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Monitoring of BALB/C strain mice health, investigation of behavior, hematological parameters under the effect of an electromagnetic field

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electromagnetic fields on BALB/c strain mice on their health, body weight, behavior characteristics, hematological parameters and histopathological findings in the brain. The mice of the experimental groups were exposed to electromagnetic waves by using Nokia 230 and Samsung 19300 Galaxy S III mobile phones situated at 2 cm from the cages. In the present study, it can be concluded that the exposure of mice to mobile phone radiation had an effect on the structure of the brain, behavior and body weight. The waves of mobile phones increased activity characteristics and changed some behavioral categories of mice and also decreased their body weight. Histopathological examination revealed mild edema of neutrophils and degeneration of some neurons and glial cells in the brains of experimental mice. The results of the present study showed that a using mobile phone had an influence on in vivo systems.

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Article
In the current study the modulatory role of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on emotionality and locomotion was evaluated in adolescent rats. Male albino Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned into the following groups having 12 animals in each group. Group I (Control): they remained in the home cage throughout the experimental period. Group II (Sham exposed): they were exposed to mobile phone in switch-off mode for 28 days, and Group III (RF-EMR exposed): they were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz) from an active GSM (Global system for mobile communications) mobile phone with a peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2) for 28 days. On 29th day, the animals were tested for emotionality and locomotion. Elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that, percentage of entries into the open arm, percentage of time spent on the open arm and distance travelled on the open arm were significantly reduced in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Rearing frequency and grooming frequency were also decreased in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Defecation boli count during the EPM test was more with the RF-EMR group. No statistically significant difference was found in total distance travelled, total arm entries, percentage of closed arm entries and parallelism index in the RF-EMR exposed rats compared to controls. Results indicate that mobile phone radiation could affect the emotionality of rats without affecting the general locomotion.
Article
The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with ((18)F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes ("on" condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated ("off" condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm(3)) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism (μmol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 μmol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.67-4.2]; P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001). In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna. This finding is of unknown clinical significance.
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The mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of endothelial cells, linked by tight junctions, and the adjoining pericytes and extracellular matrix. It helps maintain a highly stable extracellular environment necessary for accurate synaptic transmission and protects nervous tissue from injury. An increase in its normally low permeability for hydrophilic and charged molecules could potentially be detrimental. Methods to assess the permeability of the BBB include histological staining for marker molecules in brain sections and measurement of the concentration of marker molecules in blood and brain tissue. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Exposure to levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) that increase brain temperature by more than 1°C can reversibly increase the permeability of the BBB for macromolecules. The balance of experimental evidence does not support an effect of 'non-thermal' radiofrequency fields with microwave and mobile phone frequencies on BBB permeability. Evidence for an effect of the EMF generated by magnetic resonance imaging on permeability is conflicting and conclusions are hampered by potential confounders and simultaneous exposure to different types and frequencies of EMF. The literature on effects of low frequency EMF, which do not cause tissue heating, is sparse and does not yet permit any conclusions on permeability changes. Studies on the potential effect of EMF exposure on permeability of the BBB in humans are virtually absent. Future permeability studies should focus on low frequency effects and effects in humans. Care should be taken to avoid the methodological limitations of earlier studies and to determine the pathophysiological relevance of any changes found.
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A major concern of the adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF) is cancer induction. Since the majority of cancers are initiated by damage to a cell's genome, studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on DNA and chromosomal structure. Additionally, DNA damage can lead to changes in cellular functions and cell death. Single cell gel electrophoresis, also known as the 'comet assay', has been widely used in EMF research to determine DNA damage, reflected as single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks. Studies have also been carried out to investigate chromosomal conformational changes and micronucleus formation in cells after exposure to EMF. This review describes the comet assay and its utility to qualitatively and quantitatively assess DNA damage, reviews studies that have investigated DNA strand breaks and other changes in DNA structure, and then discusses important lessons learned from our work in this area.
Article
The role of dopamine in the production of behaviour is multifarious in that it can influence different aspects of movement (e.g. movement initiation, sensorimotor integration, and movement sequencing). A characteristic of the dopamine system which seems to be critical for the expression of this diverse influence is its varied receptor population. Previous studies have shown that specific receptor subtype activation leads to specific behavioural responses or alterations of selective aspects of movement. It is known that one of the important influences of dopamine includes sequential co-ordination of 'syntactic' patterns of grooming movements because moderate loss of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projections specifically disrupts these patterns without affecting grooming actions in a general fashion (Berridge, K.C. Psychobiology, 15, 336, 1989). The specific receptors of the dopamine family which play a key part in this co-ordination of movement sequences is not known. In the present study, we examined the serial order of particular syntactic sequences or chains of grooming actions in mice lacking D1A receptors to explore the relationship between this receptor subtype and movement sequencing. Mutant mice had shorter grooming bouts and a disruption of the organization of sequential patterns compared with wild-type littermate controls. Sequential disruption was reflected in the failure of D1A mutants to follow the syntactic pattern of grooming to completion. This sequential disruption deficit appeared to be specific, as mutant mice initiated more syntactic chains than wild-type controls even though they were less likely to complete them. These results support the hypothesis that D1A receptor activation plays a part in the sequencing of natural action. This conclusion has important implications for the understanding of the functional heterogeneity of dopamine receptor subtypes and of the aetiology of symptoms observed in patients with basal ganglia disease.
Article
The increased use of mobile phones has raised the question of possible health effects of such devices, particularly the risk of cancer. It seems unlikely that the low-level radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted by them would damage DNA directly, but its ability to act as a tumor promoter is less well characterized. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of low-level RF radiation on the development of cancer initiated in mice by ionizing radiation. Two hundred female CBA/S mice were randomized into four equal groups at the age of 3 to 5 weeks. The mice in all groups except the cage-control group were exposed to ionizing radiation at the beginning of the study and then to RF radiation for 1.5 h per day, 5 days a week for 78 weeks. One group was exposed to continuous NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephones)-type frequency-modulated RF radiation at a frequency of 902.5 MHz and a nominal average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.5 W/kg. Another group was exposed to pulsed GSM (Global System for Mobile)-type RF radiation (carrier-wave frequency 902.4 MHz, pulse frequency 217 Hz) at a nominal average SAR of 0.35 W/kg. The control animals were sham-exposed. Body weight, clinical signs, and food and water consumption were recorded regularly. Hematological examinations and histopathological analyses of all lesions and major tissues were performed on all animals. The RF-radiation exposures did not increase the incidence of any neoplastic lesion significantly. We conclude that the results do not provide evidence for cancer promotion by RF radiation emitted by mobile phones.
  • S Rafiqi
  • I Saroj
  • S Kumar
  • R Chaudhary
  • U B Farooq
  • P Kirthika
Rafiqi S., Saroj I., Kumar S., Chaudhary R., Farooq U. B., Kirthika P.: Mobile phone radiations and its impact on birds, animals and human beings. Internat. J. Anim. Vet. Sci. 2016, 3, 25-28.
  • N Saikhedkar
  • M Bhatnagar
  • A Jain
  • P Sukhwal
  • C Sharma
  • N Jaiswal
Saikhedkar N., Bhatnagar M., Jain A., Sukhwal P., Sharma C., Jaiswal N.: Effects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain. Neurolog. Res. 2014, 36, 1072-1079.