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Hemiptera of Canada

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Abstract

The Canadian Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, and Heteroptera) fauna is reviewed, which currently comprises 4011 species, including 405 non-native species. DNA barcodes available for Canadian specimens are represented by 3275 BINs. The analysis was based on the most recent checklist of Hemiptera in Canada (Maw et al. 2000) and subsequent collection records, literature records and compilation of DNA barcode data. It is estimated that almost 600 additional species remain to be discovered among Canadian Hemiptera.
Hemiptera of Canada 277
Hemiptera of Canada
Robert G. Foottit1, H. Eric L. Maw1, Joel H. Kits1, Georey G. E. Scudder2
1 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa Research and Development Centre and Canadian National
Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, K. W. Neatby Bldg., 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A
0C6, Canada 2 Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia,
6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
Corresponding author: Robert G. Foottit (Robert.Foottit@canada.ca)
Academic editor: D. Langor | Received 10 May 2018 | Accepted 10 July 2018 | Published 24 January 2019
http://zoobank.org/64A417ED-7BB4-4683-ADAA-191FACA22F24
Citation: Foottit RG, Maw HEL, Kits JH, Scudder GGE (2019) Hemiptera of Canada. In: Langor DW, Sheeld CS
(Eds) e Biota of Canada – A Biodiversity Assessment. Part 1: e Terrestrial Arthropods. ZooKeys 819: 277–290.
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.819.26574
Abstract
e Canadian Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, and Heteroptera) fauna is reviewed,
which currently comprises 4011 species, including 405 non-native species. DNA barcodes available for
Canadian specimens are represented by 3275 BINs. e analysis was based on the most recent checklist
of Hemiptera in Canada (Maw et al. 2000) and subsequent collection records, literature records and
compilation of DNA barcode data. It is estimated that almost 600 additional species remain to be dis-
covered among Canadian Hemiptera.
Keywords
Barcode Index Number (BIN), biodiversity assessment, Biota of Canada, DNA barcodes, Hemiptera, true bugs
e order Hemiptera, the true bugs, is a relatively large order. Worldwide there are an
estimated 106,970 described species (Henry 2017, Bartlett et al. 2018, Hardy 2018).
e recognised Canadian Hemiptera fauna (Table 1) has been greatly expanded since
the review by Scudder (1979), with an increase of 937 species above the 3079 then
known. e checklist of Canadian Hemiptera (Maw et al. 2000) provided compre-
hensive lists and distributions for all species recognised at that time. Here we present
updated totals, including a number of additional unpublished records represented by
ZooKeys 819: 277–290 (2019)
doi: 10.3897/zookeys.819.26574
http://zookeys.pensoft.net
Copyright Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Geoffrey G. E. Scudder.. This is
an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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R.G. Foottit et al. / ZooKeys 819: 277–290 (2019)
278
specimens in the Canadian National Collections of Insects, Arthropods and Nema-
todes (CNCI) in Ottawa. Gwiazdowski et al. (2015) presented a detailed analysis of all
Hemipteran DNA barcodes available for the Canadian fauna.
A further 590 species are estimated to occur in the country, with the majority
expected in the large families Aphididae, Cicadellidae, and Miridae. Estimates of the
number of unrecorded species for the less diverse families is based mainly on known
but undescribed species and presence of species in adjacent climatologically and eco-
logically similar parts of the United States, and known distributions of host plants.
Molecular data and analysis of host plant usage provides evidence of additional cryp-
tic diversity in the more speciose phytophagous groups. For some families, presence
of unnamed clusters in the DNA barcode data suggests additional species, assuming
that in most cases Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), as dened by Ratnasingham and
Hebert (2013), correspond to one or more species (Gwiazdowski et al. 2015).
e classication used here follows Psyl’list (Ouvrard 2018) for Psylloidea, Aphid
Species File (Favret 2018) for Aphidomorpha, ScaleNet (García Morales et al. 2016)
for Coccoidea, Bartlett et al. (2018) for higher classication of Auchenorrhyncha, Bar-
tlett et al. (2014) for species level delimitation in Fulgoromorpha, Dmitriev (2018)
for species level delimitation in Cicadomorpha, and Henry (2017) for higher level
classication of Heteroptera. ere have been several changes in higher level classica-
tion since Scudder (1979). Homoptera, no longer recognised as a formal taxon, is now
treated as two suborders, namely Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha. Although not
followed here, some authors (after Sorensen et al. 1995) separate the Auchenorrhyncha
into suborders Clypeorrhyncha and Archaeorrhyncha. Among Sternorrhyncha, many
new families of scale insects have been erected; species in Canada formerly included
in Margarodidae are now dispersed among Matsucoccidae, Steingeliidae and Xylococ-
cidae; Putoidae was formerly included in Pseudococcidae. Schemes for the subdivision
of family Aphididae, such as that of Heie (1980) (and used in the Hemiptera check-
list of Maw et al. 2000), have been proposed, but largely ignored in the absence of a
clear consensus on the relationships among aphid subgroups. Within the Fulgoroidea,
the Acanaloniidae, Dictyopharidae, and Kinnaridae are now recognised in Canada,
with their species removed from the Issidae, Fulgoridae, and Cixiidae, respectively.
e broadly constituted Cercopidae has been divided, with most Canadian species
now placed in the Clastopteridae and Aphrophoridae. In the Heteroptera, most for-
mer lygaeid subfamilies have been given family status so that Lygaeidae of Scudder
(1979) is now represented by eight families (Henry 1997); the further segregation of
Ischnorhynchidae and Orsillidae (Sweet 2000) from Lygaeidae is not recognised here.
Lyctocoridae and Lasiochilidae have been separated from Anthocoridae. On the other
hand, Aradidae now includes Meziridae, Miridae includes Isometopidae, and Reduvii-
dae includes Phymatidae and Ploiariidae.
e 419 non-native species of Hemiptera represents a signicant proportion of the
total fauna. In Aphididae, about 19% of the species are non-native. An overview of the
non-native aphid fauna of North America was provided by Foottit et al. (2006) and
updated by Skvarla et al. (2017). e non-native Heteroptera of Canada (about 7% of
the total fauna) were treated by Scudder and Foottit (2006).
Hemiptera of Canada 279
Sternorrhyncha
Worldwide, the Sternorrhyncha are represented by about 18,690 species (Hardy 2018),
with about 2950 species in North America (approximate composite number based on
Foottit et al. 2006, García Morales et al. 2016, Skvarla et al. 2017, Mallory 2018,
Ouvrard and Martin 2018). Currently, 1120 species of Sternorrhyncha are known
from Canada compared to 834 in 1979, and it is expected that a further 215 species
will be eventually found in the country (Table 1).
In Canada, the Aphididae and Adelgidae are relatively well known. Foottit and
Maw (1997, 2014) contributed syntheses of the Yukon and grassland faunas of Aphidi-
dae. Aphids and adelgids are well represented by DNA barcodes (Foottit et al. 2008,
2009a, b), and, in general, barcode diversity in these groups corresponds well to mor-
phological species concepts. However, several currently recognised aphid species are
represented by more than one BIN, as dened by Ratnasingham and Hebert (2013).
In two such cases, subsequent morphological analysis and addition of other genetic loci
has resulted in the recognition of new species (Foottit et al. 2010, Foottit and Maw
2018). Conversely, members of several aphid species groups are not distinguishable by
COI sequence divergence (Foottit et al. 2008).
e Psylloidea have not been subjected to extensive taxonomic or faunal analysis in
Canada, except for work by Hodkinson (e.g., Hodkinson 1976) in British Columbia
and Alberta. e identiable forms of Coccoidea (adult female) and of Aleyrodidae
(immatures) are sessile or subterranean and thus not captured by the usual general col-
lecting methods. Consequently, the national fauna and regional distribution of species
in these two groups are poorly known, and even limited eorts can yield new records.
Kozár et al. (1989) identied several species of scale insects new to Canada based on
brief collecting eorts in southern British Columbia. In a recent study of ant–ster-
norrhynch associations at a single grassland site in Alberta, two of the four species of
Pseudococcidae found were newly recorded for Canada (Newton et al. 2011). e
number of available BINs (see Table 1), largely based on untargeted sampling by the
Biodiversity Institute of Ontario (University of Guelph), has indicated that current
knowledge greatly under-represents the true fauna of Psyllidae and Aleyrodidae if BIN
diversity can be considered a good approximation of species diversity in these groups.
Auchenorrhyncha
Worldwide there are about 43,024 species of Auchenorrhyncha (Bartlett et al. 2018), but
an estimate for North America is currently not available. In Canada, Hamilton (1997,
2014) analysed the cicadellid fauna of the Yukon and the Canadian Prairie Ecozone,
respectively, Gareau (2008) documented that of Quebec, and Wilson (1997) treated the
Yukon Delphacidae. e taxonomic status of several auchenorrhynch groups has been
updated. A number of papers by Hamilton (e.g., Hamilton 1983, 1994, 1998) have
revised many groups of Cicadellidae. As well, the large and dicult tribe Erythroneu-
rini has been completely revised by Dmitriev and Dietrich (2007, 2009, 2010). e
R.G. Foottit et al. / ZooKeys 819: 277–290 (2019)
280
Table 1. Census of Hemiptera in Canada.
Taxon1No. species
reported in
Scudder (1979)2
No. species
currently known
from Canada3
No. BINs4
available for
Canadian species
Est. no undescribed
or unrecorded
species in Canada
General distribution by ecozone4A Information
sources5
Suborder Sternorrhyncha
Superfamily Psylloidea CNCI
Aphalaridae 650 37 (1) 19 10 all ecozones but Arctic
Calophyidae 6 ? 1 0 0 Mixedwood Plains
Liviidae 6 4 14 (3) 6 2 all ecozones but Arctic
Psyllidae 635 52 (5) 65 20 all ecozones but Arctic
Triozidae 18 25 (1) 13 10 all ecozones but Arctic
Superfamily Aleyrodoidea
Aleyrodidae 3 13 (4) 40 40 all ecozones south of taiga CNCI
Infraorder Aphidomorpha
Superfamily Adelgoidea
Adelgidae 22 18 (5) 14 1 all ecozones but Arctic
Superfamily Aphidoidea
Aphididae 650 847 (164) 758 100 all ecozones CNCI
Superfamily Phylloxeroidea
Phylloxeridae 6 8 (2) 11 4 Pacic Maritime, Mixedwood Plains, Boreal Plains (1
sp.)
Infraorder Coccomorpha
Superfamily Coccoidea
Asterolecaniidae 1 2 (2) 0 0 Pacic Maritime, Mixedwood Plains
Coccidae 15 26 (12) 7 5 all ecozones, mostly south of Arctic
Cryptococcidae ? 2 (2) 0 0 Mixedwood Plains, Atlantic Maritime
Dactylopiidae 1 1 0 0 Prairies
Diaspididae 16 30 (10) 4 10 all ecozones, mostly south of taiga
Eriococcidae 3 3 (2) 2 0 Pacic Maritime, Mixedwood Plains, Atlantic Maritime
Kermesidae 0 4 0 1 Mixedwood Plains
Margarodidae 4 70 0 0
Matsucoccidae7? 2 0 0 Mixedwood Plains, Atlantic Maritime
Ortheziidae 83 5 2 0 all ecozones but Arctic
Pseudococcidae 13 925 (9) 11 10 all ecozones, mostly south of taiga Newton et al. 2011;
CNCI
Hemiptera of Canada 281
Taxon1No. species
reported in
Scudder (1979)2
No. species
currently known
from Canada3
No. BINs4
available for
Canadian species
Est. no undescribed
or unrecorded
species in Canada
General distribution by ecozone4A Information
sources5
Putoidae 9? 2 0 0 Montane Cordillera, Boreal Cordillera
Rhizoecidae 0 1 0 2 Pacic Maritime CNCI
Steingeliidae7? 1 (1) 0 0 Mixedwood Plains
Xylococcidae7? 1 0 0 Atlantic Maritime
Total Sternorrhyncha 844 1120 (223) 955 215
Suborder Auchenorrhyncha
Superfamily Fulgoroidea
Acanaloniidae 10 ? 2 2 0 Mixedwoods Plains
Achilidae 17 19 15 3 all ecozones but Arctic
Caliscelidae 7 11 7 0 mostly south of boreal
Cixiidae 25 11 31 14 5 all ecozones but Arctic
Delphacidae 81 138 (1) 102 30 all ecozones
Derbidae 14 21 17 3 all ecozones south of taiga; most in Mixedwood Plains
Dictyopharidae 12 4 8 5 1 widespread south of taiga
Flatidae 1 3 3 0 Mixedwoods Plains
Issidae 3 10 2 1 0 Mixedwoods Plains
Kinnaridae 11 ? 1 0 0 Western Interior Basin
Infraorder Cicadomorpha
Superfamily Cicadoidea
Cicadidae 9 21 10 7 mostly south of taiga, Taiga Plains (1 sp.)
Superfamily Cercopoidea
Aphrophoridae 13 ? 23 (4) 19 2 all ecozones but Arctic
Cercopidae 33 13 1 0 0 Mixedwoods Plains
Clastopteridae13 ? 12 8 2 all ecozones south of taiga
Superfamily Membracoidea
Cicadellidae 800 1097 (76) 1144 150 all ecozones Dmitriev 2018,
specimens in CNCI
Membracidae 70 101 (1) 65 20 widespread south of boreal, few in Boreal Shield and
Boreal Plains
Dmitriev 2018
Total Auchenorrhyncha 1064 1491 (82) 1412 223
R.G. Foottit et al. / ZooKeys 819: 277–290 (2019)
282
Taxon1No. species
reported in
Scudder (1979)2
No. species
currently known
from Canada3
No. BINs4
available for
Canadian species
Est. no undescribed
or unrecorded
species in Canada
General distribution by ecozone4A Information
sources5
Suborder [?] Heteroptera Scudder 2008 and
references included
therein, Scudder
2012, Roch 2017
Infraorder Enicocephalomorpha
Superfamily Enicocephaloidea
Aenictopecheidae 0 1 0 0 Boreal Plains (single collection)
Enicocephalidae 14 1 1 2 1 Mixedwood Plains, Atlantic Maritime
Infraorder Dipsocoromorpha
Superfamily Dipsocoroidea
Ceratocombidae 15 1 1 7 5 Pacic Maritime, Mixedwood Plains
Schizopteridae 0 1 (1) 0 0 Pacic Maritime
Infraorder Gerromorpha
Superfamily Gerroidea
Gerridae 19 22 13 1 all ecozones but Arctic
Veliidae 6 8 6 0 all ecozones south of taiga
Superfamily Hebroidea
Hebridae 4 5 2 0 all ecozones south of taiga
Superfamily Hydrometroidea
Hydrometridae 1 1 1 0 Pacic Maritime, Prairies, Mixedwood Plains, Atlantic
Maritime
Superfamily Mesovelioidea
Mesoveliidae 2 2 2 0 all ecozones south of taiga
Infraorder Nepomorpha
Superfamily Corixoidea
Corixidae 72 79 57 2 all ecozones but Arctic
Superfamily Naucoroidea
Naucoridae 0 1 1 0 Mixedwood Plains
Superfamily Nepoidea
Belostomatidae 3 4 2 0 all ecozones but Arctic
Nepidae 7 4 6 1 Mixedwood Plains, southern Boreal Shield
Superfamily Notonectoidea
Notonectidae 12 12 10 0 all ecozones but Arctic
Hemiptera of Canada 283
Taxon1No. species
reported in
Scudder (1979)2
No. species
currently known
from Canada3
No. BINs4
available for
Canadian species
Est. no undescribed
or unrecorded
species in Canada
General distribution by ecozone4A Information
sources5
Pleidae 2 1 1 0 Mixedwood Plains, southern Boreal Shield
Superfamily Ochteroidea
Gelastocoridae 1 1 1 0 Pacic Maritime, Prairies, Mixedwood Plains
Ochteridae 0 1 0 0 Mixedwood Plains
Infraorder Leptopodomorpha
Superfamily Saldoidea
Saldidae 36 38 23 2 All ecozones, mostly south of Arctic
Infraorder Cimicomorpha
Cimicoidea
Anthocoridae 4116 39 (7) 36 1 widespread south of taiga
Cimicidae 4 7 3 0 widespread south of taiga
Lasiochilidae 16 ? 1 0 0 Mixedwood Plains
Lyctocoridae 16 ? 6 2 0 all ecozones south of taiga
Superfamily Naboidea
Nabidae 12 22 (3) 19 2 all ecozones south of Arctic
Superfamily Microphysoidea
Microphysidae 0 3 (3) 1 0 near Pacic and Atlantic ports of entry
Superfamily Miroidea
Miridae 60117 706 (57) 414 100 mostly south of Arctic, widespread
Tingidae 46 52 (6) 30 10 all ecozones south of taiga
Superfamily Reduvioidea
Reduviidae 2618 29 (3) 20 0 all ecozones south of taiga
Infraorder Pentatomomorpha
Superfamily Aradoidea
Aradidae 47 19 51 13 2 all ecozones but Arctic
Superfamily Coreoidea
Alydidae 10 9 7 0 all ecozones but Arctic
Coreidae 11 15 14 0 all ecozones but Arctic
Rhopalidae 9 19 (1) 14 2 all ecozones but Arctic
Superfamily Lygaeoidea
Artheneidae 0 1 (1) 1 0 all ecozones south of taiga
Berytidae 20 3 5 (1) 6 0 all ecozones south of boreal
Blissidae 21 ? 6 4 0 all ecozones south of boreal
R.G. Foottit et al. / ZooKeys 819: 277–290 (2019)
284
Taxon1No. species
reported in
Scudder (1979)2
No. species
currently known
from Canada3
No. BINs4
available for
Canadian species
Est. no undescribed
or unrecorded
species in Canada
General distribution by ecozone4A Information
sources5
Cymidae 21 ? 5 4 0 all ecozones south of taiga
Geocoridae 21 ? 10 5 0 all ecozones but Arctic
Heterogastridae 21 ? 2 (1) 0 0 Pacic Maritime
Lygaeidae 100 21 27 (1) 18 2 all ecozones, most south of Arctic
Oxycarenidae 21 ? 5 (1) 1 0 all ecozones but Arctic
Pachygronthidae 21 ? 3 4 1 all ecozones but Arctic
Piesmatidae 1 4 1 0 all ecozones south of taiga
Rhyparochromidae 21 ? 71 (10) 52 7 all ecozones but Arctic
Superfamily Pentatomoidea
Acanthosomatidae 5 5 (1) 3 0 all ecozones but Arctic
Cydnidae 7 12 (1) 13 3 Pacic Maritime, Mixedwood Plains
Pentatomidae 63 22 77 (1) 68 5 all ecozones but Arctic
Scutelleridae 9 13 9 2 all ecozones but Arctic, mostly south of taiga
yreocoridae 23 9 11 12 2 all ecozones but Arctic, mostly south of taiga
Total Heteroptera 1171 1400 (100) 908 151
Total Hemiptera 3079 4011 (405) 3275 589
1Classication follows Ouvrard (2018, Psylloidea), Favret (2018, Aphidomorpha), García Morales et al. (2016, Coccoidea), Bartlett et al. (2018, Auchenorrhyncha), and Henry (2017, Heteroptera).
2Some families not recognised by Scudder (1979) but which contain species included by him within other families, are indicate by ? in this column. 3Numbers in parentheses indicate the number
of non-native species included in the total. Phytophagous species known only from indoor plants are not included. 4Barcode Index Numbers, as dened by Ratnasingham and Hebert (2013). 4ASee
gure 1 in Langor (2019) for a map of ecozones. 5e baseline data for all groups is the most recent comprehensive checklist of Hemiptera in Canada (Maw et al. 2000). Sources given here are for
subsequent additions to the known fauna. Collection abbreviation: CNCI, specimens in Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. 6As the delineation of families of Psyl-
loidea has changed since Scudder (1979), the number of species reported in 1979 for each family are not comparable to current totals with the exception of Triozidae. 7In Scudder (1979), the count
for Margarodidae included Matsucoccidae, Steingelliidae, and Xylococcidae; no Canadian species remain in Margarodidae. 8Misspelled as Arthezidae in Scudder (1979). 9In Scudder (1979), the
count for Pseudococcidae included Putoidae. 10In Scudder (1979), the count for Issidae included Acanaloniidae. 11In Scudder (1979), the count for Cixiidae included Kinnaridae. 12Treated under
Fulgoridae in Scudder (1979); there are no Canadian species of Fulgoridae s.str. 13In Scudder (1979), the count for Cercopidae included Aphrophoridae and Clastopteridae. 14Enicocephalidae was
listed under Reduvioidea in Scudder (1979). 15Ceratocombidae was treated as part of Dipsocoridae in Scudder (1979). 16In Scudder (1979), the count for Anthocoridae included Lasiochilidae and
Lyctocoridae. 17Scudder (1979) reported on Miridae (600 spp.) and Isometopidae (1 spp.) separately; however, we have combined these counts for 1979 under Miridae. 18Scudder (1979) reported
on Reduviidae (13 spp.), Phymatidae (3 spp.), and Ploiariidae (10 spp.) separately; however, as these are all currently included in Reduviidae, we have combined the count for 1979. 19Scudder (1979)
reported on Aradidae (46 spp.) and Merizidae (1 spp.) separately; however, we have combined these counts for 1979 under Aradidae. 20Scudder (1979) reported this family as Berytinidae. 21In Scud-
der (1979), the count for Lygaeidae included Artheneidae, Blissidae, Cymidae, Geocoridae, Heterogastridae, Oxycarenidae, Pachygronthidae, and Rhyparochromidae. 22Scudder (1979) reported
on Pentatomidae (61 spp.) and Podopidae (2 spp.) separately; however, we have combined these counts for 1979 under Pentatomidae. 23Scudder (1979) reported this family as Corimelaenidae.
Hemiptera of Canada 285
Cercopoidea were completely revised and a handbook published by Hamilton (1982).
Progress on the Fulgoroidea includes a review of the North American fauna (Bartlett et
al. 2014), which provides illustrated keys to all genera including the rst comprehensive
key to delphacid genera in the region. e known diversity of Canadian Auchenorrhyn-
cha has increased since Scudder (1979), mostly as a result of taxonomic progress and
improved knowledge of distributions. Currently, 1491 species are known from Canada
compared to 1060 in 1979, and it is expected that a further 223 species will be even-
tually found in the country (Table 1). Most of the increases are in line with estimates
of unrecorded species provided by Scudder (1979). e highest proportional increase
is among the Cicadidae from nine to 21 recorded species; this increase is entirely due
to improved knowledge of distribution (Hamilton 2010, Sanborn and Phillips 2013)
as little taxonomic work has been done on the family in Canada. e highest numeri-
cal increase is among the Cicadellidae with an increase of 297 species; this is due to a
combination of signicant taxonomic research, greatly increased knowledge of distribu-
tions, and a small number of recently introduced species. We expect this family to hold
the largest number of still unrecorded species (estimated at 150 species), particularly
among the under-studied and under-collected subfamily Typhlocybinae.
Signicant progress has been made in DNA barcoding of the Canadian Auchenor-
rhyncha. Data for 691 species have been released (Foottit et al. 2014, Gwiazdowski Het-
eroptodea et al. 2015) and unpublished data for additional species is available in Barcode
of Life Data System (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007). A simple comparison between the
number of BINs and recorded species suggests that more than half the Canadian species
have been barcoded in most families, and an impressive 91% of the highly diverse Cicadel-
lidae. However, caution is required in interpreting these numbers. Single BINs have been
shown to include multiple morphologically distinct species in a number of cicadellid gen-
era (Foottit et al. 2014). Conversely, preliminary examination of BINs for the Typhlocybi-
nae suggests that single species may be represented by multiple BINs. us, the number of
BINs may not be predictive of the number of distinct species within these groups.
Heteroptera
ere are about 45,254 described species of Heteroptera in the world. e most recent
published comprehensive catalog for the group in North America (Henry and Froe-
schner 1985) includes 3834 species. About 1400 species are currently known to occur
in Canada compared to 1171 in 1979, and it is expected that a further 151 species
will be eventually added (Table 1). Most families of this suborder are relatively well
known in the country. However, representatives of two families have been found in
Canada only recently: Schizopteridae in 2010 (Scudder 2010a) and Aenictopecheidae
in 2016 (Scudder and Štys 2016). Roch (2017) recently documented the Heterop-
tera of Quebec. Detailed analyses of the faunas of the Yukon, grasslands, Atlantic
Maritime Ecozone and Montane Cordillera Ecozone have appeared (Scudder 1997,
2010b, 2011, 2014), and the aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera of Canadian peat-
R.G. Foottit et al. / ZooKeys 819: 277–290 (2019)
286
lands and marshlands and the aquatic Heteroptera of the prairies and parklands were
documented by Scudder (1987) and Scudder et al. (2010). Kelton (1980) provided
a handbook of the Miridae of the Prairie Provinces. A major on-line database of the
mirid fauna of North America (Schuh 2002–2013) includes records for a major por-
tion of the holdings of the CNCI. DNA barcodes for the 334 species of Heteroptera
drawn from CNCI (mainly Canadian species) were presented by Park et al. (2011) and
reanalysed by Gwiazdowski et al. (2015).
e predicted number of Miridae constitutes the bulk of the estimate for Heter-
optera overall, but this number is speculative and may be an underestimate if there are
a signicant number of undetected cryptic species within the more speciose genera.
Summary and opportunities
Despite the signicant increase in knowledge of Hemiptera in Canada since 1979, a
substantial amount of the country’s biodiversity still awaits discovery. Some groups of
Hemiptera are relatively well documented in Canada, while others are quite poorly
known. However, even in the well-studied, but highly diverse phytophagous families
(such as Aphididae and Miridae), there is probably unrecognised cryptic diversity asso-
ciated with host plants and geographic variation. Several large genera in these families,
such as Lygus, continue to present taxonomic diculties (Schwartz and Foottit 1998)
and opportunities for application of new approaches and technologies. Because many
species of Hemiptera are current or potential pests, continuing research on detection,
identication, quarantine and management of these groups will be required.
Acknowledgments
e express their thanks to Jeremy deWaard for updates to the number of available
Barcode Index Numbers. We thank David Langor and Cory Sheeld for their criti-
cal comments.
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