This chapter addresses the capability to enhance human cognitive performance (i.e., cognitive capital) through training, with the down-range goal of improving functionality in contexts of great complexity, including military/political operations, corporate directions, and educational preparation. It highlights a multidimensional framework to measure gains in cognitive capital on brain, cognitive, psychological, life-functionality, and emotional-cognition factors. To illustrate the potential to harness neuroplasticity, the chapter summarizes evidence showing improved agility and focus from a specific cognitive training that targets strategic thinking (e.g., filter/focus, big picture thinking, innovation). This chapter also adds to the notion of increasing peak performance utilizing moderate stress levels to boost responses. Optimizing performance in continually changing and stressful environments relies on strengthening human cognitive capital in the healthy brain across the life span—similar to that achieved for physical fitness.