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La traduzione degli elementi culturali nella letteratura per bambini - da Knert-Mathilde a Martinfranta



L’argomento principale di questa tesi è la traduzione degli elementi culturali nella letteratura per bambini. Attraverso l’analisi della traduzione dal norvegese all’italiano di Vaffelhjarte di Maria Parr si cerca di individuare le strategie applicate per la traduzione degli elementi culturali che sono presenti nel libro. In base alla presentazione delle diverse strategie disponibili per la traduzione degli elementi specifici a una cultura ho analizzato la traduzione dei nomi propri di persona e di luogo, e dei molti realia come per esempio il cibo, le bevande, le feste e alcuni oggetti particolari della cultura norvegese. Partendo dal presupposto che anche il modo di parlare dei protagonisti può essere considerato parte degli elementi culturali ho anche analizzato la traduzione delle esclamazioni e delle parole cosiddette nestenbanneord in norvegese, oltre alla traduzione dei giochi di parole e degli altri elementi linguistici che fanno parte della lingua creativa dei bambini protagonisti del libro.
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When critics identify 'manipulations' in translations, these are often described and analysed in terms of the differing norms governing the source and the target languages, cultures and literatures. This article focuses on the agent of the translation, the translator, and her/his presence in the translated text. It presents a theoretical and analytical tool, a communicative model of translation, using the category of the implied translator, the creator of a new text for readers of the target text. This model links the theoretical fields of narratology and translation studies and helps to identify the agent of 'change' and the level of communication in which the most significant modifications take place. It is a model applicable to all translated narrated literature but, as examples illustrate, due to the asymmetrical communication in and around children's literature, the implied translator as he/she becomes visible or audible as the narrator of the translation, is particularly tangible in translated children's literature.
Since publication over twenty years ago, The Translator's Invisibility has provoked debate and controversy within the field of translation and become a classic text. Providing a fascinating account of the history of translation from the seventeenth century to the present day, Venuti shows how fluency prevailed over other translation strategies to shape the canon of foreign literatures in English and investigates the cultural consequences of the receptor values which were simultaneously inscribed and masked in foreign texts during this period. Reissued with a new introduction, in which the author provides a clear, detailed account of key concepts and arguments in order to issue a counterblast against simplistic interpretations, The Translator's Invisibility takes its well-deserved place as part of the Routledge Translation Classics series. This book is essential reading for students of translation studies at all levels.
Claire Kramsch is Professor of German and Affiliate Professor of Education at the University of California at Berkeley, California USA, where she teaches and directs Ph.D. dissertations in applied linguistics. She has published widely on the relationship of discourse and culture as well as on language, identity, and subjectivity in foreign language education. Her books include: Discourse analysis and second language teaching (1981), Interaction et discours dans la classe de langue (1984), Reden, mitreden, dazwischenreden. Managing conversations in German (1985), Context and culture in language teaching (1993), Redefining the boundaries of language study (1995), Language and culture (1998), Language acquisition and language socialization: Ecological perspectives (2002). In 1998, she received the Goethe Medal from the Goethe Institute for her work on language and culture. She is the past president of the American Association for Applied Linguistics and a past editor of Applied Linguistics.
This book considers one of the most controversial aspects of children's and young adult literature: its use as an instrument of power. Children in contemporary Western society are oppressed and powerless, yet they are allowed, in fiction written by adults for the enlightenment and enjoyment of children, to become strong, brave, rich, powerful, and independent -- on certain conditions and for a limited time. Though the best children's literature offers readers the potential to challenge the authority of adults, many authors use artistic means such as the narrative voice and the subject position to manipulate the child reader. Looking at key works from the eighteenth century to the present, Nikolajeva explores topics such as genre, gender, crossvocalization, species, and picturebook images. Contemporary power theories including social and cultural studies, carnival theory, feminism, postcolonial and queer studies, and narratology are also considered, in order to demonstrate how a balance is maintained between the two opposite inherent goals of children's literature: to empower and to educate the child.
If languages influence the way we think, do bilinguals think differently in their respective languages? And if languages do not affect thought, why do bilinguals often perceive such influence? For many years these questions remained unanswered because the research on language and thought had focused solely on the monolingual mind. Bilinguals were either excluded from this research as ‘unusual‘ or ‘messy‘ subjects, or treated as representative speakers of their first languages. Only recently did bi- and multilinguals become research participants in their own right. Pavlenko considers the socio-political circumstances that led to the monolingual status quo and shows how the invisibility of bilingual participants compromised the validity and reliability of findings in the study of language and cognition. She then shifts attention to the bilingual turn in the field and examines its contributions to the understanding of the human mind.