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This issue of the State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada report marks its 11th year, and the sixth year of the Canadian eLearning Network’s (CANeLearn) support of this research. This report follows the relatively extensive tenth anniversary edition and the annual report has undergone significant changes. This 11th issue describes changes that have occurred in relation to the governance and e-learning activity over the past year in the provinces and territories. The full jurisdictional profiles can be found on the report website at https://k12sotn.ca/data/. Additionally, any brief issue papers and vignettes received are simply introduced or referred to in this report, but are presented in full on the website. The online version of the State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada will continue to be a more comprehensive resource for e-learning in each jurisdiction. While there have been no major changes in the nature of regulation governing K-12 distance and online learning activity in distance or online learning remains relatively stable. The 263,686 students or 5.1% proportion of students engaged in K-12 distance and online learning across the country was a slight decrease in the overall participation level from the previous two school years yet represents only approximately a half a percent proportion difference and, from a proportional standpoint, the number of K-12 students engaged in distance and online learning has remained relatively steady over the past six years. Yet at the same time estimates of blended learning activity have shown a sharp increase. However, estimates of blended learning continue to be a best effort attempt at trying to quantify this type of e-learning activity. The State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada report, and its accompanying publications on its project website, provides critical information and insight into how Canadian educational authorities and governments are integrating technology-supported approaches to prepare students for today’s economy and a future society in which the use of technology will be ubiquitous. This report and website provide a benchmark for educators and offers background, guidance, and ideas for the improvement of policy and practice in online and blended learning. The Canadian eLearning Network is a proud supporter and partner of this research, its publication, and the dissemination of its findings and supporting research publications. Actual citation: Barbour, M. K., & LaBonte, R. (2018). State of the nation: K-12 e-learning in Canada. Victoria, BC: Open School BC. Also available at https://k12sotn.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/StateNation18.pdf
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State of the Nation:
K-12 E-Learning in Canada
2018 Edition
Michael K. Barbour
Touro University California
Randy LaBonte
Canadian eLearning Network
Acknowledgements
Let me begin by thanking LEARN (Quebec), Virtual High School (Ontario), Centre francophone
d’éducation à distance, British Columbia Teachers’ Federation, and Vista Virtual School for their generous
support and sponsorship of this report. Additionally, we are appreciative of the continued support and
partnership of the Canadian eLearning Network (CANeLearn). Their collective guidance, suggestions
and feedback were also helpful in compiling this report. A special thank you goes out to Open School
BC and the Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre for the publication of this document.
I would also like to thank the following individuals for providing information used in the creation of the
provincial territorial, and federal proles.
Georgina Lake, Lucy Warren, Mike Sceviour, & Eric Nippard – Newfoundland and Labrador English School District
Sue Taylor-Foley, Peter Oldreive, & Sarah Hainsworth – Nova Scotia Department of Education and
Early Childhood Development
Eric Morency – Prince Edward Island Department of Education & Early Childhood Development
Mike Cusack & Lucie Pearson – New Brunswick Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Catherine David-Bélanger - Ministère de l’Éducation et de l’Enseignement supérieur
Jim Jamieson & Cathy Blacklock – eLearning Ontario; Todd Pottle – Ontario E-Learning Consortium;
Steve Baker – Virtual High School
Shannon Magee, Donna Smith, Myrna Klassen, Donald Girouard, Rosalind Robb, & Chris Fredrickson
Manitoba Education and Training
Joanna Sanders & Delise Pitman – Saskatchewan Ministry of Education
Daylene Lauman & Charmaine Brooks – Alberta Education
Teresa McClintick, Syndie Hebert, & Theo Vandeweg – British Columbia Ministry of Education
Chris Stacey – Yukon Education; Edward Frison – Aurora Virtual School
Blake Wile, Andrea Giesbrecht, & Karen Willy – Northwest Territories Department of Education
Kuthula Matshazi & Jonas Azonaha – Nunavut Department of Education
Claude Chapdelaine & Susan Irwin – Indigenous and Northern Aairs Canada
Additionally, thanks to the many additional key stakeholders from several of the jurisdictions that also
provided data and information that contributed to this report.
Michael K. Barbour
Founding Researcher, State of the Nation Report
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 1
Table of Contents
Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1 Methodology ................................................................................3
1.2 How to Read This Document .................................................................4
2. National Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
2.1 Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) ...........................................................13
2.2 Nova Scotia (NS) ............................................................................13
2.3 Prince Edward Island (PE) ...................................................................14
2.4 New Brunswick (NB) ........................................................................15
2.6 Ontario (ON) ................................................................................16
2.7 Manitoba (MB) ..............................................................................16
2.8 Saskatchewan (SK) ..........................................................................17
2.9 Alberta (AB) ................................................................................18
2.10 British Columbia (BC) ......................................................................19
2.11 Yukon (YT ) ................................................................................20
2.12 Northwest Territories (NT) .................................................................21
2.13 Nunavut (NV) .............................................................................22
2.14 Federal ....................................................................................22
3. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
4. Call for Sponsors: 2019 State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada Study ......................24
2 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
Executive Summary
This issue of the State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada report marks its 11th year, and the sixth
year of the Canadian eLearning Network’s (CANeLearn) support of this research. This report follows
the relatively extensive tenth anniversary edition and the annual report has undergone signicant
changes. This 11th issue describes changes that have occurred in relation to the governance and
e-learning activity over the past year in the provinces and territories. The full jurisdictional proles can
be found on the report website at https://k12sotn.ca/data/. Additionally, any brief issue papers and
vignettes received are simply introduced or referred to in this report, but are presented in full on the
website. The online version of the State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada will continue to be a
more comprehensive resource for e-learning in each jurisdiction.
While there have been no major changes in the nature of regulation governing K-12 distance and
online learning activity in distance or online learning remains relatively stable. The 263,686 students
or 5.1% proportion of students engaged in K-12 distance and online learning across the country was a
slight decrease in the overall participation level from the previous two school years yet represents only
approximately a half a percent proportion dierence and, from a proportional standpoint, the number
of K-12 students engaged in distance and online learning has remained relatively steady over the past
six years. Yet at the same time estimates of blended learning activity have shown a sharp increase.
However, estimates of blended learning continue to be a best eort attempt at trying to quantify this
type of e-learning activity.
The State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada report, and its accompanying publications on its
project website, provides critical information and insight into how Canadian educational authorities
and governments are integrating technology-supported approaches to prepare students for today’s
economy and a future society in which the use of technology will be ubiquitous. This report and
website provide a benchmark for educators and oers background, guidance, and ideas for the
improvement of policy and practice in online and blended learning. The Canadian eLearning Network
is a proud supporter and partner of this research, its publication, and the dissemination of its ndings
and supporting research publications.
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 3
1. Introduction
This report details the results of the eleventh annual State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada
study, which continues to be conducted in partnership with the Canadian eLearning Network
(CANeLearn). As this is the rst report following the tenth anniversary edition, the physical report has
undergone signicant changes. While the standard jurisdictional proles (i.e., the annual update of
activity and nature of governance for each province and territory, as well as for First Nations, Métis
and Inuit under federal jurisdiction) will continue to be released in full on the State of the Nation: K-12
E-Learning in Canada website, this report will only describe any changes that have occurred in relation
to the governance and e-learning activity over the past year. Additionally, any brief issue papers and
vignettes received are simply introduced or referred to in this report, but are presented on the website.
The State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada website can be accessed at: https://k12sotn.ca/
1.1 Methodology
The methodology utilized to collect the data for the annual study included:
a survey that was sent to each of the Ministries of Education,
follow-up interviews to clarify or expand on any of the responses contained in the survey,
an analysis of documents from the Ministry of Education, often available in online format, and
follow-up interviews with key stakeholders in many of the jurisdictions.
In addition to the data collection for the provincial, territorial, and federal proles, the researchers also
undertook an individual program survey that was sent to contacts from all of the K-12 distance, online,
and blended programs across Canada identied by the researchers. The survey was sent to all contacts
on six occasions from May through October. The response rate by jurisdiction is provided in Table 1.
4 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
Table 1. Individual program survey responses
Total Number of Programs Number of Programs Responding Response Rate
NL 1 0 0%
NS 2 0 0%
PE 0 - -
NB 2 1 50%
QC 5 4 80%
ON 81 9 11%
MB 38 3 8%
SK 21 5 24%
AB 32 12 38%
BC 80 20 25%
YT 2 1 50%
NT 1 0 0%
NU 0 - -
Federal 5 3 60%
Total 270 56 21%
Data as of the time the printed report was submitted for publication (K-12 e-learning programs can
update their information at any time).
The most recent responses that the State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada researchers have
received are included in the provincial, territorial and federal proles located at https://k12sotn.ca/data/
A complete description of the methodology, including all of the instruments, is provided at
https://k12sotn.ca/about/
1.2 How to Read This Document
The goal of the 2018 State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada report is to provide an overview of the
state of K-12 e-learning in Canada. K-12 e-learning is broadly dened to include all forms of K-12 distance
and online learning, as well as blended learning that may occur within the context of a face-to-face
setting. The 2018 State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada report is dierent than previous reports.
The report continues to begin with a brief description of new brief issue papers, followed by a national
overview of K-12 distance, online, and blended learning in Canada.
As noted above, this report diers from traditional State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada
reports in that it does not provide a full discussion of the nature of regulation and level of activity for
each provincial, territorial, and federal jurisdiction. Instead the prole in this report simply provides a
brief update of any changes or new developments in each province, territory, and federally. The full
jurisdictional proles continue to be available at https://k12sotn.ca/data/
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 5
It is our goal that the State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada annual published report will be a
much shorter version of the updated changes that have occurred in each jurisdiction from the previous
year. However, the online version of the State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada will continue to
be a more comprehensive resource for e-learning in each jurisdiction.
2. National Overview
Eleven years following the publication of the rst State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada report,
there continues to be a great deal of consistency in types of K-12 distance, online, and/or blended
learning programs that exist throughout the country.
Students from all thirteen provinces and territories continue to participate in K-12 distance, online,
and blended learning opportunities. Most jurisdictions continue to have either primarily district-based
programs or district-based programs and provincial programs. The exception to this trend is in Atlantic
Canada and Northern Canada. In Atlantic Canada, the dominant model is the use of a single province-
wide program, with the exception of Prince Edward Island, which does not have any distance or online
learning program.
Single provincial program
Primarily district-based programs
Combination of provincial and
district-based programs
Use online learning programs
from other provinces
6 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
All of the Canadian territories utilized distance and/or online learning programs from southern
provinces, while the Yukon and Northwest Territories both continue to develop their own internal pilot
programs.
Nature of K-12 E-Learning Regulation
There have been no major changes in the nature of regulation governing K-12 distance and
online learning.
Table 2. Summary of the K-12 distance and online learning regulation by jurisdiction
Legislation Policy Handbook Agreements Memorandum of Understanding
NL
NS
PE
NB
QC
ON  
MB  
SK
AB  
BC  
YT  
NT  
NU  
Federal
As a reminder, while many provinces and territories continue to have some reference to distance
education in the Education Act or Schools Act, in most instances these references simply dene distance
education or gives the Minister of Education in that province or territory the ability to create, approve
or regulate K-12 distance education. Many of these references have also become antiquated given the
present realities of K-12 distance and online learning. The only provinces where this is not the case are
Nova Scotia (e.g., collective agreement signed between the Government of Nova Scotia and the Nova
Scotia Teachers Union) and British Columbia (e.g., section 3.1 and section 75 (4.1) of the School Act,
2006, as well as section 8.1 of the Independent School Act, 2006).
The most dominant trend aecting the regulation of K-12 distance and online learning is that
approximately a third of all jurisdictions use policy handbooks to regulate K-12 distance and online
learning; sometimes in combination with a formal agreement or contract.
The main dierence in the regulation of K-12 e-learning comes from Quebec, where a 2017
amendment to the Loi sur l’instruction publique has allowed the Minister to develop and implement
distance education pilot projects (although there have been no pilot projects created thus far).
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 7
Level of K-12 E-Learning Activity
The total K-12 population in Canada for 2017-18 was approximately 5.2 million students. Based on actual
and estimated enrolment data, the number of students engaged in K-12 e-learning was 927,393 or 17.8%
of the overall K-12 student population (see Table 3). The overall e-learning activity was based on the
number of K-12 students engaged in both distance and online learning, as well as blended learning.
Table 3. Summary of the K-12 e-learning activity by jurisdiction for 2017-18
# of K-12 students # enrolled in e-learning Percent involvement
NL 66,323 ~9,000 13.6%
NS 119,383 ~98,000 82.1%
PE 20,131 56 0.1%
NB 98,906 ~10,200 10.3%
QC 1,003,322 ~51,800 5.2%
ON 2,020,301 ~597,000 29.6%
MB 203,515 ~6,398 3.1%
SK 182,173 ~14,000 7.7%
AB 719,889 ~63,000 8.8%
BC 635,037 ~75,000 11.8%
YT 5,662 1043 18.4%
NT 8,449 ~193 0.2%
NU 10,107 ~40 0.1%
Federal ~107,000 1,663 1.6%
Total 5,200,198 927,393 17.8%
The highest level of e-learning activity by raw numbers was Ontario (based on recent estimates),
but, by proportion of students, Nova Scotia. However, these gures were largely due to estimates of
blended learning activity based on enrolments in the provincial learning management systems. The
level of participation in most jurisdictions represents a relatively consistent rate (i.e., less than 2%
dierence), with the exception of Nova Scotia (see Table 4).
8 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
Table 4. Summary of estimated K-12 e-learning activity over the past two years
# students engaged in e-learning
2016-17 2017-18
NL ~8,000 12.1% ~9,000 13.6%
NS ~54,000 45.2% ~98,000 82.1%
PE 89 0.4% 56 0.1%
NB 9,179 9.3% ~10,200 10.3%
QC ~47,900 4.8% ~51,800 5.2%
ON ~559,000 27.9% ~597,000 29.6%
MB 8,941 4.9% ~6,398 3.1%
SK ~8,500 4.8% ~14,000 7.7%
AB ~50,000 7.1% ~63,000 8.8%
BC ~63,350 10.0% ~75,000 11.8%
YT 1028 20.1% 1043 18.4%
NT 79 0.9% ~193 0.2%
NU ~40 0.4% ~40 0.1%
Federal 1,927 1.8% 1,663 1.6%
Total 812,033 15.7% 927,393 17.8%
As Table 4 illustrates there was a signicant increase in the number and proportion of e-learning
students in Nova Scotia, largely due to the potential number of students engaged in blended learning.
Based on actual and estimated enrolment data, the number of students engaged in K-12 distance
and online learning only was 263,686 or 5.1% of the overall K-12 student population (see Table 5). It
is important to note that the ~ symbol below means that one or more approximations were provided
during the data collection.
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 9
Table 5. Summary of the K-12 distance and online learning activity by jurisdiction for 2017-18
# of K-12 students # enrolled in distance/
online learning Percent involvement
NL 66,323 1,233 1.9%
NS 119,383 ~2,700 2.3%
PE 20,131 56 0.1%
NB 98,906 ~3,239 3.4%
QC 1,003,322 30,366 3.0%
ON 2,020,301 ~82,000 4.1%
MB 203,515 ~6,398 3.1%
SK 182,173 7,738 4.2%
AB 719,889 ~63,000 8.8%
BC 635,037 65,556 10.3%
YT 5,662 136 2.4%
NT 8,449 93 1.1%
NU 10,107 ~40 0.1%
Federal ~107,000 1,131 1.1%
Total 5,200,198 263,686 5.1%
As in past years, British Columbia has the highest level of reported activity in distance and online
courses followed closely by Alberta. Although it should be noted the number of students in Alberta
was based on an estimate. The data collected indicated that there were 80,359 course enrolments,
but there was no data on unique student enrolments. In previous editions of this report we have
assumed that approximately 20% of the students took a second distance or online course, which is
how we calculated the gure of ~63,000. If one third of the students enrolled in a second course it
would decrease the gure to ~60,000 students. If 10% of students enrolled in three courses and 25% of
students enrolled in a second course, the level of participation would be under 49,000 students.
The 263,686 students or 5.1% proportion of students engaged in K-12 distance and online learning
across the country was a decrease in the overall participation level from the previous two school years
(see Table 6).
10 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
Table 6. Summary of estimated K-12 distance and online learning activity over the past three years
# students engaged in distance and online learning
2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
NL 1,105 968 1,233
NS ~2,500 ~2,600 ~2,700
PE 89 89 56
NB 2,527 3,262 ~3,239
QC ~41,000 ~42,600 30,366
ON ~94,500 ~91,000 ~82,000
MB ~8,000 8,941 ~6,398
SK ~12,000 ~8,500 7,738
AB ~60,000 ~50,000 ~63,000
BC 69,735 57,046 65,556
YT 149 189 136
NT 81 79 93
NU 325 ~40 ~40
Federal 1,390 1,289 1,131
Total 293,401 277,603 263,686
While there has been a decrease of approximately 30,000 students over the past three years, this
represents only approximately a half a percent proportion dierence in the students engaged in K-12
distance and online learning across the country (see Table 7 below).
Table 7. K-12 distance and online learning student enrolment in Canada
Year # of distance education students % of students engaged in distance education
1999-2000* ~25,000 0.5%
2008-09 ~140,000 2.7%
2009-10 150,000-175,000 2.9%-3.4%
2010-11 207,096 4.2%
2011-12 245,252 4.9%
2012-13 284,963 5.2%
2013-14 290,185 5.4%
2014-15 311,648 6.0%
2015-16 293,401 5.7%
2016-17 277,603 5.4%
2017-18 263,686 5.1%
* (Canadian Teachers Federation, 2000)
From a proportional standpoint, the number of K-12 students engaged in distance and online learning
has remained relatively steady over the past six years (i.e., within 1%). Project researchers continue to
believe that this decrease primarily represents the variability in the accuracy of data collection (i.e., six
of the 14 jurisdictions were approximations), along with some actual shift from distance and online
learning to more blended learning contexts.
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 11
While blended learning is a much more recent development within the K-12 system, the best estimates
that are available indicate that it is increasing signicantly. Based on mainly estimated enrolment data,
the number of students engaged in K-12 blended learning was 665,134 or 12.8% of the overall K-12
student population (see Table 8).
Table 8. Summary of the K-12 blended learning activity by jurisdiction for 2017-18
# of K-12 students # enrolled in blended learning Percent involvement
NL 66,323 ~9,000 13.6%
NS 119,383 97,575 81.7%
PE 20,131 - -
NB 98,906 ~7,000 7.1%
QC 1,003,322 ~21,300 2.1%
ON 2,020,301 ~515,000 25.5%
MB 203,515 - -
SK 182,173 ~11,500 6.3%
AB 704,813 ~3071 0.1%
BC 635,037 ~9,500 1.5%
YT 5,662 907 16.0%
NT 8,449 ~100 1.2%
NU 10,107 - -
Federal ~107,000 531 0.1%
Total 5,200,198 665,134 12.8%
The blended learning activity in Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario,
the Yukon, and the Northwest Territories are based on enrolments in the provincial learning
management system – all of which were provided by the Ministries. While the enrolments in a learning
management system are as good an indicator of e-learning activity as any other, it may be misleading.
For example, Ontario reported that there were approximately 565,000 unique student logins in the
learning management system. This gure includes the approximately 50,000 students engaged in
online learning courses, which researchers have removed from the blended learning gure above.
However, it is possible that 35,000 of these students are taking one or two courses in an online format,
and one or more of their face-to-face teachers are also using the provincial learning management
system and content in a blended learning context.
Similarly, while Nova Scotia reports that Google Apps for Education (G-Suite) is now available to all
students, teachers, and administrators province-wide and there are 97,575 or approximately 81% of all
students that have accounts, that doesn’t mean all 97,575 students, teachers, and administrators are
actually using those accounts. Having said that, the availability of blended learning tools and content is
likely a reasonable predictor of the potential for blended learning.
12 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
Table 9 below illustrates the blended learning that this report has estimated over the past three years
and the basis for that estimation.
Table 9. Summary of estimated K-12 blended learning activity over the past three years
# students engaged in blended learning
2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
NL 10,905* ~8,000* ~9,000*
NS ~54,000* ~54,000* 97,575*
PE - - -
NB 4171** 5,917** ~7,000**
QC 44,500** ~5,300*** ~21,300***
ON 237,930* ~468,000* ~515,000*
MB - 24*** -
SK - 1895*** ~11,500***
AB - 1463*** ~3071***
BC 6578*** ~6,300*** ~9,500***
YT 653** 830** 907**
NT - - ~100**
NU - - -
Federal *** 638** 531*
Total 358,737 657,985 664,134
* Estimate based on learning management system data
** Data provided by Ministry
*** Data extracted from individual program survey response
It is important to underscore that these estimates of blended learning activity continue to be a best
eort attempt at trying to quantify this type of e-learning activity. Beyond the issues of whether
teachers or students enrolled in provincial learning management systems were engaged in blended
learning, this data largely represents information obtained from programs that were primarily engaged
in distance and/or online learning (and simply also involved in blended learning). For example, based
on the most recent individual program survey data it was reported that:
Manitoba: 1 of 10 programs reported students engaged in blended learning
Saskatchewan: 5 of 14 programs reported students engaged in blended learning
Alberta: 5 of 17 programs reported students engaged in blended learning
British Columbia: 20 of 42 programs reported students engaged in blended learning
Yet, for these four provinces the researchers for this study have information from only distance and/or
online programs. While we can report that K-12 blended learning is growing (and appears to be quite
signicant in some jurisdictions), we also believe that the estimation of blended learning activity in this
report does not begin to scratch the surface of the true level of blended learning in most jurisdictions.
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 13
2.1 Newfoundland and Labrador (NL)
Population: 526,977
Number of K-12 Schools: 262
Number of K-12 Students: 66,323
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 1
Number of K-12 E-Learning: ~9,000
e-Learning Updates
There have been no signicant regulatory changes in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
NLESD has a memorandum of understanding with both the Conseil scolaire francophone provincial de
Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador and the school district representing the Mi’kmaq (i.e., a province-wide First
Nations district) to deliver e-learning courses to their students through the CDLI.
Based on gures from the K-12 School Prole System, there were 1,233 students representing 2,166
course registrations in 41 dierent courses from 118 dierent schools. Other e-learning participation
levels are still not formally tracked by the province, however as every teacher has access to CDLI portal
and its course resources, there is potential for the growth of blended learning in the province.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/nl/
2.2 Nova Scotia (NS)
Population: 942,926
Number of K-12 Schools: 395
Number of K-12 Students: 119,383
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 2
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: ~98,000
e-Learning Updates
There have been no signicant regulatory changes in the province of Nova Scotia. The Teachers’
Professional Agreement and Classroom Improvements (2017) Act included updates to the Teachers
Provincial Agreement and specically to Article 49 to recognize the changes and advances in
technology and future possibilities through learning online.
14 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
Based on gures provided by the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development,
there were approximately 1,600 students enrolled in oerings from the Nova Scotia Virtual School
and approximately 1,100 students enrolled in courses oered through the correspondence studies
program. Additionally, there were 97,575 or approximately 81% of all students with accounts in various
blended learning tools oered by the Department.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/ns/
Citizenship 9
Nova Scotia launched a new course for all schools, Citizenship 9, that incorporates inquiry-based and
service learning through an online and blended learning approach. All course materials are available
in the provincial learning management system and an online e-book. Teachers from classroom-based
schools and the online virtual school have full access to all course resources supporting the growth of
both online and blended learning in the province. The focus on digital citizenship is part of an inquiry
approach to learning that is fully integrated into the new provincial curriculum. See more at
https://k12sotn.ca/ns/citizenship-9/
2.3 Prince Edward Island (PE)
Population: 145,211
Number of K-12 Schools: 63
Number of K-12 Students: 20,131
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 0
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: 56
e-Learning Updates
There have been no regulatory changes in the province of Prince Edward Island.
There are still no distance and/or online learning programs in the province, and students continue
to enrol in programs oered from New Brunswick. Based on gures provided by the Department of
Education, Early Learning and Culture, during the 2017-18 there were 43 students enrolled in English-
language distance education and 13 students enrolled in French-language distance education
programs. Other e-learning participation levels are still not formally tracked by the province.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/pe/
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 15
2.4 New Brunswick (NB)
Population: 755,464
Number of K-12 Schools: 307
Number of K-12 Students: 98,906
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 2
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: ~10,200
e-Learning Updates
There have been no regulatory changes in the province of New Brunswick. Based on gures provided
by the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, during the 2017-18 there
were approximately 2,000 regular students enrolled in the Anglophone program, while there 1,239
students enrolled in the Francophone program. Similarly, during the 2017-18 school year there were
approximately 3,000 English and approximately 4,000 French face-to-face students registered in the
learning management system using online courses in a more blended learning model under the
direction of their local school’s classroom teachers.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/nb/
2.5 Quebec (QC)
Population: 8,263,600
Number of K-12 Schools: 3,102
Number of K-12 Students: 1,003,322
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 4
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: ~42,000
e-Learning Updates
There has been one change in the K-12 e-learning programs operating in the province. With an
amendment to the Loi sur l’instruction publique that allowed the Minister to approve pilot projects to
test distance education. To date, no distance education pilots have been approved. Based on gures
provided by the Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport, along with the most recent responses to
the individual program survey, there were approximately 31,000 students enrolled in distance and/
or online learning courses during the 2017-18 school year. Similarly, there were approximately 11,000
students enrolled in formal blended learning opportunities.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/qc/
16 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
2.6 Ontario (ON)
Population: 13,537,994
Number of K-12 Schools: 4,850
Number of K-12 Students: 2,020,301
Number of K-12 Distance Education Programs: ~81
Number of K-12 Distance Education Students: ~570,000
e-Learning Updates
There have been no regulatory changes in the province of Ontario.
Based on gures provided by the Ministry of Education, there were approximately 50,000 students
engaged in online courses oered by one of the district school board eLearning programs. In the 2017-
18 school year, there were approximately 565,000 unique student logins in the provincial learning
management system from classroom-based or online students, but approximately 50,000 of these
were students were engaged in completing eLearning courses. Other e-learning participation levels
remain consistent.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/on/
Alberta
Manitoba
2.7 Manitoba (MB)
Population: 1,282,000
Number of K-12 Schools: 808
Number of K-12 Students: 203,515
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: ~38
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: ~6,398
e-Learning Updates
There have been no regulatory changes in the province of Manitoba.
Each school division in the province continues to participate in one or more of the three distance
education program options. The ISO (i.e., print) continued to oer 58 courses in English and 12 courses
in French for grades 9-12 students. During the 2017-18 school year, there were approximately 2,970
active students enrolled and 1,212 credits issued. The TMO, which is managed by rural school divisions
through the TMO Consortium in partnership with Manitoba Education and Training, oered 21 English
courses for grades 9-12 students.
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 17
During the 2017-18 school year, there were 428 course enrolments from 21 dierent schools from eight
dierent rural or northern school divisions/groups.
Finally, the WBC Option provided access to 44 courses in English and 4 courses in French. During the
2017-18 school year, there were approximately 4,000 users, including at estimated 3,000 students, in
this option.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/mb/
Alberta
Manitoba
2.8 Saskatchewan (SK)
Population: 1,171,240
Number of K-12 Schools: 747
Number of K-12 Students: 182,173
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 15
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: ~14,000
e-Learning Updates
While the delivery of distance education, online learning, and blended learning in the province
continues to be guided by the Saskatchewan Technology in Education Framework (TEF), the Ministry
is developing a policy for in-province distance learning, including provincial denitions for distance
education, online learning, and blended learning. The Ministry will seek input from sector partners
before nalizing the policy.
The Ministry gathers data for students taking online distance education courses that count towards
completion of a secondary diploma at the 10, 20, 30 levels (i.e., grades 10 to 12). During the 2017-18
school year, there were 13,305 course enrolments involving 7,738 unique secondary-level students
with 8,698 credits earned. Based on the most recent responses to the annual Individual Program Survey,
13 of the 15 e-learning programs collectively reported approximately 11,500 students engaged in
some form of distance and/or online learning, and based on ve responses to that survey at least 2,900
students were engaged in some form of blended learning.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/sk/
18 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
Alberta
Manitoba
2.9 Alberta (AB)
Population: 4,286,134
Number of K-12 Schools: 2,388
Number of K-12 Students: 719,889
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 32
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: *80,359
* enrolments, not students
e-Learning Updates
There have been no regulatory changes in the province of Alberta.
Based on the information in the provincial tracking system, during the 2017-18 school year there were
372 schools that indicated on their operational forms that they had students enrolled in an online
program. Additionally, 55 schools used the virtual course enrolment code, 13 schools used the print-
based distance education course enrolment code, and 69 schools used the online learning student
enrolment code. Overall, there were a total of 11,897 students coded as online learning, as well as 8,634
print-based distance education course enrolments and 71,725 virtual course enrolments for the 2016-
17 school year.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/ab/
Moodle HUB Consortium
The grassroots Moodle HUB consortium continues to operate as a sharing platform for Moodle-based
courses in the province and as a growing group of educators supporting course sharing within Alberta,
British Columbia, and Saskatchewan. While lacking any formal leadership, the group sharing often goes
beyond that of the specic learning management system to include sharing of online pedagogies. Read
more at https://k12sotn.ca/ab/alberta-moodle-hub-group/. Members of the group are also becoming
involved with the newly-formed Western Canadian Learning Network (see
https://k12sotn.ca/bc/
collaboration-at-the-forefront-of-the-western-canadian-learning-network-society/
for a description of
this emerging consortium).
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 19
Alberta
Manitoba
2.10 British Columbia (BC)
Population: 4,683,139
Number of K-12 Schools: 1930
Number of K-12 Students: 635,037
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 74
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: ~75,000
e-Learning Updates
There have been no regulatory changes in the province of BC, although the province launched a formal
review of distributed learning (distance education) in the province. The authors of this report were
invited to contribute the review, which has yet to be published as of publication of this print report.
In 2017-18 there were 58 district-level public distributed learning schools and 16 independent
distributed learning schools that enrolled approximately 65,556 unique students in one or more
courses. As part of the distributed learning review, the Ministry’s survey to all 74 distributed learning
schools in the province determined that 39 of the 58 public distributed learning schools and 13 of
the 16 independent distributed learning schools oered some form of blended learning. Additionally,
based on recent responses to the annual Individual Program Survey, enrolment in these blended
learning programs was approximately 9,500 students for the 2017-18 school year.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/bc/
Western Canadian Learning Network
The Western Canadian Learning Network, a consortium of over 50 school districts and divisions
providing 70 textbook-less online courses for use by distributed learning schools in British Columbia,
Alberta, the Yukon, and now Saskatchewan. This expanded mandate grew out of its founding British
Columbia Learning Network group base, and the western Canadian consortium is engaging in not
only content development specic to British Columbia and Alberta new curriculum, but creating online
content and digital resources and brokering licenses to support technology-based learning for all
environments. See https://k12sotn.ca/bc/collaboration-at-the-forefront-of-the-western-canadian-
learning-network-society/ for a description of this emerging consortium.
20 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
Northwest
Territories
2.11 Yukon (YT)
Population: 38,459
Number of K-12 Schools: 33
Number of K-12 Students: 5,662
Number of K-12 Distance Education Programs: 2
Number of K-12 Distance Education Students: 1043
e-Learning Updates
While there have been no regulatory changes in the territory, Yukon Education continues to support
territorial-based online and blended learning programs and is engaged in several memorandums of
understanding with distance learning providers in other jurisdictions.
Aurora Virtual School is the only online school in the territory and during the 2017-18 school year, the
school enrolled 87 students in one or more of the 35 online courses it oered. In addition, the Yukon
still accesses programming from four distance learning schools in British Columbia for either in single
courses or for full-time studies. During the 2017-18 school year, these four schools delivered courses to
49 students. Finally, Yukon Education uses the data from the Moodle learning management system to
formally track the number of students who are enrolled in at least one blended learning course. During
the 2017-18 school year, there were 907 students from 18 of the territory’s 30 schools involved in K-12
blended learning. This gure represents 28% of Yukon’s grade 5-12 student population.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/yk/
Aurora Virtual School
A brief description of the 5-year-old Aurora Virtual School (AVS) program can be found online at
https://k12sotn.ca/yk/a-fraser-aurora-virtual-school-teacher/. AVS has succeeded in providing course
options to rural and remote secondary school learners using both synchronous and asynchronous
methods. This success has led to the launch of a K-7 program for the next school year.
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 21
2.12 Northwest Territories (NT)
Population: 44,381
Number of K-12 Schools: 49
Number of K-12 Students: 8,449
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 1
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: ~193
e-Learning Updates
While there have been no changes in the regulatory framework, the Northwest Territories is halfway
through implementing a renewal of its system of education through a process called Education
Renewal and Innovation (ERI). One commitment under ERI is to improve the learning experience
of students in its smallest communities, regardless of geographical location and the territorial
government has made the development of and support for building its internal distance learning
capacity a priority.
As part of this initiative, the Department of Education, Culture and Employment has partnered with
the Beaufort Delta Education Council to expand the Northern Distance Learning program to small
community high schools. Students in eight schools access their course material online and during the
2017-18 school year 52 students were enrolled in NDL. The Department also reported approximately
100 students engaged in blended learning during the 2017-18 school year. In addition, there were
approximately 41 students enrolled in distance learning courses oered through the Alberta Distance
Learning Centre during the 2017-18 school year.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/nt/
Northern Distance Learning Program
A prole of the ERI’s Northern Distance Learning (NDL) program for small community high schools can
be found at https://k12sotn.ca/nt/nwt-northern-distance-learning-program/. The vignette provides
an overview of its formation and expansion, with projections of expansion to eleven schools in over half
of the boards of education in the Northwest Territories, and hopes that the program will be available in
all 20 high schools by the 2020-2021 school year.
22 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
Northwest
Territories
2.13 Nunavut (NV)
Population: 35,944
Number of K-12 Schools: 44
Number of K-12 Students: 10,107
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 0
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: ~40
e-Learning Updates
There were no changes in the regulatory framework for Nunavut. The Department of Education tracks
student enrolment information through its agreements with distance learning providers and the
Alberta Distance Learning Centre (ADLC) grants the Department access to their online tracking site to
verify students’ nal marks.
During the 2017-18 school year, there were 24 students enrolled in courses oered by the ADLC.
Additionally, an unknown number of students attending twelve schools in seven communities access
some programming delivered through Contact North (i.e., an Ontario-based program that oers
academic and trade-based courses).
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/nv/
2.14 Federal
Population: 1,400,685
Number of K-12 Schools: 564
Number of K-12 Students: ~107,000
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: 5
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: 1,663
e-Learning Updates
There were no changes in the regulatory framework for federal e-learning programs. Based on the FN
nominal role, the federal government estimates that there were 1,042 students registered for distance
education, 63 students registered for home schooled (online sourced); and 26 students registered for
virtual (Internet) courses. In addition, 201 students were registered for blended classroom and distance
education, and 331 students registered for blended classroom and virtual (Internet) courses.
The full provincial prole can be found at https://k12sotn.ca/fnmi/
State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada 23
3. References
Canadian Teachers Federation. (2000). Facts sheets on contractual issues in distance/online education.
Ottawa, ON: Author.
Government of British Columbia. (2014). Distributed learning – Independent schools. Victoria, BC: Author.
Retrieved from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/administration/
legislation-policy/independent-schools/distributed-learning-independent-schools
Government of British Columbia. (2017). Distributed learning – General. Victoria, BC: Author.
Retrieved from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/administration/
legislation-policy/public-schools/distributed-learning-general
Government of Nova Scotia. (2017). Agreement between the Minister of Education and Early Childhood
Development of the Province of Nova Scotia and the Nova Scotia Teachers Union. Halifax, NS: Author.
Retrieved from https://www.nstu.ca/data/negotiationsprov/TPA-Amended%20by%20Bill%20
75%20Final%20Revised.pdf
24 State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
4. Call for Sponsors
2019 State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in Canada Study
Canadian eLearning Network (CANeLearn) is seeking funding for the 2019 K-12 e-learning study of
Canada. If your organization is interested in participating through sponsorship by supporting the tenth
anniversary edition of the State of the Nation Study: K-12 E-Learning in Canada, please contact Michael
Barbour, principal investigator at mkbarbour@gmail.com, or Randy LaBonte, Chief Executive Ocer of
CANeLearn at rlabonte@CANeLearn.net.
Your participation as a sponsor helps support more widespread participation from online and blended
programs across the country in the K-12 e-learning in Canada project and is an ideal opportunity
to demonstrate your organization’s interest in and commitment to supporting online and blended
learning. Your company or organization will be recognized for its support of virtual schools seeking to
eectively expand educational options for K-12 students across Canada.
CANeLearn is a new Canadian registered not-for-prot society. CANeLearn’s mission is to provide
leadership that champions student success by supporting organizations and educators involved in
online and blended learning through networking, collaboration and research opportunities.
Please review the sponsor benets and opportunities for the State of the Nation: K-12 E-Learning in
Canada study:
Recognition in all post-study press releases, presentations and distribution of information;
Opportunity to provide input into the program survey;
Participate in project conference calls;
Project sponsor name and logo listed on all promotional materials;
Project sponsor name and logo listed on the nal report;
Receive hard copies of the nal report;
Receive Executive Summary of the nal report for use on company website and for marketing
purposes;
Receive recognition as a thought leader for cutting-edge research of K-12 e-learning in Canada
for sponsoring the research study; and
Sponsor recognition during CANeLearn events highlighting the study.
The plans for the 2019 study include an updating of the K-12 policy and activity reports for each of the
provinces. Also, the 2019 study will feature the more detailed format that includes brief issue papers
and vignettes from a variety of K-12 e-learning programs across the dierent province and territories,
along with the continued updating of the individual program survey response. Finally, there will be
a greater development of the new online version of the report – particularly the French language
portion of the website.
For-prot and non-prot institutions, organizations, individuals, foundations and companies are
welcome to partner with CANeLearn for sponsoring the study. Please consider sponsorship of this
important survey and report to be conducted annually. Your consideration is deeply appreciated.
Published by
... For students in K-12 education, this sudden transition is problematic as they often lack prior online learning experience (Barbour & Reeves, 2009). Barbour and LaBonte (2017) estimated that even in countries where online learning is growing rapidly, like the USA and Canada, less than 10 percent of the K-12 student population had prior experience with this format. Maladaptation to online learning could expose inexperienced students to various vulnerabilities, including decrements in academic performance (Miron & Gulosino, 2016;Molnar et al., 2017;Molnar et al., 2019), feeling of isolation (Hrastinski, 2008;Song, Singleton, Hill, & Koh, 2004), and lack of learning motivation (Muilenburg & Berge, 2005;Song et al., 2004). ...
... Likewise, Niemi et al. (2020) also find that students in a Finish high school experienced increased amounts of technical problems during the examination period, which involved additional technical applications. These findings are concerning as young children and adolescent in primary and lower secondary school could be more vulnerable to these technical problems as they are less experienced with the technologies in online learning (Barbour & LaBonte, 2017). Therefore, it is essential to investigate the learning conditions and the related difficulties experienced by students in K-12 education as the extend of effects on them remain underexplored. ...
... It is likely that the infrastructures of online learning in China, such as learning platforms, instructional designs, and teachers' knowledge about online pedagogy, were underprepared for the sudden transition. Thus, our findings may not represent the experience of students who voluntarily participated in well-prepared online learning programs, in particular, the virtual school programs in America and Canada (Molnar et al., 2019;Barbour & LaBonte, 2017). Lastly, the survey was only evaluated and validated by teachers but not students. ...
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Online learning is currently adopted by educational institutions worldwide to provide students with ongoing education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Even though online learning research has been advancing in uncovering student experiences in various settings (i.e., tertiary, adult, and professional education), very little progress has been achieved in understanding the experience of the K-12 student population, especially when narrowed down to different school-year segments (i.e., primary and secondary school students). This study explores how students at different stages of their K-12 education reacted to the mandatory full-time online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, we conducted a province-wide survey study in which the online learning experience of 1,170,769 Chinese students was collected from the Guangdong Province of China. We performed cross-tabulation and Chi-square analysis to compare students' online learning conditions, experiences, and expectations. Results from this survey study provide evidence that students' online learning experiences are significantly different across school years. Foremost, policy implications were made to advise government authorises and schools on improving the delivery of online learning, and potential directions were identified for future research into K-12 online learning.
... The proposed change that CANeLearn had been queried about was whether a centralized model of elearning is more effective than a decentralized model. As outlined by the State of the Nation: K-12 e-Learning in Canada annual reports (Barbour, 2009(Barbour, , 2010(Barbour, , 2011(Barbour, , 2012(Barbour, , 2013Barbour & LaBonte, 2014Barbour & Stewart, 2008), there are a variety of organizational models that are used across Canada. Less populated jurisdictions tend to utilize a centralized model of e-learning (e.g., Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Northwest Territories, and the Yukon) -often operated directly by the Ministry of Education or by a body designated by the Ministry of Education to have a provincial/territorial scope. ...
... given the nature of the current system. According to the annual State of the Nation: K-12 e-Learning in Canada reports (Barbour, 2009(Barbour, , 2010(Barbour, , 2011(Barbour, , 2012(Barbour, , 2013Barbour & LaBonte, 2014Barbour & Stewart, 2008), across Canada the less populated jurisdictions tend to utilize a centralized model of e-learning, with most of the other jurisdictions have a more decentralized model. While the research is limited, however, there appears to be little difference in student outcomes based on whether the provincial/territorial model of e-learning is centralized or decentralized -as both appear to achieve outcomes comparable to face-to-face contexts. ...
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Barbour, M. K., & LaBonte, R. (2019). Sense of irony or perfect timing: Examining the research supporting proposed e-learning changes in Ontario. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 34(2). Retrieved from http://www.ijede.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/1137 Abstract: Only weeks before the 2019 annual meeting of the American Education Research Association (AERA) was held in Toronto, Ontario, the provincial government announced a major reform of education for that province entitled Education that Works for You-Modernizing Classrooms. From an e-learning perspective the proposal called for a centralization of e-learning, a graduation requirement of four e-learning courses, and increasing the class size limit for e-learning courses to 35 students. The AERA call for submissions for the 2020 meeting issued a challenge for scholars to 'connect with organizational leaders to examine collaboratively continuing educational problems... [and] programmatically engaging with educational organizations.' This article accepts that challenge and describes a collaboration between scholars and a pan-Canadian organization to examine the research behind each of these proposed e-learning changes. Based on that collaboration, the authors explore the existing system of e-learning in Ontario and highlight the concerning lack of details in many aspects of the proposal, as well as a lack of research to support the proposed actions. Keywords: K-12 online learning, K-12 e-learning, K-12 blended learning, Ontario Résumé : Quelques semaines seulement avant la tenue de l'assemblée annuelle 2019 de l'American Education Research Association (AERA) à Toronto, en Ontario, le gouvernement provincial a annoncé une importante réforme de l'éducation pour cette province intitulée « L'éducation qui marche pour vous-Moderniser les classes ». Du point de vue de l'apprentissage en ligne, la proposition préconisait la centralisation de l'apprentissage en ligne, l'obligation d'obtenir un diplôme pour quatre cours d'apprentissage en ligne et l'augmentation de la taille maximale des classes pour les cours d'apprentissage en ligne à 35 étudiants. L'appel à soumissions de l'AERA pour la rencontre de 2020 a lancé aux chercheurs le défi de " se connecter avec les leaders organisationnels pour examiner de manière collaborative les problèmes éducatifs continus.... et] s'engager de manière programmatique avec les organisations éducatives. Le présent article relève ce défi et décrit une collaboration entre des chercheurs et un organisme pancanadien pour examiner la recherche qui sous-tend chacun des changements proposés concernant l'apprentissage en ligne. En se fondant sur cette collaboration, les auteurs explorent le système actuel d'apprentissage en ligne en Ontario et soulignent le manque de détails concernant de nombreux aspects de la proposition, ainsi que le manque de recherche sous-tendant les mesures proposées. Mots-clés : surveillance en ligne, apprentissage, test d'anxiété, inquiétude, émotivité Available online at http://www.ijede.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/1137
... It is important to understand these multiple roles, particularly in the supplemental elearning environment, because they are built into the model of e-learning that is current mandated in Ontario. The current model of e-learning in Ontario was described by Barbour and Labonte (2017) as: ...
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In March 2019, the Government of Ontario unveiled its vision for education through a policy entitled Education that Works for You – Modernizing Classrooms. From an e-learning perspective, the proposed policy called for a centralization of e-learning courses and a graduation requirement that students take a minimum of four e-learning courses beginning with the 2020-21 school year. Either as a part of, in conjunction with, or simply at the same time, the Government also engaged in a public consultation around class sizes that would increase the class size limit for face-to-face courses to 28 students and increase the limit for e-learning courses to 35 students. The goal of this report is to examine the literature related to e-learning class size in Canada and internationally. However, before any examination of the literature related to class size, it is important to understand the different roles that educators play – and the different types of educators involved – in the e-learning environment. While in the traditional classroom environment a single teacher may select or design the materials used, deliver the actual instruction in a variety of ways, and support the student as they engage the lesson; in the e-learning environment the research clearly indicates that these roles are performed by multiple educators in different settings. Based on the model of e-learning utilized in Ontario, the two most defined roles are those of the e-learning teacher and the local school based facilitator or mentor. The e-learning teacher being responsible for determining the best pedagogical strategies, methods of assessment, and way to meaningful communicate with their students; while the local facilitator or mentor is responsible for supervisory and administrative duties, technical troubleshooting, and – in some cases – content-based assistance. The available literature related to e-learning class size demonstrates there has been a historical expectation in Ontario that the class size limit for e-learning courses was the same as the class size limit for face-to-face courses. The literature further demonstrates that across several provinces the class size limit for e-learning courses has ranged from a low of 22 students to a high of 30 students per course. In both Canadian and American jurisdictions where there has been a significant increase in the e-learning class size, student outcomes have also decreased significantly – particularly in full-time e-learning environments. Finally, the literature demonstrates the local facilitator/mentor role must be included in any conversation around class size because that teacher has a significant impact on class size and, more importantly, student success. The present e-learning model in Ontario clearly describes the importance of the supporting roles of teachers in school settings where students are taking e-learning courses. If teachers at the school level provide substantial levels of support in a wide range of areas, an e-learning class size could be higher than a traditional brick-and-mortar class in that context because there would be two educators that have instructional responsibility for those students. The larger question looming for the implementation of a drastic increase in e-learning in secondary schools in Ontario is how the present supports, which the research indicates are essential for e-learning success, will be scaled for the unprecedented increase of e-learning courses in the province.
... The use of online learning in K-12 education has expanded significantly throughout the United States and internationally (Barbour & LaBonte, 2017;Barbour, Brown, Hasler Waters, Hoey, Hunt, Kennedy, Ounsworth, Powell, & Trimm, 2011;Gemin, Pape, Vashaw, & Watson, 2015;LaBonte & Barbour, 2018). Recent estimates indicate that anywhere from two to six million U.S. K-12 students are engaged in some form of online or blended learning (Ambient Insights, 2012; Barbour, 2017;Gemin & Pape, 2017;Wicks, 2010). ...
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State-level departments of education vary in their mechanisms for monitoring online courses and programs. This study reviewed various state models for initial and ongoing evaluation of online courses. Five constructs were identified through this review, and examples from Georgia, Maryland, California, Washington, and Colorado were detailed. The report concludes with potential models and key guidelines for states to consider when developing policy to ensure quality online education for K-12 students. Full citation: Barbour, M. K., Clark, T., Siko, J. P., DeBruler, K., & Bruno, J. A. (2019). Evaluation and approval constructs for online and blended courses and providers: Examining individual cases. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 22(1). Retrieved from https://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring221/barbour_clark_siko_debruler_bruno221.html Article available online at https://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/spring221/barbour_clark_siko_debruler_bruno221.html
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The purpose of this study is to determine how learners feel about distance learning as a substitute for face-to-face learning. A nationwide survey of over 11,000 students was conducted during the covid-19 outbreak to evaluate how students in grades 8–12 responded to and viewed full-time e-learning practices. Two-thirds of students had negative attitudes toward e-learning, according to the findings of the survey in the five selected issues of effectiveness, ease of use, interactivity, motivation, and academic assessment of the e-learning platform. Regardless of the students’ age, gender, grade, branch, or technology used, they all had a negative opinion regarding e-learning. In addition to technological issues, the majority of students cited psychological and social factors as reasons for their negative attitudes toward e-learning, such as a lack of readiness and ability to adapt to a new style of education, ineffectiveness of the means and methods used, and poor communication with teachers and other classmate learners. On the practical side, the study’s findings point to the necessity to adapt the teaching style via the electronic platform to be more acceptable to students, particularly in terms of engagement and providing a stimulating learning environment.
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This article introduces and discusses the findings of the Canada School Choice Policy Index (CSCPI). This is the first index of its kind that measures the development of school choice policies across the Canadian provinces from 1980 to 2020 using eight unique indicators of choice. In contrast to other countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the CSCPI reveals that although Canada has witnessed an increase in school choice over time, this increase has largely been contained within public education systems rather than in the expansion of private education options. Our findings raise the importance of future research to address growing choice in public education systems across the provinces, in addition to choice in the private sphere.
Technical Report
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Funding and Resourcing of Distributed Learning Executive Summary In Fall 2017, the Government of British Columbia (2017) began a review of the model that it uses to fund K-12 education. In the press release announcing the members of the review panel, the Government (2018a) described the goal of the review was “to find a better way to provide equitable and predictable funding to boards of education” (¶ 5). As a part of this review, the government panel released a discussion paper that stated, among other things, that there was “an artificial division in the current model between ‘bricks-and-mortar’ and distributed learning, which should not exist” (Government of British Columbia, 2018d, p. 3). The purpose of this brief is to examine the nature of distributed learning funding in British Columbia and how that compares to other jurisdictions in Canada and the United States. This brief begins with an overview of the existing funding model in British Columbia with respect to distributed learning. This is followed by a description of how distributed learning is funded and resourced in other Canadian jurisdictions. The brief concludes with an exploration of the research literature related to funding distributed learning, most of which focuses on contexts in the United States. This brief outlines how distributed learning funding models across Canada generally fall into one of three models. First, the government directly funds and/or resources distributed learning opportunities. Second, individual distributed learning programs charge a fee for students who enroll on a per course basis (often paid for by the school or school district). Third, the government provides direct funding for the distributed learning program through FTEs/CEUs. Interestingly, those Canadian jurisdictions that did fund distributed learning through FTEs/CEUs provided less funding for distributed learning enrollments compared to traditional brick-and-mortar enrollments. The larger body of literature indicates that the American context generally follows the second for supplemental program and the third model for full-time programs. However, it is important to understand the role of private enterprise in public education with respect to distributed learning in the United States, and the impact this has on the funding of full-time distributed learning programs. There is also the issue of whether the government has the obligation to provide the same funding for public education regardless of the modality that education is delivered. As Ministries of Education across Canada review and revise funding models in their jurisdictions, issues of equity and access to effective learning options must be considered. Funding is a critical driver for educational practice. The research community would serve students and schools well to keep funding models for K-12 education in the forefront of their work. Available online at https://k12sotn.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/DL-Funding-Report.pdf
Facts sheets on contractual issues in distance/online education. Ottawa, ON: Author. Government of British Columbia
Canadian Teachers Federation. (2000). Facts sheets on contractual issues in distance/online education. Ottawa, ON: Author. Government of British Columbia. (2014). Distributed learning-Independent schools. Victoria, BC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/administration/ legislation-policy/independent-schools/distributed-learning-independent-schools Government of British Columbia. (2017). Distributed learning-General. Victoria, BC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/administration/ legislation-policy/public-schools/distributed-learning-general
Agreement between the Minister of Education and Early Childhood Development of the Province of Nova Scotia and the Nova Scotia Teachers Union
Canadian Teachers Federation. (2000). Facts sheets on contractual issues in distance/online education. Ottawa, ON: Author. Government of British Columbia. (2014). Distributed learning -Independent schools. Victoria, BC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/administration/ legislation-policy/independent-schools/distributed-learning-independent-schools Government of British Columbia. (2017). Distributed learning -General. Victoria, BC: Author. Retrieved from https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/education-training/administration/ legislation-policy/public-schools/distributed-learning-general Government of Nova Scotia. (2017). Agreement between the Minister of Education and Early Childhood Development of the Province of Nova Scotia and the Nova Scotia Teachers Union. Halifax, NS: Author. Retrieved from https://www.nstu.ca/data/negotiationsprov/TPA-Amended%20by%20Bill%20 75%20Final%20Revised.pdf