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Sisyphos oder Die Grenzen der Erziehung (1925): Werke, Band 5

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... Alternativen waren längst vorhanden. Etwa mit dem Generationenverhältnis als Fundamentalkategorie bei Schleiermacher (Schleiermacher 2000) (Bernfeld 1996;255ff.). Kongenial betreibt das Korczak in seinen Waisenhäusern und geht so weit, dass er als der "Alte" höchstens nachts oder als Imagination verfügbar war, nicht jedoch als Beziehungsangebot. ...
... Denn Erziehung stellt eine Praxis dar, die sich kulturell ausdifferenziert hat, um mit zwei Sachverhalten menschlicher Existenz umzugehen. Sie hat ihren Grund nämlich einmal in der Entwicklungstatsache (Bernfeld 2013). In dem Tatbestand, dass Menschen sich als Gattung wie individuell von Natur aus entwickeln und verändern, in eigener Geschwindigkeit sowie in Aneig-nung von kulturellen Artefakten. ...
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Die Frage einer Ethik in pädagogischen Beziehungen, d.h., was als richtig oder falsch, angemessen oder unangemessen, geboten oder zu unterlassen zu be- werten ist, stellt sich zu jeder Zeit immer wieder neu. Das zeigt sich aktuell eindrücklich an den Ambivalenzen der Regulation von Nähe und Distanz sowie des inter­ subjektiven Anerkennungsgeschehens, die in der Folge der zahlreichen aufgedeckten Fälle gewaltsam auf­ gezwungener Nähe und anderer Formen von Gewalt in erschreckender Weise sichtbar geworden sind. Die Autor:innen beleuchten Fragen einer Ethik in pädagogi­schen Beziehungen aus unterschiedlichen Disziplinen und laden zum Nach­ und Weiterdenken ein.
... Thus, they make use of the same means as the first communicator, that is; exchange of "strikes" or organize their strategies, depending on the communication and practice completeness they have achieved. Within this concept, completeness in communication and practice acquires everyone that finds him/herself in a discourse position or contradiction, uses as a prime priority the rational argument process, or in other words the rational management of contradictions (Bernfeld, 1967;Konstantinou, 2015). ...
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The main issue of this article is education as a meaning “process” and as the requested point (desideratum) in accordance with its role in educational and social reality. More specifically, by illustrating the aspects of this relation, we seek to give prominence to the role of education at an ethical and practical level, concerning not only citizens’ social behavior but educational institutions and wider society, as well. It is our primary intention to highlight education’s relationship with social learning and its effect on students’ social behavior, within the family and school environment. At his point, the practices that the child becomes familiar with within the family, school, and social environment in general and which eventually, play a decisive role in the development of personality and more specific in a person’s behavior, will be discussed. In addition, specific samples of young individuals’ and adults’ social behavior, which reveal the deficiency of education and at the same time concerning prevailing culture and its causes, will be determined. The article is concluded with the final observations, findings, and pedagogical suggestions.
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Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Frage nach der ‚guten‘ Schule. Das von der Studierendeninitiative Kreidestaub entwickelte Format Prinzip Lernreise versucht hierbei keine allgemein gültige Antwort zu geben, sondern einen Fokus auf die Einzelschule und ihre Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten zu lenken. Ebenso wird das reformpädagogische Schulnetzwerk Blick über den Zaun (BüZ) und dessen Antwort auf gute Schule vorgestellt. Es folgt ein direkter Bezug auf die Impulse der Reformschulen auf die Bildungslandschaft in Deutschland und speziell auf die Universität Mainz.
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Demokratisierung und Kinderrechte gelten als wichtige institutionelle Vorkehrungen gegen sexualisierte Gewalt in pädagogischen Kontexten. Dass partizipative Strukturen nicht generell gegen Machtmissbrauch gefeit sind, zeigt das Beispiel der Odenwaldschule. Im Beitrag wird das irritierende Nebeneinander von Partizipation und sexueller Gewalt an der Schule unter Gerold Becker analysiert und zu den „Gründerjahren“ ab 1910 und den „Reformjahren“ ab 1946 in Beziehung gesetzt. Abschließend werden Folgerungen für Konzepte demokratischer Erziehung und die Gestaltung pädagogischer Einrichtungen diskutiert.
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Zusammenfassung Orte der Offenen Jugendarbeit, also Jugendhäuser und -treffs, sind viel mehr als ihre baulich-physische Hülle. Sie werden nicht nur durch die Jugendlichen angeeignet, verändert, mit Bedeutungen versehen, sondern gleichermaßen durch die Praktiken der Jugendarbeiter*innen gestaltet – jeden Tag neu. Doch wie funktioniert diese Herstellung pädagogischer Orte? Wie sind pädagogische Orte raumtheoretisch zu konzipieren, damit die professionellen Praktiken der Ortsgestaltung in den Blick genommen werden können? Aufbauend auf ein ethnografisch vorgehendes Grundlagenforschungsprojekt, welches im Handlungsfeld der Offenen Kinder- und Jugendarbeit in der ganzen Schweiz – regional geprägt durch unterschiedliche Traditionen aus dem Spektrum von Animation, Sozialarbeit sowie Pädagogik – unterschiedliche Einrichtungen untersuchte, werden im Beitrag zentrale Ergebnisse dargestellt sowie entlang empirischer und konzeptioneller Bezüge diskutiert. Ein besonderes Augenmerk wird dabei auf die methodischen Überlegungen bei der ethnografischen Erforschung von „Praktiken pädagogischer Ortsgestaltung“ gelegt. Anhand dichter Beschreibungen von pädagogischen Ortsgestaltungspraktiken im Handlungsfeld der Offenen Kinder- und Jugendarbeit, welche sich von Einrichtung zu Einrichtung unterschiedlich ausprägen, wird eine Eigenlogik sichtbar, welche jeweils vor Ort stimmig oder passend erscheint.
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In rapidly transforming Asian environments, traditional agricultural heritage systems struggle with increasing development pressure and out-migration. Drawing on the Chinese cultural landscape of the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces as a case study, the paper investigates how the concepts of scale and “politics of scale” can be fruitfully mobilised for critical heritage theory and provide practical solutions to overcome conservation–development tensions. In processes of ethnic tourism development and cultural commodification, government authorities pursue different scalar strategies to harness natural and cultural resources for heritage-led regeneration schemes. Such strongly tourism-oriented agendas, as prevailed in the initial stages of development, privilege natural and selected cultural values over social values, thereby contrasting with local inhabitants’ aspirations to improve their living conditions. To encourage participation and sustainable cultural landscape management, the study suggests “upscaling” traditional knowledge and local interests.
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This chapter provides reflections on the consequences of technological change in relation to World Heritage properties. While technological change is a core means of human adaptation and survival, it becomes a risk if the pace is too fast. This has increasingly affected societies worldwide since the industrial revolution, resulting in many negative consequences for people and the environment. Technological change is also associated with positive developments, such as those brought about by digital technology. Insights into both risks and opportunities are given in this chapter, and they are illustrated with examples, such as mining and digital geomedia. Technological change appears as a double-edged sword, but there is currently no methodology for assessing its consequences for World Heritage properties. Therefore, the chapter turns to lessons learnt from the Historic Urban Landscape approach, the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme, and from impact assessment methods. While these provide useful inspiration and a basis for further reflection, the chapter concludes by emphasizing the necessity of a methodology for assessing the impacts of technological change on World Heritage properties against the background of the Sustainable Development Goals.
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The series of World Heritage sites that have been attacked demonstrates that the reconstruction of cultural properties after conflicts and crises is more than the rebuilding and restoration of material and substance; ideally, it is a recovery process regaining social cohesion and cultural identity, which leads to reconciliation in post-trauma societies. If this succeeds, reconstruction is a value and an attribute for authenticity. Thus, the World Heritage program contributes to the constitutional mandate of UNESCO and to reconciliation and peace as a central mission.
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The unique diversity of the world’s highest flora and fauna is a sacred landscape for the resident Sherpa communities, but climate change has been casting a threatening shadow over World Heritage Sagarmatha (Mt Everest) National Park (SNP) for years, causing rapid and pronounced impacts. Tourism is a key driver to the local economy but is exacerbating the impacts of climate change. Through extensive community and individual surveys in major villages, combined with a wealth of data from other studies, we focus on how the impacts of climate change and tourism development can be countered by measures at the local level. We identified two sources of conflict that need to be addressed: (1) conflict between tourism businesses and park management and (2) a lack of awareness of the need for an overarching conservation strategy among residents and stakeholders. To solve these issues, site management needs considerable enforcement and support from the State Party.
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The relationship between Islam and cultural heritage preservation continually comes under scrutiny. This is because of vicious attacks on heritage and artefacts by groups laying claim to Islamic tenets and texts to justify their action. Thus, under this pretext, heritage sites and cultural actors and icons, are eliminated. Why is this so? What is the position of Islam on heritage preservation? How can the narratives of destruction be countered? This chapter interrogates these questions. It argues that the narratives of destruction derive from poor interpretations of the texts and traditions of Islam in respect of cultural heritage. Several monuments in the Islamic world also predate the establishment of Islam. The study brings out textual facts and traditions to counter the narratives of violent elements such as Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), Al-Qaida, Boko Haram, Islamic State in West Africa Province (ISWAP) and Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).
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Responsibility is a central category required for the protection of human heritage. But what does responsibility mean for the protection of our heritage today? Who was and is responsible for which form of responsibility, and how is it communicated? These central questions are derived from the theoretical basis of Hans Jonas’ approach to our ethical responsibility for the consequences of technological development and Max Weber’s approach to our political responsibility, which arises from the role of the state as a legitimised system of rule. Last but not least, reference is made to Hannah Arendt, who argues for individual human responsibility based on human morality. For the learning of responsibility and its implementation, reference is made to education on the basis of international conventions.
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The World Heritage Convention has the highest ratification rate in the world. Not only quantitatively, but also conceptually and politically, the World Heritage programme can be regarded as a great success. Based on the principle of equality of all cultures and societies, it combines the protection of the world’s cultural and natural heritage; regardless of state borders, the preservation of these unique properties should be secured by international cooperation and assistance. This programme is not static, but rather evolves with what we continually redefine as heritage from different technical and political perspectives. Even if the members of the World Heritage Committee do not always advocate for the conservation principles of the Convention, the annual Committee meeting has become the heritage forum for the global community and has proven to be a viable platform for the safeguarding of heritage.
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Shared heritage is a concept that serves to address cultural ties between countries or people that emanate from colonial history, including conflicts and contestations as well as connections and commonalities. This contribution evaluates the potential of shared heritage to work as a tool for a transformative heritage management practice through exploring the post-colonial heritage landscape of Iringa, Tanzania. The historical dynamics of colonialism have left various tangible and intangible traces throughout Iringa Town and Region. Combining ethnographic and historical methods, this paper examines historical narratives of different social groups, representations of these trajectories in the regional museum, and community responses to buildings and sites of colonial origin in the cityscape. In line with UNESCO’s Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) approach, observed applied conservation activities are discussed in the light of local development processes. I argue that shared heritage can serve as a viable concept to grapple with the colonial legacy vested in the HUL while at the same time using the discursive energy provided by these conflicts to support the cultural, social, and economic development of communities.
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It is widely acknowledged that reconciliation and sustainable development are processes that necessitate involvement from local, national and international actors. However, with the attention of international actors overwhelmingly focused on World Heritage sites, this chapter seeks to examine the potential consequences of the disparity in treatment between those sites on the World Heritage List and those that are not but are still significant for their local communities. Kosovo and Iraq are the two cases we use to explore the role, use and treatment of heritage in post-war recovery and reconciliation and how this is affected by World Heritage status. Through an examination of heritage as a political process, we can approach a more in-depth understanding of how heritage shapes and reshapes the politics of post-war memory, inter-community relations, and the extent to which the international community uses World Heritage in these communities to mandate their own politics of remembrance. We argue that heritage can have a “pacifying” role and contribute to peacebuilding, but this will need active, transformative actions from UNESCO which go beyond the Convention and, if possible, beyond politically influenced decision-making. This chapter seeks to fill a gap in the literature of how the local, national and international interact in the post-war environment, as well as the true impact of potential inequalities created by World Heritage.
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This contribution will examine intentional acts of terrorist groups and organised networks directed against cultural heritage as a challenge for international law, e.g., by creating grey zones. In particular, it will be asked to what extent criminal law enforcement can be identified as a missing link in the system of the legal protection of cultural property, including World Heritage. It is seen as necessary to strengthen criminal sanctions for possession and sale of illegally trafficked cultural objects. In that respect, it will be argued, the Nicosia Convention on Offences Relating to Cultural Property, adopted by the Council of Europe in 2017, may give new impetus to criminal law as a tool in the fight against offences against cultural property, helping to reduce lawless areas. Cultural heritage protection, it is emphasised, requires a robust, legally integrated approach, including criminal prosecution for plundering, smuggling, and destruction.
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Tourism has long been noted as a double-edged sword for World Heritage cities that can lead to a wide range of socio-economic benefits while also introducing many stresses that both physically damage sites and affect local communities through gentrification and other socio-economic changes. Festivals, events and cultural mega-events are often framed with a focus on growing tourism, but they can also provide unique opportunities to align heritage with Sustainable Development Goals. This chapter explores these dynamics by looking at three trends that the festivalisation of heritage cities can lead to: establishing and promoting heritage-based city images; spreading out events to reduce stresses; expanding traditional definitions of heritage through involving local communities. Several examples from across Europe that have hosted the Expo, European Capital of Culture (ECoC) and the UK City of Culture (UKCoC) demonstrate varying alignments with the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) approach, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the UNESCO 5Cs to promote the sustainable development and inclusion of historic environments in broader city strategies. The chapter concludes by calling for a more integrated governance approach that can reframe approaches to go beyond just tourism attraction while anticipating and avoiding the potential range of risks of festivalisation.
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The cultivation and preservation of gardens, parks and cultural landscapes as fine art have been expressions of culture for millennia and are becoming essential tasks of cultural property protection in times of climate change. This is because the visible effects of climate change are increasingly threatening the historical aesthetics and current uses of historic gardens. Strategies for climate adaptation require not only thorough and networked experiential knowledge in the field of conservation and restoration sciences but also specific and interdisciplinary research expertise. Gardens as cultural assets must become scientific model laboratories to understand cultivation and conservation as essential cultural tasks of our societies. These challenges must lead to a new understanding of nature that initiates and perpetuates a responsible, humane sense of life through the gardens.
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The World Heritage Convention (WHC), as the premier charter for heritage protection, has long adopted sustainability as a core principle. With today’s understanding of heritage management as an important driver of economic growth, social capital and environmental protection, its reconciliation with sustainable practices is inevitable. Fifty years on, the WHC faces new challenges concerning promoting and supporting sustainable development. With the broad adoption of SDGs, heritage actors working under the WHC framework frequently encounter conflicting objectives. While in theory, the social, ecological and economic dimensions of sustainable development can be reconciled, in practice, this often requires finding viable and balanced trade-offs. The growing awareness for climate change in the last ten years results in the need to reprioritise the different dimensions and can lead to hard choices that have been framed as dilemma situations. This paper takes a closer look at those dilemma situations and discusses how the WHC can help tackle these and make the right decisions in the face of complex sustainability choices.
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Targeting and destroying Syria’s cultural heritage have become a common concern, especially in the case of Palmyra. The ruined city enjoyed a significant position in the country’s history and bore a large share of the violence in Syria’s protracted tragedy. Since 2014, militants of ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) have committed many acts of terrorism, claiming thousands of lives and shattering others, looting antiquities and destroying historic sites, including World Heritage sites. In 2015, ISIS extremists destroyed Palmyra’s major monuments, and, since then, this destruction has been the focus of debates on the academic and professional levels and in the media. This chapter has two parts. The first part briefly reviews Palmyra’s long history, in which monuments have been subject to selective narratives and official instrumentalisation. The second part looks at the current debates on Palmyra’s heritage loss in the light of the actual conflict, in which the local community has been unheeded. This chapter suggests that future efforts need to (re)consider the role of local communities in heritage debates and the right(s) to their heritage to bridge the discontinuity between the past and the future caused by the terrorism and conflict.
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Since its adoption in 1972, the World Heritage Convention has proven to be a remarkable global success story. Despite educational programmes being anchored from the outset in the World Heritage Convention (1972, Art. 27), UNESCO’s own 1994 World Heritage Education Programme (WHEP) has not been as successful as the World Heritage Convention itself. WHEP’s lack of grounding in educational theory, practical implementation and links to current educational debates cast serious doubts on the programme’s relevance for the next 50 years of the World Heritage Convention, potentially even threatening the continued protection of World Heritage properties. This chapter examines the status of education in the implementation of Article 27 of the World Heritage Convention and offers some foundations in educational theory to tap the potential of World Heritage Education (WHE) in the wider framework of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Global Citizenship Education (GCEd).
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Current prospection activities lead not only to the opening of new mines but also to a revival of activity in historic mining areas that are partly in or close to protected areas. Consequently, the issue of mining and its potential negative impact on protected areas, including natural World Heritage sites in particular, has increased over the past two decades. Considering that attributes and values assigned to natural World Heritage sites differ from those assigned to cultural World Heritage sites, the paper focuses on the evaluation of the potential impact of mining activities on cultural World Heritage sites and outlines management and conservation strategies as well as recommendations for the assessment of potential negative and positive impacts of mining activities on the OUV.
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The World Heritage Convention is increasingly exposed to criticism mainly due to its “infection by politics”. The transforming dynamics of the World Heritage system reflect broader transformations in global governance. As an international organization, UNESCO does not escape the continuous weakening of multilateralism. States parties to the 1972 convention are getting used to dealing with it mainly as a proxy for power and international conflict (Meskell). The global narrative of World Heritage is slowly being corrupted. The authors argue that in order to understand developments in the World Heritage system we need to acquire a broader perception of the transformations in international relations, and to make the best use of the still emerging concept of global governance.
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In recent years, many “living” cultural and urban landscapes on a large scale were inscribed on the World Heritage List. However, such complex World Heritage properties generate frequently challenges concerning their management due to transformations caused by to pressure to change. As a result, there is a need for new proactive systematic approaches to assess such transformations combining innovative technical solutions with a systematic approach to using attributes and values conveying their Outstanding Universal Value. Taking the World Heritage cultural landscape Upper Middle Rhine Valley as a case study, this paper investigates such a systematic instrument to monitor transformations and to assess their impact on the OUV and integrity of UNESCO World Heritage properties. It is concluded that such systematic technical instruments can be helpful to support strategies for an integrated management combining preservation and sustainable development. However, an in-depth theoretical knowledge of sites’ OUVs and attributes and values related thereby, as well as a sound integration in existing legislative frameworks and the participation of stakeholders on various levels is indispensable to guarantee their full effectiveness.
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This paper reconsiders the possibilities for heritage conservation through everyday practices found in temporary uses as relevant and cost-effective tools in a constantly transforming urban environment, contributing to a more sustainable urban development. For this aim, three of the author’s previous case studies of temporary uses in the city of Berlin are reconsidered from the perspective of heritage conservation through everyday practices and citizen participation. Berlin, with its rapidly changing urban environment since 1989, has been an experimental hub for countless temporary uses in a short period of time and therefore provides useful insights into the viability of temporary uses for urban heritage conservation from a variety of perspectives. This paper shows that temporary uses, especially ones that develop into permanent businesses, help to protect buildings from decay, revitalize neglected urban areas, contribute to the realization of the SDGs, and provide affordable spaces for cultural and social activities.
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The rapid acceleration of science and technology has enabled people to make unprecedented changes to their environment and to alter the global climate. The changing climate, together with biodiversity loss, now pose significant threats to people and their heritage. This chapter provides an introduction to the impacts that climate change is having on World Heritage and how those impacts are being addressed. It considers the conflict that can be created between interventions to protect against climate change and the conservation of heritage values. Effective on-site management is an important tool in addressing climate change impacts and should be supported by states parties together with local engagement and national and international collaboration. World Heritage sites should not be viewed in isolation from their surrounding environment, and a strong World Heritage Climate Change policy is required to guide future management and implementation of the World Heritage Convention.
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Since the adoption of the World Heritage Convention (1972), modern technologies have significantly changed the way our society behaves and operates, with an increased demand for energy, fast and reliable communications, etc. Some modern technologies might contribute to negative impacts on heritage sites, e.g. through climate change and/or excessive tourism; however, modern digital technologies can also be extremely beneficial for heritage activities. In this paper, we focus on how modern digital geo-science and geo-technology can support heritage authorities’ daily work. We introduce herein the concept of digital Geoheritage, which can help heritage authorities to discover and understand the enormous benefits that geomatics can provide for their daily heritage activities. This research case, implemented through an interdisciplinary scientific approach, originally aimed to support the preservation, restoration and management of a cultural heritage site; however, it was later expanded to also support archaeological research, stability risk assessment, planning, design, education, dissemination and promotion. The use of digital geo-sciences for the benefit of the local Maya communities living around a heritage site is also illustrated. Our objective, within the current book, was to present a paper that is oriented toward heritage authorities, and, therefore, technical language has been avoided.
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The chapter “Outlook” brings together the main messages of this book; formulates concluding comments and reflects on the way forward. Out of the many conflicts affecting World Heritage, the chapter highlights some, which appear as obstacles that must be overcome for a sustainable protection. The unequal geographical distribution of World Heritage properties and of the decision-making bodies; and the difficulty to reconcile economic interests with conservation and development needs are two examples. Further examples refer to the discrepancies in the interpretation of the meaning of World Heritage between experts and the civil society; and the climate and biodiversity crises, which require full participatory and inclusive approaches that integrate culture and nature protection. In light of these examples, the chapter concludes by underlining that the future of the World Heritage Convention can only be envisioned if such challenges were confronted and resolved.
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There is a strong interconnection between tourism and World Heritage Sites. This interconnection, on the one hand, can have a positive impact by presenting these sites to the public and helping generate conservation funds, but, on the other hand, if done unsustainably, can lead to their degradation. The adoption of digital technologies in tourism has made travel and visitations, even in remote areas, relatively easy. The adoption of new technologies at World Heritage Sites can also prove to be beneficial and help evolve a more sustainable tourism model at these venues. Furthermore, the new conditions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, while having a detrimental impact on global tourism, provide an opportunity to remotely promote and generate revenue to preserve a regions’ tangible and intangible heritage. A technology-based intervention, if adopted correctly, can help to develop sustainable visitation capacity and management at World Heritage Sites while also enhancing and enticing visitation at lesser-known sites. Case studies from Greece and India are presented to demonstrate how to increase visitation to lesser-known sites and enhance the overall tourism experience at these sites. A variety of digital tools are presented, from simplistic to technologically advanced ones. These digital tools could be adopted and used globally for other World Heritage Sites to enhance visibility and sustainability.
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The World Heritage Convention combines efforts of heritage protection and conservation on the global, national and local level. It has been adopted by almost 200 countries and has a complex governance system with actors on every level. While these actors are critical to the protection and conservation of World Heritage Sites, very limited research is available that assesses their role and the importance of governmental and managerial structures on a holistic level. This study assesses different governance structures and illustrates how they influence protective efforts. The World Heritage Site Index, which is a comprehensive database of information from almost 900 World Heritage Sites, creates a unique perspective that allows for the comparative assessment of sites regardless of their designation or typology. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, the study reveals clear governance structures that influence the protection of World Heritage Sites and offers a perspective on potential steps toward ensuring that these structures work for and not against the protection and conservation of these sites.
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The Introduction to the book “50 Years World Heritage Convention: Shared Responsibility – Conflict & Reconciliation” sets the stage by presenting the key message, background and content of the book. The identity-building function of heritage and its sustainable protection assume a central role. Accordingly, the chapter provides an overview of policy tools and academic debates engaging with this matter, while emphasizing the critical issues undertaken with the volume at hand. These are to reflect on whether the goals and content of the World Heritage Convention have been implemented accordingly; on the conflicts that have been affecting it over time and the need for sustainable strategies; and on perspectives for the future. This chapter further emphasises the requirements for diversity, arising from the World Heritage Convention and the variety of heritage properties, and it is reflected in the thematic, geographic and disciplinary diversity of the contributions in this book. For illustration, the chapter provides brief descriptions of conflicts affecting heritage, categorized into six areas, as well as summaries of the chapters which address them.
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In 2007, the Policy Document on the Impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage Properties was adopted by the World Heritage (WH) Committee, and a revised policy document, the Draft Policy Document on Climate Action for World Heritage , was released in 2021. An English word search on terms related to potential conflicts between WH and climate change was undertaken and utilised as a starting point for an exploration of developments over the 14 intervening years. Four themes were defined and explored, namely, mission, change, loss, and responsibility. In many cases of perceived conflict, professionals and policy makers have been actively working to find solutions. In others, there is the potential for developing new and creative approaches that will ensure the relevance of heritage in an uncertain future.
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Bamiyan, Palmyra, Timbuktu are examples of iconic toponyms of ancient civilization that have been used as headlines in international media coverage of the Islamist extremists’ war – including the Taliban, Daesh, and Ansar Dine – against World Cultural Heritage as listed by UNESCO. Further, more sites are being inscribed on UNESCO’s list of World Heritage in Danger or referred to in the reports of ICOMOS’ Heritage at Risk programme because of the imminent threat posed by current armed conflict, for example, in Afghanistan, Armenia and Azerbaijan, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Syria, Yemen, and other countries struck by war or the violent consequences of political instability. Nowadays, war, terrorism, vandalism, and iconoclasm pose an equal threat to cultural heritage. This poses a series of questions to heritage as well as conflict studies.
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The commodification of World Heritage potentially takes place in various contexts or “markets”, such as tourism markets, media markets, but also in the sessions of the World Heritage Committee as an inscription market. Loosely following Marxian categories, but based on a broader range of scholars, for example, from philosophical anthropology, several problem areas in the commodification of World Heritage can be distinguished: first, exploitation (e.g. of a World Heritage title, heritage values or of the environment of a site), second, alienation (of residents and visitors towards a site, or between residents of a site and its visitors) and, third, a possible “fetishism” around the title. The article offers a systematic conceptual approach for the analysis of commodification phenomena related to heritage and especially the World Heritage system.
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In this roundtable discussion, emerging heritage experts address their personal involvement with the World Heritage Convention, their assessment of achievements and failures of the 50 years of its history, and perspectives of future developments as seen by the younger generation. The discussion reveals a strong emphasis on more convincingly participatory procedures, community involvement, global equity and sustainable development. Heritage is what we take from the past to shape our future. From this conceptual stance, the emerging experts develop their claim of a far more substantial involvement of the younger not only in conceptual perspectivizations of heritage, but also in decision-making bodies. This would allow them to transform and shape the institutions they are working with to be sustainable, diverse, inclusive and future-oriented.
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This study – based on a concrete example of a Hungarian World Heritage site, the Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment – focuses on the topic from the point of view of heritage value, providing attraction and a special experience for visitors without harming local traditions, and contributing to the improvement of the local economic situation, where the outcome is the safeguarding and raising public awareness of the Outstanding Universal Value of a unique site.KeywordsHeritage tourismBenedictine traditionsPresentationMeaningful visitSafeguardingOUV
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UNESCO World Heritage properties in Anatolia show a great variety in their land use morphologies as a response to their environmental differences, developing different ways of managing water for daily use and agricultural irrigation. History testifies to the many conflicts and wars that occurred in defending and/or accessing these important water resources. The remnants of this infrastructure form part of invaluable cultural heritage and present opportunities for the embodied traditional knowledge to mitigate the impacts of climate change. However, ruthless water regimes (i.e. hydroelectric plants), which disregard the importance of water for communities, have prioritized water as a source of energy over its value for daily and agricultural use and have impacted the environment and climate, which directly affects both tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Dried creeks leave water-related infrastructure and equipment without a purpose and people deprived of water. In the age of Anthropocene, such an approach victimizes people through the idea of taking over nature while at the same time making people the victims of nature’s response. In return, new regional conflicts are instigated, and migration becomes inevitable, diminishing neighbourly peace and also aggravating climate change, causing negative impacts on cultural heritage and jeopardising many of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
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Climate change is the greatest threat facing global natural and cultural heritage. All World Heritage (WH) properties will be impacted over the coming century, and our ability to adapt will often be limited. Yet climate change was a threat never envisioned by the drafters of the World Heritage Convention (WHC). This chapter considers how concepts central to the WHC may need to adapt to a rapidly changing world, to reflect three uncomfortable realities of the climate crisis and its impacts on heritage sites. Firstly, climate change is and will continue threatening and invalidating the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of many properties, and there may be little we can do to stop this. Secondly, climate change knows no borders and existing mechanisms may need to be rethought to reflect this. Thirdly, these challenges will, like climate change, disproportionately impact marginalised and indigenous communities in the Global South. It is suggested here that more precise and explicit guidance, which considers local climate modelling and an inclusive approach to values, within the existing proactive mechanisms of the WHC Operational Guidelines would result in a more consistent consideration of climate change impacts at WH properties, that reflects the spirit of the WHC.
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This article aims to address conflictive projects and their pathways of resolution in the field of land use and territorial and natural resource management in Latin America in relation to one of the protected areas of Argentinean Patagonia, Los Alerce s National Park (PNLA), inscribed by UNESCO as a Natural World Heritage Site in 2017. I argue that the changes driven by the commodity boom (2000–2014), i.e., the development of extractive activities, deforestation and the expansion of grain and mineral exports, have had and continue to have a high environmental impact. Since the 2000s, the continent has experienced a series of protests that brought to light the unease caused by projects based on the development of large-scale extractive activities, which impacted legislation and reinforced the implementation of restrictive regulations for territorial management and land use, as seen from the nomination of the PNLA as a Natural World Heritage Site. The article shows that the legislative changes, as well as requirements of the PNLA inscription, provide fundamental legal support to the formulation, management and technical implementation of a new agro-silvo-pastoral culture capable of reconciling the conservation of scenic value (vii), biodiversity (x) and sustainability in protected areas. This proposal opens up the possibility of expanding the protected areas within the framework of the Andean-North Patagonian Biosphere Reserve.
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Natural environments and biodiversity are negatively affected by climate change and non-sustainable human activities around the world. Different management strategies have been implemented to mitigate the loss of habitat and ecosystem functions. Nevertheless, many of these have failed because, in general, they focus on protected areas. The loss of habitat and, thus, biodiversity occurs outside these areas and does not receive attention. Often, the conservation strategies go against the needs of the communities in the surroundings of the protected areas, generating a series of conflicts between the local governments, conservationists, and residents. In this sense, it is necessary to carry out holistic conservation strategies that consider human beings and their socio-cultural complexity within the environment to overcome the effect of climate change on biodiversity loss. This chapter empirically shows how it is possible to apply conservation strategies integrating scientific and political capacities and uniting governmental and non-governmental organizations for the execution of socio-environmental, educational, and research actions. This holistic approach contributes to the restoration of the environment and its services and to the mitigation of climate change in subtropical regions.
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In 2007, the Policy Document on the Impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage Properties was adopted by the World Heritage (WH) Committee, and a revised policy document, the Draft Policy Document on Climate Action for World Heritage, was released in 2021. An English word search on terms related to potential conflicts between WH and climate change was undertaken and utilised as a starting point for an exploration of developments over the 14 intervening years. Four themes were defined and explored, namely, mission, change, loss, and responsibility. In many cases of perceived conflict, professionals and policy makers have been actively working to find solutions. In others, there is the potential for developing new and creative approaches that will ensure the relevance of heritage in an uncertain future.
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Das Phänomen der Fremdheit wird in diesem Beitrag mit dem Titel „Fremdheit und Andersheit in pädagogischen Kontexten“ systematisch in unterschiedlichen Perspektiven verhandelt. Fremdheit wird jeweils epistemologisch, axiologisch und praxeologisch auf als Problem pädagogischen Verstehens, als Problem der Verantwortung im Generationenverhältnis sowie als Frage nach den Erfahrungen im Bildungsprozess verhandelt. Fremdheit als Bildungsproblem wird zunächst zwischen kosmologischer Bildung bei Comenius und neuhumanistischer Selbstbildung bei Humboldt und Litt thematisiert. Bildung wird daher bestimmt als Fremd- und Anderswerden durch die Begegnung mit dem Anderen und als Prozess Dezentrierung des Bewusstseins. Sodann wird das pädagogische Verstehen als Problem des Fremdverstehens im Generationenverhältnis bei Kant, Meyer-Drawe, Bollnow und Bernfeld diskutiert sowie schließlich die Grenzen des pädagogischen Verstehens im Kind als Fremden mit Emmanuel Lévinas als ethisches Problem aufgezeigt.
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Labor and Childhood: Labour is central to childhood and it has its place in the generational order. The ideal of a “good childhood” is that children are not burdened by labour in order to develop and be educated. Ideally children are doing well when they do not have to work, but many children, especially in the Global South, have to earn money through labour. This article addresses the question of how much research on children, their lifeworlds, experiences and perspectives, as well as on the life stage of childhood as part of societies, contributes to the fact that labour primarily appears in the mode of ‚othering‘ or the often misleading scandalisation. It should also be examined whether research on children and childhood contributes to a de-thematisation of labour. This will be examined in the context of social science research on childhood. The article distinguishes between labour for children and labour by children. For this, a historical perspective is also relevant. Here the positions of Ellen Key and Janusz Korczak, among others, are discussed.
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Der Beitrag argumentiert ausgehend von einer praxis- und kindheitstheoretischen Perspektive für die Berücksichtigung des Somatischen in intersektionalen Analysen in der Generationendifferenzforschung. Dabei wird vorgeschlagen, die Verkörperung intersektionaler Kindheiten als Ausgangspunkt für eine Analyse von Sorge-, Erziehungs- und Bildungsverhältnissen zu wählen, um intersektional kodierten Entwürfen pädagogischer Adressat*innenschaft auf die Spur zu kommen.
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In dieser Fallstudie werden beispielhaft einige der in deutschen Schulen in den Jahren 2011 bis 2021 verwendeten Technologien mit Hilfe des Critical Constructivism und der Postphänomenologie analysiert. Die Studie zeigt so, wie technikphilosophisches Wissen für Prozesse des Forschenden Lernens und zur Reflexion und Verbesserung von technologiebezogenen Schulentwicklungsprozessen herangezogen werden kann. Mit dem Constructivism werden die Zweckentfremdung von Unterhaltungsapps als didaktisches Arbeitsmittel, das Classroom Management in den Tablet-Pilotklassen und die Verschickung von Notfallpaketen im Distanzunterricht philosophisch analysiert. Die jeweiligen Rationalitäten der Technologien werden herausgearbeitet. Mit der Postphänomenologie wird das Videokonferenz-Tool Zoom und die an frühe Computerspiele erinnernde Lernumgebung Gather auf Mensch-Technologie-Welt-Relationen und Stabilitäten hin aufgeschlüsselt.
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The elementary sector is a highly relevant field in society. When children attend kindergarten, they enter the institutional upbringing and education system for the first time. In Germany, there has never been as much talk about early childhood education as there is today. By way of introduction, the current situation of supervision will be outlined. After a review of the history of the professionalization of the educational professions in the preschool sector, today’s social changes affecting almost all areas of life—especially early childhood—will then be addressed. Against this background, the current demands on the profession of preschool education become particularly salient. From there, the arc will be drawn back to supervision, with its possibilities and methods in this process, in order to conclude by considering the day care center as a “learning organization”.
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Was bezwecken wir, wenn wir als Herausgebende ‚Rhetorik‘ und ‚das Digitale‘ in Hinblick auf ‚die Pädagogik‘ zusammenfügen? Hoffen wir etwa, mit dem Sammelband ein eierlegendes Wollschwein vorzulegen, welches pädagogische Redeweisen über Digitalisierung und Aspekte „digitaler Bildung“ (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie 2016) vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Diskussionen bilanziert, um sodann mit Blick auf das Schulsystem „technisch-pädagogische Einsatzkonzepte“ (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung 2021) zu entwerfen? Oder wollen wir etwa aus pädagogischer Sicht die Rede über Digitalisierung als eierlegenden Wollpertinger – als eine domestizierte Chimäre – entzaubern, weil die Rede über Digitalisierung – ähnlich wie eine Rede über domestizierte Chimären – meist frei flottiert und hinsichtlich konkreter Bedeutungen oft theoretisch und praktisch unterbestimmt ist? Jenseits des schmückenden – oder irritierenden – Beiwerks von rhetorischen Fragen und Figuren verstehen wir den Einsatz des Bandes im dialogischen Sinne alsradikal rhetorisch. Damit dieser Einsatz verständlich wird, sind einige klärende Rahmungen notwendig. Wir greifen auf die Bestimmung der Rhetorik des Aristoteles zurück, der Rhetorik als das Vermögen (δύναμις) auffasst, „das Überzeugende, das jeder Sache innewohnt, [durch Rede vermittelt] zu erkennen [oder durch Rede darzustellen].“ (Aristoteles 2018, S. 17; eigene Ergänzungen). Im Verständnis von Aristoteles ist das ‚Vermögen‘ ein ursprüngliches Prinzip, welches in jemand oder etwas eine Veränderung zu bewirken vermag (Aristoteles 1977, S. 133). Dieses Veränderungsvermögen äußert sich in der Rhetorik in Situationen, in denen Personen unterschiedliche Standpunkte und Sichtweisen haben und diese einander mitteilen. Rhetorik ist sodann die Fähigkeit, andere Personen vom eigenen Standpunkt und der eigenen Sichtweise zu überzeugen, also den Standpunkt der anderen Person durch Einsicht zu verändern. Um in Personen eine Veränderung zu bewirken, bedient sich Rhetorik nach Aristoteles (2018, S. 17, 19) dreier Mittel: pathos (πάθος, Überzeugung durch Gefühle), logos (λόγος, Überzeugung durch vernünftige Rede) und ethos (ἦθος, Überzeugung durch den Charakter der Redner*innen). Werden diese drei Mittel im rechten Maß eingesetzt, ist es möglich, dass ‚das Überzeugende an einer Sache‘ durch die Rede zwischen den beteiligten Personen entsteht. Rhetorik – auf diese performative Weise gefasst – regt zum Selbstdenken an und trägt zur Entscheidungsfindung und zur politischen Willensbildung bei. Aus diesem Grund nennt Aristoteles die Rhetorik auch eine „Staatskunst“ (Aristoteles 2018, S. 19). Die Bedeutung von Rhetorik reicht jedoch noch weiter, weil sie kulturelles Wissen in sprachlicher, ästhetischer Form zum Ausdruck bringt und zur Diskussion stellt. Der römische Rhetoriker Quintilian sieht in der Rhetorik somit die Befähigung zur Teilhabe an Kultur allgemein (hierzu: Vidal 2018). Rhetorik legt in der ästhetisch gestalteten Rede die Partikularität der oder des Redenden und den Inszenierungscharakter der Rede offen. Rhetorik fordert auf diese Weise Gegenrede heraus, ohne dabei den Anspruch auf sachlich begründete Auseinandersetzung aufzugeben (hierzu: Fuchs 2020; Brumlik 2018; Schäfer 2009; Dörpinghaus 2002). Die künstlerische Hervorbringung der Rede ist damit nicht nur Darstellung des Gesagten, sondern wird auch zur Bedingung ihrer Überzeugungskraft. Mit der Kunst der Rhetorik löst sich das sprachliche Zeichen vom Bezeichneten und gewinnt durch die ästhetische Dimension eine eigenständige Qualität, die insofern auch reflexiv werden kann, wenn der künstlerische Ausdruck eine Differenz zwischen sprachlicher Setzung und sozialer Geltung eröffnet und den Wahrheitsanspruch der Rede einklammert bzw. zur Verhandlung freigibt. Rhetorik wird hingegen manipulativ, wenn sie ihre Überzeugungskraft nur der Kunstfertigkeit der Rede verdankt, wenn sie sie allein aus dem Status der Redner*innen zieht, wenn sie ausschließlich die Gefühle der Zuhörenden anspricht und wenn Sie keine vernünftigen und nachvollziehbaren Argumente vorbringt.
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