Article

‘You look like a machito!’: a decolonial analysis of the social in/exclusion of female participants in a Colombian sport for development and peace organization

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This article critically explores the relationship between the gendered nature of sport in Colombia and girls and young women’s social in/exclusion in football (soccer) through the lived experiences of female participants involved in a local Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) organization. Building on 6 months of ethnographic fieldwork and Lave and Wenger’s theory of Community of Practice (CoP), I explore the complex and connected gendered social elements that constrain girls and young women’s participation. Analyzing these processes and mechanisms through a decolonial lens, I reveal the existence of colonial residues that perpetuate and reinforce females positioning as peripheral actors in sport. The findings demonstrate how female participants are required to negotiate spaces with contradictory gendered meanings and confirm that social transformation within masculine structures is difficult to achieve. This research encourages SDP researchers to further engage with decolonial theory.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Their approach to coaching requires sensitivity to differentiate how to give feedback, to whom, and when, as MAs' mature and self-directed learning interests mean that they do not all wish to be communicated with in the same ways . The MAs have specific psychosocial coaching needs, experience, and knowledge Ferrari, Bloom, Gilbert, & Caron, 2016;MacLellan, Callary, & Young, 2017, 2019Stevenson, 2002;Young, Callary, & Niedre, 2014). Indeed, the MC is often a peer to MAs, sharing responsibilities and empowering MAs to contribute to leadership roles in collaborative ways . ...
... Colombia has a patriarchal and hierarchical history of leadership and power with the military ruling on three occasions throughout its history, which includes the war of Independence (July 20, 1810, in which self-government established The Republic of Colombia); the 1,000-day war (October 1899-November 1902 between the Liberal government and the National Party followed by conflict against the ruling Conservative party); and The Colombian Conflict (started in 1964, and 50+ years of civil war ensued). This history has created a militaristic society with a culture of machismo, which is a term used in Latin American social research to describe discriminatory cultural practices, such as sexism and male dominance (Oxford, 2019). Apart from discriminating against women, machismo has also created a pecking order among men wherein those in lower positions of power (e.g., older, poorer) are subservient to those in higher positions of power (Rinke, 2007;Velez, 2002). ...
... Football is currently the most popular sport in Colombia. The team sport is played by millions of Colombians, and many think of football players as boys and young men (Oxford, 2019;Oxford & McLachlan, 2017;Rinke, 2007;Velez, 2002). However, football in Colombia is not only played by young people. ...
Article
The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution and influence of Masters Player-Coaches (MPCs) in the Asociación de Futbolistas Adultos Mayores del Tolima (in English: Masters Athletes’ Football Association of Tolima in Colombia, South America), a football league for men aged 60–70+ years. Historical forces shape a cultural backdrop that pervades football (soccer) and coaching and provides an understanding of how MPCs perceive themselves. After exploring the evolution and influence of the league, the authors uncover a peer-coaching approach in Asociación de Futbolistas Adultos Mayores del Tolima, described by the MPCs as Compañero Orientador. The authors link the importance of formally acknowledging the MPCs with their influence in fighting ageism, community building, and promoting lifelong sport. Further, MPCs provide high-quality Masters sport experiences, and their recognition supports a formal sporting structure in applying for local government grants to support the growing Masters context in Colombia.
... Development organizations worldwide, including those operating under the sport for development (SFD) banner, have been drawn to the commitment to advance transformation in gender relations, build women's leadership skills, and improve their lives and well-being. An emerging body of literature within feminist scholarship has, however, highlighted a complex picture of sport in the service of gender-specific development goals, critically appraising sport's potential to foster broader societal goals, including gender equality, social and economic empowerment of women, or health promotion (Brady & Khan, 2002;Brady et al., 2007;Hayhurst et al., 2014;Jeanes & Magee, 2014;Oxford, 2019;Saavedra, 2009;Zipp, 2017). ...
... To date, feminist scholars within the SFD field have advanced the understanding about the female youth, addressing issues of experience and perception of empowerment, voice, and agency (see Hayhurst, 2014;Samie et al., 2015), as well as elements, such as role models (e.g., Meier, 2015;Meier & Saavedra, 2009) or the role of the family in the process of empowerment (Chawansky & Schlenker, 2015). These studies have demonstrated that restrictions and constraints for girl's empowerment are originating from the diverse realities of girls' lives across different geographical, religious, and cultural contexts (e.g., Hayhurst et al., 2015;Oxford, 2019;Seal & Sherry, 2018;Zipp, 2017). In addition, numerous barriers in engagement in and empowerment of women through sports also result from the historical connection of sport and norms of masculinity (see Hayhurst et al., 2014;Oxford & McLachlan, 2018;Shehu, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing body of feminist research investigating the relationship between sports initiatives and gender development goals, the literature to date has almost exclusively focused on female participation within sport for development programs. The purpose of this paper is to examine men’s behavior and provide novel insights into the perspectives and roles of men in sport for development work. This paper draws upon 11 months of ethnographic research undertaken between 2017 and 2018 in two organizations in São Paulo, Brazil, which use football as a tool to empower women. The findings reveal the diversity of roles men play in gender equality efforts and indicate issues men face, specifically the impact of ideas of manhood that hinder their ability to support broader social justice. The author ends the paper by outlining the necessity to explore masculinity and manhood in more depth to broaden the current understandings of the limitations and potential of sport for development initiatives to change the traditional model of male dominance and, consequently, have a more profound effect on gender equality.
... En primer lugar, algunas investigaciones sobre la DDP en ALC se han centrado en el uso del deporte como herramienta de construcción de valores para combatir las culturas arraigadas en el patriarcado (desigualdad de género) y las desigualdades culturales. Oxford y Spaaij (Oxford, 2017(Oxford, , 2019Oxford y Spaaij, 2017 exploraron etnográficamente y con dos organizaciones colombianas, las complejidades sociales, culturales e históricas que conforman y limitan el espacio (de género) en el deporte. Demuestran que la inclusión social de las jóvenes en espacios deportivos tradicionalmente masculinos puede cambiar el acceso y la configuración de los espacios públicos, especialmente a través del papel de "espacio seguro". ...
Article
Full-text available
Este estudio contribuye al avance del campo de la investigación sobre el deporte para el desarrollo y la paz (DDP) en América Latina y Caribe (ALC). Todavía existen pocos estudios sobre los programas de DDP en esta región y es importante documentar y comprender los impactos de estos programas en los participantes. El presente estudio es el resultado de una investigación colaborativa que tiene como objetivo describir las experiencias y percepciones (1. Describir cómo funciona el programa DDP y 2. Entender y documentar los efectos percibidos del programa DDP) de jóvenes colombianos que participaron en un programa de DDP que los llevo de un club deportivo local hasta los Juegos Olímpicos. Se realizaron 7 entrevistas semiestructuradas a actores clave (administradores, entrenadores y deportistas) que participaron en un programa de formación triple y transversal (local, distrital y nacional) de marcha olímpica desde una comunidad de Bogotá hasta los Juegos Olímpicos. Los resultados permitieron comprender mejor la coordinación, organización e implicación de la comunidad local de Ciudad Bolívar, el Instituto Distrital de Recreación y Deporte y Coldeportes. Las entrevistas mostraron los efectos percibidos por los actores a corto y largo plazo del proceso en su desarrollo, educación, salud y carrera profesional. Se formulan recomendaciones para las organizaciones oficiales de DDP en ALC. Futuros estudios deberían continuar investigando la iniciativa de DDP en ALC para entender cómo el deporte puede ayudar al desarrollo y a la construcción de la paz en esta región.
... To better understand gender and sport for development, researchers have advocated for such a comprehensive "gender lens" in SDP, one that seeks to understand the lived experiences, different needs and distinct challenges across all genders and cultures (Hayhurst, et al., 2021;Oxford, 2019). In turn, such a gender lens would help illuminate misunderstood or overlooked aspects of life for girls and women. ...
... On the manual screening of the four key authors on Google Scholar, there were no additional articles that met the inclusion criteria. The studies by Oxford [66] and Oxford and Spaiij [67] were excluded because of the foci on barriers and constraints of participants' experiences instead of programs and their outcomes. The study by Oxford and McLachlan [68] was also excluded as it investigated a sport program in a mixed-gender setting without the intention to improve gender equity or empower women participants. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Sport for Development (SFD), sport is used as a cost-effective tool to facilitate the objectives of various organizations, not limited to increasing access to education, youth development, social cohesion, and gender equality. This review aims to systematically analyze SFD programs that contribute to gender equality and women empowerment under Sustainable Development Goal 5 (SDG 5). The PRISMA methodology was used to guide the screening and selection process. Fifteen studies were identified from the Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases, the Journal of Sport for Development, forward–backward reference searches, and manual searches on four prominent sport, gender, and development researchers. The findings indicated that there was evidence of micro-level outcomes in every study and three achieved meso-level impact; however, none of these studies’ suggested changes have reached the macro-level of impact when the outcomes were reported in these articles. There was a lack of intervention studies that investigated the mechanisms and reported outcomes through a validated monitoring and evaluation process. This review provides significant insights into: (a) identifying future SFD research areas, (b) refining SFD program evaluations, (c) developing indicators of outcomes for sport programs contributing to SDG 5, and (d) reproducing sustainable development outcomes under SDG 5.
... To better understand gender and sport for development, researchers have advocated for such a comprehensive "gender lens" in SDP, one that seeks to understand the lived experiences, different needs and distinct challenges across all genders and cultures (Hayhurst, et al., 2021;Oxford, 2019). In turn, such a gender lens would help illuminate misunderstood or overlooked aspects of life for girls and women. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gender equality and the empowerment of girls and women is a major theme in the field of sport for development. Understanding the lived experiences of participants, across all genders, is fundamental to creating inclusive environments for everyone. However, a key aspect of many girls' and women's experiences is largely missing from research and practice-menstrual health. This chapter examines innovative approaches in sport for development that aim to address menstrual health education, reduce menstrual stigma and provide menstrual products to participants. These projects and programmes take different approaches, building from global development initiatives and engaging in grassroots social entrepreneurship, to engage in this taboo topic. Their efforts occupy a unique and emerging space in the field of sport for development, one that is growing alongside a broader movement on menstrual health as a social justice issue. Through review and analysis, this chapter highlights the need for more critical and comprehensive perspectives on gender and sport for development. The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic is also examined, with menstrual health as a reflection of how the pandemic has disproportionately affected many girls and women. 2
... This should be no surprise; in Colombia, as elsewhere, women have largely been excluded from football's discourse of vibrancy, nationalism, and disorder, despite its embeddedness in the media as the national pastime and symbol of a virile and skillful unity-and despite women's fascination for the sport (Vélez 2001;Orrego Ramírez et al. 2010). This is in keeping with generations of powerful taboos against women playing games in general, leavened only recently by a development discourse that stresses physical culture as a route to safety, pleasure, and fewer teen pregnancies, but remains dogged by colonial prohibitions (Oxford and Spaaij 2019;Oxford 2019). Meanwhile, the women's national team has strug gled in the face of minimal resources. ...
... Although there is a lack of research addressing explicitly queer experiences within the context of sport for development, the field is not void of discussions that dip into this territory (see Carney and Chawansky, 2016;Chawansky, 2015;Forde and Frisby, 2015;Oxford, 2017Oxford, , 2019Oxford and Spaaij, 2019). Chawansky (2015) utilized autoethnographic vignettes to offer a feminist interpretation of the body in development and sport for development, through which she raises issues of sexism, heterosexism and queer sexuality within the SDP field. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper critically explores how queer youth experience sport for development programmes in Brazil. Whilst the Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) field is not void of discussions that touch upon heteronormativity and sexuality, the ‘sensitive’ stories of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals within SDP initiatives remain rather unheard. Drawing on ethnographic methodology and queer theory, this paper aims to understand the impact of two different SDP programmes located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, that use sport to address sexuality and gender issues as part of their mission. The findings of this study indicate that delivery of sexuality-focused projects is a complex, problematic and contested process. Whilst the programme is conceived of as and committed to being LGBT-inclusive, the space is not completely void of heterosexism and homophobia. The queer lens here allowed for the revelation that whilst the SDP initiative provided a relatively supportive environment regarding the free expression of queer desires, it creates rather ‘safe(r)’ spaces, as the conventional norms of mainstream hetero-patriarchal society permeate these spaces. Furthermore, initiatives led to new means of exclusion and alienating experiences for its non-queer beneficiaries. Ultimately, raising the question of sexual diversity resulted in unexpected consequences outside the SDP space associated with misinterpretations, suspicions and a rejection of the initiatives. The conclusion consists of overall reflections regarding the use of the queer approach within SDP research and suggests possible directions for future studies of this topic.
Chapter
The Sport for Development (SfD) framework understands sport as a tool for social and community development, and considerable attention has been paid to the notion of using sport as a vehicle for building social capital among disadvantaged groups. The chapter aims to encourage critical debate relating to social capital. In particular, it explores to what extent development programmes at the community level assist in fostering the social capital of young women and girls. The exploration of outcomes of the initiatives was carried out through ethnographic research and interviews with representatives and female participants of a grassroots SfD organisation in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The findings suggest that while more systemic and palpable structural changes were not experienced by the project participants and that access to the broader social benefits is gendered, young women enjoyed the programme’s sporting opportunities, created new friendships, and gained skills through their sport participation. This study also suggests that although the wider gender inequalities limit how young women can be involved in, benefit from, and increase their social capital through participation in the SfD programmes, the findings revealed sports programmes’ potential for greater positive outcomes in the future.
Chapter
Football carries a deeply embedded paradox. On the one hand, it was a cultural element of oppression that was imposed on dominated cultures during the colonial period in South and Central America. On the other hand, by using elements of their own cultures to transform the game, the colonised regained their voices and built a different football culture. This chapter explores the idea of a feminist decolonisation of football. The authors ask whether such a commodified game can still be a feminist tool for inclusion and social justice, rather than another asset of the neoliberal entertainment industry. Using a philosophical metaphor that traces parallels with the oral language of the colonisers, and the body language of football, we investigate whether it is still possible to consider football a revolutionary tool that can create new and more equitable ways to live a feminist life in South America. The chapter concludes that a feminist football must be continuously crafted in support of the Latin America’s freedom venture.KeywordsFeminismRevolutionDecolonisationTransgender bodies
Chapter
The Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) movement and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were developed in the early years of the twenty-first century. The 2030 Agenda2030 Agenda has given sport a marginal role in the fulfillment of the SDGs. Miscellaneous resources, including SDP platforms, have proliferated as well. The SDP platform – Sportandev.org – containing over 1000 initiatives worldwide documents a growing awareness of the SDGs. The review of many of such initiatives reveals that the commitment to the SDGs is more rhetorical than factual. At a midsize state university in Guanajuato, in Mexico, a methodology was conceived to purposefully design a truly inclusive sporting activity, aligned with the spirit of the 2030 Agenda2030 Agenda and with at least six SDGs (3, 4, 5, 10, 16, 17). The methodology paved the way for the creation of a groundbreaking SDP organization, which aims at effectively bridging and delivering results between the SDP movement and six of the SDGs. Tiro en Braille (Braille Shot) methodology is based on three components: (1) teaching/learning, (2) research involving professors and students working together in an equal and balanced partnership, and (3) the design of truly inclusive sporting activities under the plus sport approach to SDPPlus sport approach to SDP. Tiro en Braille is also a sporting activity, 100% designed by university students, inspired by a pre-Columbian game/sportPre-Columbian game/sport (SDG 4), which aims to activate normally sedentary students (SDG 3), with the equal participation of women and men (SDG 5), in an activity designed to be played in an all-ability format (SDG 10), with the purpose of strengthening democratic values and principles (SDG 16), and with the co-participation of different stakeholders, such as universities as well as small and midsize local enterprises (SDG 17). The end “goal” is to design, to assess, and to share a groundbreaking initiative, suitable to replicate around the Americas and the Caribbean Region.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose that organizational studies researchers must pay attention to the contributions of decolonial epistemology, which has been developing counter-hegemonic, marginal, and subaltern organizational theories, embedded in the radicality of broken silence. The decolonizing future of research in organization studies opens up possibilities for new organizational modes of existence-from the perspective of indigenous societies and different knowledge from that of modernity. We explore main concepts related to the decolonizing movement, seeking to elucidate its main ideas and transposing them to organizational studies. We have found four main heterarchical reinterpretations provided by decolonial scholars on the field of organization studies: (a) the organization concept, (b) the history of economic development in colonized nations and management organizational knowledge, (c) consumption, technology and changes in the natural environment and (d) intersectional studies about gender, race, and social class. It is possible to anticipate that the future of organization studies may be marked either by segregation, or heterarchical thinking integration within a global agenda. The first scenario is featured by the flourishing of alternative thinking outside academia environments and valuing the great diversity of languages worldwide; the second scenario must be featured by the openness to provide a more organic and structured presence for groups of emerging countries in international science arenas. We stand that the heterarchical thinking can contribute to overcoming an increasingly polarized world, allowing the rise of several knowledge production competing arenas of, making possible a more democratic development for organizational studies.
Article
“Sport for Development and Peace” (SDP) is a concept that has become widespread in the 21st century. In 2014, the Japanese government started the “Sport for Tomorrow” project as an international contribution and strengthened its cooperation with the ASEAN region. However, SDP has received many criticisms regarding “recolonization”. When tackling gender issues, there is a contradiction in promoting sports that embody male superiority and heterosexism (Saavedra, 2009). Thailand is both a collective society and a feminine society (Hofstead et al., 2010). Traditionally, women and men have been treated equally, but motherhood is a valued role of women, and various forms of sexual expression have become socially acceptable (Hanami, 1995; Sinnot, 2004; Thawaeesit, 2004). Gender norms that differ from the West have been observed in Thai society. Although the Thai government has integrated sports as a national strategy, its understanding of sports as a tool for fostering gender equality remains unclear. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the gender norms observed in sports by sports-related policymakers in Thailand, and the way in which sports-related policymakers perceive the role of sports in achieving gender equality in Thailand? Applying phenomenological and case study approaches, data were collected via government-published documents and semi-structured interviews with 5 policymakers. The data were analyzed using phenomenological coding. Although sports policymakers recognized fundamental gender equality, they tended to assume male superiority in sports, and strong heterosexism was observed. Female athletes were still expected to be good wives and mothers in order to maintain Thai femininity. Girls’ participation in sports was affected by parental attitudes because of Thailand’s strong seniority culture. Sports policymakers recognized that sports could expand women’s education opportunities because athletes gain advantages in entering a university and even in obtaining scholarships. The present findings suggest that sports policymakers in Thailand fail to recognize structural gender inequality in sports. In Thailand’s collective and feminine culture, reconsideration of expected roles in the family could fully liberate women, allowing them access to sports as an entry point for social inclusion. Additionally, if the only gender equality role of sport is seen as expanding education opportunities, then this suggests that sports policymakers may lack a comprehensive grasp of gender issues.
Article
This article investigates the intersection of three interrelated trends: first, the positioning of sport as a contributor to sustainable development, particularly in regard to the increasing corporatization of sport for development (SFD); second, the trend toward sustainable development in the extractives industry, as taken up within a corporate social responsibility (CSR) approach; and intersection of SFD and CSR when mobilized in pursuit of sustainable development in Indigenous communities in Canada. To do so, we examined the sustainability documents of Rio Tinto, the largest mining and metals company in Canada, with a focus on its operations in the Canadian North that are near Indigenous communities. Based on our results, we argue that SFD programming and the CSR approaches of Rio Tinto promote forms of sustainable development that capitalize on broadened (and emptied) definitions of sustainability, that may ultimately contribute to greater forms of unsustainability.
Article
Rationale/purpose: Although there have been studies on the impact of families and sport for development (SFD) in regard to youth participants, less is known about parent experiences of SFD. The purpose of this study is to explore parent experiences of SFD and how SFD affects family life outside of the program setting. Research methods: In this study, an interpretive qualitative approach was adopted to explore parent experiences of SFD. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were utilized for the purposes of generating grounded knowledge in a practical research setting. Findings: Data analysis revealed three themes of SFD and parents: (1) social benefits directly related to parent’s day-to-day lives; (2) the (usually) safe and family-oriented space of SFD; and (3) parent expectations of SFD as well as opportunities for family bonding outside the SFD space. Practical implications: The implications of this study call attention to the ways sport managers, SFD scholars and practitioners may seek to further involve parents and families in SFD initiatives. Research contributions: This research builds and extends on SFD research that examines parent perspectives by highlighting the ways SFD affects parents in ways that may not be immediately noticeable when examining programs.
Article
Full-text available
The sport for development and peace (SDP) sector is made up of various development-focused policies and programs that seek to engage, stabilise, empower and create social and economic change. SDP projects, most often run by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), have been implemented in regions enduring physical conflicts, health pandemics, major gender divisions and other social crises that have a great impact on youth. In this context, sport has been accorded the difficult task of facilitating greater access for marginal, vulnerable or community groups whilst positively contributing to the attainment of diverse development objectives. While the ‘where’ and ‘why’ of SDP has been largely accounted for, the attention in this article is on the ‘who’ of SDP in relation to the notion of inclusion. Drawing on extensive research conducted in Jamaica, Kosovo, Rwanda and Sri Lanka, the idea of SDP as an inclusionary practice is critically investigated. While SDP may ‘give voice’ to participants, especially to individuals with athletic ability or sporting interests, the extent to which this creates social contexts that are fundamentally inclusive remains open to discussion. In this sense, while targeting populations, groups or individuals remains an attractive strategy to achieve specific goals, for example youth empowerment or gender equality, empirical assessments complicate the presumption that SDP programming leads to inclusion, particularly at a larger societal level. The article considers a matrix of inclusion criteria, potential outcomes, and the tensions arising between targeted SDP programming and the often-exclusionary dimensions of sport more broadly, with a focus on youth and gender issues.
Article
Full-text available
While sport for development programming has flourished, the complex social and economic environment in the postcolonial Eastern Caribbean is often overlooked by researchers. This case study examines sport for development with ‘at risk’ adolescent girls in St. Lucia (n = 16). These young women, who have been removed from mainstream public schools due to behavioural issues, participated in focus group discussions regarding their experiences and perspectives on sport. Their sport participation included single-sex, organised programming at the Upton Gardens Girls Centre and mixed-sex, unsupervised football play. Results of the study indicate that these sporting activities contributed towards the capability development of the participants, with limitations toward challenging gender stereotypes and encouraging kinetically focused body image. While the female-only sport participation encouraged a positive sense of self-efficacy and fostered peer/mentor relationships, engagement in co-educational football supported girls’ empowerment and the challenging of gender stereotypes. However, outcome towards progressive perspectives on sport and body image gleaned mixed results. As a whole, these results point to larger concerns within the sport for development field and the need for more in-depth and comprehensive critical research to better understand how sport impacts development initiatives.
Article
Full-text available
Sport’s historic attraction for policy makers has been its claims that it can offer an economy of remedies to seemingly intractable social problems-“social inclusion”, “development”. Such usually vague and ill-defined claims reflect sport’s marginal policy status and its attempts to prove its more general relevance. The dominance of evangelical beliefs and interest groups, who tend to view research in terms of affirmation of their beliefs, is restricting conceptual and methodological development of policy and practice. There is a need to de-reify “sport” and to address the issue of sufficient conditions-the mechanisms, processes and experiences which might produce positive impacts for some participants. This requires researchers and practitioners to develop approaches based on robust and systematic programme theories. However, even if systematic and robust evidence is produced for the relative effectiveness of certain types of programme, we are left with the problem of displacement of scope-the process of wrongly generalising micro level (programme) effects to the macro (social). Although programme rhetoric frequently claims to address social issues most programmes have an inevitably individualist perspective. Further, as participation in sport is closely related to socially structured inequalities, it might be that rather than sport contributing to “social inclusion”, various aspects of social inclusion may precede such participation. In this regard academics and researchers need to adopt a degree of scepticism and to reflect critically on what we and, most especially, others might already know. There is a need to theorise sport-for-change’s limitations as well as its “potential”.
Article
Full-text available
Based on a multiyear study, this article analyzes the reproduction of adult gender segregation in two youth-sports organizations in which most men volunteers become coaches and most women volunteers become “team moms.” We use interviews and participant observation to explore how these gender divisions are created. While most participants say the divisions result from individual choices, our interviews show how gendered language, essentialist beliefs, and analogies with gendered divisions of labor in families and work-places naturalize this division of labor. Observation reveals how patterned, informal interactions reproduce (and occasionally challenge) it as well. We show how (mostly) nonreflexive informal interactions at the nexus of three gender regimes—youth sports, families, and workplaces—produce a gender formation with two interrelated characteristics: an ascendant professional class gender ideology that we call “soft essentialism” and a “gender category sorting system” that channels most men into coaching and most women into being “team moms.”
Article
Recent research highlights promise and limits of critical pedagogy within Sport for Development and Peace (SDP). Drawing on ethnographic research with an SDP organisation in Colombia, this paper analyses how critical pedagogy implicitly transpires in daily practice and how SDP employees and participants understand and respond to these practices. We specifically examine how donor-non-governmental organisation relations affect the experience of SDP practitioners and participants in ways that do not support the successes of critical pedagogy and may potentially undermine it. The findings raise critical questions such as what SDP organisations can accomplish within these ‘normative’ power relations and potential reconfigurations.
Article
Colombian girls are not encouraged from playing sport due to gendered roles that idealize girls as "delicate" and reserve sport as an activity for boys. Since the early and mid-2000s girls living in two marginalized communities in Colombia have had the unique opportunity to participate in a sport for development and peace organization. Drawing on six months of ethnographic research, this paper explores how these young women are negotiating gender through their complex and limited participation in the organization. We argue these young women display an ambivalent position towards femininity and practice implicit feminism, which challenges gender norms. However, despite their feelings of agency and a creation of a "new" normal within their social bubble, evidence reveals traditional social structures continue to maintain the gender status quo.
Article
Too often, Southern feminisms, including Islamic feminisms, consider the feminist movement as an ahistorical, universal and natural phenomenon. Also, it is deemed an intrinsecal sign of progress. Subjugation is so strong that Muslim feminists -for instance- do not doubt to incur in historic anachronisms looking to inscribe feminism in the genesis of islamic history. Thus, all the dignity of Islam is subdued by those militants' ability to show Islam is feminist in the letter, and sexist in the reading local patriarchate does of it. One single gap in that rhetorical construction: feminism as a political movement did not exist at the time of revelation. This, upon their eyes, is no more than a pattern of measure for modernity, and renders Islam -a religion preceding feminism in time- its tributary.
Article
In this article I address the imbalance in the production and circulation of knowledge in the dominant Anglo-American academic circuit, aiming to make visible feminist work in a decolonial vein carried out in Latin America, to recentre the decolonial option with regard to established postcolonial studies and to propose a way of understanding global postfeminist female subjectivity as mediated in mass media. The decolonial option offers a rich theoretical toolbox for exploring contemporary junctions of gender, race and the question of representation. I propose a reworking of the concept of the ‘coloniality of gender’, and briefly discuss how Femen and the figure of the exoticised female pop icon exemplify coloniality at work.
Book
Social exclusion is one of the most pressing challenges in post-industrial societies, encompassing economic, social, cultural and political dimensions. This important new book critically examines the relationship between sport and social exclusion, from global and cross-cultural perspectives. The book analyses sport and social exclusion by focusing on three key questions: How does social exclusion affect participation in sport? How is social exclusion (re)produced, experienced, resisted, and managed in sport? How is sport used to combat social exclusion and promote social inclusion in other life domains? To answer these questions, the authors discuss and critically reflect on existing knowledge and in-depth case studies from Europe, Australasia, Africa and Latin America. The book illuminates the relationship between sport and social exclusion in Global North and Global South contexts, addressing key issues in contemporary social science such as social inequality, worklessness, gender, disability, forced migration, homelessness and mental health. Sport and Social Exclusion in Global Society is important reading for all students, researchers and policy-makers with an interest in sport sociology, sport development, sport management, or the relationship between sport and wider society. © 2014 Ramón Spaaij, Jonathan Magee and Ruth Jeanes selection and editorial material.
Article
In this comparative-historical analysis of Spanish America, Mahoney offers a new theory of colonialism and postcolonial development. He explores why certain kinds of societies are subject to certain kinds of colonialism and why these forms of colonialism give rise to countries with differing levels of economic prosperity and social well-being. Mahoney contends that differences in the extent of colonialism are best explained by the potentially evolving fit between the institutions of the colonizing nation and those of the colonized society. Moreover, he shows how institutions forged under colonialism bring countries to relative levels of development that may prove remarkably enduring in the postcolonial period. The argument is sure to stir discussion and debate, both among experts on Spanish America who believe that development is not tightly bound by the colonial past, and among scholars of colonialism who suggest that the institutional identity of the colonizing nation is of little consequence.
Article
In this study we discuss how gender relations are influenced by a ‘girls only’ martial arts-based sport, gender and development (SGD) programme that aims to improve young women's discipline, leadership skills and self-defence capabilities in a rural Ugandan community with widespread domestic and gender-based violence (GBV). The results of our qualitative research with a Ugandan non-governmental organization (NGO) staff members and martial arts instructors demonstrate that the young women's participation in the martial arts programme challenged gender norms and improved their confidence. However, the exclusion of boys and men from the programming, combined with the cultural inaptness of girls practicing martial arts, may have contributed to the girls' subordination. Our data also revealed that young men were also the targets of GBV. Overall, we argue that an exploration of the relational impact of gender in the context of SGD, and sport for development and peace terrain more broadly is necessary in order to: (1) understand how social relations shift and change in the face of variable and fluid gender dynamics; and (2) challenge gendered assumptions about prescribed/predetermined gender relations by acknowledging that young women may not be the only targets of violence.
Article
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Nepantla: Views from South 1.3 (2000) 533-580 What is termed globalization is the culmination of a process that began with the constitution of America and colonial/modern Eurocentered capitalism as a new global power. One of the fundamental axes of this model of power is the social classification of the world’s population around the idea of race, a mental construction that expresses the basic experience of colonial domination and pervades the more important dimensions of global power, including its specific rationality: Eurocentrism. The racial axis has a colonial origin and character, but it has proven to be more durable and stable than the colonialism in whose matrix it was established. Therefore, the model of power that is globally hegemonic today presupposes an element of coloniality. In what follows, my primary aim is to open up some of the theoretically necessary questions about the implications of coloniality of power regarding the history of Latin America. America and the New Model of Global Power America was constituted as the first space/time of a new model of power of global vocation, and both in this way and by it became the first identity of modernity. Two historical processes associated in the production of that space/time converged and established the two fundamental axes of the new model of power. One was the codification of the differences between conquerors and conquered in the idea of “race,” a supposedly different biological structure that placed some in a natural situation of inferiority to the others. The conquistadors assumed this idea as the constitutive, founding element of the relations of domination that the conquest imposed. On this basis, the population of America, and later the world, was classified within the new model of power. The other process was the constitution of a new structure of control of labor and its resources and products. This new structure was an articulation of all historically known previous structures of control of labor, slavery, serfdom, small independent commodity production and reciprocity, together around and upon the basis of capital and the world market. Race: A Mental Category of Modernity The idea of race, in its modern meaning, does not have a known history before the colonization of America. Perhaps it originated in reference to the phenotypic differences between conquerors and conquered. However, what matters is that soon it was constructed to refer to the supposed differential biological structures between those groups. Social relations founded on the category of race produced new historical social identities in America—Indians, blacks, and mestizos—and redefined others. Terms such as Spanish and Portuguese, and much later European, which until then indicated only geographic origin or country of origin, acquired from then on a racial connotation in reference to the new identities. Insofar as the social relations that were being configured were relations of domination, such identities were considered constitutive of the hierarchies, places, and corresponding social roles, and consequently of the model of colonial domination that was being imposed. In other words, race and racial identity were established as instruments of basic social classification. As time went by, the colonizers codified the phenotypic trait of the colonized as color, and they assumed it as the emblematic characteristic of racial category. That category was probably initially established in the area of Anglo-America. There so-called blacks were not only the most important exploited group, since the principal part of the economy rested on their labor; they were, above all, the most important colonized race, since Indians were not part of that colonial society. Why the dominant group calls itself “white” is a story related to racial classification. In America, the idea of race was a way of granting legitimacy to the relations of domination imposed by the conquest. After the colonization of America and the expansion of European colonialism to the rest of the world, the subsequent constitution of Europe as a new id-entity needed the elaboration of a Eurocentric perspective of knowledge, a theoretical perspective on the idea of race as a naturalization of colonial relations between Europeans and non-Europeans. Historically, this meant a new way of legitimizing the already old ideas and practices of...
Article
From Chapter 1: Empire and the creation of a social science Origin stories Open any introductory sociology textbook and you will probably find, in the first few pages, a discussion of founding fathers focused on Marx, Durkheim and Weber. The first chapter may also cite Comte, Spencer, Tönnies and Simmel, and perhaps a few others. In the view normally presented to students, these men created sociology in response to dramatic changes in European society: the Industrial Revolution, class conflict, secularisation, alienation and the modern state. This curriculum is backed by histories such as Alan Swingewood's (2000) Short History of Sociological Thought. This well-regarded British text presents a two-part narrative of 'Foundations: Classical Sociology' (centring on Durkheim, Weber and Marx), and 'Modern Sociology', tied together by the belief that 'Marx, Weber and Durkheim have remained at the core of modern sociology' (2000: x). Sociologists take this account of their origins seriously. Twenty years ago, a star-studded review of Social Theory Today began with a ringing declaration of 'the centrality of the classics' (Alexander 1987). In the new century, commentary on classical texts remains a significant genre of theoretical writing (Baehr 2002). The idea of classical theory embodies a canon, in the sense of literary theory: a privileged set of texts, whose interpretation and reinterpretation defines a field (Seidman 1994). This particular canon embeds an internalist doctrine of sociology's history as a social science. The story consists of a foundational moment arising from the internal transformation of European society; classic discipline-defining texts written by a small group of brilliant authors; and a direct line of descent from them to us. But sociologists in the classical period itself did not have this origin story. When Franklin Giddings (1896), the first professor of sociology at Columbia University, published The Principles of Sociology, he named as the founding father—Adam Smith. Victor Branford (1904), expounding 'the founders of sociology' to a meeting in London, named as the central figure—Condorcet.
Article
The Modernity/Coloniality/Decoloniality (MCD) research program is a collective project associated with Latin America. In addition to a critique of Eurocentric “colonial modernity,” the project highlights non-Eurocentric forms of knowing and being in the world. It also aims to foster alternative or decolonial thinking emerging from the lived colonial experiences of those situated “outside” Europe. This last is what MCD proponents claim differentiates it from postcolonial critiques of modernity with their emphasis on deconstruction. This review provides a brief but critical overview of the MCD project's parameters and claims. It makes a cautionary call to those tempted by “alternatives to modernity,” who might want to uncritically adopt alternative decolonial thinking. It concludes with a call for a closer and critical engagement with Latin American decolonial ideas and those they contest.
Book
1. Theories of Sport - The Neglect of Gender 2. Sports Feminism - The Importance of Gender 3. Nature and Culture - Introducing Victorian and Edwardian Sport 4. The Legitimation of Female Exercise - The Case of Physical Education 5. Recreative and Competitive Sports - Expansion and Containment 6. The Interwar Years - Limitations and Possibilities 7. Femininity of Musculinity? - Images of Women's Sport 8. Relations of Power - Institutionalized Discrimination 9. Olympic Women - A Struggle for Recognition 10. Sport for All Women - Problems and Progress 11. Towards 2000 AD - Diversity and Empowerment.
Article
Sport is now mobilized as a novel and effective means of achieving international development goals, leading to an increasingly institutionalized relationship between sport and development. While there is recent evidence of the effectiveness of Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) programmes and policies, research has also drawn attention to the relations of power that underpin the movement and, in particular, to colonizing tendencies in SDP initiatives. This article explores this critical research and considers it against the insights and importance of a development praxis concerned with decolonization. We argue that SDP scholars and activists would be well served to consider the main tenets of a decolonizing framework and we put forth some theoretical and methodological imperatives for decolonizing sport for development.
Article
This article examines the influence participating in football has on girls' gender identity construction. Set within the context of the rapid increase in the number of females playing football and the changing notions of femininity within contemporary girlhood, the article explores whether playing can assist with reshaping traditional notions of femininity. It draws on data collected during a six‐month ethnographic study with a small group of 10‐ and 11‐year‐old girls. Butler's concept of performativity is used to provide a theoretical framework for understanding gender identity construction. Methodologically, the research is underpinned by feminist and childhood sociology epistemological principles. A range of participatory methods have been utilized to assist the girls with communicating their views on the complex and abstract area of gender identity. The research findings indicate that whilst playing football was considered ‘acceptable’ the way girls played was heavily restricted by traditional notions of femininity. Girls had to look ‘feminine’ and be committed to cultivating a slim idealized body. The ‘way’ they played was also limited by discourses of acceptable female embodiment. Aggressive, assertive and physical play was not tolerated. Girls' participation was therefore limited by dominant feminine discourses which constrained their involvement and prevented football from providing a site for alternative performances of femininity.
Article
Narrative inquiry refers to a subset of qualitative research designs in which stories are used to describe human action. The term narrative has been employed by qualitative researchers with a variety of meanings. In the context of narrative inquiry, narrative refers to a discourse form in which events and happenings are configured into a temporal unity by means of a plot. Bruner (1985) designates two types of cognition: paradigmatic, which operates by recognizing elements as members of a category; and narrative, which operates by combining elements into an emplotted story. Narrative inquiries divide into two distinct groups based on Bruner's types of cognition. Paradigmatic‐type narrative inquiry gathers stories for its data and uses paradigmatic analytic procedures to produce taxonomies and categories out of the common elements across the database. Narrative‐type narrative inquiry gathers events and happenings as its data and uses narrative analytic procedures to produce explanatory stories.
Article
In the burgeoning field of sport and development, ‘role models’ have been invoked as an important element to increase the participation of girls and women in sport. Grounded in the African sport-in-development experience and in a case study of Zambian women's sports and the boxer, Esther Phiri, this essay examines the discourse around the use of ‘role models’ and begins to elaborate a theory around the use of this hitherto elusive notion specifically in the experience of sport-in-development projects and programmes which have gender-specific outcomes. We consider how role models may function to encourage and sustain female involvement, as well as to contribute to achieving goals set for sport and development projects, including (positively) altering gender roles and expectations. We conclude with a look towards promising areas of future research as well as a critical reflection on the limits of role models as a tool, especially given real-world intrusions.
Article
In this chapter, I begin by defining some pivotal terms and then discuss the predecessors of contemporary narrative researchers: sociologists and anthropologists who championed the life history method during the first half of the 20th century, second-wave feminists who poured new life into the study of personal narratives, and sociolinguists who treated oral narrative as a form of discourse worthy of study in itself. After that historical overview, I turn to contemporary narrative inquiry, articulating a set of analytic lenses through which narrative researchers view empirical material and outlining several current approaches to narrative research. Next come explorations of specific methodological issues in contemporary narrative inquiry. For researchers who collect narratives through intensive interviews, a central question is how to treat the interviewee as a narrator, both during interviews and while interpreting them. For all narrative researchers, a central question revolves around which voice or voices researchers should use as they interpret and represent the voices of those they study. And although all qualitative researchers address the question of the relationship between the relatively small "sample" they study and some larger whole, this question is particularly poignant for narrative researchers, who often present the narratives of a very small number of individuals--or even of just one individual--in their published works. The subsequent section addresses the relationship between narrative inquiry and social change. In the concluding paragraphs, I sketch some questions that arose for me as I worked on this chapter, questions that I hope narrative inquirers will explore during the coming years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article analyzes the construction of gender in development discourse. As development projects are designed and implemented by Third World men and women, local symbolic constructions of gender, class, and race permeate development discourse. The result is a multilayered discourse of development that negotiates Western discourse of modernity with local discourses of race, class, and gender. This analysis examines the intersection of development discourse and local patriarchal discourse in a World Bank project implemented in the agricultural frontier in Colombia. Through textual analysis of project documents and a consultant's field diary, the analysis sheds light on the rhetorical formulas, metaphors, and iconic signifiers that articulate women as ahistorical, static, and passive subjects. Despite its bottom—up, participatory approach to development, this World Bank project keeps marginalizing women, assuming that only men play crucial roles in processes of community and nation building and considering only male community members in processes of empowerment. In conclusion, the article explains how this type of development discourse maintains and reinforces patriarchal cultural codes that exclude women from active participation in development projects.
Article
In “Heterosexualism and the Colonial/Modern Gender System” (Lugones 2007), I proposed to read the relation between the colonizer and the colonized in terms of gender, race, and sexuality. By this I did not mean to add a gendered reading and a racial reading to the already understood colonial relations. Rather I proposed a rereading of modern capitalist colonial modernity itself. This is because the colonial imposition of gender cuts across questions of ecology, economics, government, relations with the spirit world, and knowledge, as well as across everyday practices that either habituate us to take care of the world or to destroy it. I propose this framework not as an abstraction from lived experience, but as a lens that enables us to see what is hidden from our understandings of both race and gender and the relation of each to normative heterosexuality.
Article
This article explores the cultural and structural forces that help influence the reproduction of sexist, misogynistic, and antifeminine attitudes among men in team sports. It first shows how the segregation of men into a homosocial environment limits their social contact with women and fosters an oppositional masculinity that influences the reproduction of orthodox views regarding women. However, this research also shows that when these same men compete in the gender-integrated sport of cheerleading, they positively reformulate their attitudes toward women. These findings therefore suggest that gender-integrating sports might potentially decrease some of the socionegative outcomes attributed to male team sport athletes, possibly including violence against women.
Article
Feminist and hegemony theorizing are used to explicate how sport and its ancillary organizations and occupations have managed to reproduce its masculinized nature despite the gains of second wave feminism that characterizes the broader culture. The author shows that contemporary sporting institutions largely originated as a political enterprise to counter the first wave of feminism, and describe how gender-segregation and self-selection permits sports' gatekeepers to near-exclusively draw upon a relatively homogenous group of hyper-masculine, over-conforming, failed male athletes to reproduce the institution as an extremely powerful gender-regime. The author suggests that, because orthodox notions of masculinity are institutionally codified within sport, it will take more than affirmative action programs to bring gender equality off the pitch; it will also require gender-integration on the pitch.
Article
We compared the assignment of gender to masculine and feminine pictured objects—as classified by the Spanish grammar—by English- and Spanish-speaking children and adults in three experiments. Across all three studies, subjects participated in one of two conditions. In one condition, pictures alone were presented; in the other condition, pictures were shown and labeled. We found that speakers of Spanish began to classify the objects according to the grammatical gender of the Spanish language in the second grade, unlike speakers of English. The effect of grammatical gender was more pronounced for speakers of Spanish when the objects were labeled, pointing specifically to the role of language in their classifications. We also found that English speakers were consistent in their judgments, often classifying artificial objects as male-like and natural objects as female-like. Spanish speakers were also sensitive to the natural-female/artificial-male conceptual division. Finally, we found that the artificial-male/natural-female link was an earlier force in classification for speakers of English than grammatical gender was for speakers of Spanish, suggesting that grammatical classifications are superimposed on conceptual ones in development.
Article
The languages we speak affect our perceptions of the world
Article
Este articulo cuyo eje temático esta trazado por la investigación “LA PUESTA EN ESCENA DEL GÉNERO EN EL JUEGO DE FÚTBOL. HERMENEUTICA DE LA MASCULINIDAD Y DE LA FEMENIDAD EN COLOMBIA”, del Departamento de Sociología de la Universidad de Antioquia, intenta mostrar las distintas dimensiones de análisis del fútbol aunque privilegia la dimensión del intercambio simbólico entre lo masculino y lo femenino. Foco que lleva a plantear preguntas relacionas con las formas culturales y simbólicas del ser mujer, del ser hombre en Colombia y con la distribución sexual de las ofertas culturales y sociales que permiten el ejercicio del derecho a la autonomía y al desarrollo público de la persona. Cuestión que puede resumir en la pregunta: ¿Por qué faltan estudios sobre el poder de género, soterradamente instalado en el juego del fútbol, luego en la institucionalización, el negocio, la mas-mediatizacion, y la importancia social que se le confiere, pese a que tanto se ha escrito sobre el tema de fútbol en Colombia y a que esta cuestión es de tan amplio dominio público?
Article
Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive, and mental health consequences. The effect of intimate partner violence on women's ability to control their fertility and the mechanisms through which these phenomena are related merit further investigation. Building on findings from a previous analysis in which a statistically significant relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia was found, this analysis examines the effect of gender inequality on this association using data from the 2000 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey. Specifically, the objective of this analysis is to explore whether gender inequality (as measured by women's autonomy, women's status, male patriarchal control, and intimate partner violence) in municipalities partially explains the association between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia. Results of logistic regression analysis with multi-level data show that living in a municipality with high rates of male patriarchal control significantly increased women's odds of having an unintended pregnancy by almost four times. Also, living in a municipality with high rates of intimate partner violence increased one's odds of unintended pregnancy by more than 2.5 times, and non-abused women living in municipalities with high rates of intimate partner violence were at a significantly increased risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, abused women living in a municipality with high personal female decision-making autonomy had more than a fourfold increased risk of having an unintended pregnancy. These findings demonstrate the need for reproductive health programs to target areas at particularly high risk for unintended pregnancy by reducing intimate partner violence and gender inequality.
Gender, sport and social exclusion.” Chap. 6 in Sport and Social Exclusion
  • T Kay
Of Beauty and ‘Beauties
  • A Forero-Peña
The Social, Cultural, and Historical Complexities That Shape and Constrain (Gendered) Space in an SDP Organisation in Colombia
  • S Oxford
Promoting the United Nations Values Through Sport
  • Sport Peace
Sexualized/Sexed Bodies
  • M Chawanksy
  • S Itani
Género y Colonialidad: en Busca de Claves de Lectura y de un Vocabulario Estratégico Descolonial
  • R Segato
Contemporary Fantasies of the Colombian Nation: Beauty, Citizenship, and Sex
  • I Giraldo
Postcolonial or Decolonial? Islamic Human Rights Commission
  • R Grosfoguel
Creating Safe Spaces and Building Social Assets for Young Women in the Developing World: A New Role for Sports
  • M Brady
Testosterone Rex: Unmaking the Myths of our Gendered Minds
  • C Fine
Space Invaders: Race, Gender and Bodies out of Place
  • N Puwar
From social inequalities to cultural differences: gender, “race” and ethnicity in sexual and reproductive health in Colombia
  • Viveros Vigoya
  • F G Hernández
  • Brady M.
Heterosexism and the Colonial/Modern Gender System
  • M Lugones