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Wpływ turystyki na konkurencyjność i internacjonalizację miast [w:] Polska Raport o konkurencyjności 2018. Rola miast w kształtowaniu przewag konkurencyjnych Polski

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Miasta zamieszkuje ponad połowa ludności świata i do nich też kieruje się największa część światowego ruchu turystycznego: w Europie już na początku pierwszej dekady XXI w. turystyka miejska stanowiła 30% podróży i 20% wyjazdów turystycznych [Law, 2002; UNWTO, 2011]. Funkcja turystyczna, najbardziej egzogeniczna ze wszystkich funkcji miasta, określa stopień jego otwartości, natomiast wielkość i jakość zagospodarowania turystycznego stanowi wyznacznik możliwości recepcyjnej miasta. Obszary zurbanizowane borykają się z różnorodnymi zjawiskami negatywnie oddziałującymi na równowagę i potencjał ich rozwoju, turystyka zaś ma z jednej strony znaczący w tym udział a z drugiej – może stanowić bufor, służący rewitalizacji i regeneracji nadwyrężonej funkcji oraz tkanki fizycznej miasta. Analizując tematykę rozwoju funkcji turystycznej ośrodków miejskich, badacze odczuwają niedostatek opracowań poświęconych temu zagadnieniu [patrz np. Ashworth, 1992; Barke, Newton, 1995; Hinch, 1996]1. Częściowo wynika to z trudności pomiaru efektów rozwoju turystyki, a ściślej – wyodrębnienia i oszacowania skutków, które można przypisać turystyce, spośród wielu innych, spowodowanych przez różne formy ludzkiej działalności w wielowymiarowej przestrzeni funkcjonalnej miasta. Drugie źródło ma charakter metodyczny: duża liczba podmiotów oraz złożoność relacji i więzi instytucjonalnych między aktorami sceny gospodarczej, społecznej i kulturalnej miasta sprawiają, że wyzwanie stanowi zarówno identyfikacja interesariuszy rozwoju turystyki miejskiej, jak i wskazanie ich roli w kształtowaniu strategii zrównoważonego rozwoju tej branży. Celem niniejszego opracowania jest objaśnienie podstawowych pojęć dotyczących funkcji turystycznej miasta oraz określenie jej wpływu na proces internacjonalizacji i poziom konkurencyjności miasta.
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