Within months of becoming Chancellor in 1933, Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party began to implement legal and extralegal measures to dispossess German Jews of their civil rights and their property. During the following 12 years, the regime systematically dispossessed Jews, Roma, and other targeted groups (in Germany and in other territories occupied by the Nazis and other Axis powers) of their dignity, jobs, homes, and businesses. By 1943, the German Reich was declared “free of Jews.” In the years since the end of World War II (under Allied occupation beginning in 1945, during the division of the country into East and West Germany, and finally after unification in 1990) various laws and other measures have been enacted to address restitution of confiscated immovable private, communal, and heirless property. This includes settlement agreements with foreign countries, national legislation, as well as the establishment of so-called Jewish “successor organizations” to claim heirless property and communal property. Germany’s restitution laws for Jewish stolen property have been the most comprehensive in Europe. Germany endorsed the Terezin Declaration in 2009 and the Guidelines and Best Practices in 2010.