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Growth and Yield of Maize-Rajmash Cropping Sequence Affected by Different Agronomic Practices

Authors:
  • Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agricultural University

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted during the kharif and rabi seasons for two consecutive years
The Andhra Agric. J 65 (3): 534-541, 2018
Journ al
Sin ce 1954
Growth and Yield of Maize- Rajmash Cropping Sequence Affected by Different
Agronomic Practices
B V Asewar, V Raja, C Sudhakar, Baby Akula and IM B Baig
Chief Scientist & Incharge, AICRP for Dryland Agriculture, VNMKV, Parbhani.
ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted during the kharif and rabi seasons for two consecutive years 2008-09 and
2009-10 to evaluate effect of Agronomic Practices on growth and yield under Maize-Rajmash Cropping Sequence on
sandy clay loam at Agricultural College Farm, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad,
Andhra Pradesh. The treatment variables were three green leaf manuring options viz. no green leaf manure, dhaincha
green leaf manuring @ 10 t ha"1, sunhempgreenleafmanuring @ 10 t ha"1, two irrigation levels viz. Rainfed conditions.
Irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio to maize and 0.8 IW/CPE ratio and 1.0 IW/CPE ratio to rajmash and four fertility levels
vi/H j - 120:60:40 / 40:60:30 kg NPK lnDF, - 120:00:40 / 40:00:30 kg NPK ha"1, F3 - 180:00:40 / 60:00:30 kg NPK
ha"1 and F4 - 240:00:40 / 80:00:30 kg NPK ha"1 to maize and rajmash, respectively.In maize, greenleaf manuring with
dhaincha andsunhemp @ 10 t ha"1 and scheduling irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio significantly increased growth parameters
at harvest, grain yield as compared to no green leaf manuring and rainfed maize treatment. Among fertility levels,
240:00:40 kg NPK ha"1 (F4) produced significantly taller plants with higher leaf area index and drymatter production
and as well as the grain andstover yield but it was on par with fertility level of 180:00:40 kg NPK ha'1(F3)in both years.
In rajmash, greenleafmanuring with dhaincha and scheduling irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio significantly influenced the
growth parameters. Seed and haulm yield as compared to no greenleafmanuring and 0.8 IW/CPE ratio treatments in
both the years. Among the fertility levels, 80:00:30 NPK kg ha"1 (F4) resulted in numerically higher growth and yield but
it was on par with fertility level on 40:60:30 kg NPK kg ha'^Fj).
Keywords : Agronomic Practices, Green Manuring, Irrigation, Maize, Nutrient Management and Rajamsh.
Maize is the most important cereal crop next
to wheat and rice in the world. M aize has high
production potential compared to any other cereal crop.
Globally it occupies an area of 158.03 million hectares,
with a production of 791.7 MTand average productivity
of 5010 kg ha1 (FAOSTAT, 2008). In India, maize is
cultivated in an area of 8.17 million ha with a production
of 19.73 million tones and average productivity of2415
kg ha1 (Indiastat.com,2010). Recently there has been
trem endo us increa se in area, produ ction and
productivity of maize in Andhra Pradesh.
The productivity of maize largely depends on
its nutrient management. Maize being an exhaustive
crop, demands heavy dose of fertilize application and
it is the key factor in augmenting the production. (Ghosh
and Singh 1996).
The positive role of green manuring in crop
production has been known since ancient time.
Importance of this soil amelioration practice is increasing
in recent years because of high cost of chemical
fertilizers, increased risk of environmental pollution,
and a need for sustainable cropping systems. Green
manuring can improve soil physical, chemical and
biological properties and consequently crop yields. In
addition, green manure crops generally accumulate large
amount of P and on decomposition of residues of these
crops can provide a larger pool of mineralizable soil
organic P for succeeding crops (Tissen el al., 1994).
Rajmash is anunexploited pulse crop in A.P.
Rajmash can be a suitable sequence component crop
in maize based cropping system which demands higher
doses of plant nutrients. The success of the system
solely depends on its ability to tap the unexploited
nutrient reserves in the soil and thereby reducing cost
of cultivation. The per capita availability of pulses has
decreased from 60.7 g in 1951 to 35.5 g in 2007. There
is a need to increase pulse production. Keeping this in
view, to explore the avenues for enhancing the
availability of phosphorus in high P containing soils,
the present investigation was conducted.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The present experiment was conducted at the
College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad, The farm is geographically situated at an
altitude of 542.6 m above mean sea level at 17°19 N
latitude at78° 23 ’ E longitude. The total rainfall received
during Kharif2008 and 2009 was 764.5 mm and 481.3
mm in 24 and 26 rainy days, respectively. During rabi
seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10, 10.4 mm and 38.2
nun rainfall was received in one and three rainy days,
respectively. The soil o f the experimental field was
sandy clay loam with medium organic carbon content,
low in available nitrogen, high in available phosphorus
and potassium. The experiment was laid out in a split -
2018 Maize - Rajmash Cropping Sequence 535
plot design comprising six main plot treatments and
four sub-plot treatments, replicated thrice. The
treatment variables were three green leaf manuring
options viz. no green leaf manure, dhaincha green leaf
manuring @ 10 t ha ', sunhemp green leaf manuring
@ 10 t h a1, two irrigation on levels vi. Rainfed
conditions, irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio to maize and
0. 8 IW/CPE ration and 1.0 IW/CPE ration to rajmash
and four fertility levels viz. F j- 120:60:40 / 40:60:30
kg NPK h a1, F,- 120:00:40 / 40:00:30 kg NPK h a 1,
F3- 180:00:40"/ 60:00:30 kg N PK ha'1 and F4-
240:00:40 / 80:00:30 kg NPK h a 1 to maize and
rajmash, respectively. About 300 mm of irrigation water
applied in six irrigations which coincided with the
physiological demands of maize crop and environmental
needs o f the crops because the irrigations were
scheduled based on ET needs of crop during long dry
spells. As per the irrigation scheduling at 0.8 and 1.0
IW/CPE ratio, 350 and 450 mm of water was applied
in seven and nine irrigations in first year and 350 and
400 mm in seven and eight irrigations in second year,
respectively for rajmash crop. Dhaincha and Sunhemp
were raised in separate field as pre-monsoon crop each
during May for kharif and as pre-rabi crop in October
for rabi in both the years.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1. Effect of GLM on growth attributes and yield,
a. Maize
The growth of maize, in terms of plant height
at harvest were substantially maximum with dhaincha
and sunhemp GLM (a 101 h a1 treatments as compared
to no green leaf manuring during both the years of
study (Table-1). Increase in plant height due to
dhaincha and sunhemp GLM might be due to primarily,
enrichment o f soil nutrients while secondarily due to
maintenance of better physico-chemical and biological
properties of the soil. The reports of Nagaraj et al
(2004), Prasanna Kumar (2007) and Sujatha et al,
(2008) corroborate with the findings of the study. But
the same kind of trend was not observed in the case of
leaves. Similarly, dry matter production was found to
be higher at harvest (Table-1) with green leaf manuring
of dhaincha and sunhemp GLM @ 101 h a1 treatments
as compared to no green leaf throughout the crop growth
period resulting in-enhanced carbohydrate synthesis,
which ultimately led to higher dry matter accumulation
(Table-1). The results corroborate with the findings of
Nagaraj etal., (2004).
Grain and stover y ield o f m aize were
significantly influenced by green leaf manuring (Table-
2). Dhaincha green manuring (5249 kg h a1 mean of
two years) and sunhemp GLM (5172 kg h a1 mean of
two years) gave significantly higher mean grain yield
over no green leaf manuring (4280 kg h a 1 mean of
two years). Dhaincha (8699 kg ha 1) and sunhemp
(8589 kg ha 1) green leaf manuring treatments recorded
significantly higher mean stover yield (Table-2) during
both years of study over no green leaf manuring (7137
kg h a1). Dhaincha and sunhemp green leaf manuring
gave 22.6 per cent and 21.8 per cent more grain yield
of maize (mean of two years) over no green manuring
respectively. Prasanna Kumar (2007), Sujatha et al
(2008), Channabasavanna et al (2008) reported the
same kind of results.
b. Rajmash
Plant height of rajmash was significantly
influenced by green leaf manuring at harvest o f crop
during both the years of investigation. Highest plant
heightwas observed with dhaincha and sunhemp green
manuring during both the years. Increase in plant height
with dhaincha and sunhemp GLM might be due to
primarily, enrichm ent of nutrients in soil while
secondarily due to release of native P and maintenance
of better physic-chemical and biological properties of
the soil. Increased plant height with application of 101
ha'1 FYM was reported by Singh and Verma (2002).
Highest leaf area index was observed with
dhaincha and sunhemp green leaf manuring, while
lowest with no green leaf manuring. Dhaincha green
leaf manuring produced 5.6 and 7.8 per cent increase
in LAI than no green leaf manuring treatment in first
and second year respectively. In dry matter production
same kind of trend is reported that of plant height and
leaves. This might be attributed to increased plant height
and leaf area maintained throughout the crop growth
periods resulting in enhanced carbohydrate synthesis,
which ultimately led to higher dry matter accumulation.
Kumar and Puri (2002) also reported same kind of
results. Seed and haulm yield o f rajm ash was
significantly influenced by green leaf manuring during
both the years of study where dhaincha and sunhemp
green leaf manuring recorded highest seed and haulm
yield, while lowest with no green leaf manuring during
both years of study. Dhaincha and sunhemp green
manuring recorded 26.6 and 23.5 per cent increase in
seed yield (main of two years) over no green manuring,
where as in haulm Dhaincha and sunhemp recorded
26.9 and 24.9 per cent more yield contributing
characters might have contributed for increase seed
and saulm yield with Dhaincha and sunhemp green leaf
manuring. Better plant height and leaf area could have
resulted in better interception and utilization of solar
energy leading to better photosynthetic rate and resulting
in better dry matter accumulation which results in
enhanced haulm yield. These results corroborate with
the findings of Singh and Verma (2002) and Datt et
al., (2006).
536 Asewar et al., AAJ 65
2. Effect of Irrigation Scheduling of growth
attributed and yield
a. Maize
Increase in plant height with irrigation
scheduling at IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 was due to optimum
soil moisture availability to the crop during crucial crop
growth stages and alsofavoured better nutrient uptake,
cell division and cell enlargement. But the leaf number
was not influenced at any crop growth stages due to
irrigation scheduling in both the years, but resulted
higher leaf area index. Similar findings were revealed
by Sundar Singh (2001) and Bharati et al, (2007) who
state that irrigated crop benefited with higher leaf area
index over rainfed crop.
Dry matter production was found to be superior
at harvest with irrigation scheduled at IW/CPE ratio of
1.0 compared to rainfed conditions during both the
years. The increased plant height and more leaf area
index recorded with irrigation treatment have increased
dry matter at harvest. These results corroborate with
the findings of Sundar Singh (2001) and Hussaini et
al, (2001).
Scheduling of irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio
recorded 20.1 and 15.6 per cent 16.4 and 13.6 cent
increase in grain and stover yield during first and second
year, respectively over rainfed condition. The grain yield
obtained under rainfed condition was distinctly lower
than that of irrigated conditions. This could, probably
be due to inadequate water supply during peak periods
of water demand of the crop growth, unlike the irrigated
crop which received sufficient water supply in
consonance with physical demands, especially during
long dry spells and shown favourable influence on crop
growth and development and final yield attributes. All
these favored high maize yields with irrigation. These
results of present study are in conformity with the
findings of Sridhar etal., (1991), Jadhav et al, (1992)
and Hussaini, et al, (2002).
b. Rajmash
Scheduling of irrigation at IW/CPE ratio of 1.0
had a favourable influence on growth and yield of
rajmash as compared to irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio
during both the years of study.
Plant height of rajmash differed significantly
with different irrigation levels at harvest of crop.
Scheduling of irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE recorded highest
plant height at 50,75 DAE and at harvest, while it was
lower with scheduling of irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE during
both the years of study. This might be due to optimum
soil moisture availability favoring root nodule formation
which ultimately increase nutrient uptake and caused
enhanced cell division and cell enlargement. Increase
plant height with increasing frequency of irrigation also
reported by Nandan and Prasad (1998).
Similarly, Leaf area index and dry matter
production was found to be significantly influenced at
harvest. Irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE resulted in 4.4 and
4.7 percent increase in LAI over irrigation scheduling
at 0.8 IW/CPE in first and second year, respectively.
This was due to beneficial effect of adequate soil
moisture in maintaining the cell turgidity and cell
elongation. These results corroborate with the findings
of Kundu et al, (2008).
Seed and haulm yield of Rajmash was
significantly influenced by different irrigation schedules
during both the years of study. Highest seed and haulm
yield o f Rajmash was observed with irrigation
scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio and lowest was with
irrigation scheduling at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio during both
the years of investigation. Scheduling of irrigation at
1.0 IW/CPE recorded 10.9 per cent more seed yield
(mean of two years) over irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE.
This might be due to favourable maintenance of soil
moisture by supplying water in consonance with
physical demands and favourable influence on crop
growth and development. All these, resulted in better
growth of crop and significant increase in yield attributes
terminating in better seed yield. Increase in seed yield
with increase in frequency of irrigation was reported
by Patil et al. (2006) and Behura et al., (2008).
Scheduling o f irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE recorded 10.9
per cent more haulm yield (mean o f two years) over
irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE. This might be attributed to
better vegetative growth and higher dry matter
production compared to 0.8 IW/CPE ratio. These results
corroborate with the findings of Singh etal, (1996).
3. Effect of Fertility treatments on growth attributes
and yield,
a. Maize
Fertility treatments brought variation in growth
parameters. Maximum plant height was observed at
harvest of crop growth with the higher fertility level of
240:00:40 kg NPK ha 1 (F4) whereas, lowest plant
height was found with the fertility level of 120:00:40
kg NPK ha'1 (FJ. Maize crop responded to higher
nitrogen level and resulted in maximum plant height as
compared to lower nitrogen levels. Similar results of
increased plant height with increased nitrogen levels
were reported by Singh et al, (2003). But the leaf
number was not influenced by increasing nitrogen levels
during both the years. However, its influence was seen
in leaf area index. The same kind of observations were
recorded as that in case of plant height. Increase in
LAI by higher N fertility level was due to increased
supply of nitrogen and more uptake of soil P, had shown
favorable effect on cell enlargement and cell division,
resulting in larger leaves. Similar findings were reported
by Arya and Singh (2001).
Table: 1: Mean Plant height (cm), number of green leaves plant'1, Mean leaf area index and Dry matter (kg ha ’) as influenced by different
treatments at harvest of Maize.
T reatments First year Second year
Plant height
(cm) No. of
green
leaves
Mean
leaf
area
Dry
matter
(kg ha"')
Plant
height
(cm)
No. of
green
leaves
Mean
leaf area
index
Dry
matter
(kg ha"')
I) Main plot treatments
a) Green leaf manuring options
Mo-No green leaf manure 174.7 6.7 0.91 11547 194.2 6.8 0.98 12434
Mi- Dhaincha GLM @ 10 t ha 1 187.4 7.0 1.21 13578 206.7 6.9 1.01 13827
M2- Sunhemp GLM @ 10 t ha ‘ 184.6 7.0 1.16 13303 205.3 7.0 0.99 13496
SEm± 1.09 0.21 0.04 174.2 1.27 0.13 0.02 189
C.D. @ 5% 2.42 NS 0.1 388 2.83 NS NS 421
b) Irrigation levels
Ii- Rainfed 173.8 6.8 1.03 12250 196.9 6.8 0.95 12710
I2- Irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio 190.7 7.1 1.16 13369 207.2 7 1.04 13795
SEm± 0.89 0.17 0.04 142.3 1.04 0.11 0.02 154.2
C.D. at 5% 1.98 NS 0.08 317 2.31 NS 0.04 344
II) Sub plot treatm ents
Fertility levels
Fi- 120:60:40 k gN PK ha" 180.4 7.0 1.08 12107 201 7.0 1.02 12901
F2- l20:00:40 kg NPK ha" 175.5 6.7 0.92 1 1730 196.1 6.7 0.88 11885
F3-l 80:00:40 kg NPK ha" 185.6 7.0 1.19 12878 204.2 7.0 1.04 13677
F4-240:00:40 kgN PK ha" 187.4 7.1 1.21 14123 207 7.1 1.04 14547
SEm± 1.25 0.24 0.05 221.2 1.47 0.15 0.02 127.95
C.D. at 5% 2.56 NS 0.1 411 3 NS 0.05 261.28
2018 Maize - Rajmash Cropping Sequence 537
538 Asewar et al., AAJ 65
Table 2: Grain yield andstover yield (Kg ha of maize as influenced by green leaf manuring options,
irrigation and fertility levels.
T reatments First year Second year
I) Main plot treatments Grain yield Stover Grain Stover
Kg ha’1 yield yield yield
a) Green leaf manuring options Kg ha 1 Kg ha 1 Kg ha 1
Mo-No green leaf manure 4255 7041 4305 7232
M i- Dhaincha G LM @ 10 t ha ' 5180 8549 5318 8849
M2- Sunhemp G LM @ 10 t ha ' 5102 8447 5242 8731
SEm± 168 275 171 206
C.D . @ 5% 375 610 380 458
b) Irrigation levels
Ii- Rainfed 4401 7404 4597 7744
I2- Irrigation at 1.0 IW /C PE ratio 5290 8620 5313 8798
SEm± 138 223 139 168
C.D . at 5% 306 498 310 374
II) Sub plot treatm ents
Fertility levels
Fi- 120:60:40 kg NP K ha" 4674 7742 4663 7831
F2-120:00:40 kgN PK ha" 4192 7064 4375 7393
F3- 180:00:40 kgN PK ha" 5138 8453 5237 8705
F4-240:00:40 kg N PK ha" 5379 8790 5545 9154
SEm± 195 316 197 238
C.D . at 5% 397 645 402 485
Table 3: Mean plant height (cm), number of green leaves plant"1, Mean leaf area index & Dry matter
(kg h a1) as influenced by different treatments at harvest of Rajmash.
Treatments First year Second year
I) Main plot treatments
a) Green leaf manuring options Plant
height
(cm)
Mean leaf
area index Dry
matter
(kg ha"')
Plant
height
(cm)
Mean leaf
area index Dry
matter
(kg ha"')
Mo-No green leaf manure 36.6 0.77 2240 30.8 0.65 2514
Mi- Dhaincha GLM @ 10 1 ha ' 40.2 0.87 2763 35.6 0.76 3060
M2- Sunhemp GLM @ 101 ha ' 39.7 0.84 2758 35.0 0.73 3032
SEm± 0.49 0.02 94.2 0.6 0.03 92
C.D. @ 5% 1.1 0.06 210 1.34 0.06 204.9
b) Irrigation levels
li- Rainfed 38 0.80 251 33.0 0.7 2708
I2- Irrigation at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio 39.5 0.86 2725 34.4 0.75 3028
SEm± 0.4 0.02 77 0.5 0.02 75.1
C.D. at 5% 0.9 0.05 171 1.11 N.S. 167
II) Sub plot treatments
Fertility levels
F,- 120:60:40 kgNPK ha" 39.1 0.91 2920 33.6 0.8 3130
F2-120:00:40kgNPK ha" 36.8 0.74 2147 31.1 0.64 2442
F3-l 80:00:40 kgNPK ha" 39.1 0.81 2521 34.4 0.7 2821
F4-240:00:40 kgNPK ha" 40.3 0.86 2780 35.7 0.75 3001
SEm± 0.57 0.03 133.2 0.7 0.03 106.2
C.D. at 5% 1.16 0.06 297 1.43 0.07 217
2018 Maize - Rajmash Cropping Sequence 539
Table 4: Seed and haulm yield of Rajmash (Kg h a 1) as influenced by different green leaf manuring
options, irrigation and fertility levels.
T reatments First year Second year
I) M ain plot treatments a) G reen Seed yield Haulm yield Seed yield Haulm yield
lea f manu ring options (K g h a ') (K g h a'1) (Kg h a'1) (K g h a 1)
Mo-N o green leaf manure 875 1237 1007 1561
M i- Dhain cha G LM @ 10 t ha ' 1108 1600 1274 1975
M2- Sunhem p GLM @ 10 t ha ' 1081 1563 1243 1926
SEm± 28.2 29.8 32.4 50.2
C.D. @ 5% 62.7 66.3 72.1 11.8
b) Irrigation levels
Ii- Irrigation at 0.8 IW /C PE ratio 972 1386 1118 1732
I2- Irrigation at 1.0 IW /C PE ratio 1071 1548 1232 1909
SEm± 23 24.3 26.4 41
C.D. at 5% 51.2 54.1 58.9 91.3
II) Sub plot treatm ents
Fertility levels
Fi- 40:60:30 kg N PK h a '1 1131 1593 1301 2017
F2-40:00:30 kg N PK ha"1 853 1200 981 1520
F3-60:00:30 kg N PK ha"1 990 1448 1139 1765
F4-80:00:30 kg N PK h a'1 1111 1625 1278 1981
SEm± 32.5 34.4 37.4 57.9
C.D. at 5% 66.4 70.2 76.3 118.3
Highest dry matter production of maize was
recorded with higher nitrogen level of 240 kg N h a1
while lowest dry matter production was recorded with
120 kg N h a1. Fertility levels, Fj and F4 production
6.4, 16.7 and 6.2, 14.7 per cent increase in dry matter
over RDF (F J in first and second year, respectively.
More plant height and LAI resulted in better interception
and utilization of radiant energy, leading to higher
photosynthetic rate, which ultimately resulted in higher
accumulation of dry matter. Enhanced dry matter with
increase in nitrogen level was reported by Singh et. al.
(2003). Yield of a crop is a complex function of genetic
makeup and agro-climatic characteristics. Perusal of
data on grain and stover yield of maize revealed that
fertility level of240:00:40 kg NPK ha 1 (F4) resulted in
significantly higher grain and stover yield of maize, while
lowest grain yield was obtained with the fertility level
of 120:00:40 kg NPK h a1 (FJ. The fertility level of
240:00:40 kg NPK ha'1 (FJ and 180:00:40 NPK kg ha'
1 (F J recorded 17.0 and 11.1 per cent (mean of two
years) increase in grain yield respectively over
recommended fertilizer dose of 120:60:40 NPK kg ha'
1 (FJ. Application of2 40 kg N ha 1 (F J and 180 kgN
ha-1 (F J with recommended level potassium recorded
10.0 and 15.2 per cent (mean of two years) increase in
stover yield respectively over recommended fertilizer
dose o f 120:60:40 NPK kg ha'1 (FJ. The nitrogen
nutrition might have improved source-sink relationship,
with better translocation of photsynthates for grain
formation. The available nutrients in the soil cannot be
utilized efficiently if optimum of required nitrogen is
not available to the crop. Increasing levels of nitrogen
might have increased the native soil phosphorus
availability through the synergistic effect of N and P.
All the above conditions coupled with recommended
potassium application resulted in higher grain yield. The
increased stover yield with increasing nitrogen levels
can be attributed to significant increase in plant height
accompanied by a larger leaf area. Both these beneficial
effects were reflected in higher dry matter production,
ultimately resulting in significantly higher stoveryield.
The increase in grain yield with increasing levels of
nitrogen was reported by Selvaraju (1994), Singh et
al, (2003) and Kumar and Singh (2003).
b. Rajmash
Plant height of rajmash significantly differed
at harvest of crop due to various fertility levels during
both the years of investigation. Maximum plant height
was noticed with the fertility level of 80:00:30 kgNPK
ha J F J and lowest with the fertility level o f40:00:30
540 Asewar et al., AAJ 65
kg NPK ha'1 (F J at harvest during both the years of
investigation. However, plant height observed due to
fertility levels Fp F , and F4 was on par with each other
at harvest of crop during both the years of investigation.
Increased plant height due to increase in nitrogen
application was reported by Dwivedi et a/., (1994) and
Nandan and Prasad (1998).
Higher le af area index and dry m atter
production was recorded with the fertility level of
40:60:30 kg NPK ha'1 (FJ and lowest with fertility
level of 40:00:30 kg NPK h a 1 (FJ harvest of crop
during both the years of study.However, the fertility
level of 40:60:30 kg N PK1 (F J and fertility level of
80:00:30 kg NPK h a 1 (F J recorded on par leaf area
index at harvest of crop during both the years of study.
Highest LAI in fertility level o f40:60:30 kgNPK h a1
(F J was due to application of recommended level of
nutrients from extraneous source. Increased availability
of all the nutrients, in adequate amounts and their
favourable effect on cell enlargement and cell
multiplication resulted in larger leaves during both the
years of study. Increased dry matter production with
increased nitrogen might be attributed to the fact that
adequate supply of nitrogen helps in maintaining higher
auxin levels which in turn might have had favourable
effect on cell enlargement and cell division, release of
P in the initial stages of crop growth could have helped
in root development and nodulation and meeting the
nutrient needsof the crop as RDF treatment. Increase
in dry matter due to increase in nitrogen application
was also reported byAli and Tripathi (1988).
Highest Seed and Haulm yield of Rajmash was
obtained with fertility level of40:60:30 kg N PK 1 (F J
and it was on par with the fertility level of 80:00:30 kg
NPK ha'1 (FJ, while lowest seed and haulm yields
was observed with the fertility level of 40:00:30 kg
NPK ha'1 (F J during both the years of investigation.
Application of 40 kg N h a1 (F J , 60 kg N ha'1 (F J and
80 kg N ha'1 (FJ without phosphorus and with uniform
potassium dose recorded 25.5, 12.3 and 1.8 percent
less seed yield of rajmash (mean of two years) than
recommended dose of fertilizer respectively. The
beneficial effect of adequate nutrients resulted in better
growth and yield attributes and reflected in higher seed
yield of rajmash. Further, higher nitrogen nutrition might
have improved source-sink relationship, with better
translocation of photosynthetes for grain formation. The
increased haulm yield with RDF and 80 kg N h a1 can
be attributed to significant increase in plant height
accompanied by a larger leaf area. Both these beneficial
effects were reflected in higher dry matter production,
ultimately resulting in significantly higher haulm yield.
The increase in seed and haulm yield with increase in
levels of nitrogen was reported by Sharma (2001) and
Behura et al, (2008).
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Received on 27.07.2017 and revised on 15.10.2018
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