed media was associated with low language scores, adult-directed media was not. Our findings support the mounting literature on the deleterious impacts of screen media in toddler's language development. Guidance and alternatives to screen media use should be available to families in pediatric practices and early childhood centers.
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Background: This study assessed the concurrent validity of the parent-completed developmental screening measure Ages and Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (ASQ-3) compared with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) in children born term, late preterm, or extremely preterm at 8, 18, or 30 months of corrected gestational ages (CGA). Methods: Data were collected from 306 term and preterm children ages 8, 18, and 30 months' CGA recruited from an ambulatory well-child clinic in Santiago, Chile. Parents completed the ASQ-3 in their homes, and afterward a trained professional administered the Bayley-III in a clinic setting. On the ASQ-3, the presence of any domain screened <2 SDs below the mean area score was considered a positive screen (indicating failure or delay). A Bayley-III score less than ≤1 SD indicated mild or severe delay. Results: ASQ-3 showed adequate psychometric properties (75% sensitivity and 81% specificity) and modest agreement with the Bayley-III (r = 0.56). Sensitivity, specificity, and correlations between measures improved with testing age and in children who were born extremely preterm. Conclusions: Considering its psychometric properties, the ASQ-3 can be recommended for routine use in screening low-risk children at 8, 18, and 30 months' CGA and is advisable to be included in follow-up programs for children with biological risk factors such as those born preterm.
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Purpose: Mobile technology is ubiquitous, but its impact on family life has not been thoroughly addressed in the scientific literature or in clinical practice guidelines. We aimed to understand parents' views regarding mobile technology use by young children, aged 0 to 8 years, including perceived benefits, concerns, and effects on family interactions, with the goal of informing pediatric guidelines. Methods: We conducted 35 in-depth, semistructured group and individual interviews with English-speaking caregivers of diverse ethnic backgrounds, educational levels, and employment statuses. After thematic saturation, results were validated through expert triangulation and member checking. Results: Participants included 22 mothers, 9 fathers, and 4 grandmothers; 31.4% were single parents, 42.9% were of nonwhite race or ethnicity, and 40.0% completed high school or less. Participants consistently expressed a high degree of tension regarding their child's mobile technology use, from which several themes emerged: (1) effects on the child-fear of missing out on educational benefits vs concerns about negative effects on thinking and imagination; (2) locus of control-wanting to use digital devices in beneficial ways vs feeling that rapidly evolving technologies are beyond their control (a tension more common in low-income caregivers); and (3) family stress-the necessity of device use in stressed families (eg, to control a child's behavior or as an inexpensive learning/entertainment tool) vs its displacement of family time. Conclusions: Caregivers of young children describe many novel concepts regarding use of mobile technology, raising issues not addressed by current anticipatory guidance. Guidance may be more effectively implemented if it takes into account parents' uncertainties, locus of control, and functional uses of mobile devices in families.
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The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance.
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Researchers examined whether contingent experience using a touch screen increased toddlers’ ability to learn a word from video. One hundred and sixteen children (24–36 months) watched an on-screen actress label an object: (a) without interacting, (b) with instructions to touch anywhere on the screen, or (c) with instructions to touch a specific spot (location of labeled object). The youngest children learned from contingent video in the absence of reciprocal interactions with a live social partner, but only when contingent video required specific responses that emphasized important information on the screen. Conversely, this condition appeared to disrupt learning by slightly older children who were otherwise able to learn words by passively viewing noninteractive video. Results are interpreted with respect to selective attention and encoding.
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The use of interactive screen media such as smartphones and tablets by young children is increasing rapidly. However, research regarding the impact of this portable and instantly accessible source of screen time on learning, behavior, and family dynamics has lagged considerably behind its rate of adoption. Pediatric guidelines specifically regarding mobile device use by young children have not yet been formulated, other than recent suggestions that a limited amount of educational interactive media use may be acceptable for children aged <2 years(1) New guidance is needed because mobile media differs from television in its multiple modalities (eg, videos, games, educational apps), interactive capabilities, and near ubiquity in children's lives. Recommendations for use by infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children are especially crucial, because effects of screen time are potentially more pronounced in this group. The aim of this commentary is to review the existing literature, discuss future research directions, and suggest preliminary guidance for families.
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To examine associations of maternal mobile device use with the frequency of mother–child interactions during a structured laboratory task.Methods Participants included 225 low-income mother–child pairs. When children were ∼6 years old, dyads were videotaped during a standardized protocol in order to characterize how mothers and children interacted when asked to try familiar and unfamiliar foods. From videotapes, we dichotomized mothers on the basis of whether or not they spontaneously used a mobile device, and we counted maternal verbal and nonverbal prompts toward the child. We used multivariate Poisson regression to study associations of device use with eating prompt frequency for different foods.ResultsMothers were an average of 31.3 (SD 7.1) years old, and 28.0% were of Hispanic/nonwhite race/ethnicity. During the protocol, 23.1% of mothers spontaneously used a mobile device. Device use was not associated with any maternal characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, education, depressive symptoms, or parenting style. Mothers with device use initiated fewer verbal (relative rate 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.63, 1.03) and nonverbal (0.61; 0.39, 0.96) interactions with their children than mothers who did not use a device, when averaged across all foods. This association was strongest during introduction of halva, the most unfamiliar food (0.67; 0.48, 0.93 for verbal and 0.42; 0.20, 0.89 for nonverbal interactions).Conclusions Mobile device use was common and associated with fewer interactions with children during a structured interaction task, particularly nonverbal interactions and during introduction of an unfamiliar food. More research is needed to understand how device use affects parent–child engagement in naturalistic contexts.
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Digital games combining exercise with game play, known as exergames, can improve youths' health status and provide social and academic benefits. Exergame play increases caloric expenditure, heart rate, and coordination. Psychosocial and cognitive impacts of exergame play may include increased self-esteem, social interaction, motivation, attention, and visual-spatial skills. This article summarizes the literature on exergames, with a special emphasis on physical education courses and the potential of exergames to improve students' physical health, as well as transfer effects that may benefit related physical, social, and academic outcomes.
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This study investigated the sensitivity and specificity of two brief, parent-completed developmental screening measures-the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS)-in children presenting to their primary care providers. A sample of 334 children aged 12 to 60 months was recruited. Parents completed the PEDS and the ASQ in their home or the primary care clinic of one of the investigators. The presence of ≥ 1 predictive concerns or abnormal domains was considered a positive screen. All children underwent evaluation (administered by a psychologist) with the following criterion measures: the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition or the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition, the Preschool Language Scale-Fourth Edition, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition. The mean age of children was 32.3 months. Developmental delay was identified in 34 children (10%). The PEDS had moderate sensitivity (74%) but low specificity (64%); comparatively, the ASQ had significantly higher sensitivity (82%) and specificity (78%). The ASQ had moderate sensitivity and specificity across age subgroups, whereas the PEDS had either low sensitivity or specificity in each of the age subgroups, except for the ≤ 30 month group, where there was moderate sensitivity (78%) and specificity (75%). Using ≥ 2 predictive concerns on the PEDS or ≥ 2 abnormal domains on the ASQ significantly improved specificity of both tests (89% and 94%, respectively) but resulted in very low sensitivity (41% and 47%, respectively). These findings support the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics, demonstrating that both the ASQ and, to a lesser extent, the PEDS have reasonable test characteristics for developmental screening in primary care settings. Although the ASQ seems to have higher sensitivity and specificity across a variety of age groups, the choice of which measure to use should be determined by the practice setting, population served, and preference of the physician.