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Spatially-explicit mapping of forest benefits and analysis of motivations for everyday-life's visitors on forest pathways in urban and rural contexts

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Research on recreation in forests often aims at quantifying the recreational area, counting the numbers of visitors , or assessing the attractiveness of forest characteristics. The nature and spatial patterns of local recreation within a forest area are far harder to detect. Recreational behavior and perceived forest benefits (FB) such as fresh air or tranquility are weakly studied. We investigated local recreation in an urban and a rural forest in southern Germany during a summer and a winter survey. We mapped the visitors' paths and asked them to rate FB and reasons for pathway choice. We analyzed visitors' patterns of perceived FB and spatial behavior. Forest visitors concentrated their use along existing paths in limited parts of both forests. Most parts of the forest were used by multiple recreation groups, while specific groups (e.g., cyclists) dominated only small parts. Forest visitors gave high ratings to FB such as fresh air, experiencing nature, escaping everyday life, or health. Spatial clusters of similarly perceived FB were detectable but not fundamental in both forests. A regression analysis showed that FB ratings were significantly affected by visitor groups and insignificantly affected by forest characteristics or demographic factors. Pathway choice was dominantly driven by habit, spontaneity, or vicinity to the visitors' homes and not attributable to specific forest characteristics. We found a weak connection between recreational behavior and demand for FB. For local recreation, we recommend to provide a basic level of highly rated FB and to avoid nuisances than designing forests for a desired appearance.
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;L?;M NI ;H;FST? >LCP?LM ;H> # =;FF?> MI=C;F P;FO?M CH NB?CL MNO>S
&H ;>>CNCIH NI ; H??> @IL BCAB?L MJ;NC;F L?MIFONCIH @IL ;L?;M F;LA?L
NB;H J;LEM IL @IL?MN ?HNCNC?M L?=L?;NCIH;F OM? ;H> >?G;H> MBIOF> <?
>CMNCHAOCMB?> <S PCMCNIL ALIOJM 1B? P;LC;NCIH CH JL?@?L?H=?M <S PCMC
NIL ALIOJM C@ HIN ;>>L?MM?> G;S F?;> NI CHN?L@?L?H=?M <?NQ??H PCMCNIL
ALIOJM >O? NI CH@L;MNLO=NOL? >?e=C?H=C?M IL GCMOM? @IL?MN GCMG;H
;A?G?HN IL MI=C;F CMMO?M *;HH <MB?L  1B?L?@IL? MIG? MNO>
C?M >C@@?L?HNC;N? <?NQ??H PCMCNIL ALIOJM NI ;MM?MM L?=L?;NCIH;F J;NN?LHM
?A )OJJ ?N ;F  1BCM ;JJLI;=B ;FFIQ?> L?M?;L=B?LM NI ;MM?MM
JIN?HNC;F =IHfC=NM <?NQ??H PCMCNIL ALIOJM ?A =LIQ>CHA LH<?LA?L
L;H>?H<OLA  ;H> NI ;>>L?MM MJ?=Ce= JL?@?L?H=?M I@ PCMC
NIL ALIOJM 3CMCNIL ALIOJM B;P? P;LSCHA JL?@?L?H=?M @IL MCN? =IH>CNCIHM
IL NB? NL;P?F >CMN;H=? NI NB? L?=L?;NCIH;F MCN? 0C?PXH?H LH<?LA?L
0bH>?LA;;L> !?B?T '?HM?H  ?SIH> NB? =IGJ;LCMIH <?NQ??H
PCMCNIL ALIOJM LH<?LA?L ?N ;F  JLIJIM? NI CHP?MNCA;N? <?NQ??H
OL<;H ;H> LOL;F ;L?;M /;=?PMECM ;H> )OJC  =IH=FO>? NB;N @IL?MN
PCMCNILM CH OL<;H ;L?;M JLCILCNCT? J?LMIH;F <?H?eNM C? @IL?MNM MBIOF>
G??N CH>CPC>O;F H??>M QB?L?;M @IL?MN PCMCNILM CH LOL;F ;L?;M JLCILCNCT?
=IGGOHCNS <?H?eNM #IL ?R;GJF? LOL;F @IL?MN PCMCNILM OH>?LMN;H> NB?
H??> NI <;F;H=? QII> JLI>O=NCIH ;H> H;NOL? JLIN?=NCIH CH =IHNL;MN NI
PCMCNILM CH OL<;H @IL?MNM QBI P;FO? JL?>IGCH;N?FS H;NOL? JLIN?=NCIH
0=?HC= <?;ONS CM ;FMI GIL? CGJILN;HN @IL LOL;F @IL?MN PCMCNILM
/?A;L>CHA NB? >LCP?LM I@ J?L=?CP?> # >?GIAL;JBC= @;=NILM ;M Q?FF
;M PCMCNIL ALIOJMJL?@?L?H=?M ;H> @IL?MN MNLO=NOL? G;S ;@@?=N L?=L?
;NCIH;F OM? ?A JBSMC=;F CHN?L;=NCIH M=?HC= <?;ONS ;H> >?G;H> @IL
INB?L "00 ;M ; <;MCM @IL # LH<?LA?L  %?A?NM=BQ?CF?L -FOG
?N ;F  (C?H;MN !?A?HB;L>N 4?CF?HG;HH 4XA?L O=B?=E?L
 -FC?HCHA?L !CDEM ,N?LIM/IT;M C?FCHA  1B? JL?>IG
CH;HN @I=OM IH @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M CH NB? H;G?> MNO>C?M >CML?A;L>M
INB?L JIN?HNC;F >LCP?LM I@ @IL?MN L?=L?;NCIH <;F;H=?> =IHMC>?L;NCIH
GOMN CH=FO>? @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M ;H> PCMCNIL >?GIAL;JBC=M ;M Q?FF ;M
GINCP;NCIH;F @;=NILM MOLP?S QCNB IJ?H KO?MNCIHM ;<ION >LCP?LM ;H>
GINCP;NCIHM @IL L?=L?;NCIH;F OM? QIOF> <? ;H IJNCIH NI ;>>L?MM NBCM CM
MO? ?A 1SLPXCH?H ?N ;F  1?GJIL;F @;=NILM GCABN ?KO;FFS ;@
@?=N L?=L?;NCIH;F J;NN?LHM ;H> # %IQ?P?L GIMN ?RCMNCHA MNO>C?M ?A
$OH>?LM?H ;H> #LCPIF>  ;H> "LCEMMIH ;H> +IL>FOH>  ;M
M?MM L?=L?;NCIH;F JL?@?L?H=?M @IL IHFS IH? M?;MIH /?=?HN MNO>C?M ;H;
FST? M?;MIH;F >C@@?L?H=?M CH 0=;H>CH;PC; CH ;L?;M >IGCH;N?> <S =IHC@
?LIOM NL??M ;H> MHIQ =IP?L CH QCHN?L 0IHHN;AVMNL]G ?N ;F 
1SLPXCH?H 0CFP?HHICH?H %;FFCE;CH?H  1SLPXCH?H ?N ;F 
C>?HNC@S G;NOL? ;H> IF>?L =IHC@?LIOM MN;H>M ;M JL?@?L;<F? <INB CH MOG
G?L ;H> QCHN?L 5IOHA?L MN;H>M B;P? ; BCAB?L JL?@?L?H=? CH QCHN?L
>O? NI CH=L?;M?> MHIQ =IP?L;A? I@ @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN CGJ;=NM !O? NI
>C@@?L?HN @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN ;JJLI;=B?M M?;MIH;F =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M ?A
MHIQ =IP?L ;H> @IL?MN NSJ?M >C@@?L?HN M?;MIH;F ?@@?=NM <?NQ??H MOG
G?L ;H> QCHN?L ;L? FCE?FS CH N?GJ?L;N? L?ACIHM MO=B ;M ?HNL;F "OLIJ?
%?A?NM=BQ?CF?L -FOG ?N ;F  ?RJ?=N ;H CGJ;=N I@ QCHN?LIH PC
MO;F ;NNL;=NCP?H?MM QB?L?;M MJLCHA ;H> ;ONOGH B;P? HIN MBIQH ; >C@@?L
?H=? MI @;L
&H IOL MNO>S Q? ;>>L?MM NBL?? G;CH ;CGM @I=OMCHA IH L?=L?;NCIH;F
OM? >?G;H> @;=NILM ;H> IHMCN? >LCP?LM I@ J?L=?CP?> # CH ;H OL<;H ;H>
; LOL;F @IL?MN C Q? KO;HNCN;NCP?FS G;J ;H> ;H;FST? MJ;NC;F J;NN?LHM I@
L?=L?;NCIH;F OM? CC 4? KO;FCN;NCP?FS ?R;GCH? >?G;H>M I@ @IL?MN PCMC
NILM =IH=?LHCHA J?L=?CP?> ;H> P;FO?> # ;H> ?P;FO;N? MJ;NC;F J;NN?LHM
CCC 4? ;H;FST? >LCP?LM I@ J?L=?CP?> # ;H> NB?CL CHfO?H=? IH J;NBQ;S
=BIC=?
UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
2. Methods
 9:*> '7+'
1B? MNO>S ;L?; =IHMCMNM I@ NB? OL<;H @IL?MN I@ OAM<OLA ;H> NB? LOL;F
LOAA?L@IL?MN FI=;N?> ;JJLIRCG;N?FS  EG ?;MN I@ NB? =CNS I@ OAM
<OLA CH NB? $?LG;H #?>?L;F 0N;N? I@ ;P;LC; #CA  1B? OL<;H @IL
?MN ;L?; G?;MOL?M ;JJLIRCG;N?FS B;  CNS I@ OAM<OLA  &N
CM QCNBCH NB? <IOH>;LC?M I@ NB? =CNS I@ OAM<OLA  CHB;<CN;HNM
 )@0N;N 
1B? LOL;F @IL?MN ;GIOHNM NI ;JJLIRCG;N?FS  B; 1B? MO<=IHNC
H?HN;F =FCG;N? B;M ;H ;P?L;A? N?GJ?L;NOL? I@  _ ;H> ;H ;P?L;A?
JL?=CJCN;NCIH I@  GG  1B? OL<;H @IL?MN CM MCNO;N?> IH
;H ;FFOPC;F fII>JF;CH QBCF? NB? LOL;F @IL?MN CM IH BCFFS N?LL;CH IG
J;L?> NI JIN?HNC;F H;NOL;F P?A?N;NCIH 4;F?HNIQMEC "Q;F> #CM=B?L
(]FFCHA 1^LE  @IL?MN NL?? =IGJIMCNCIH B;M <??H ;FN?L?> &H
NB? OL<;H @IL?MN ;L?; BCMNILC=;F >?@IL?MN;NCIHM )I>?L?L  ;H> ?G
<;HEG?HNM @IL fII> JLIN?=NCIH F?> NI  MJLO=? NL??M /)+' '(/+8
MJJ QBC=B GI>Ce?> NB? ILCACH;F LCJ;LC;H NL?? MJ?=C?M =IGJIMCNCIH
1B? LOL;F @IL?MN ;L?; CM >IGCH;N?> <S MJLO=? /)+' '(/+8 MJJ QCNB ;
 MB;L? I@ NB? H;NOL;FFS >IGCH;HN <??=B '-:8 8>1;'9/)' &H <INB
;L?;M @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN ;CGM ;N GCR?> MJ?=C?M MNLO=NOL?> ;H> OH
?P?H;A?> @IL?MNM QCNB M?F?=NCP? B;LP?MNCHA #IL?MN LI;>M NIN;F  EG
 G B;h CH NB? OL<;H @IL?MN ;H>  EG  G B;h CH NB? LOL;F
@IL?MN 1B? OL<;H @IL?MN CM ;H IF> H;NOL? =IHM?LP;NCIH ;L?; ;H> CM
F;LA?FS ; >LCHECHA Q;N?L JLIN?=NCIH ;L?; 0=BL;O>S  1BCM @IL
G?L fII>JF;CH @IL?MN MBIQM ; GCRNOL? I@ @IL?MN NSJ?M CM =LIMM?> <S
G;HS =;H;FM ;H> CM @L;G?> IH NB? ?;MN?LH MC>? <S NB? LCP?L )?=B 0IG?
L;L? JCH?B?;NB ?=INIH?M QBC=B CH=FO>? M?P?L;F IL=BC>M ;L? FI=;N?> IH
JIIL M;H>S MICFM 1B? LOL;F @IL?MN CM MJLO=?>IGCH;N?> QCNB GIL? @;
PIL;<F? ALIQNB =IH>CNCIHM ;H> QCNBION L?G;LE;<F? Q;N?L <I>C?M 1B?L?
;L? HI =IHMNL;CHNM @IL H;NOL? =IHM?LP;NCIH IL >LCHECHA Q;N?L JLIN?=NCIH
1B?M? =IH>CNCIHM =IG<CH?> QCNB FIQ?L L?=L?;NCIH JL?MMOL? L?MOFN CH ;
MNLIHA @I=OM IH QII> JLI>O=NCIH ;H> ;MMI=C;N?> MOLJFOM A?H?L;NCIH &H
=IHNL;MN NB? OL<;H @IL?MN B;M ; FIQ?L N;LA?N?> ;HHO;F QII> B;LP?MN
0=BL;O>S -?CNTM=B  0=BL;O>S  &H =FIM? JLIRCGCNS  EG
<Og?L I@ <INB @IL?MNM FCP? ;JJLIRCG;N?FS  J?IJF? OL<;H @IL
?MN ;H>  J?IJF? LOL;F @IL?MN L?MJ?=NCP?FS 0N;NCMNCM=B? UGN?L >?M
OH>?M OH> >?L )XH>?L 
 :7;+> '3* *'9'
4? >?P?FIJ?> ; J;J?L<;M?> MOLP?S @IL <INB NB? LOL;F ;H> OL<;H @IL
?MN J;LNFS <;M?> IH %OHTCE?L ?N ;F  ;H> "FM;MM?L  INB
MNO>C?M CHP?MNCA;N? PCMCNILMJL?@?L?H=?M @IL L?=L?;NCIH 4? ;>;JN?> CN?GM
@IL # @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M ;H> MI=CI>?GIAL;JBC= @;=NILM &H =IH
NL;MN NI NB?CL ;JJLI;=B?M Q? G;JJ?> PCMCNIL J;NBQ;SM ;H> FCHE?> NB?G
NI NB? L;NCHA I@ >C@@?L?HN # 4? MNLO=NOL?> NB? MOLP?S CHNI @IOL G;
DIL M?=NCIHM #CLMN Q? ;ME?> NB? L?MJIH>?HNM @IL G;DIL =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M
I@ NB?CL L?=L?;NCIH;F <?B;PCIL ?A NB? >OL;NCIH I@ NB?CL PCMCN >?J?H>
CHA IH J?L=?CP?> Q?;NB?L =IH>CNCIHM ;H> IH NB? PCMCN;NCIH L;N? 0?=
IH> Q? ;ME?> NB? L?MJIH>?HNM NI C>?HNC@S ;H> L;N? #M 5+')+97'3
6:/1/9>,:3 '3* .'55/3+8885479)441/3-9/2+ </9. ,'2/1> '3* ,7/+3*8
.+'19.+8)'5+ ,742 +;+7>*'> 1/,++=5+7/+3)+ 3'9:7+,7+8. '/7*4- <'10
/3- IH ;H IL>CH;F eP?MN?J M=;F? HIN ;JJFC=;<F? L;NB?L HIN ;JJFC=;
<F? H?ONL;F L;NB?L ;JJFC=;<F? ;JJFC=;<F? 1B?M? #M Q?L? F;N?L =;N
?AILCT?> ;M L?AOF;NCHA "00 @L?MB ;CL =IIFCHA ?R?L=CM? >IA Q;FECHA
MJILN IL BOG;H Q?FF<?CHA @OH ;H> B;JJCH?MM ?RJ?LC?H=? H;NOL? ?M
=;J? ?P?LS>;S FC@? NCG? QCNB @;GCFS ;H> @LC?H>M J?;=? ;H> NL;HKOCF
CNS B?;FNB 1BCL> Q? ;ME?> J;LNC=CJ;HNM NI >L;Q NB?CL J;NB IH ; NIJI
AL;JBC= G;J QCNB ;H CHN?LPC?Q?L LH<?LA?L %CHN?L<?LA?L 
)OJJ ?N ;F  1B? CHN?LPC?Q?LM Q?L? >CMNLC<ON?> ;FIHA NB? G;CH
@IL?MN ;==?MM JICHNM NI G;E? NB? G;JJCHA GIL? MJ;NC;FFS L?JL?M?HN;NCP?
2MCHA IJ?H?H>?> KO?MNCIHM Q? ;FMI ;ME?> NB? J;LNC=CJ;HNM NI ?RJF;CH
NB?CL J;NBQ;S =BIC=? ?A JL?@?L?H=?M ;H> GINCP;NCIHM @IL ; MJ?=Ce=
J;NB ;NNL;=NCIH NI IL ;PIC>;H=? I@ >C@@?L?HN JF;=?M );MNFS Q? ;ME?>
NB? J;LNC=CJ;HNM QB?NB?L NB?S J?L=?CP?> >C@@?L?HN @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M
;FIHA NB?CL =BIM?H J;NBQ;S 1;<F?  1BCM KO?MNCIH Q;M >?MCAH?> NI
JLIPC>? CHMCABN ;<ION QB?NB?L @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M Q?L? ; >?N?LGCHCHA
@;=NIL @IL L?=L?;NCIH;F <?B;PCIL 4CNBION PCMCNIL ALIOJML?=IAHCNCIH I@
MJ?=Ce= =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN =IOF> JIN?HNC;FFS >CML?A;L>
MIG? G;H;A?G?HN IJNCIHM ;FIHA @IL?MN J;NBM QCNBION >CGCHCMBCHA NB?
L?=L?;NCIH;F ?RJ?LC?H=? 1;<F? MBIQM NB? G;CH =IHN?HNM I@ NB? KO?M
Fig. 1. 2L<;H @IL?MN =FIM? NI NB? =CNS I@ OAM<OLA ;H> LOL;F @IL?MN <?NQ??H OAM<OLA ;H> *OHC=B
UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
Table 1
-IN?HNC;F P;LC;<F?M ?RJF;CHCHA NB? P;LC;NCIH CH L;NCHAM I@ # NB? P;LC;<F?M ;L? HIGCH;F 7
8 IL>CH;F 7R8 IL =IHNCHOIOM OHCN CH>C=;N?>
&H>?J?H>?HNP;LC;<F? 2HCNM=;F?
2L<;H@IL?MN 78
/OL;F@IL?MN 78
47+89).'7')9+7/89/)8
IHC@?LIOMNL??M 7L;NCHA8
LI;>F?;@NL??M 7L;NCHA8
*;HS<L;E?M;H><OMB?M 7L;NCHA8
!?;>NL??M 7L;NCHA8
/CP?LQ;N?L=;H;FMF;E?M 7L;NCHA8
!;LE 7L;NCHA8
F?;LCHA 7L;NCHA8
OMB?M@IL?MN?>A? 7L;NCHA8
%CABNL??M@IL?MN?>A? 7L;NCHA8
!7'38547924*+
CE? 78
4;FECHA 78
-O<FC=NL;HMJILN 78
;L 78
#L?KO?H=SI@PCMCN 78
!/2+
!;SNCG? 7B8
4CHN?L 78
0OGG?L 78
4??E>;S 78
4??E?H> 78
#/8/9*:7'9/43
$II>Q?;NB?L 7GCH8
;>Q?;NB?L 7GCH8
4)/4*+24-7'5./)5'7'2+9+78
-?LMIHMCHBIOM?BIF> 7H8
A? 7;8
">O=;NCIH;=BC?P?G?HN 78
%IOM?BIF>CH=IG? 78
!CMN;H=?NIL?MC>?H=? 7EG8
#/8/947-74:5
#;GCFC?M 78
4;FE?LM 78
%CE?LM 78
!IAQ;FE?LM 78
'IAA?LM 78
+IL>C=Q;FE?LM 78
/C>?LM 78
S=FCMNM 78
*IOHN;CH<CE?LM 78
,NB?LM 78
NCIHH;CL? ;M Q?FF ;M NB? IJNCIHM @IL ;HMQ?LCHA =FIM??H>?> KO?MNCIHM
1B? L;NCHA M=;F? I@ @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M B;> NB? M;G? MN?JM ;M NB? #
CH>C=;N?> ;<IP?
4? =IH>O=N?> NB? CHN?LPC?QM CH 'OFS ;H> !?=?G<?L  ;H> CH ';H
O;LS  IH Q??E>;SM ;H> IH Q??E?H>M #IL?MN PCMCNILM Q?L? MOLP?S?>
>OLCHA NB? ?HNCL? >;S NI <?NN?L =;JNOL? NB? J?;EM I@ >;SNCG?>?J?H>?HN
@IL?MN OM? <S >C@@?L?HN ALIOJM ;M MBIQH <S LH<?LA?L  !OLCHA
NB? JF;HH?> MOLP?S J?LCI> Q? I<N;CH?>  =IGJF?N?> KO?MNCIHH;CL?M
QCHN?L  MOGG?L  OL<;H  LOL;F  @IL NB? J;L;G?N?LM CH
1;<F?  &H ;>>CNCIH NI NB? PCMCNILM Q? MOLP?S?> Q? =IOHN?> NB? HOG<?L
I@ PCMCNILM ?HN?LCHA ;N NB? L?MJ?=NCP? ;==?MM JICHNM 4? JF;=?> NB?G CHNI
NB? G;DIL =;N?AILC?M C>?HNCe?> <S )OJJ ?N ;F 
1I L?>O=? M;GJFCHA <C;M =;N?AILCT?> <S "FM;MM?L  Q? >?eH?>
G;DIL M;GJFCHA =LCN?LC; ;H> ;>;JN?> NB? MNO>S >?MCAH 4? G;RCGCT?>
NB? JLI<;<CFCNS I@ ; PCMCNIL ?H=IOHN?LCHA ;H CHN?LPC?Q?L <S MN;NCIHCHA
CHN?LPC?Q?LM ;N ;FF G;DIL @IL?MN ;==?MM JICHNM IH >C@@?L?HN >;SM I@ NB?
Q??E NCG? I@ >;S ;H> M?;MIHM ;M JLIJIM?> <S ?LH;NB "FM;MM?L ;H>
/IM=B?QCNT  ;H> <;M?> IH NB? L?=IGG?H>;NCIH I@ FI=;F @IL?MN?LM
1B? JLI<;<CFCNS I@ ;H CHN?LPC?Q?L <?CHA ;P;CF;<F? Q;M CH=L?;M?> NBLIOAB
;>;JNCHA NB? HOG<?L I@ CHN?LPC?Q?LM NI NB? FCE?FS PCMCN;NCIH BIN MJINM
NQI NI @IOL CHN?LPC?Q?LM CHMN?;> I@ IH? CHN?LPC?Q?L 1I ;>>L?MM NB? L?
MJIHMCP?H?MM JLI<;<CFCNS C? NB? CHN?LPC?Q?LM JL?@?L?H=? @IL MJ?=Ce=
PCMCNILM NB? CHN?LPC?Q?LM Q?L? ;ME?> NI ;>>L?MM ?P?LS NBCL> PCMCNIL CH
NB? OL<;H @IL?MN ;H> ?P?LS PCMCNIL CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN NI ;PIC> ; M?F?=NCIH
<C;M 4? =IG<CH?> NBCM QCNB ; H?RNNIJ;MM ;JJLI;=B )OJJ ?N ;F 
C@ GIL? PCMCNILM ;LLCP?> ;N IH=? 1;<F? MBIQM NB? >?GIAL;JBC= JLIJ?L
NC?M I@ NB? PCMCNILM QBI Q?L? CHN?LPC?Q?> ;H> =IGJ;L?M NB? L?MOFNM QCNB
NB? L?MJ?=NCP? =IOHNC?M;H> H;NCIH;F >?GIAL;JBC= JLIJ?LNC?M
 '9' '3'1>8/8
4? MJFCN IOL ;H;FSMCM CH C ; MJ;NC;F M?=NCIH ;H> ; CC HIHMJ;NC;F M?=
NCIH C #IL NB? MJ;NC;F M?=NCIH Q? eLMN L?F;N?> NB? HOG<?L I@ =IOHN?>
PCMCNILM J?L PCMCNIL ALIOJ 1;<F?  NI NB? G;JJ?> J;NBQ;SM <;M?>
IH NB? >CACN;F F;H>M=;J? GI>?F ;S?LCM=B? 3?LG?MMOHAMP?LQ;FNOHA
 ;H> IH NB? MOLP?S 4? Q?CABN?> NB? =IFF?=N?> PCMCNIL J;NBQ;SM
1;<F?  NI ;PIC> ;H IP?LL?JL?M?HN;NCIH I@ ?;MCFS ;==?MMC<F? PCMCNILM
?A Q;FE?LM =IGJ;L?> QCNB PCMCNILM QBI ;L? GIL? >C@e=OFN NI ;J
JLI;=B ?A =S=FCMNM 0?=IH>FS Q? =;F=OF;N?> NB? ;LCNBG?NC= G?;H
I@ NB? # L;NCHA I@ NB? @IL?MN J;NBQ;SM >IA Q;FE
Table 2
0;GJF? =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M ;H> =IOHNS OL<;H @IL?MN OAM<OLA NIQH ;H> =IOHNS LOL;F @IL?MN
C=B;=B#LC?><?LA ;H> !;=B;O =IOHNC?M ;M Q?FF ;M H;NCIH;F ;P?L;A?M
2L<;H@IL?MN /OL;F@IL?MN $?LG;HS
0;GJF? IOHNC?M 0;GJF? IOHNC?M
$?H>?LQIG?H     
-+*/897/(:9/43%'&
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
4:8+.41*8/?+%5+451+&
    
    
    
    
    
     
439.1>3+9.4:8+.41*/3)42+%&
   
   
   
   
   
   
:)1/*+'3/89'3)+,742.42+5489'1)4*+94,47+89'))+88%02&
*?>C;H  
*?;H  
;+7'-+2+'3;/8/9*:7'9/43%2/3&
$II>Q?;NB?L  
;>Q?;NB?L  
UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
Table 3
.O?MNCIHCHA JLIJILNCIH <S PCMCNIL ALIOJ ;H> @IL?MN CH MOGG?L ;H> QCHN?L
2L<;H@IL?MN /OL;F@IL?MN
0OGG?L 4CHN?L 0OGG?L 4CHN?L
#;GCFC?M    
4;FE?LM    
%CE?LM  
!IAQ;FE?LM    
'IAA?LM    
+IL>C=Q;FE?LM    
S=FCMNM   
*IOHN;CH<CE?LM  
/C>?LM 
,NB?LM   
CHA @L?MB ;CL ?RJ?LC?H=? H;NOL? ?M=;J? ?P?LS>;S FC@? B?;FNB NCG? QCNB
@;GCFS ;H> @LC?H>M =IIFCHA MJILN @OH ;H> B;JJCH?MM J?;=? ;H> NL;H
KOCFCNS 4? =IH>O=N?> NQI =FOMN?L ;H;FSM?M QCNB $?NCM,L> $C MN;NCMNC=M
CH L=$&0 "0/&  4? C>?HNCe?> NB? <?MN HOG<?L I@ =FOMN?LM QCNB
NB? -M?O>I #MN;NCMNC= 1B? eLMN =FOMN?L OM?> NB? ;P?L;A? HOG<?L I@ PCM
CNILM @IL ?;=B J;NBQ;S M?=NCIH NI C>?HNC@S BINMJINM @IL >C@@?L?HN PCMCNIL
ALIOJM 1B? M?=IH> =FOMN?L OM?> # L;NCHAM J?L J;NBQ;S M?=NCIH NI C>?H
NC@S J;NN?LHM I@ PCMCNILM QBI MCGCF;LFS J?L=?CP? ;H> P;FO? #
#IL NB? HIHMJ;NC;F M?=NCIH Q? ;H;FST?> BIQ >C@@?L?HN @;=NILM MO=B
;M @IL?MN HIH@IL?MN C? @;=CFCNC?M MJ;NC;F ?A NB? >CMN;H=? NI NB? @IL
?MN ?HNL;H=? ;H> MI=CI>?GIAL;JBC= @;=NILM ;@@?=N?> NB? JL?@?L?H=? @IL
>C@@?L?HN # =;N?AILC?M M?? ;<IP? 1I N?MN NB? L?FC;<CFCNS ;H> NB? CHN?L
H;F =IHMCMN?H=S I@ NB? # CN?GM Q? =;F=OF;N?> LIH<;=BM ;FJB; LIH
LIH IOJM 
4? N?MN?> NB? P;LC;<F?M CH 1;<F? ;M ?RJF;H;NILS P;LC;<F?M CH NB?
L?AL?MMCIH ;H;FSMCM 4? ;JJFC?> ; =OGOF;NCP? FCHE GI>?F QBC=B CM MOCN
;<F? @IL IL>CH;F >?J?H>?HN P;LC;<F?M QCNBCH NB? / MN;NCMNC=M J;=E;A? /
!?P?FIJG?HN IL? 1?;G  4? OM?> NB? =OGOF;NCP? FCHE GI>?F
NI ?FCGCH;N? NB? HIHMCAHC@C=;HN ?RJF;H;NILS P;LC;<F?M J  CH ;
<;=EQ;L> MN?JQCM? G;HH?L NI NB? C>?HNC@S L?F?P;HN CH>?J?H>?HN P;LC
;<F?M <;M?> IH NB? E;CE? CH@ILG;NCIH =LCN?LCIH 4? ALIOJ?> NB? ;H
MQ?LM @LIG NB? IJ?H KO?MNCIH ;<ION NB? J;NBQ;S =BIC=? ;H> =F;MMCe?>
NB?G ;==IL>CHA NI NB? IGGIH &HN?LH;NCIH;F F;MMCe=;NCIH I@ "=IMSM
N?G 0?LPC=?M  & "0 %;CH?M5IOHA -INM=BCH  ;H> >?P?FIJ?>
@OLNB?L =;N?AILC?M C@ H?=?MM;LS "KO;FFS Q? =IGJ;L?> NB? =F;MMCe=;NCIH
I@ J;NBQ;S =BIC=? IL ;PIC>;H=? QCNB NB? L;NCHAM I@ NB? # NI C>?HNC@S
JIN?HNC;F ;FCAHG?HNM
3. Results
 #/8/947 /39+38/9> '3* 85'9/'1 5'99+738 4, ;/8/947 -74:58
*IMN PCMCNILM NI NB? OL<;H @IL?MN ;H> LOL;F @IL?MN FCP?> CH NB? CGG?
>C;N? MOLLIOH>CHAM  J?L=?HN I@ NB? OL<;H @IL?MN PCMCNILM ;H> 
J?L=?HN I@ NB? LOL;F @IL?MN PCMCNILM ILCACH;N?> @LIG NB? ;>D;=?HN OL<;H
;H> LOL;F M?NNF?G?HNM >?LCP?> @LIG NB? JIMN;F =I>?M I@ @IL?MN PCMCNILM
1B? =IOHN?> ;H> MOLP?S?> @IL?MN PCMCNILM =IH=?HNL;N?> NB?CL L?=L?;NCIH;F
<?B;PCIL IH J;NBM ;H> LI;>M CH M?P?L;F J;LNM I@ NB? OL<;H ;H> NB? LOL;F
@IL?MN #CA  &H NB? OL<;H @IL?MN Q? C>?HNCe?> NBL?? >IGCH;HN ;L?;M
I@ L?=L?;NCIH;F OM? NB? HILNB?LH J;LN =FIM? NI NB? =CNS =?HN?L NB? MIONB
Q?MN?LH JCH? B?;NB ;H> NB? J;NBQ;S ;FIHA NB? )?=B /CP?L &H NB? LOL;F
@IL?MN PCMCNILM >C> HIN =IH=?HNL;N? CH =?LN;CH J;LNM I@ NB? @IL?MN &HMN?;>
NB?S NL;P?LM?> J;NBQ;S ;R?M QBC=B Q?L? GIMNFS =IHH?=N?> NI MOLLIOH>
CHA PCFF;A?M
/?A;L>CHA >C@@?L?HN PCMCNIL ALIOJM #CA  Q? C>?HNCe?> @IOL PCMC
NILALIOJ =FOMN?LM CH NB? OL<;H @IL?MN ;H> NQI PCMCNILALIOJ =FOMN?LM CH
NB? LOL;F @IL?MN <;M?> IH NB? BCAB?MN JM?O>I #MN;NCMNC= M=IL? 
Fig. 2. 3CMCNIL CHN?HMCNS MN;H>;L>CT?> PCMCNIL @L?KO?H=S CH NB? OL<;H ; ;H> NB? LOL;F @IL
?MN < Q? MN;H>;L>CT?> NB? HOG<?L I@ PCMCNILM NI NB? G;RCGOG HOG<?L I@ PCMCNILM J?L
J;NBQ;S M?=NCIH I@ ?;=B @IL?MN
;H>  L?MJ?=NCP?FS 3CMCNILALIOJ =FOMN?L CH NB? MIONB?LH J;LN
;FIHA NB? )?=B LCP?L Q;M >IGCH;N?> <S =S=FCMNM ;H> GIOHN;CH <CE?LM
3CMCNILALIOJ =FOMN?L Q;M >IGCH;N?> <S =S=FCMNM ;H> Q;FE?LM 3CMC
NILALIOJ =FOMN?L Q;M GIL? <;F;H=?> =IGJ;L?> QCNB NB? INB?L =FOM
N?LM FOMN?LM   ;H> MBIQ?> MCGCF;L PCMCNIL ALIOJ =IGJIMCNCIHM
FOMN?L  =IP?LCHA GIMN I@ NB? @IL?MN ;L?; >?JC=N?> ; <;F;H=?> ;H>
F?MM CHN?HMCP? OM? <S GIMN PCMCNIL ALIOJM &H NB? LOL;F @IL?MN NB? CHN?H
MCNS I@ NB? OM? Q;M GO=B FIQ?L %IQ?P?L =FOMN?L C? NB? IH? =LIMM
CHA NB? BCABQ;S CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN Q;M ;FMI >IGCH;N?> <S =S=FCMNM ;H>
GIOHN;CH <CE?LM =IGJ;L;<F? NI =FOMN?L CH NB? OL<;H @IL?MN FOMN?L
UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
Fig. 3. 3CMCNIL ALIOJ =FOMN?LM CH NB? OL<;H ; < ;H> CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN ; = NB? R;RCM CH ; CH>C=;N?M NB? HILG;FCT?> HOG<?L I@ PCMCNILM J?L =FOMN?L OL<;H @IL?MN =FOMN?L  =FOMN?L
 =FOMN?L  =FOMN?L  LOL;F @IL?MN =FOMN?L  =FOMN?L  =FOMN?L B;M NB? G;RCGOG HOG<?L I@ PCMCNILM ?KO;F NI  NB? =FOMN?L HOG<?LM @IL NB? PCMCNIL ALIOJM
CH NB? <;L JFIN =ILL?MJIH> NI NB? HOG<?LM IH NB? G;JMF?A?H>M < =
MBIQ?> <;F;H=?> OM? IGJ;LCHA <INB @IL?MNM #CA MBIQ?> NB;N IHFS
=FOMN?L CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN Q;M GIL? CHN?HMCP?FS OM?> NB;H NB? F?MM@L?
KO?HN?> =FOMN?L CH NB? OL<;H @IL?MN 1B? J;NBQ;SM CH NB? OL<;H @IL
?MN Q?L? PCMCN?> ;<ION @IOL NCG?M GIL? @L?KO?HNFS NB;H J;NBQ;SM CH NB?
LOL;F @IL?MN ,P?L;FF NB? PCMCNIL CHN?HMCNS Q;M A?H?L;FFS BCAB?L CH NB? OL
<;H @IL?MN M?? =;JNCIH I@ #CA  1B? ;=NO;F ;H> L?F;NCP? HOG<?L I@ PCM
CNILM NI NB? OL<;H @IL?MN Q;M ?P?H BCAB?L ACP?H NB? MCAHC@C=;HNFS F;LA?L
@IL?MN ;L?; ;H> HOG<?L I@ J;NBQ;SM =IGJ;L?> NI NB? LOL;F @IL?MN
 5'9/'1 )1:89+78 4, ,47+89 (+3+A9 7'9/3-8
IGJ;LCHA NB? CH>CPC>O;F L;NCHA J;NN?LHM I@ # CH NB? OL<;H ;H> NB?
LOL;F @IL?MN NB? G?>C;H ;H> NB? ;LCNBG?NC= G?;H Q?L? GIMNFS BCAB?L CH
NB? LOL;F @IL?MN ;J;LN @LIG *4- <'10/3-441/3- ;M MJ?=Ce= MOGG?L #
NB?L?<S B;> ; BCAB?L L;NCHA CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN GIMNFS >O? NI NB? BCAB?L
HOG<?L I@ PCMCNILM CH MOGG?L NB;H CH QCHN?L 1BCM L;NCI Q;M GIL? <;F
;H=?> CH NB? OL<;H @IL?MN
/?A;L>CHA =FOMN?LM I@ # Q? C>?HNCe?> @IOL MJ;NC;F # =FOMN?LM CH NB?
OL<;H @IL?MN ;H> NBL?? =FOMN?LM CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN <;M?> IH NB? BCAB?MN
JM?O>I #MN;NCMNC= M=IL?  ;H>  L?MJ?=NCP?FS #CA  &H NB?
OL<;H @IL?MN =FOMN?L CH NB? MIONBQ?MN?LH J;LN L?P?;F?> ; BCAB L;HECHA
@IL 85479 ;H> *4- <'10/3- ;H> ;FMI @IL .+'19. ;H> ,7+8. '/7 1B? >IGC
H;HN J;NN?LH @IL GIMN I@ NB? ;L?; =FOMN?LM ;H>  MBIQ?> ; BCAB L;N
CHA I@ ,7+8. '/7+=5+7/+3)+ 3'9:7++8)'5+ +;+7>*'> 1/,+ ;H> .+'19. 0FCABNFS
F?MM CGJILN;HN Q?L? ,:3.'55/3+88 ;H> 5+')+97'36:/1/9> FOMN?L CH NB?
MIONB?LH J;LN I@ NB? OL<;H @IL?MN B;> ; =IHMCMN?HNFS FIQ?L L;NCHA @IL
GIMN =;N?AILC?M ?R=?JN @IL ,:3.'55/3+88 ;H> 5+')+97'36:/1/9> =IGJ;L?>
QCNB =FOMN?LM ;H>  J;LN @LIG *4- <'10/3- MI=C;F =IB?MCIH CH NB?
CN?G ,'2/1>,7/+3*8 CM L;N?> FIQ?L NB;H GIMN INB?L # &H NB? LOL;F @IL
?MN =FOMN?L B;> ; J;LNC=OF;LFS BCAB L;NCHA @IL GIMN # ;H> =FOMN?L
Q;M L;N?> =IHMCMN?HNFS FIQ?L ;J;LN @LIG 5+')+97'36:/1/9> ;H> *4- <'10
/3- &HN?L?MNCHAFS =FOMN?L Q;M GIMNFS @IOH> CH NB? MIONB?LH J;LN I@ NB?
LOL;F @IL?MN 1B? L;NCHA I@ # Q;M F;LA?FS =IHMCMN?HN <?NQ??H NB? LOL;F
;H> NB? OL<;H @IL?MN $?H?L;FFS NB? =FOMN?LM I@ NB? LOL;F @IL?MN ;FCAH?>
GIMN =FIM?FS QCNB NB? ;<OH>;HN =FOMN?LM ;H> I@ NB? OL<;H @IL?MN
 7/;+78 4, ,47+89 (+3+A98 '3* 5'9.<'> ).4/)+
1B? =OGOF;NCP? FCHE L?AL?MMCIH ;H;FSM?M I@ NB? IL>CH;FL;N?> #
MBIQ?> ; =IHMCMN?HNFS FIQ?L L;NCHA <S PCMCNILM CH NB? OL<;H @IL?MN =IG
J;L?> NI NB? PCMCNILM CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN @IL @IOL =;N?AILC?M 5+')+97'3
6:/1/9> .+'19. +8)'5+ +;+7>*'> 1/,+ ;H> ,7+8. '/7 1;<F?  1;<F? MOG
G;LCT?> NB? L?MOFNM @IL NB? CH>CPC>O;F L?AL?MMCIH ;H;FSM?M I@ # CH>C=;N?>
CH NB? MOJJILNCHA CH@ILG;CNIH /?A;L>CHA @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M ; BCAB?L
JL?P;F?H=? IL J?L=?JNCIH I@ 7/;+78 <'9+7 )'3'18 1'0+8 =ICH=C>?> QCNB ;
BCAB?L L;NCHA I@ 5+')+97'36:/1/9> ,:3 '3* .'55/3+88 .+'19. ;H> ,7+8. '/7
1B? L;NCHA I@ NB? # 9/2+ </9. ,'2/1> '3* ,7/+3*8 ;H> +8)'5+ +;+7>*'> 1/,+
>C> HIN P;LS QCNB @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M %IQ?P?L NB? L;NCHA I@ .+'19.
;H> ,7+8. '/7 M??G?> NI P;LS ;==IL>CHA NI NB? J?L=?JNCIH IL NB? JL?P;
F?H=? I@ @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M #IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M QCNB ; BCAB?L ?R
JF;H;NILS JIQ?L @IL BCAB?L IL>?L JIFSHIGC;FM )43/,+74:8 IL (74'*1+',
97++82'3> (7'0+8 '3* (:8.+8 IL ./-. 97++8 '9 9.+ ,47+89 +*-+ >C> HIN ;@@?=N
# FCH?;LFS # =IHMC>?L;<FS CH=L?;M?> <?FIQ IL ;<IP? ; =?LN;CH NBL?MB
IF> I@ ?RCMNCHA @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M 1B? LIH<;=BM ;FJB; @IL NB? #
;GIOHN?> NI  1BCM MCAHCe?> ; H?AFCAC<F? IP?LF;J I@ NB? #
/?A;L>CHA N?GJIL;F ;MJ?=NM GIMN # Q?L? L;N?> FIQ?L >OLCHA QCH
N?L NB;H >OLCHA MOGG?L ,HFS 5+')+97'36:/1/9> ;H> .+'19. >C> HIN MCA
HC@C=;HNFS P;LS >?J?H>CHA IH NB? M?;MIH /?A;L>CHA MI=CI>?GIAL;JBC=
J;L;G?N?LM IF>?L J?IJF? =IHMCMN?HNFS L;N?> GIMN # MFCABNFS BCAB?L
BCAB?L ?>O=;NCIH >?=L?;M?> NB? L;NCHA @IL MJ?H>CHA 9/2+ </9. ,'2/1> '3*
,7/+3*8 QB?L?;M ; BCAB?L BIOM?BIF> CH=IG? =ICH=C>?> QCNB ; BCAB?L L;N
CHA I@ ,7+8. '/7 #IOL # >?J?H>?> IH PCMCNIL ALIOJM MJILN ALIOJM HIL>C=
Q;FE?LM =S=FCMNM ;H> GIOHN;CH <CE?LM L;N?> 85479 ;H> .+'19. BCAB?L
@;GCFC?M L;N?> 9/2+ </9. ,'2/1> '3* ,7/+3*8 ;H> ,7+8. '/7 BCAB?L &H ;>>C
NCIH Q;FE?LM >IA Q;FE?LM ;H> GIOHN;CH <CE?LM B;> ; BCAB?L JL?@?L?H=?
@IL @L?MB ;CL 4;FE?LM ;FMI L;N?> .+'19. <?H?eNM BCAB?L 1B? L;NCHA @IL +=
5+7/+3)+ 3'9:7+ Q;M GIMNFS BCAB QCNBION =IHMC>?L;<F? P;LC;NCIH ;=LIMM
PCMCNIL ALIOJM ;H> NB?L?@IL? Q;M HIN MOCN?> @IL ; L?AL?MMCIH ;H;FSMCM
4- <'10/3- Q;M HIN CH=FO>?> ;M ; # CH NB? L?AL?MMCIH ;H;FSMCM ;M CN =I
CH=C>?> QCNB NB? PCMCNIL ALIOJ I@ >IA Q;FE?LM
UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
Fig. 4. FOMN?LM I@ @IL?MN <?H?eN L;NCHAM CH NB? OL<;H ; ;H> NB? LOL;F @IL?MN < NB? <IRJFINM CH>C=;N? NB? >CMNLC<ONCIH I@ ;FF @IL?MN <?H?eN L;NCHAM ;H> NB? =IFILM L?JL?M?HN NB? ;LCNBG?NC=
G?;HM CH ?;=B =FOMN?L NB? IP?L;FF ;LCNBG?NC= G?;HM ;H> MN;H>;L> >?PC;NCIHM ;L? CH>C=;N?> CH NB? MOJJILNCHA CH@ILG;NCIH
4? OM?> ;H IJ?H KO?MNCIH NI ;ME NB? J;LNC=CJ;HNM CH ?;=B @IL?MN NI ?R
JF;CH NB?CL J;NBQ;S =BIC=? 0IG? I@ NB? GINCP;NCIHM MN;N?> @IL J;NBQ;S
=BIC=? =IOF> HIN <? ;NNLC<ON?> NI & "0 <?=;OM? NB?S L?f?=N?> <?B;P
CIL;F J;NN?LHM I@ PCMCNILM 1;<F?  =IFOGH  8+)9/43 %?H=?  I@
NB? ;HMQ?LM Q?L? HIN ;NNLC<ON;<F? NI & "0 M?=NCIHM  I@ L?MJIHM?M
L?F;N?> NI =OFNOL;F "00  NI L?AOF;NCHA "00 ;H>  IH? PCMCNIL
H;G?> JLIPCMCIHCHA "00
&H ;>>CNCIH Q? =F;MMCe?> NB? ;HMQ?LM @IL J;NBQ;S =BIC=? L?A;L>CHA
NB?CL FCHE;A? NI NB? @IL?MN ?=IMSMN?G 1;<F?  =IFOGH /30'-+ 94 ,47+89
+)48>89+2  I@ NB? L?MJIHM?M Q?L? HIN L?F;N?> NI NB? @IL?MN ?=IMSM
N?G &HMN?;> NB?S ?RJF;CH?> NB?CL J;NBQ;S =BIC=? ;M 85439'3+/9> 
.'(/9  ;/)/3/9>  97'38/9  IL 57+,+L7+* *:7'9/431+3-9. 4,
74:9+  $?H?L;F @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M Q?L? G?HNCIH?> <S  I@ L?
MJIH>?HNM +IH@IL?MN ?F?G?HNM C? ?F?G?HNM CH NB? @IL?MN <ON HIN J;LN
I@ NB? ?=IMSMN?G ;GIOHN?> NI  ;H> @IL?MN ;M MJ;=? @IL ?R?L=CM?
UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
Table 4
#;=NILM ;@@?=NCHA NB? L;NCHA I@ @IL?MN <?H?eNM =OGOF;NCP? FCHE L?AL?MMCIH GI>?F J   J   J   J  FCH?;L ) KO;>L;NC= . =O<C=   ;H> BCAB?L
IL>?L JIFSHIGC;F 9R NL;HM@ILG;NCIHM ;L? CH>C=;N?> NB? ?HNCL? L?AL?MMCIH L?MOFNM ;L? FCMN?> CH NB? MOJJILNCHA CH@ILG;NCIH ; JIMCNCP? P;FO? @IL NB? ?MNCG;N? CH>C=;N?M NB;N ;H ?RJF;H;NILS
P;LC;<F? JIMCNCP?FS =ICH=C>?M QCNB NB? @IL?MN <?H?eN L;NCHA ;H> PC=? P?LM; @IL ; H?A;NCP? P;FO?
3;LC;<F?
-?;=?
NL;HKOCFCNS
#OH;H>
B;JJCH?MM 0JILN IIFCHA
1CG?QCNB@;GCFS
;H>@LC?H>M %?;FNB
"M=;J?
?P?LS>;SFC@? #L?MB;CL
2L<;H@IL?MN      
47+89).'7')9+7/89/)8
IHC@?LIOMNL??M
. 
IHC@?LIOMNL??M
 
LI;>F?;@NL??M. 
*;HS<L;E?M;H>
<OMB?M9

/CP?LMQ;N?L
=B;HH?FMF;E?M)
       
!;LE)   
!;LE.    
F?;LCHA)     
F?;LCHA. 
F?;LCHA  
F?;LCHA9 
OMB?M@IL?MN
?>A?)

OMB?M@IL?MN
?>A?.
 
%CABNL??M@IL?MN
?>A?.

%CABNL??M@IL?MN
?>A?9

!7'38547924*+
CE? 
4;FECHA      
;L   
!/2+
!;SNCG?    
4CHN?L            
4??E>;S 
#/8/9*:7'9/43
$II>Q?;NB?L 
;>Q?;NB?L     
4)/4*+24-7'5./)5'7'2+9+78
A?           
">O=;NCIH  
%IOM?BIF>
CH=IG?.

%IOM?BIF>
CH=IG?9

"8+7-74:5
#;GCFC?M   
4;FE?LM  
!IAQ;FE?LM  
'IAA?LM     
+IL>C=Q;FE?LM   
S=FCMNM   
*IOHN;CH<CE?LM     
;H> MI=C;F =IB?MCIH MB;L?>  I@ NB? ;HMQ?LM ,HFS  PCMCNILM 
?RJF;CH?> NB?CL J;NBQ;S =BIC=? QCNB MJ?=Ce= @IL?MN ?F?G?HNM FCE? MCHAF?
JF;HNM 1'*/41:8 '1:897/8 >?;>QII> IL @IL?MN MNLO=NOL?
&H ;>>CNCIH Q? ;H;FST?> QB?NB?L ; BCAB L;NCHA I@ # ;FMI ;JJ?;L?>
CH NB? GINCP;NCIH MN;N?> @IL J;NBQ;S M?F?=NCIH 1;<F?  1B? ;AL??G?HN
<?NQ??H ; BCAB L;NCHA I@ # ;H> NB? GINCP;NCIH @IL J;NBQ;S M?F?=NCIH
Q;M L;NB?L Q?;E 4- <'10/3- MBIQ?> ; MNLIHA ;AL??G?HN ;H> 85479 ;H>
5+')+97'36:/1/9> MBIQ?> ; =IHMC>?L;<F? ;AL??G?HN
#CH;FFS Q? ;ME?> @IL?MN PCMCNILM QBS NB?S ;PIC>?> J;NBQ;SM 1B?
G;DILCNS I@  G?HNCIHM Q?L? =LIQ>CHA  @?;L ;H> OH?;MCH?MM 
;H> G;HS >IAM  1B? ?HNCL? L?MOFNM =;H <? @IOH> CH 1;<F? 0 CH
NB? MOJJILNCHA CH@ILG;NCIH
4. Discussion
FF IOL L?MOFNM MOAA?MN?> NB;N MJ;NC;F J;NN?LHM I@ ?P?LS>;S L?=L?;NCIH
Q?L? F?MM >?J?H>?HN IH @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M ;M ?RJ?=N?> L?=L?;NCIH;F
UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
Table 5
F;MMCe=;NCIH I@ NB? MN;N?> GINCP;NCIH I@ J;NBQ;S M?F?=NCIH H 
*INCP;NCIH=BIM?HJ;NBQ;S
*?HNCIHM
7H8 )CHE;A?NI@IL?MN?=IMSMN?G & "0M?=NCIH >>L?MM?> & "0=F;MM
?;ONS  A?H?L;F@IL?MN=B;L;=N?LCMNC=M  =OFNOL;F ?MNB?NC=
-?;=?NL;HKOCFCNS  L?AOF;NCHA *?>C;NCIHI@MG?FFHICM?PCMO;FCGJ;=NM
PIC>CHAHICMSCH@L;MNLO=NOL?  L?AOF;NCHA *?>C;NCIHI@MG?FFHICM?PCMO;FCGJ;=NM
FCG;N?L?AOF;NCIH  L?AOF;NCHA *C=LI;H>L?ACIH;F=FCG;N?L?AOF;NCIH
IIFCHAQCHN?L  L?AOF;NCHA *C=LI;H>L?ACIH;F=FCG;N?L?AOF;NCIH
#L?MB;CL L?AOF;NCHA *C=LI;H>L?ACIH;F=FCG;N?L?AOF;NCIH
0JIHN;H?CNSL;H>IG  OHL?F;N?>  HIN
;NNLC<ON;<F?
1L;>CNCIHB;<CN  HIN
;NNLC<ON;<F?
3C=CHCNSJL;=NC=;FCNSL?=L?;NCIH  HIN
;NNLC<ON;<F?
1L;HMCNJ;NBQ;S  HIN
;NNLC<ON;<F?
-L?@?LL?>>OL;NCIHF?HANBI@
LION?
 HIN
;NNLC<ON;<F?
,<M?LPCHAQ;N?L=;H;FMLCP?L  HIH@IL?MN?F?G?HNM  =OFNOL;F "RJ?LC?HNC;FOM?I@JF;HNM;HCG;FM;H>F;H>
M?;M=;J?M
$II>=IH>CNCIHI@J;NBQ;S  HIN
;NNLC<ON;<F?
*IHOG?HNMMCABNM  =OFNOL;F "RJ?LC?HNC;FOM?I@JF;HNM;HCG;FM;H>F;H>
M?;M=;J?M
-F;SALIOH> HIN
;NNLC<ON;<F?
/?MN;OL;HNM<??LA;L>?HM HIN
;NNLC<ON;<F?
;NBCHA =OFNOL;F -BSMC=;FOM?I@F;H>M?;M=;J?M
!IAQ;FECHA  @IL?MN;MMJ;=?@IL?R?L=CM?;H>MI=C;F
=IB?MCIH
 =OFNOL;F -BSMC=;FOM?I@F;H>M?;M=;J?M
0JILN  =OFNOL;F
S=FCHA =OFNOL;F
)?CMOL?;=NCPCNC?M =OFNOL;F
4;FEQ;S =OFNOL;F
0I=C;FL?F;NCIHM =OFNOL;F "RJ?LC?HNC;FOM?I@JF;HNM;HCG;FM;H>F;H>
M?;M=;J?M
,<M?LPCHA?HDISCHAH;NOL?  MJ?=Ce=@IL?MN?F?G?HNM  =OFNOL;F "RJ?LC?HNC;FOM?I@JF;HNM;HCG;FM;H>F;H>
M?;M=;J?M
0?;L=BCHA@IL@II> JLIPCMCIHCHA 4CF>JF;HNM;FA;?;H>NB?CLIONJONM
Table 6
AL??G?HN <?NQ??H NB? # L;NCHAM ;H> NB? MN;N?> GINCP;NCIH @IL J;NBQ;S =BIC=?
"00;H>BOG;H
<?H?eNM
AL??G?HNGINCP;NCIH@ILJ;NBQ;S
;H>BCAB"00L;NCHA
BCABL;NCHA7H8
-?;=?NL;HKOCFCNS  
#OHB;JJCH?MM  
0JILN  
IIFCHA  
#;GCFS@LC?H>M  
%?;FNB  
"M=;J??P?LS>;S
FC@?
 
"RJ?LC?H=?H;NOL?  
#L?MB;CL  
!IAQ;FECHA  
;=NCPCNC?M <S >C@@?L?HN PCMCNIL ALIOJM Q?L? GIMNFS GOFNC@IF> =B;JN?L 
MJ;NC;F J;NN?LHM I@ MCGCF;LFS J?L=?CP?> # Q?L? KOCN? BIGIA?H?IOM @IL
F;LA? J;LNM I@ NB? @IL?MN ;L?; =B;JN?L  ;H> @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M
MBIQ?> ; Q?;E CHfO?H=? IH # L;NCHAM ;H> Q?L? ; F?MM L?F?P;HN L?;MIH
@IL J;NBQ;S =BIC=? =B;JN?L 
 #/8/947 /39+38/9> '3* 85'9/'1 5'99+738 4, ;/8/947 -74:58
#IL?MN PCMCNILM OM?> LI;>M ;H> J;NBQ;SM NBLIOABION NB? ?HNCL? @IL
?MN <ON =IH=?HNL;N?> IH M?F?=N?> TIH?M #CA  1B? =IH=?HNL;NCIH IH
G;DIL J;NBQ;SM B;M <??H MCGCF;LFS C>?HNCe?> <S GG?L ;H> -L]<MNF
 1B? >?AL?? I@ =IH=?HNL;NCIH CM GIL? ?RNL?G? CH NB? OL<;H @IL
?MN NB;H CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN QB?L? GIMN PCMCNILM OM?> G;DIL J;NBQ;SM
FCHECHA MOLLIOH>CHA PCFF;A?M FNBIOAB F;LA? J;LNM I@ NB? @IL?MN ;L?; ;L?
B;L>FS OM?> <INB NB? OL<;H ;H> NB? LOL;F @IL?MN ;L? ;FGIMN ?HNCL?FS >?M
CAH;N?> @IL L?=L?;NCIH CH L?ACIH;F @IL?MN JF;HHCHA 0N*")#  QBC=B
NB?L?<S IP?L?MNCG;N?M NB? ;L?; @IL L?=L?;NCIH
,OL =FOMN?L ;H;FSMCM B;M MBIQH NB;N CHN?HMCP? OM? IHFS I==OLL?> CH
@?Q J;LNM I@ ?;=B @IL?MN PCMCNILALIOJ =FOMN?LM ;H> CH NB? OL<;H
;H> =FOMN?L CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN #CA  1B?M? >?FCGCN?> J;LNM I@ NB?
@IL?MN GCABN <? >?N?=N;<F? <S FI=;F I<M?LP;NCIH ;H> NB? ;@@?=N?> @IL?MN
J;NBM =IOF> <? ;>;JN?> NI NB? H??>M I@ GOFNCJF? PCMCNIL ALIOJM #OLNB?L
GIL? QCNBCH NB?M? L?F;NCP?FS MG;FF M?=NCIHM @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN =IOF>
@I=OM IH NB? ?HB;H=?G?HN I@ ;?MNB?NC=;F ?>O=;NCIH;F ;H> H;NOL? ;M
J?=NM $I<MN?L +;MM;O?L !;HC?F #LS  %;OLO (IMECH?H (INT?
)?BPXPCLN;  /C<?  GG?L ;H> -L]<MNF  JLIJIM? ;
BCAB P;LC;<CFCNS I@ NL?? MJ?=C?M ;H> <OMB?M ;N @IL?MN ?>A?M )CE?QCM? PCM
C<F? B;LP?MNCHA G?;MOL?M ?A LIQQCM? MBIOF> <? ;PIC>?> ?MJ?=C;FFS
UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
CH OL<;H @IL?MNM 0O=B PCMCNILILC?HN?> @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN G;S GINC
P;N? JO<FC= MOJJILN @IL ?=IMSMN?GM ;H> NB?CL M?LPC=?M !;HC?F ?N ;F
 FOMN?LM NB;N L?JL?M?HN @?Q MJ?=C;FCT?> PCMCNIL ALIOJM ?A =S
=FCMNM ;H> GIOHN;CH <CE?LM =FOMN?L CH NB? OL<;H @IL?MN =;H <? B;H
>F?> ;H> =B;HH?F?> <S @IL?MN J;NB G;H;A?G?HN LH<?LA?L *;HH
 4CFE?MFF?G;HH %;H?QCHE?F -^NT 
1B? L?G;CHCHA MJ;NC;FFS>IGCH;HN PCMCNILALIOJ =FOMN?LM CH <INB
@IL?MNM L?P?;F ; >CP?LM? ;H> F?MM @L?KO?HN L?=L?;NCIH;F OM? 1BCM I@@?LM
AL?;N?L f?RC<CFCNS @IL @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN &N ;FFIQM @IL FIQ?L =IHMC>?L;
NCIH I@ L?=L?;NCIH L?KOCL?G?HNM ;H> ; BCAB?L JLCILCNCT;NCIH I@ INB?L @IL
?MN "00 ;N NB? FI=;F M=;F? <?SIH> NB? J;NBQ;SM 1B? JIN?HNC;F PC?QCHA
>CMN;H=? @IL @IL?MN PCMCNILM ; <Og?L <?SIH>  G CM B;L>FS =IHMC>?L
;<F? @IL NB? G;H;A?G?HN I@ L?=L?;NCIH;F OM? ;M GIMN @IL?MN PCMCNILM MN;S
IH NB? J;NBQ;SM ;H> ; J?L=?JNCIH I@ F;H>M=;J? ;?MNB?NC=M ;N >CMN;H=?M
I@  G CM IHFS L?F?P;HN CH MJ;LM?FS MNI=E?> @IL?MNM <CS ;OG
?LA?H FOG BG;L; "HMCHA?L 
,OL L?MOFNM MOAA?MN NB;N >?MCAH;NCHA NB? ?HNCL? @IL?MN ;L?; @IL L?=L?
;NCIH ;M >IH? CH F;LA?M=;F? MNO>C?M IL L?ACIH;F IL FI=;F G;JJCHA ;J
JLI;=B?M $;L=[;+C?NI $;L=[;)FIL?HN? &HC?MN;L;H>C;
*;LN[H)\J?T  >? $LIIN ?N ;F  1SLPXCH?H ?N ;F  H?
AF?=NM >C@@?L?H=?M QCNBCH NB? @IL?MN ;L?; ;H> NB?L?<S >I?M HIN B?FJ @IL
CNM G;H;A?G?HN ;N NB? FI=;F F?P?F 1B? BCAB?L L?=L?;NCIH;F OM? I@ NB? OL
<;H @IL?MN NB;H NB? LOL;F @IL?MN #CA  L?KOCL?M BCAB?L JLCILCNCT;NCIH I@
L?=L?;NCIH NB?L? ;M Q?FF ;M <?NN?L L?eH?G?HN I@ NB? H??>?> MJ;=?@IL
JLIPCMCIHCHA ;H> L?AOF;NCHA "00 %IQ?P?L L?F;NCP? NI NB? JIJOF;NCIH CH
NB? MOLLIOH>CHA ;L?; NB? L?=L?;NCIH;F OM? J?L J;NBQ;S M?=NCIH Q;M ;=
NO;FFS BCAB?L CH NB? LOL;F @IL?MN
 5'9/'1 )1:89+78 4, ,47+89 (+3+A9 7'9/3-8
,OL L?MOFNM G;N=B?> NBIM? I@ %OHTCE?L ?N ;F  1B? BCAB?MN
L;HE?> # Q?L? CN?GM +=5+7/+3)+ 3'9:7+ ,7+8. '/7 .+'19. ;H> +8)'5+
+;+7>*'> 1/,+ M?? 0?=NCIH  @IL NB? =FOMN?LM ;H> 1;<F? 0 CH NB? ;J
J?H>CR @IL NB? ;P?L;A? L;NCHA J?L @IL?MN &H FCH? QCNB )OJJ ?N ;F 
IOL L?MOFNM MBIQ?> NB;N GIMN @IL?MN PCMCNILM A;P? BCAB L;NCHAM NI NB? >C
L?=NFS?RJ?LC?H=?> ;H> CHNOCNCP?FS;JJL?=C;N?> #  ION I@  QCNB ;
L;NCHA  4? @IOH> MCGCF;LCNC?M QCNB INB?L MNO>C?M L?A;L>CHA NB? L;N
CHA I@ >C@@?L?HN # +=5+7/+3)+ 3'9:7+ CM P;FO?> BCAB ;H> 84)/'1 )4.+8/43 CM
P;FO?> =IGJ;L;<FS FIQ CH NQI MNO>S ;L?;M CH +ILQ;S ;H> NB? +?NB?L
F;H>M ;M?NL? $OH>?LM?H 3CMN;> %IFNLIJ 
1B?CL =;N?AILS ?R?L=CM? QBC=B CM GIMN =IGJ;L;<F? NI IOL =;N?AILS
MJILN CM L;N?> BCAB?MN CH NB? +ILQ?AC;H =;M? MNO>S <ON L;N?> L;NB?L
FIQ CH IOL MNO>S &H NB? !ON=B =;M? MNO>S NB? L;NCHA @IL ?R?L=CM?CM
FIQ?L =IGJ;L;<F? NI IOL MNO>S 1BCM >C@@?L?H=? BCHNM ;N NB? ?@@?=N I@ FI
=;F ;P;CF;<CFCNS I@ @IL?MNM 1B? +ILQ?AC;H =;M? MNO>S B;> GIL? H;NOL;F
@IL?MNM H?;L<S QB?L?;M NB? !ON=B =;M? MNO>S ;H> IOL =;M? MNO>S >C> HIN
1B?L?@IL? F?MM @IL?MN@I=OM?> # ?A ?R?L=CM? IL MJILN GCABN <?=IG?
GIL? CGJILN;HN @IL FI=;F L?=L?;NCIH NB;H ?RJ?LC?H=CHA H;NOL? C@ ;FN?LH;
NCP?M QCNB ; BCAB?L H;NOL;FH?MM ;L? ;P;CF;<F?
4? MBIQ?> NB;N NB? L;NCHA I@ # >C@@?L?> >?J?H>CHA IH NB? @IL?MN
M?=NCIH #IL ?R;GJF? NB?L? Q?L? J;NBQ;SM NB;N OM?LM =BIM? JL?>IGC
H;N?FS @IL B?;FNB ;MJ?=NM IL MJILN &H ;>>CNCIH =FOMN?LM =B;L;=N?LCTCHA
GIMN I@ NB? @IL?MN ;L?; >C@@?L?> FCNNF? <?NQ??H NB? OL<;H ;H> NB? LOL;F
@IL?MN IGJ;LCHA IOL L?MOFNM QCNB HIHMJ;NC;F MNO>C?M "FM;MM?L 
%OHTCE?L ?N ;F  Q? >CM=?LH?> GOFNCJF? BIN ;H> =IF> MJINM @IL
L?=L?;NCIH QBC=B @;=CFCN;N? @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN L?A;L>CHA JIN?HNC;F =IH
fC=NM QCNB INB?L "00 IL @IL?MN OM?M
1B? A?H?L;FFS BCAB L;NCHA I@ G;HS # ACP?M NB? CGJL?MMCIH NB;N <INB
@IL?MNM JLIPC>? GOFNCJF? # 1I N?MN NBCM Q? =IOF> =IH>O=N ; =BIC=??R
J?LCG?HN MO=B ;M ; <?MNQILMNM=;FCHA ;JJLI;=B C? PCMCNILM B;P? NI >?
=C>? IH NB? F?;MN ;H> GIMN JL?@?LL?> #
 7/;+78 4, ,47+89 (+3+A98 '3* 5'9.<'> ).4/)+
/?A;L>CHA @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M ;@@?=NCHA NB? L;NCHA I@ # 1;<F? 
CN <?=IG?M ;JJ;L?HN NB;N IHFS 7/;+78 <'9+7 )'3'18 1'0+8 ;H> )1+'7/3-8 B;>
;<OH>;HN JIMCNCP? ?@@?=N /;+78 <'9+7 )'3'18 1'0+8 ;L? GIMNFS FI=;N?> CH
NB? HILNB?LH J;LN I@ NB? OL<;H @IL?MN ;H> G;N=B NB? BCAB PCMCNIL CHN?H
MCNS 1BCM CM CH FCH? QCNB (C?H;MN ?N ;F  QBI ;FMI C>?HNCe?> ; JL?@
?L?H=? @IL Q;N?L <I>C?M CH FI=;F L?=L?;NCIH ;GIHA >C@@?L?HN F;H>M=;J? ?F
?G?HNM ,OL L?MOFNM ;FMI ;AL?? QCNB "LCEMMIH ;H> +IL>FOH>  QBI
C>?HNCe?> NB? ;JJL?=C;NCIH I@ Q;N?L ;H> NB? OM? I@ Q;N?L ;M ; F;H>G;LE
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UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
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INB?L J?IJF? ;H> @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M <ON QCNBION ; =F?;L FCHE #IL
?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M B;P? B;L>FS <??H G?HNCIH?> ;M L?;MIH @IL ;PIC>CHA
JF;=?M %?L? @ONOL? L?M?;L=B =IOF> CHP?MNCA;N? CHN?L;=NCIHM <?NQ??H NB?
I==OLL?H=? I@ # ;H> NB? CGJ;=N I@ >CMM?LPC=?M ;H> >CMNOL<;H=?M
#ONOL? L?M?;L=B =IOF> ;FMI CGJF?G?HN MJ;NC;F ;MM?MMG?HNM ;N F;LA?L
M=;F?M ?A H;NCIH;F ;MM?MMG?HNM 1BCM QIOF> L?KOCL? MOLP?SCHA ;H CH
=L?;M?> HOG<?L I@ PCMCNILM #IL ?R;GJF? CN GCABN <? MOCN;<F? NI OM? H?Q
>;N; =IFF?=NCIH ;JJLI;=B?M MO=B ;M MG;LNJBIH? ;JJFC=;NCIHM NI L?>O=?
NB? ?@@ILN J?L PCMCNIL QBC=B MBIOF> ;FFIQ G;JJCHA # ;H> "00 CH ; MJ;
NC;FFS ?RJFC=CN G;HH?L 0CFP; ?N ;F  1B? ;==?MMC<CFCNS ;H> NB? L?J
L?M?HN;NCP?H?MM I@ PCMCNIL ALIOJM G;S J?LMCMN ;M JLI<F?G %?L? Q? M??
G;DIL =B;FF?HA?M L?A;L>CHA C NB? ;==?MMC<CFCNS I@ PCMCNIL ALIOJM ;M PCM
CNILM QIOF> H??> MG;LNJBIH?M ;H> ; GINCP;NCIH NI OM? NB? ;JJFC=;NCIH
#IL ?R;GJF? CN GCABN N;E? NCG? OHNCF NB? G;DILCNS I@ ;FF ;A? ALIOJM C?
IF>?L PCMCNILM OM?M MG;LNJBIH?M NI ; F;LA? ?RN?HN CC 1B? ;==?JN;H=?
GCABN ;FMI JIM? ; JLI<F?G ;M PCMCNILM G;S JL?@?L HIN NI NL;=E NB?CL J;NB
&H ;>>CNCIH =CNCT?H M=C?HNCMNM H??> ; L?Q;L> IL ; GINCP;NCIH @IL MB;L
CHA NB?CL L?=L?;NCIH B;<CNM ;H> NL;=EM (L;MHS /OMM 1C><;FF "FGKPCMN
 4? ?RJ?=N NB? GINCP;NCIH NI L?=IL> # NI <? FIQ?L =IGJ;L?> NI
J?IJF? MJINNCHA ;HCG;FM IL L;L? JF;HNM QBC=B B;M ; FIHA NL;>CNCIH ;H>
?MN;<FCMB?> GIHCNILCHA JLINI=IFM 0ONB?LF;H> /IS G;HI 
5. Conclusions
,OL eH>CHAM CH>C=;N? ; A;J <?NQ??H NB? L?;FCT?> IHMCN? L?=L?;NCIH
>?LCP?> @LIG KO?MNCIHH;CL?M ;H> ;H C>?;F I@ L?=L?;NCIH <;M?> IH MI=C
?N;F >?MCL?M ;H> JL?@?L?H=?M ?RJ?=N?> <S ?RJ?LNM ;M?NL? ?N ;F 

UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
">Q;L>M ?N ;F ; "LCEMMIH +IL>FOH>  '?HM?H (I=B
 ,OL L?MOFNM MBIQ?> NB;N L?=L?;NCIH I@ NB? FI=;F JIJOF;NCIH CM
BCABFS >LCP?H <S L?F;R;NCIH QBC=B CGJFC?M ; L?>O=?> ;NN?HNCIH ;H> FCNNF?
L?A;L> @IL MJ?=Ce= @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M $?H?L;F ;MJ?=NM FCE? NB? JOL?
JLIPCMCIH I@ MJ;=? =FCG;N? L?AOF;NCIH IL NB? ;<M?H=? I@ HICM? M??G NI <?
GIL? CGJILN;HN @IL?MN @?;NOL?M &H IOL MNO>S ?RNL; MNLO=NOL?M FCE? =;H;FM
;L? ;JJL?=C;N?> ;M >CP?LMCe=;NCIH ?P?H C@ NB?S ;L? HIN CGG?>C;N? ;NNLC<
ON?M I@ NB? @IL?MN ?=IMSMN?G
MMOGCHA FCGCN?> L?MIOL=?M @IL NB? FI=;F @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN ?@@ILNM
G;>? CH NB? @IFFIQCHA IL>?L GCABN <? L?;MIH;<F? eLMN @IL?MN G;H;A?
G?HN CH $?LG;HS GOMN =IHMC>?L L?=L?;NCIH;F OM? <?=;OM? I@ NB? F?A;F
>ONS NI ;PIC> LCMEM -?N?LMIH %LIH?E  <?SIH> ; =?LN;CH H;N
OL;F ?H>;HA?LG?HN ?A ; @IL?MN?L H??>M NI ?HMOL? NB;N PCMCNILM ;L? HIN
M?P?L?FS CHDOL?> >OLCHA NB?CL PCMCN IH J;NBQ;SM &H N?LGM I@ NB? "00
=IH=?JN CH NBCM CM ?R;GJF? JIN?HNC;F >CMM?LPC=?M !I<<M ?N ;F 
)SSNCGXEC 0CJCFX  0B;=EF?NIH ?N ;F  PIH !]BL?H %;;M?
 H??> NI <? JLI;=NCP?FS GCHCGCT?> NI M?=OL? NB? JLIPCMCIH I@ ;H
INB?L M?LPC=? L?=L?;NCIH 0?=IH> FI=;F G;H;A?G?HN MBIOF> @I=OM IH
NB? ;PIC>;H=? I@ HOCM;H=?M FCE? HICM? IL JIIL J;NBQ;S =IH>CNCIHM 1BCM
GCABN CH=FO>? NB? ;PIC>;H=? I@ =IHfC=NM <?NQ??H >C@@?L?HN PCMCNIL ALIOJM
LH<?LA?L *;HH  4CFE?MFF?G;HH ?N ;F  FNBIOAB NBCM
>C> HIN N;E? JF;=? CH IOL MNO>S ;L?; =LIQ>CHA Q;M I<M?LP?> 1BCL> ?P?H
C@ ?RNL; MNLO=NOL?M FCE? NB? BCMNILC= =;H;FM CH IOL MNO>S ;L?; ;L? IONMC>?
@IL?MN G;H;A?G?HNML?MJIHMC<CFCNS CN M??GM CGJILN;HN NI G;CHN;CH ;H>
JLIGIN? NB?G ?MJ?=C;FFS C@ NB?S ;L? FCHE?> NI INB?L "00 IL # ?A =OF
NOL;F B?LCN;A? #IOLNB @IMN?LCHA MJ?=Ce= @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M ;H> MNLO=
NOL?M =;HHIN <? M??H ;M ; JL?@?L?HNC;F AI;F CH =IHH?=NCIH QCNB NB? JLIPC
MCIH I@ ;FF L?=L?;NCIH;F # 1B? GOFNCNO>? I@ # ;H> NB? >LCPCHA GINCP;
NCIH I@ J;NBQ;S =BIC=? Q?L? HIN =IHMC>?L;<FS >LCP?H <S @IL?MN =B;L;=
N?LCMNC=M +?P?LNB?F?MM NB?L? ;L? L?;MIHM NI CH=L?;M? <CI>CP?LMCNS ;H> NB?
>CP?LMCNS I@ "00 !;HC?F ?N ;F  0=B;FF ?N ;F  P;H >?L -F;M ?N
;F  QBC=B MBIOF> <? JOLMO?> <S ; GI>?LH GOFNC@OH=NCIH;F @IL?MN
?=IMSMN?G G;H;A?G?HN
4? A?H?L;FFS ;AL?? QCNB '?HM?H (I=B  NB;N NB?L? CM HI ;P
?L;A? @IL?MN PCMCNIL ;H> ; QC>? L;HA? I@ ;FN?LH;NCP?M CM H?=?MM;LS NI M;N
CM@S G;HS J?IJF?M H??>M )I=;F @IL?MN PCMCNILM CH IOL MNO>S M??G?> NI <?
?P?HN?GJ?L?> ;M FIHA ;M NB? @IL?MN JLIPC>?M MIG? <;MC= <?H?eNM 1BCM
=L?;N?M f?RC<CFCNS ;H> IJNCIHM @IL @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN
Acknowledgments
1BCM QILE Q;M J;LNFS @OH>?> <S NB? #IOH>;NCIH @IL #IL?MN /?M?;L=B
CH ;P;LC; 1B? ;ONBILM NB;HE NB? @IL?MN ;>GCHCMNL;NCIH I@ NB? =CNS I@
OAM<OLA ;H> 0;GO?F *]MMH?L @LIG NB? 2HCP?LMCNS I@ *^HMN?L @IL NB?CL
MOJJILN ?SIH> Q? NB;HE ;FF MNO>?HNM @LIG NB? 2HCP?LMCNS I@ *OHC=B
)*2 NB? 2HCP?LMCNS I@ OAM<OLA ;H> =IFF?;AO?M @LIG NB? ;P;LC;H
0N;N? &HMNCNON? I@ #IL?MNLS @IL NB?CL MOJJILN CH >;N; =IFF?=NCIH ?SIH>
NB? ;ONBILM QIOF> FCE? NI NB;HE 2FLC=B 0N?NN?L @IL NB? JL?J;L;NCIH I@ M?P
?L;F G;JM ;H> MJ;NC;F >;N; ;H> *;LC?"P? /CHAF?L 1I<C;M ?S?L ;H>
;LIFCH; %IH?LN @IL >;N; JL?J;L;NCIH 1B? ;ONBILM ;L? ?KO;FFS AL;N?@OF
@IL NB? B?FJ@OF MOAA?MNCIHM @LIG NBL?? ;HIHSGIOM L?PC?Q?LM ;H> (;L?H
$LIMMEL?ONT @IL JIFCMBCHA NB? F;HAO;A?
Appendix A. Supplementary data
0OJJF?G?HN;LS >;N; NI NBCM ;LNC=F? =;H <? @IOH> IHFCH? ;N BNNJM
>ICILADF;H>OL<JF;H
References
;M?NL? ' $OH>?LM?H 3 3CMN;> ,& %IFNLIJ "'  /?=L?;NCIH;F JL?@?L?H=?M ;FIHA
; H;NOL;FH?MM>?P?FIJG?HN =IHNCHOOG /?MOFNM @LIG MOLP?SM CH NQI OH?KO;F OL<;H
@IL?MNM CH "OLIJ? 'IOLH;F I@ ,ON>IIL /?=L?;NCIH ;H> 1IOLCMG   BNNJM>IC
ILADDILN
<CS * ;OG  ?LA?H - FOG * BG;L; 0 "HMCHA?L (  4OLMN?L * 
)?CN@;>?H TOL (;LNC?LOHA >?L 0=BONT OH> "LBIFOHAM@OHENCIH >?M 4;F>?M 4;F>@OHENCI
H?HE;LNC?LOHA 4#(
ACG;MM # )OH>B?>? 1 -;H>OLI 1" ';=I<M?H '  1B? =BIC=? I@ @IL?MN MCN?
@IL L?=L?;NCIH L?P?;F?> JL?@?L?H=? ;H;FSMCM OMCHA MJ;NC;F >;N; "=IMSMN?G 0?LPC=?M
  BNNJM>ICILAD?=IM?L
GG?L 2 -L]<MNF 2  #L?CT?CN OH> +;NOL -LI<F?G? OH> )]MOHAMG]AFC=BE?CN?H
?CH?L ]EIFIACM=B P?LNLXAFC=B?H #L?CT?CNHONTOHA GCN  1;<?FF?H
LH<?LA?L   /?=L?;NCIH OM? I@ OL<;H @IL?MNM H CHN?L;L?; =IGJ;LCMIH 2L<;H
#IL?MNLS 2L<;H $L??HCHA   BNNJM>ICILADO@OA

LH<?LA?L  L;H>?H<OLA   -;MN IHMCN? ?RJ?LC?H=? =LIQ>CHA J?L=?JNCIHM ;H>
OM? >CMJF;=?G?HN I@ PCMCNIL ALIOJM NI ; J?LCOL<;H H;NCIH;F J;LE "HPCLIHG?HN;F *;H
;A?G?HN    BNNJM>ICILAM
LH<?LA?L  "<?H<?LA?L * 0=BH?C>?L &" INNL?FF 0 0=BFO?N?L   PIH
/OM=BEIQMEC " $I<MN?L -%  3CMCNIL JL?@?L?H=?M @IL PCMO;F =B;HA?M CH <;LE
<??NF?CGJ;=N?> @IL?MN L?=L?;NCIH M?NNCHAM CH NB? OHCN?> MN;N?M ;H> $?LG;HS "HPCLIH
G?HN;F G;H;A?G?HN    BNNJM>ICILAM
LH<?LA?L  %CHN?L<?LA?L   3CMCNIL GIHCNILCHA G?NBI>M @IL G;H;ACHA JO<FC= OM?
JL?MMOL?M CH NB? !;HO<? #FII>JF;CHM +;NCIH;F -;LE OMNLC; 'IOLH;F @IL +;NOL? IH
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<;S?LH>?IA=IA=:;NECM:>FG=AC ==?MM?>  OAOMN 
?HH?NN "* -?N?LMIH $! $IL>IH )'  2H>?LMN;H>CHA L?F;NCIHMBCJM ;GIHA
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>CHAN?L #?BF?L CH 6C?FA?<C?NM>;N?H 1B?ILC? OH> ?GJCLCM=B? "LA?<HCMM? ?CH?L 4;F><?
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M=;J?M NI MCFPC=OFNOL;F NL?;NG?HN #IL?MNM   BNNJM>ICILA
@
IFOH> - %OHB;GG;L 0  "=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M CH OL<;H ;L?;M "=IFIAC=;F "=IHIG
C=M    BNNJM>ICILA0
ILL;MM ) (F?CHM=BGCN ! 4CHE?F $  1B? $?LG;H GI>?FI@ CHN?AL;NCP? GOFNC
@OH=NCIH;F @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HNH;FSMCHA NB? ?G?LA?H=? ;H> JIFCNC=;F ?PIFONCIH I@ ;
@IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN =IH=?JN #IL?MN -IFC=S ;H> "=IHIGC=M   BNNJM>ICILA
D@ILJIF
OLEB;L>  (;H>TCIL; * %IO 5 *^FF?L #  "=IMSMN?G 0?LPC=? -IN?HNC;FM #FIQM
;H> !?G;H>M IH=?JNM @IL 0J;NC;F )I=;FCM;NCIH &H>C=;NCIH ;H> .O;HNCe=;NCIH ),
 BNNJM>ICILA),
CNS I@ OAM<OLA  0N;>NQ;F> OAM<OLA "LBIFOHA LOH> OG )?=B OH> 4?LN;=B BNNJ
QQQ;OAM<OLA>?@L?CT?CN;OMfOAMTC?F?MN;>NQ;F> ==?MM?>  OAOMN 
!;HC?F 1  *OB;L  LH<?LA?L  TH;L , IS> '4 B;H (;C *  PIH
>?L !OHE H>L?;M  IHNLC<ONCIHM I@ =OFNOL;F M?LPC=?M NI NB? ?=IMSMN?G M?L
PC=?M ;A?H>; -LI=??>CHAM I@ NB? +;NCIH;F =;>?GS I@ 0=C?H=?M I@ NB? 2HCN?> 0N;N?M I@
G?LC=;    BNNJM>ICILAJH;M
>? $LIIN /0 FE?G;>? / L;;N ) %?CH ) 4CFF?G?H )  B;FF?HA?M CH CHN?
AL;NCHA NB? =IH=?JN I@ ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M ;H> P;FO?M CH F;H>M=;J? JF;HHCHA G;H;A?
G?HN ;H> >?=CMCIH G;ECHA "=IFIAC=;F IGJF?RCNS   BNNJM>ICILA
D?=I=IG
/ !?P?FIJG?HN IL? 1?;G  / ; F;HAO;A? ;H> ?HPCLIHG?HN @IL MN;NCMNC=;F =IGJON
CHA BNNJLJLID?=NILA ==?MM?>  OAOMN 
!I<<M  (?H>;F ! +CNM=BE? /  *OFNCJF? ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M ;H> >CMM?LPC=?M I@
NB? OL<;H @IL?MN ?MN;<FCMBCHA NB?CL =IHH?=NCIHM QCNB F;H>M=;J? MNLO=NOL? ;H> MI=CI>?
GIAL;JBC=M "=IFIAC=;F &H>C=;NILM   BNNJM>ICILAD?=IFCH>

!OH=E?L -0 /;OFOH>/;MGOMM?H ( $OH>?LM?H - (;NT?HMN?CH?L ( >? 'IHA ' /;PH
%- 0JC?=E?L %  %IQ @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN ;@@?=NM ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M CH
=FO>CHA NCG<?L JLI>O=NCIH ;H> ?=IHIGC= L?NOLH 0SH?LAC?M ;H> NL;>?IgM "0  
BNNJM>ICILA"0
">Q;L>M ! ';S * '?HM?H #0 )O=;M  *;LT;HI * *IHN;AH  4?CMM $ 
-O<FC= JL?@?L?H=?M @IL MNLO=NOL;F ;NNLC<ON?M I@ @IL?MNM 1IQ;L>M ; J;H"OLIJ?;H J?L
MJ?=NCP? #IL?MN -IFC=S ;H> "=IHIGC=M   BNNJM>ICILAD@ILJIF

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UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
">Q;L>M !* ';S * '?HM?H #0 )O=;M  *;LT;HI * *IHN;AHY  4?CMM
$  -O<FC= JL?@?L?H=?M ;=LIMM "OLIJ? @IL >C@@?L?HN @IL?MN MN;H> NSJ?M ;M MCN?M @IL
L?=L?;NCIH "0   BNNJM>ICILA"0
"FM;MM?L -  -LI<F?G? >?L 0NC=BJLI<?H;OMQ;BF OH> >?L /?JLXM?HN;NCPCNXN <?C
(*2G@L;A?H &H "FM;MM?L - *?S?LBIg ' ">M VEIHIGCM=B? ?Q?LNOHA PIH
2GQ?FNA^N?LH *?NBI>?H@L;A?H TOL EIHNCHA?HN?H ?Q?LNOHA OH> JL;ENCM=B? "L
@;BLOHA?H CG >?ONM=BMJL;=BCA?H /;OG *?NLIJIFCM3?LF *;L<OLA JJ 
"FM;MM?L -  0NLOENOL ?MO=BMGINCP? OH> "LQ;LNOHA?H PIH 4;F><?MO=B?LH ?CH? ?G
JCLCM=B? 0NO>C? CH >?L /?ACIH %;G<OLA L<?CNM<?LC=BN >?M &HMNCNONM @^L VEIHIGC?
%;G<OLA
"LCEMMIH ) +IL>FOH>   %IQ CM M?NNCHA JL?@?L?H=? L?F;N?> NI CHN?HNCIH NI ?HA;A?
CH @IL?MN L?=L?;NCIH ;=NCPCNC?M 2L<;H #IL?MNLS 2L<;H $L??HCHA   
BNNJM>ICILADO@OA
"0/&  L=$&0 !?MENIJ /?F?;M? 
#CFSOMBECH;  ACG;MM # )OH>B?>? 1 0NL;HA? + ';=I<M?H '  -L?@?L?H=?M
@IL P;LC;NCIH CH @IL?MN =B;L;=N?LCMNC=M !I?M >CP?LMCNS <?NQ??H MN;H>M G;NN?L "=IFIAC
=;F "=IHIGC=M   BNNJM>ICILAD?=IF?=IH
#CM=B?L ' <MIH !' P;H ONMC= B;JJ?FF *' "ELIIM ' %;HMJ;=B ' 4?BL>?H
PIH %  );H> 0J;LCHA 3?LMOM );H> 0B;LCHA *IPCHA #ILQ;L> IHM?LP;NCIH )?N
N?LM   BNNJM>ICILA=IHF
#CMB?L  1OLH?L /( *ILFCHA -  !?eHCHA ;H> =F;MMC@SCHA ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M @IL
>?=CMCIH G;ECHA "=IFIAC=;F "=IHIGC=M    BNNJM>ICILAD
?=IF?=IH
$;L=[;+C?NI - $;L=[;)FIL?HN? * &HC?MN;L;H>C; & *;LN[H)\J?T   *;J
JCHA @IL?MN ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M #LIG JLIPC>CHA OHCNM NI <?H?e=C;LC?M "=IMSMN?G 0?L
PC=?M   BNNJM>ICILAD?=IM?L
$I<MN?L -% +;MM;O?L '& !;HC?F 1  #LS $  1B? MB;L?> F;H>M=;J? 4B;N >I?M
;?MNB?NC=M B;P? NI >I QCNB ?=IFIAS );H>M=;J? "=IFIAS    BNNJM>IC
ILAMR
$LZN/?A;G?S  LOHH?L 0% FNQ?AA ' BLCMN?H * ?<C -  &HN?AL;NCHA "R
J?LN (HIQF?>A? CHNI *;JJCHA "=IMSMN?G 0?LPC=?M 1L;>?IgM @IL 0OMN;CH;<F? #IL?MN
*;H;A?G?HN "0   BNNJM>ICILA"0
$OH>?LM?H 30 #LCPIF> )%  -O<FC= JL?@?L?H=?M @IL @IL?MN MNLO=NOL?M L?PC?Q
I@ KO;HNCN;NCP? MOLP?SM @LIG #CHF;H> +ILQ;S ;H> 0Q?>?H 2L<;H #IL?MNLS 2L<;H
$L??HCHA   BNNJM>ICILADO@OA
%;;M? ! );LIH>?FF? + H>?LMMIH " LNG;HH * ILAMNL]G 0 L?OMN? '
"FGKPCMN 1  KO;HNCN;NCP? L?PC?Q I@ OL<;H ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=? ;MM?MMG?HNM
IH=?JNM GI>?FM ;H> CGJF?G?HN;NCIH G<CI    BNNJM>ICILA
M
%;CH?M5IOHA / -INM=BCH *  IGGIH &HN?LH;NCIH;F F;MMCe=;NCIH I@ "=IMSMN?G
0?LPC=?M  & "0 IHMOFN;NCIH IH 3?LMCIH  OAOMN !?=?G<?L  /?JILN NI NB?
"OLIJ?;H "HPCLIHG?HN A?H=S
%;OLO ( (IMECH?H 0 (INT? !' )?BPXPCLN; 0  1B? ?@@?=NM I@ >?=;SCHA FIAM IH
NB? ;?MNB?NC= ?RJ?LC?H=? ;H> ;==?JN;<CFCNS I@ OL<;H @IL?MNM &GJFC=;NCIHM @IL @IL?MN
G;H;A?G?HN );H>M=;J? ;H> 2L<;H -F;HHCHA   BNNJM>ICILA
DF;H>OL<JF;H
%?A?NM=BQ?CF?L (1 >? 3LC?M 0 LH<?LA?L  ?FF 0 L?HH;H * 0CN?L + %OH
TCE?L *  )CHECHA >?G;H> ;H> MOJJFS @;=NILM CH C>?HNC@SCHA =OFNOL;F ?=IMSMN?G
M?LPC=?M I@ OL<;H AL??H CH@L;MNLO=NOL?M L?PC?Q I@ "OLIJ?;H MNO>C?M 2L<;H #IL?MNLS
2L<;H $L??HCHA   BNNJM>ICILADO@OA
%?A?NM=BQ?CF?L (1 -FOG  #CM=B?L  LXH>FC 2 $CHTF?L  %OHTCE?L * 
1IQ;L>M ; =IGJL?B?HMCP? MI=C;F ;H> H;NOL;F M=C?HNCe= @IL?MNL?=L?;NCIH GIHCNILCHA CH
MNLOG?HN JLININSJC=;F ;JJLI;=B );H>M=;J? ;H> 2L<;H -F;HHCHA   BNNJM
>ICILADF;H>OL<JF;H
%OHTCE?L * )CH>?LH " PIH ;O?L + #LC=E '  !;M 3?LBXFNHCM >?L 0=BQ?CT?L
?P]FE?LOHA TOG 4;F> 4;F>GIHCNILCHA MITCIEOFNOL?FF 4?CN?L?HNQC=EFOHA OH>
TQ?CN? "LB?<OHA 4;*IM  "C>A #ILM=BOHAM;HMN;FN @^L 4;F> 0=BH?? OH> );H>M=B;@N
40) CLG?HM>IL@
'?HM?H #0 (I=B +"  *?;MOLCHA @IL?MN JL?@?L?H=?M I@ NB? JIJOF;NCIH !;HCMB
;JJLI;=B 0QCMM #IL?MNLS 'IOLH;F   
(C?H;MN # !?A?HB;L>N  4?CF?HG;HH  4XA?L 5 O=B?=E?L *  $&0;MMCMN?>
G;JJCHA I@ F;H>M=;J? MOCN;<CFCNS @IL H?;L<S L?=L?;NCIH );H>M=;J? ;H> 2L<;H -F;H
HCHA    BNNJM>ICILADF;H>OL<JF;H
(L;MHS *" /OMM  1C><;FF ($ "FGKPCMN 1  CPC= ?=IFIAS JL;=NC=?M -;LNC=CJ;
NILS ;JJLI;=B?M NI A?H?L;NCHA ;H> G?;MOLCHA ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M CH =CNC?M "=IMSMN?G
0?LPC=?M   BNNJM>ICILAD?=IM?L
);@IH> 3 IL>IHHC?L 1 *;I 6 IOL<;O>   1L;>?IgM ;H> MSH?LAC?M <?NQ??H
?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M CH OH?P?H;A?> GIOHN;CH @IL?MNM "PC>?H=?M OMCHA -;L?NI @LIHNM
"OLIJ?;H 'IOLH;F I@ #IL?MN /?M?;L=B    BNNJM>ICILA
M
);LIH>?FF? + %;;M? !  2L<;H ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M ;MM?MMG?HN ;FIHA ; LOL;FOL<;H
AL;>C?HN =LIMM;H;FSMCM I@ "OLIJ?;H =CNC?M "=IFIAC=;F &H>C=;NILM   BNNJM
>ICILAD?=IFCH>
);LIH>?FF? + %;;M? !  ;=E NI H;NOL? ,L HIN 2L<;H >Q?FF?LM ;H> NB?CL @IL?MN
CH <?LFCH 2L<;H "=IMSMN?G   BNNJM>ICILAM
)@0N;N  ?P]FE?LOHA (L?CM? $?M=BF?=BN +;NCIH;FCNXN 0NC=BN;A L BNNJM
QQQMN;NCMNCE>;N?H<;S?LH>?A?H?MCMIHFCH?F;HAO;A?>?
M?KO?HT1;<?FF?"LA?<HCMM?F?=NCIHH;G?L ==?MM?>  OAOMN 
)I>?L?L   !C? ?MCNTA?M=BC=BN? OH> ?MCNTP?LQ;FNOHA >?L OAM<OLA?L 0N;>NQ;F
>OHA?H "CH ?CNL;A TOL OAM<OLA?L 0N;>NA?M=BC=BN? !CMM?LN;NCIH *^H=B?H
)IOL?CLI *) !IGCHAO?T L=IM #  JJFSCHA ?MN4ILMN 0=;FCHA CH ; MN;N?> JL?@
?L?H=? ;H;FSMCM I@ @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN JLIAL;GM 'IOLH;F I@ #IL?MN "=IHIGC=M  
 BNNJM>ICILADD@?
)OJJ $ #]LMN?L  (;HN?F<?LA 3 *;LEG;HH 1 +;OG;HH ' %IH?LN  -;OF?CN
0  MM?MMCHA NB? L?=L?;NCIH P;FO? I@ OL<;H QII>F;H> OMCHA NB? ?=IMSMN?G M?L
PC=? ;JJLI;=B CH NQI @IL?MNM CH NB? GOHC=B G?NLIJIFCN;H L?ACIH 0OMN;CH;<CFCNS 
 BNNJM>ICILAMO
)SSNCGXEC ' 0CJCFX *  %IJJCHA IH IH? F?A 1B? =B;FF?HA? I@ ?=IMSMN?G >CMM?L
PC=?M @IL OL<;H AL??H G;H;A?G?HN 2L<;H #IL?MNLS 2L<;H $L??HCHA  
BNNJM>ICILADO@OA
*;HH  <MB?L '!  /?=L?;NCIH =IHfC=N JIN?HNC;F ;H> G;H;A?G?HN CGJFC=;NCIHM
CH NB? HILNB?LH=?HNL;F F;=E #IL?MN +;NOL? -;LE 'IOLH;F I@ "HPCLIHG?HN;F -F;HHCHA
;H> *;H;A?G?HN    BNNJM>ICILA
*"  "=IMSMN?GM ;H> BOG;H Q?FF<?CHA 0SHNB?MCM 1B? GCFF?HHCOG ?=IMSMN?G ;M
M?MMG?HN M?LC?M &MF;H> -L?MM 4;MBCHANIH ! 
*?S?L * 0=BOFT   !I ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M JLIPC>? ;H ;>>?> P;FO? =IGJ;L?> NI
?RCMNCHA @IL?MN JF;HHCHA ;JJLI;=B?M CH ?HNL;F "OLIJ? "0   
,>? #LS $  GI>?F @IL KO;HNC@SCHA ;H> JL?>C=NCHA OL<;H JL?MMOL? IH QII>
F;H> );H>M=;J? ;H> 2L<;H -F;HHCHA    BNNJM>ICILAD
F;H>OL<JF;H
-;L;==BCHC *) 6OFC;H $ (IJJ?LICH?H ) *;?M ' 0=BXAH?L '- 1?LG;HM?H *
C>IAFCI $  *;JJCHA =OFNOL;F ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M @L;G?QILE NI ;MM?MM
NB? JIN?HNC;F @IL ION>IIL L?=L?;NCIH ;=LIMM NB? "2 "=IFIAC=;F &H>C=;NILM  
BNNJM>ICILAD?=IFCH>
-;MNIL?FF; # P>;ACc  d;<;L;P>Cc  *L;EIPCc  ,MG;HIPCc * -;F?NNI  
1IOLCMNMJ?L=?JNCIH I@ >?;>QII> CH GIOHN;CH @IL?MNM HH;FM I@ #IL?MN /?M?;L=B 
  BNNJM>ICILA;@L
-?N?LMIH ' %LIH?E   /CME G;H;A?G?HN @IL J;LE L?=L?;NCIH ;H> F?CMOL? M?L
PC=?M NB ?> 0;A;GIL? -O< 2L<;H; &)
-FC?HCHA?L 1 !CDEM 0 ,N?LIM/IT;M " C?FCHA   MM?MMCHA G;JJCHA ;H> KO;H
NC@SCHA =OFNOL;F ?=IMSMN?G M?LPC=?M ;N =IGGOHCNS F?P?F );H> 2M? -IFC=S  
BNNJM>ICILADF;H>OM?JIF
/;=?PMECM ) )OJC #  IGJ;LCHA 2L<;H ;H> /OL;F -?L=?JNCIHM I@ ;H> #;GCFC;L
CNS 4CNB NB? *;H;A?G?HN I@ #IL?MN "=IMSMN?GM 0I=C?NS +;NOL;F /?MIOL=?M  
 BNNJM>ICILA
/C<? /$  1B? ;?MNB?NC=M I@ @IL?MNLS 4B;N B;M ?GJCLC=;F JL?@?L?H=? L?M?;L=B
N;OABN OM "HPCLIHG?HN;F G;H;A?G?HN    BNNJM>ICILA
#
/C<? /$  &HMN;H> M=?HC= <?;ONS I@ P;LC;<F? L?N?HNCIH B;LP?MNM ;H> G;NOL? @IL?MNM
CH NB? 20 -;=Ce= +ILNBQ?MN 1B? ?@@?=NM I@ <;M;F ;L?; >?HMCNS L?N?HNCIH J;NN?LH ;H>
>IQH QII> 'IOLH;F I@ ?HPCLIHG?HN;F G;H;A?G?HN    BNNJM>ICILA
DD?HPG;H
/S><?LA ! #;F=E '  2L<;H @IL?MNLS CH 0Q?>?H @LIG ; MCFPC=OFNOL;F J?LMJ?=NCP?
L?PC?Q );H>M=;J? ;H> 2L<;H -F;HHCHA    BNNJM>ICILA
0
0=B;FF - $IMMH?L ** %?CHLC=BM 0 #CM=B?L * I=B 0 -L;NC ! *ILC  
1B? CGJ;=N I@ ?P?H;A?> ;H> OH?P?H;A?> @IL?MN G;H;A?G?HN IH L?ACIH;F <CI>CP?LMCNS
I@ GOFNCJF? N;R; CH "OLIJ?;H <??=B @IL?MNM 'IOLH;F I@ JJFC?> "=IFIAS  
BNNJM>ICILA
0=BL;O>S * -?CNTM=B '  "LQ?CN?LN? 6QCM=B?HL?PCMCIH TOG #ILMNQCLNM=B;@NMJF;H
@^L >?H 0N;>NQ;F> OAM<OLA ?NLC?<MEF;MM? );H>Q;F>  !CHE?FM=B?L<?H
0=BL;O>S *  #ILMNQCLNM=B;@NMJF;H @^L >?H 0N;>NQ;F> OAM<OLA ?NLC?<MEF;MM?
OQ;F> !CHE?FM=B?L<?H
0?NI (  /??H<?LA  IIH? $ #L;AEC;M * %;;M? ! );HA;HE? 1 0CGIH
!  2L<;H F;H> N?F?=IHH?=NCIHM ;H> MOMN;CH;<CFCNS -LI=??>CHAM I@ NB? +;NCIH;F
=;>?GS I@ 0=C?H=?M I@ NB? 2HCN?> 0N;N?M I@ G?LC=;    BNNJM
>ICILAJH;M
0B;=EF?NIH * /OQ;HT; 0 0CH;MMIH 0;HHC $( ?HH?NN 0 >? );=S - *I>CJ; /
1BIH>BF;H; $  2HJ;=ECHA -;H>IL;M <IR 2H>?LMN;H>CHA ;H> =;N?AILCMCHA

UNCORRECTED PROOF
+>+7+9'1 '3*8)'5+'3*"7('31'33/3- ===  ======
?=IMSMN?G >CMM?LPC=?M @IL ?HPCLIHG?HN;F G;H;A?G?HN ;H> BOG;H Q?FF<?CHA "=IMSMN?GM
   BNNJM>ICILAMT
0C?PXH?H 1 LH<?LA?L  0bH>?LA;;L> !?B?T ' '?HM?H #L;HE  *IHCNILCHA I@
@IL?MN L?=L?;NCIH >?G;H> &H ?FF 0 "> "OLIJ?;H @IL?MN L?=L?;NCIH ;H> NIOLCMG
B;H><IIE 1;SFIL #L;H=CM <CHA>IH
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... bei der NaherholungEine eigene Untersuchung in einem Wald der Stadt Augsburg zeigt einen weiteren, ganz anders gelagerten Aspekt der Naherholung: Waldbesucher gehen in den Wald, um »abzuschalten«! Im Rahmen eines Forschungsprojekts zu verschiedenen Ökosystemdienstleistungen eines 1.700 ha großen, stadtnahen Waldgebiets wurden unter anderem aufwändige Erhebungen zur Erholungsnutzung gemacht[27]. Anzwei Sommertagen (Freitag und Sonntag) im Juli 2016 und vier Wintertagen (Dezember 2016 und Januar 2017) wurden an allen maßgeblichen Waldeingängen für acht Stunden insgesamt 478 Waldbesucher zu ihren Gewohnheiten, erwünschten Nutzen Die Besonderheiten der Ökosystemdienstleistung »Naherholung« -Ergebnisse eines LWF-Projekts Christoph Schulz und Markus Meyer Die Erholung im Wald ist komplex und schwer zu fassen. ...
... Neben den befragten Waldbesuchern wurde auch die Gesamtzahl der Waldbesucher an den Waldeingängen gezählt, so dass Karten der Nutzungsintensität für einzelne Wegeabschnitte erstellt werden konnten. Die Antworten der Befragung wurden statistisch ausgewertet und über Clusteranalysen den genutzten Wegen zugeordnet, um die Muster der Erholungsnutzung zu analysieren (für Details siehe[27]). Abbildung 1 zeigt die Intensität der Erholungsnutzung im untersuchten Waldgebiet. ...
... Auch Sonderstrukturen, die nicht unmittelbar dem Wald zugeschrieben werden können, sind für einige Waldbesucher bedeutsamer als besondere Waldstrukturen. Das kann sich auf Infrastrukturelemente wie Spielplätze, auf Gewässer oder auch auf Abwechslungen zum gewohnten Waldbild wie die Heideflächen beziehen [27]. ...
Article
Die Erholung im Wald ist komplex und schwer zu fassen. Immerhin geht es um viele verschiedene Menschen mit unterschiedlichsten Ansprüchen. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zu den gewünschten, idealen Vorstellungen des Waldes müssen dabei nicht unbedingt mit dem alltäglichen Verhalten übereinstimmen.
... Schuurman et al., 2021), ignoring the amount of both the top-down and eye-level greenness exposure. Third, only a few studies adopt an activity path-based measure approach (Gerstenberg et al., 2020;Korpilo et al., 2018;Meyer et al., 2019), which can closely represent the perceptible area surrounding the running routes. The knowledge gaps mentioned above prevent urban planners and related decision-makers from developing evidence-based landscape strategies to promote running behaviour and perceived satisfaction by modifying the environmental conditions. ...
... These empirical studies often use digital tools to map location-based behaviours and perceptions from respondents, making it possible to conduct joint analysis of personal-based and place-based data collected by PPGIS method together with other geographic data such as georeferenced census data (Kajosaari and Pasanen, 2021). PPGIS mapped routes have been implied to study the spatial behaviours and activities in urban forests and parks (Gerstenberg et al., 2020;Korpilo et al., 2018;Meyer et al., 2019). These studies demonstrated that the drawn routes can offer valuable insights on the general spatial patterns and concentration of physical exercise (Korpilo et al., 2018). ...
... First, we employed the PPGIS method to bridge the gap between the spatial units originated from the traditional home locations and collected mapping routes. The activity path-based measures provide spatially explicit data (Meyer et al., 2019) and can more precisely reflect the settings where the running activity actually occurs due to the continuous nature of running. Second, we assessed the eye-level greenness by using a deep learning technique of fully conventional neural network for semantic segmentation of Google Street View (GSV) images (Li et al., 2015;Toikka et al., 2020). ...
Article
Studies on the linkages between nature exposure and physical activities often focus simply on the immediate vicinity of home locations, but path-based exercises, such as running and cycling, are continuous activities and cover a broad spatial extent. Thus, the traditional home buffer approach fails to acknowledge the settings where road running actually occurs. This study employed an activity path-based measure approach using public participation GIS (PPGIS) to investigate the associations between running satisfaction and nature exposure. The mapped routes (N=545) that included an assessment of satisfaction level were collected from 249 runners resided in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland. Logistic regression analyses revealed a positive association between running satisfaction and nature exposure, including eye-level greenness, top-down greenness and blue space density. Top-down greenness was assessed by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the eye-level greenness by Green View Index (GVI), the latter one of which uses a deep learning algorithm. Running environment was more satisfying in those routes with more public transport nodes. Other traffic-related factors breaking the momentum of runners such as traffic light density were inversely related to running satisfaction. Demographic characteristics such as education background also played a significant role in the perceived satisfaction with running routes. The positive impacts of nature exposure on running satisfaction further verify the linkages between landscape and public health.
... extensive reviews by Ciesielski and Sterenczak (2018), Gundersen and Frivold (2008) and Ribe (1989). Studies focusing on winter use or on a comparison of summer and winter recreation, on the other hand, barely exist (Meyer, Rathmann, & Schulz, 2019). In the few existing studies, seasonal differences have been found concerning tree beauty (Zhao, Xu, & Li, 2017), the suitability of forest environments for recreational use (Tyrväinen, Silvennoinen, & Hallikainen, 2017), forest attractiveness (Koivula, Silvennoinen, Koivula, Tikkanen, & Tyrväinen, 2020), perceived restorativeness of forest vegetation (Vassiljev, Kuldkepp, Külvik, Kull, & Mander, 2007) and forest recreational value (Bartczak, Englin, & Pang, 2012). ...
... As the deciduous trees native to these areas shed their leaves in autumn, an impact on forest attractiveness is to be expected. In a rare field study conducted in Southern Germany in summer and winter, Meyer et al. (2019) found that forest benefits were mostly rated lower in winter than in summer. Little is known about the factors determining forest attractiveness in winter compared with in summer, yet this knowledge is needed for forests frequented all year round. ...
Article
Full-text available
Forest policy and management traditionally rely on physical forest data from National Forest Inventories (NFIs). Nationwide questionnaire surveys on the other hand provide information on the relationship between the human population and the forest, but data on the link to the physical forest is missing. In order to monitor outdoor recreation, both are needed. The aim of the present study is to bridge this gap by conducting a forest visitor survey in the vicinity of NFI sample plots and linking questionnaire data and NFI data in a multilevel model to determine the visual attractiveness of the forest plots in both winter and summer. In addition to traditional NFI measurements, visibility range was determined by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The results show that visual attractiveness was mainly determined by the individual characteristics of forest visitors. Although forest plots were generally liked better in summer, major seasonal differences between forest characteristics were limited to a few parameters, and differences in the characteristics of winter and summer visitors were small. Non-seasonal plot-specific variables played a greater role in explaining visual attractiveness than seasonal differences within the forest plots. TLS proved to be a sophisticated and reliable, but time-consuming, method for determining visibility range. We conclude that the resource-intensive on-site survey yielded interesting results, but that intangible factors and confounding effects made it difficult to pinpoint exactly which features determine forest attractiveness. Future monitoring of forest recreation should aim to strengthen the link between physical forest monitoring, as conducted in NFIs, and socio-cultural forest monitoring.
... Trails in urban forests that connect humans in congested cities to nature are a less common topic of study in the literature (Paneerchelvam et al., 2020), and minimal research has explored hikers' perceptions and preferences regarding paved trails. Some studies have indicated that visitors' trail choices are influenced by some nonforest (user-relevant) elements (Meyer et al., 2019), such as the proximity to users' homes (Peterson et al., 1983), suggesting that the provision of desired recreational opportunities for hikers necessitates additional studies to understand the factors related to visitors' usage patterns and preferences for trail characteristics (Zube et al., 1982). ...
... A study in the United States compared urban and suburban greenways, suggesting that different types of trails will attract trail users from different ethnic groups with differing visiting motivations (Keith et al., 2018). A survey conducted in an urban and a rural forest in southern Germany analyzed spatial patterns of recreational use, revealing that rural forests were mostly rated higher for forest benefits, and the visitor intensity was generally higher in the urban forest (Meyer et al., 2019). The above two studies demonstrate the differences between trail users in urban and rural settings, and the environmental background varies considerably with different levels of development. ...
Article
With increased demand for outdoor recreational spaces, it is imperative to understand the experience of recreational hikers. This study explored users’ recreation choices and behavior-based setting preferences for certain trails in one forest park. Using on-site intercept surveys, a total of 1,019 samples were collected from users of hiking trails and greenways in Purple Mountain Forest Park, Nanjing, China. The results from multiple regressions revealed that visitors’ recreation choices for trail settings, companions, and activities were associated with personal attributes, usage patterns, visitor motivations, and their preferences for the trail’s landscape attributes. The findings provide insights for the design and maintenance of trail settings in forest parks to satisfy the needs of various recreational hikers.
... extensive reviews by Ciesielski and Sterenczak (2018), Gundersen and Frivold (2008) and Ribe (1989). Studies focusing on winter use or on a comparison of summer and winter recreation, on the other hand, barely exist (Meyer, Rathmann, & Schulz, 2019). In the few existing studies, seasonal differences have been found concerning tree beauty (Zhao, Xu, & Li, 2017), the suitability of forest environments for recreational use (Tyrväinen, Silvennoinen, & Hallikainen, 2017), forest attractiveness (Koivula, Silvennoinen, Koivula, Tikkanen, & Tyrväinen, 2020), perceived restorativeness of forest vegetation (Vassiljev, Kuldkepp, Külvik, Kull, & Mander, 2007) and forest recreational value (Bartczak, Englin, & Pang, 2012). ...
... As the deciduous trees native to these areas shed their leaves in autumn, an impact on forest attractiveness is to be expected. In a rare field study conducted in Southern Germany in summer and winter, Meyer et al. (2019) found that forest benefits were mostly rated lower in winter than in summer. Little is known about the factors determining forest attractiveness in winter compared with in summer, yet this knowledge is needed for forests frequented all year round. ...
Article
Full-text available
Forest policy and management traditionally rely on physical forest data from National Forest Inventories (NFIs). Nationwide questionnaire surveys on the other hand provide information on the relationship between the human population and the forest, but data on the link to the physical forest is missing. In order to monitor outdoor recreation, both are needed. The aim of the present study is to bridge this gap by conducting a forest visitor survey in the vicinity of NFI sample plots and linking questionnaire data and NFI data in a multilevel model to determine the visual attractiveness of the forest plots in both winter and summer. In addition to traditional NFI measurements, visibility range was determined by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The results show that visual attractiveness was mainly determined by the individual characteristics of forest visitors. Although forest plots were generally liked better in summer, major seasonal differences between forest characteristics were limited to a few parameters, and differences in the characteristics of winter and summer visitors were small. Non-seasonal plot-specific variables played a greater role in explaining visual attractiveness than seasonal differences within the forest plots. TLS proved to be a sophisticated and reliable, but time-consuming, method for determining visibility range. We conclude that the resource-intensive on-site survey yielded interesting results, but that intangible factors and confounding effects made it difficult to pinpoint exactly which features determine forest attractiveness. Future monitoring of forest recreation should aim to strengthen the link between physical forest monitoring, as conducted in NFIs, and socio-cultural forest monitoring. Management implications To address the question which methods are suitable to link socio-cultural forest monitoring with an National Forest Inventories (NFI), we recomment to use photos from NFI plots in an online questionnaire survey instead of an on-site study. Although many variables were used in both studies, their explanatory value was considerably lower in the on-site survey than in the online survey. Future on-site studies should aim to capture intangible factors and confounding effects by including more qualitative research, for example by employing Go-Along interviews or visitor-employed photography, in order to provide in-depth information on which social factors should be included in future monitoring approaches. Including standardised visualisations of NFI plots in each round of socio-cultural forest monitoring together with a set of NFI variables relevant for recreation and visual attractiveness could form the missing link between NFIs and socio-cultural forest monitoring.
... In particular, the paths located in the peri-urban forest are chosen by people of all ages for walking, running, and cycling [36] and are chosen according to their habits and proximity to visitors' homes [37]. The main reasons for choosing to walk on the trail paths were the daily stress caused by living in the city as well as exercise [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, large sections of trail paths throughout Greece have been maintained, revived, and marked, creating a wide network with a total length of approximately 3500 km. The trail paths are one of the main levers of tourism development as they contribute to the preservation, protection, and promotion of the countryside, cultural heritage, and tradition, to the more effective protection and management of areas of exceptional natural beauty and sensitive ecosystems with wildlife. This paper investigates the view of the citizens of the regional unit of Evros, Greece, on the contribution of the trail paths to the protection and promotion of the cultural and natural environment. The research was conducted with the use of a structured questionnaire and through personal interviews. The data were collected and analyzed with the use of descriptive statistical methods as well as multivariate analysis techniques. The results of the research show that the attitudes of citizens to the contribution of paths in the protection and promotion of the cultural and natural environment are directly or indirectly influenced by various factors. In particular, age directly affects the view of citizens towards the trail paths, with the younger ones having more positive views. Other important predictors of citizens’ views were the type of activity in the trail path, with citizens using them for leisure activities or using the easy roots having more positive views towards them.
... Social network analyses have also contributed to the knowledge of social-ecological and institutional fit and mismatch, where institutional structures and networks should match the scales and processes of the ecological systems they govern (Bodin and Tengö 2012, Bodin et al. 2014, Guerrero et al. 2015. The use of social network analysis in the ES literature is however relatively underdeveloped (Connolly et al. 2014, Gaines et al. 2017, Mason et al. 2020, and has often focused on a single ES (Meyer et al. 2019). Collaboration for ES governance and management can be facilitated by key bridging organizations in collaborative ES governance (Odom Green et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Governance of ecosystem services (ES) requires an understanding of the complex dynamics of collaboration (and contestation) of multiple stakeholders and multiple ES. However, many studies consider only a few ES or stakeholder groups. In our work, we map the co-production of multiple ES by multiple stakeholders connected through ES governance networks. Through a unique combination of Public Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS), stakeholder focus groups, surveys, and social network analysis, we reveal insights on social-ecological fit of ES co-production across an area unified by a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve designation. By overlaying relationships between stakeholders, multiple ES, and ES co-production networks, our results reveal gaps and mismatches in the ES governance system. We identified mismatches between those ES most valued by the region’s inhabitants and those managed, governed and studied by relevant institutions and stakeholders. Cultural ES were the most highly appreciated by stakeholders, but social networks of cultural ES governance were the least densely connected, with highly influential stakeholders involved in cultural ES management (e.g., farmers), not well connected to the governance network. Thus, our findings point to a weakness in cultural ES governance and the need of incorporating cultural ES more clearly into natural resource management agendas. Our results show the importance of mapping what is being discussed by whom, and that mapping environmental governance networks alone does not necessarily provide sufficient resolution to understand co-production of different ES. We confirm the difficulties of governing ES when the ES providers and/or beneficiaries operate at different or distant scales, the scale of ecological processes does not match management (e.g., in some regulating and maintenance ES), or stakeholders which are important in affecting ES provision are not involved in governance, resulting in social-ecological misfit. Lastly, our work confirms the broad array of research methods needed to capture the complexity of governing multiple ES.
... Waldbesuche werden damit zu einer gleichsam unentgeltlichen Art der Gesundheitsvorsorge, damit wird implizit auch der Gesundheitsförderung sozial schwacher Gruppen Rechnung getragen. Urbane Wälder erfüllen dabei besonders die Funktion als Erholungsraum für die städtischen Bewohner (Meyer et al., 2019; siehe zu Stadtwäldern auch Aeberhard, 2021 in diesem Band). Der Aufenthalt im Grünen, in naturnahen Landschaften, städtischen Parks oder Wäldern kann vielfältig individuelles Wohlbefinden steigern, Erholung ermöglichen und damit Gesundheit fördern, stärken und stabilisieren (Maller et al., 2008;Abraham et al., 2010;Rathmann 2020aRathmann , 2020c. ...
Chapter
Global sind Wälder seit Jahrzehnten sowohl durch den anthropogen verstärkten Klimawandel als auch durch den damit teilweise einhergehenden Biodiversi-tätsverlust von massiven Änderungen betroffen. Dass Menschen dabei immer stärker in bislang kaum berührte Ökosysteme eingreifen, eröffnet neue Über-tragungswege für Zoonosen, die ihren Niederschlag in Pandemien finden können. Zusätzlich bieten, auf einer globalen Skala, Wälder den Wohn-und Lebensraum indigener und auch isolierter Völker und sind auch vor diesem Hintergrund zu schützen. Denn Wälder stellen zahlreiche Ökosystemleistun-gen für das Überleben, das Wohlbefinden und die Erhaltung und Stärkung von Gesundheit von Menschen zur Verfügung. Wälder bieten Erholungsräume, die sämtliche Sinne positiv ansprechen können, welche daher als eine Ressource angesehen werden können, die sowohl auf körperliche, mentale und soziale Aspekte von Gesundheit wirkt.
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Auch im Ökosystem Wald ist ein erheblicher Artenschwund festzustellen. Neben der Ausweitung von Schutzgebieten bzw. der weiteren Nutzungseinstellung, um diesem entgegenzuwirken, besteht eine Alternative auch darin, in weiter wirtschaftlich genutzten Wäldern mehr natürliche Strukturen als bisher zuzulassen. Dazu zählen etwa das Belassen bzw. die Anreicherung von Totholz. Dieser Beitrag thematisiert, wie sich diese Veränderungen auf die Erholungsleistung auswirken, eine der wichtigsten kulturellen Ökosystemleistungen (ÖSL) von Wäldern. Zur Operationalisierung der Erholungswirkung von Wäldern wurde ein Choice Experiment eingesetzt, das auf einer Befragung einer repräsentativen Bevölkerungsstichprobe in Bayern basiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Totholz-Menge keine Auswirkungen auf die Erholungspräferenzen der Bevölkerung hat. Allerdings hat die Totholzqualität durchaus einen Einfluss, wobei die an natürliche Strukturen erinnernden Zustände präferiert werden. Da die Befragten gleichzeitig stärkeren Artenschutz in Wäldern bevorzugen, besteht kein Widerspruch zwischen den ÖSL Habitatleistung und Erholung, was für die weitere Umsetzung von integrativen Waldnaturschutzkonzepten in der Forstpraxis spricht.
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