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Background: Numerous populations’ studies have reported that Parkinson’s disease is more common in highly industrialized countries than agricultural societies, and more frequent in Europe and North America than the Far East. Studies carried out in urban areas of Cuba report a prevalence of 135/¬100000 inhabitants. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in an urban area of Cienfuegos. Method: A descriptive-prospective study was conducted. The study included all the patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease belonging to the Area II in the Cienfuegos’ municipality; a total of 31 patients were included in a region where 8681 patients are 60 years old or even older. Results: For a total of 42028 patients, 8681 were 60 years old or older, and 31 suffer from Parkinson’s disease (27=65 years), with a prevalence of the masculine sex (15/12) and an age average of 77.6±8.6. The index of prevalence (IP) of patients older than 60 years was 357.1/100000 inhabitants and the totality of the population reached 73.8/100000 inhabitants being the average of IP for patients older than 60 years, in other latitudes it fluctuates in 147.7/100000 inhabitants. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the high index of prevalence for people older than 60 years, which keeps above the average worldwide.
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Introduction
Parkinson’s disease (EP), described for the rst time in 1817
by James Parkinson in its monograph of 66 pages An Essay on the
shaking palsy, where points it out as a condition consisting of shaking
involuntary movements, with reduction of the muscular potency in
the passive and active mobility, with propensity for encorvar the trunk
before, remains as the second degenerative disorder of the central
nervous system after the Disease of Alzaheimer.1,2 Within its etiology
or risk factors deserves special interest the age, then this is directly
proportional to degenerative processes, the mean age of beginning is
of 60 years, and the incidence increases signicantly with the age.3
However, around the 5 to 10 percent of the people with Parkinson’s
disease has a disease of “early beginning” that begins before the 50
years old. Other investigators believe that the disease is result of a
combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to one or more
environmental factors that trigger the disease.4 Numerous population
studies have documented that Parkinson’s disease is more common in
the very industrialized countries that in the agricultural societies, and
most frequent in Europe and North America that in the Far East.5–8
The analysis joint of 5 European Communities did not identify any
substantial difference in the prevalence of the EP in the European
countries and the general prevalence was 1.6 per 100 population. The
variable incidence rates in different cultures at least are partly related
to the lack of uniform criteria for diagnosis.9 In vat studies carried out
in urban areas report a prevalence of 135/100000 inhabitants.10 In our
province are no studies conducted to know the Parkinson’s disease
patterns, prevalence and incidence which means that intended to start
with an area of representative health of our city.
Methods
We conduct a descriptive study. For the same include all the
patients with diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) belonging to
Area II of Cienfuegos City. In total 31 patient of a universe of 8681
patients older than 60 years. Was carried out an exhaustive search for
patients through the review of the certicates of drugs of levodopa,
bromocriptine, and/or parkinsonil, in all the pharmacies of the area,
prior consent of the administration of each one of them, carrying out
then the verication in the home according to the direction found in
the document, where was veried the certainty of the diagnosis of PD.
It in addition went to the ofce of control of the population census
where the demographic datum was obtained from the area. For the
performance of the statistical analysis were grouped to the patients into
different age groups, analyzing the patterns of different demographic
and clinical variables for each group. Were compared the values of
the means of the clinical and demographic variables according to
age groups. For processing of the data the SPSS statistical program
was utilized, for the data analyzed there was taken a level of greater
signicance than 0.05.
Results
As a result of the present work verify that for a total population
(42028) of people in the area number two of Cienfuegos City (Table
1), a signicant part is represented by individuals older than 60 years
(8681) what represents approximately 20.7% of the total. Representing
the majority of the patients the older than 65 years of age group with
a total of 5957 individuals. Both in the group from 60 to 64 year and
in that of 65 years and more, the female sex prevailed, with a number
of 1426 and 3267 respectively. Conrming that population is one
with trend aging (Figure 1). Serving the variables related to the age
(≥60) in the patients with PD Parkinson’s disease belonging to this
area of Cienfuegos City (Table 2) reveal that the disorder occurred
with greater predominance in the group of patients older than 65 years
(n=27) representing 87.1% of the total, remaining a light supremacy in
Int J Fam Commun Med. 2019;3(1):1214. 12
©2019 Argüelles et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in an urban area of
Cienfuegos city
Volume 3 Issue 1 - 2019
Julio López Argüelles,1 Luis A Borroto
Bermudez,2 Leydi María Sosa Aguila,3 Aleima
Rodríguez Carbajal4
1Department of Neurology, University hospital Gustavo
Aldereguía Lima, Cienfuegos, Cuba
2Student aide in Neurology, Medical University ¨Dr. Raúl
Dorticoz Torrado¨, Cienfuegos, Cuba
3Department of Genetic, University hospital Paquito Gonzalez
Cueto, Cienfuegos, Cuba
4Department of Neuropsicology, University hospital Gustavo
Aldereguía Lima, Cienfuegos, Cuba
Correspondence: Julio López Argüelles, Department of
Neurology, University hospital Gustavo Aldereguía Lima,
Cienfuegos, Cuba, Email
Received: December 10, 2018 | Published: January 24, 2019
Abstract
Background: Numerous populations’ studies have reported that Parkinson’s disease
is more common in highly industrialized countries than the agricultural societies and
more frequent in Europe and North America than the Far East. Studies carried out in
urban areas of Cuba report a prevalence of 135/¬100000 inhabitants.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in an urban area of
Cienfuegos.
Method: A descriptive-prospective study was conducted. The study included all the
patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease belonging to the Area II in the Cienfuegos’
municipality; a total of 31 patients were included in a region where 8681 patients are
60 years old or even older.
Results: For a total of 42028 patients, 8681 were 60 years old or older, and 31 suffer
from Parkinson’s disease (27=65 years), with a prevalence of the masculine sex
(15/12) and an average of age of 77.6±8.6. The index of prevalence (IP) of patients
older than 60 years was 357.1/100000 inhabitants and the totality of the population
reached 73.8/100000 inhabitants being the average of IP for patients older than 60
years, in other latitudes it fluctuates in 147.7/100000 inhabitants.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates the high index of prevalence for people older
than 60 years, which keeps above the average worldwide.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Prevalence; demographic features
International Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Research Article Open Access
Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in an urban area of Cienfuegos city 13
Copyright:
©2019 Argüelles et al.
Citation: Argüelles JL, Bermudez LAB, Aguila LMS, et al. Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in an urban area of Cienfuegos city. Int J Fam Commun Med.
2019;3(1):12‒14. DOI: 10.15406/ijfcm.2019.03.00121
the male sex (15/12), that it in addition is non-exempt in the group of
patients with ages from 60 to 64 years (3/1). The total of patients with
the disease in this extension, resulted to be of 31, obviating 2 cases
died, a woman and man, both older than 60 years old. In the Figure
2 see as is distributed the prevalence of the PD in men and women
according to different age groups, where see as this increases in the
2 extreme groups and still greater it is in the group of older than 81
years, corresponding the greater value than the male sex. In the Table
3 see as the prevalence of the PD of the health area was of 357.1 per
100 000 population, nding its value maximum in the age group above
the 65 years and of this the male sex is kept with the greatest number
of patients (15/557.6); being the total prevalence of the area of 73.8
per 100000 population. The Figure 3 show as behaves the prevalence
of this population in comparison with the found in different countries,
being higher than the mean of these (±166), surpassed only by the
study conducted in Chinese woman who presented a prevalence of
522, uctuating even up to as low values as 16 in Iceland.
Table 1 Population older than 60 years, Area II of health of Cienfuegos City
Total population of the area 60 - 64 years More tan 65 years Total
n=2724 n=5957
M F M F M F
42028 1298 1426 2690 3267 3988 4693
Total ≥ 60 years 8681
Figure 1 Distribution of the population pyramid.
Table 2 Patients with Parkinson’s disease in Area II of health of the Cienfuegos
City
60 - 64 años 65 años y más Total
n=4 n=27 n=31
M F M F M F
31 15 12 18 13
12,9 % 87,1 % 100%
Figure 2 Index of prevalence for men and women according to age groups
Table 3 Patients with Parkinson’s disease, cases, and prevalence per 100 000
population, by age ≥ 60 years and sex, in health Area II of Cienfuegos City
Age (years) Male Female Both sexes
60 - 64 years
Population 1298 1426 2724
No. of cases 314
Prevalence 231.1 70.1 146.8
≥ 65 years
Population 2690 3267 5957
No. of cases 15 12 27
Prevalence 557.6 367.3 453.2
Both Age groups
Population 3988 4693 8681
No. of cases 18 13 31
Prevalence 451.4 277 357.1
Total population 42028
Prevalence (≥60 years) 73.8
Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in an urban area of Cienfuegos city 14
Copyright:
©2019 Argüelles et al.
Citation: Argüelles JL, Bermudez LAB, Aguila LMS, et al. Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in an urban area of Cienfuegos city. Int J Fam Commun Med.
2019;3(1):12‒14. DOI: 10.15406/ijfcm.2019.03.00121
Figure 3 Patterns of the index of prevalence in the population studied with
regard to other studies.
Discussion
The diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease is always clinical, which
means that the detection of all the affected patients is difcult. The
utilized methods for the estimate of the prevalence can be classied
in three groups: community studies based on the cases taken care of
in the medical consultations; studies door to door, that are capable
of detecting up to 40% of new cases; and the studies of utilization of
drugs,11 as the one carried out by us, a method which is effective and
easy to apply, specically in a disease as the PD where the Levodopa
is the most effective drug and is not utilized in another disease.12 The
prevalence index (PI) in 357.1/100000 for PD found in our study
remains above the mean of the different studies consulted in the
bibliography, basically European,13–18 becoming evident in addition
that are kept men older than 65 years of age as the most affected, as
in the majority of the studies although its incidence and prevalence
of these is above the 70 years old.19 Other works show a PI/100000
inhabitants higher than these gures as in a similar study carried out
in China (522) and Sydney (776).20,21 The results of the studies of
EUROPARKINSON (1997, 2000) place the general prevalence of the
EP in older 65 years such discharge as 1600 per 100,000 and 1800
per 100,000, respectively.22,23 What is found previously could be with
regard to the trend toward aging that presents the population studied
shown by the investment of the population pyramid, in addition to
being a small population.
Conclusion
The IP of the area studied is slightly higher than the average of
several European studies, behaving the greatest number in men older
than 81 years old.
Acknowledgments
None.
Conicts of interest
The author declares there is no conicts of interest.
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