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Eco Labels and Eco Conscious Consumer Behavior: The Mediating Effect of Green Trust and Environmental Concern

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This study explores the relationship between eco labels and eco conscious consumer behavior for green products. Mediation effect of consumer trust regarding green products and their concern for the sustainability of environment have also been analyzed. There are many researches regarding consumers’ evaluation of green products and consumer behavior, but no substantial research has been done on the effects of understanding eco labels on eco-conscious consumer behavior. Eco labels are the essential sources of information regarding products’ features and focus on providing information about less detrimental effects of green products on environment. Data of respondents have been collected through convenience sampling from the most populous city of Pakistan, i.e., Karachi. This research is an empirical study, structural equation modelling technique has been used to explore the relationship among the variables in the study. Furthermore, the mediation effects of green trust and environmental concern on consumer’ behavior have also been analyzed.The findings of research highlight the positive impact of eco labels on consumers’ eco conscious behavior. The results show full mediation effect of green trust on the relationship between eco labels and eco conscious consumer behavior. However, there was no mediation effect of environmental concern between eco labels and eco conscious consumer behavior. Hence, investing resources on eco labels design and providing awareness about the sustainability of environment are helpful in producing eco conscious consumer behavior.
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Eco Labels and Eco Conscious Consumer Behavior: The Mediating
Effect of Green Trust and Environmental Concern
Irfan Hameed Idrees Waris
Abstract: This study explores the relationship between eco labels and eco conscious consumer behavior
for green products. Mediation effect of consumer trust regarding green products and their concern for the
sustainability of environment have also been analyzed. There are many researches regarding consumers’ eval-
uation of green products and consumer behavior, but no substantial research has been done on the effects of
understanding eco labels on eco-conscious consumer behavior. Eco labels are the essential sources of informa-
tion regarding products’ features and focus on providing information about less detrimental effects of green
products on environment. Data of respondents have been collected through convenience sampling from the
most populous city of Pakistan, i.e., Karachi. This research is an empirical study, structural equation mod-
elling technique has been used to explore the relationship among the variables in the study. Furthermore, the
mediation effects of green trust and environmental concern on consumer’ behavior have also been analyzed.
The findings of research highlight the positive impact of eco labels on consumers’ eco conscious behavior. The
results show full mediation effect of green trust on the relationship between eco labels and eco conscious con-
sumer behavior. However, there was no mediation effect of environmental concern between eco labels and eco
conscious consumer behavior. Hence, investing resources on eco labels design and providing awareness about
the sustainability of environment are helpful in producing eco conscious consumer behavior.
Keywords: Eco labels, eco conscious consumer behavior, green trust, environmental concern.
Introduction
Environmental issues have become a concern for the consumers and companies across the
globe that led to the manufacturing of green products (Bailey, Mishra, & Tiamiyu,2016).
Green marketing encompasses broad range of concepts which includes facilitation and
production of value satisfying consumer’s needs and demands (Mart´
ınez,2015). Hence,
it is essential for the marketers to portray green products as healthy as well as environ-
mental friendly (Rettie, Burchell, & Riley,2012).
Green marketing signifies social responsibility of a firm. Green marketing is an ef-
fort to maintain and build sustainable relationship with stakeholders e.g., nature, society
and consumers. Thus, it includes marketing of green products and services is a sustain-
able process and shapes the attitude of the society towards pro environmental behavior
(Rettie et al.,2012). Power of marketing is undeniable in acting as a change agent and
amending government policies in the support of green orientation (Gordon, Carrigan,
Registrar & Chairperson, Department of Marketing, IQRA University, Karachi, Pakistan.
E-mail: irfan.h@iqra.edu.pk
Lecturer, Management Sciences, University of Turbat, Turbat, Pakistan. E-mail: idrees.waris@uot.edu.pk
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Journal of Management Sciences
Vol. 5(2): 86-105, 2018
DOI: 10.20547/jms.2014.1805205
Journal of Management Sciences
& Hastings,2011). Marketing has a vital role in driving sales of companies, improv-
ing performance and increasing market share. However, the results of green marketing
strategies from previous study suggest diminishing sales and performance in terms of
market shares (D’Souza, Taghian, Sullivan-Mort, & Gilmore,2015). Classical researchers
were more interested in motivating consumers to become more environmentally friendly.
Marketers have emphasized on the benefits of recycled products and consumer decision
making processes to involve them in green consumption. Apart from motivating, they
had the instinct to get value and leverage by the generation of new segments of consumer
markets (Polonsky,2011).
Eco labels is the emerging trend in green marketing that is effective source for con-
sumer information (Testa, Iraldo, Vaccari, & Ferrari,2015). Particularly, it provides rele-
vant green product information to the consumers during purchase decisions (Thøgersen,
Haugaard, & Olesen,2010). Plethora of marketing literature exists depicting eco labels
effectiveness in the promotion of green products (Hornibrook, May, & Fearne,2015).
Numerous researches in the field of marketing have focused on the Theory of Rea-
soned Action (TRA) (Fishbein & Ajzen,1980). Theory of Reasoned Action proposed that
individual’s behavior is associated with the attitude which is formed by the positive and
negative evaluation of beliefs (Fishbein & Ajzen,1977). TRA suggests that attaining a
behavior is based upon individual preexisting behavioral intentions. In the core of this
theory, behavior is the product of intention which itself, is the result of subjective norms
and attitude towards a specific stimulus. However, some researchers have identified
weak link between individual intention and behavior (Davies, Foxall, & Pallister,2002).
Agreeing on this evidence, Polonsky, Vocino, Grau, Garma, and Ferdous (2012) proposed
self-reported actual behavior model. This article is based on the TRA framework model,
which was valid in determining the link between consumer’s environment friendly at-
titude and behavior (Gotschi, Vogel, Lindenthal, & Larcher,2009). This paper uses eco
labels as the predictor of consumer attitude for environmental concern and attitude to-
wards green trust which ultimately lead to eco conscious consumer behavior.
A visible gap can be found in the literature regarding the effectiveness of eco labels and
eco-conscious consumer behavior, while most of the researchers have focused on eco la-
bels and purchase of green products or consumer awareness and inclination for the green
products. This paper aims to fill the gap around green marketing by focusing eco labels ef-
fectiveness in forming eco-conscious consumer behavior. Eco-labels are an integrated part
of green marketing that project company’s green image to consumers. It also provides in-
formation to consumers related to products’ features and sustainability of environment.
In a developing country like Pakistan, importance of green labels is paramount as it will
eventually affect decision making of an environmentally friendly consumer. Thus, it is
essential to study the effectiveness of eco-labels eliciting consumer response for the con-
sumption of green products.
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Literature Review
The Emergence of the Green Consumer Segment
There has been increasing concern for the sustainability of the environment amongst con-
sumers since 1960s. Consumers have deep concern for the protection and sustainability
of environment. As a result, they are continuously involved in information seeking re-
lated to use of scarce resources and recycling of the products. Organizations have also
realized the need to target environmental friendly consumers (Zinkhan & Carlson,1995).
Marketers are trying to promote company’s products to generate sales and satisfy indi-
vidual needs in connection with green strategies (Leonidou, Katsikeas, & Morgan,2013).
However, they failed to translate pro-environmental concern of consumers to drive sales.
Some factors affecting consumers’ negative perception about green products are: ineffec-
tive marketing strategies, higher prices of green products, companies own performance
to deliver the quality products, and above all, consumers trust deficit for green products
(Sheth, Sethia, & Srinivas,2011). In this nexus, there are many other factors that could be
associated with the adoption of green products such as environmental concern, perceived
environmental responsibility, perceived environmental seriousness and green purchase
behavior of consumers (Chan,2014). Therefore, it has become essential for a marketer to
understand demand and viability of the green segment in long term perspective. This
strategy involves different dimensions of marketing ranging from creating demand, un-
derstanding consumer psychology regarding green products, consumers’ acceptability of
green products and demographic variables that affect consumer’s decision making re-
garding the selection of environmentally friendly products (D’Souza et al.,2015). In fact,
in B2B, environmental values have high regard as environmentally concerned companies
have gained plenty of advantages through enhanced customer response (Mustonen, Kar-
jaluoto, & Jayawardhena,2016).
Green Consumer Behavior
According to Polonsky (2011), consumers have a self-developed decision-making process
which resist them from acting environmentally friendly, thus they compromise future
of environment by their consumption patterns. Delmas and Lessem (2017) noted that
message and attributes of the green products have vital importance in the selection of
product. Marketers communicate products attribute through eco labels, if a consumer is
well informed and have deep knowledge about green attributes, assesses the quality, they
would eventually select a product. Wei, Chiang, Kou, and Lee (2017) investigated that
consumers who have high belief regarding the environment, are more inclined towards
the products that have minimal adverse impact on the sustainability of the environment.
According to Cronin, Smith, Gleim, Ramirez, and Martinez (2011), green consumers
are assessed by their involvement in green activities, those who prefer to use environmen-
tal friendly products have been labelled as green consumers and vice versa. Green and
Peloza (2014) noted that there has been a shift in marketing strategy in nexus to environ-
ment. Companies have formulated strategies to attract future demand of consumers by
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Author (s) Focus of Research
Lai (1993) Explain relationship between green production and green consumption.
Schlegelmilch, Bohlen and Diamantopoulos (1996)
Green product categorization and the association between environmental consciousness and responsible consumer behavior. Variables in the study
were: general purchase behavior (recycled paper products, products not tested on animals, environmental friendly detergents, organically-grown
fruits and vegetables, ozone friendly aerosols), environmental knowledge, environmental attitude, political action, recycling behavior. Multivariate
statistical technique was used for data analysis.
Chan (2001)
Relationship between green products knowledge and consumer behavior and role of purchase intention as mediator in the study. The study included
various cultural and psychological factors regarding the consumption of green products in china. Structural equation modelling was employed for
data analysis.
Williams and Parkman (2003) Human tendency to adopt pro-environmental behavior for the protection of environment. This study employed qualitative method. Results showed
that human consciousness has a vital role towards the sustainability of environment.
Frick, Kaiser and Wilson (2004) The role of knowledge and consumer environmental friendly buying behavior.
McDonald and Oates (2006) Consumer perceptions and various sustainable activities as per perceived difference and perceived efforts.
Mostafa (2009) Factors influencing consumer behavior for the consumption of green products in Kuwait. Variables studied in this research were: environmental
concern, altruistic values, skepticism towards environmental claims, environmental knowledge, attitudes toward green consumption, and intention
to buy green products. Study used self-organizing maps (SOM) for the analysis of psychographic and cognitive factors.
Evans (2011) Environmental friendly consumption and segments of consumers who are environmentally conscious in their everyday life. The study used qualitative
method.
Lin and Huang (2012)
They applied the theory of consumption value and suggested that consumes choice behavior is influenced by environmental concern and psycho-
graphic variables. Variables in the study were: desire for knowledge, specific conditions, novelty seeking, quality price and functional values and
psychological benefit. Data of the respondents were collected through questionnaire. One-way analysis of variance and multiple regression were
applied for the analysis of data.
Tseng and Hung (2013) Findings suggests that a gap exists between consumer perceptions about green products and their performance in safeguarding environment.
Zhao, Gao , Wu,
Wang and Zhu (2014)
Effect of various factors were assessed: green consumption knowledge, personal influence and internal and external moderator. Attitude was most
significant factor affecting consumer purchase behavior. Data were collected through questionnaire survey. Correlation analysis and multiple
regression techniques were used for data analysis.
Matthes and Wonneberger
(2014)
They concluded that consumers have skeptical attitude towards green advertising. Variables of the study were: environmental concern, attitudes
toward green products, green purchase behavior, perceived consumer effectiveness, green consumerism, green advertising skepticism, general ad
skepticism, emotional appeal of green ads. Two survey studies were analyzed: study 1 was related to US green consumers and study 2 was related to
Australian consumers. Structural equation modelling was employed to assess collected data.
Suki and Suki (2016)
Role of green brand knowledge on consumer attitude towards the green brands, also the moderating effect of green brand knowledge in green
purchase intention and green brand positioning. Data of 300 respondents was data through purposive sampling. Authors have used partial least
square technique for the analysis.
Wang and Wang 2016) Perceived knowledge of green food beverages and civic behavior. The study incorporated novel constructs such as commitment, self-identity, and
moral responsibility in theory of planned behavior. Structural equation modelling was employed for the analysis of 793 college students’ data.
Felix and Braunsberger
(2016)
Influence of environmental attitude on consumer’s purchasing decisions. Variables in this study were: intrinsic religious orientation, environmental
attitudes and green product purchases. Structural equation modeling technique was employed to analyze the survey results of 242 consumers.
Moon, Costello and Koo
(2017)
Consumers’ post-choice evaluation of eco labels and word of mouth. Variables in this study were: eco-labels, positive words of mouth, negative
words of mouth, negative emotion, information overloaded, dissatisfaction and distrust.
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Journal of Management Sciences
providing information regarding sustainability of the planet. Mart´
ınez (2015) argues that
companies have formulated marketing strategies to determine belief and attitude of the
consumers toward their products. Consequently, it helps to form green image reputation
for the organization which ultimately benefit in shape of consumers acceptability of green
products and post purchase satisfaction. Eco labels provide information to consumers re-
lated to green products, but consumers reject products after assessing different aspects of
the eco labels (Thøgersen et al.,2010). It also provides information related to sustainabil-
ity of the planet and fill the gaps which are hidden in general product labelling (Delmas &
Lessem,2017). It can be easily assumed that consumers who understand the information
on eco labels will form positive image for the green products, which result in information
utility over time. According to above justification, it can be hypothesized that:
H1: Consumers’ understanding of eco labels will positively influence Eco conscious consumer
behavior.
Eco Labels and Green Trust
Green trust of the consumer in connection to environment denotes the credible, reliable
and standard performance of the firm. Authors have examined that green trust includes
reliable, dependable, meeting consumers’ expectations, trustworthy and products ability
to ensure the safety of environment (Chen & Chang,2013). Eco labels is the transparent
mean of providing information to consumers about the products that are less damaging
to the environment. Eco labels increase consumers ability to judge products potential ef-
fects on environment at the point of purchase (Thøgersen et al.,2010). Eco labels is the
most reliable source of information for the consumers to evaluate products. Consumers
trust increases when companies use certified eco labels to promote their green products.
Use of third party certification is an effective way of attracting consumers towards the
products and form their environmental behavior. Through eco labels using companies
could send clear and effective signal to consumers regarding their performance to ensure
sustainability of the environment (Testa et al.,2015). Non-governmental organizations
and government agencies have the authority to certify companies’ products as green and
environmental friendly. Role of these agencies is to maximize trust factor between con-
sumers and producers, and accelerate consumption of green products to protect the en-
vironment (Delmas & Lessem,2017). Consumers have formed skeptical attitude towards
the claims made by companies regarding environmental friendly products. Lee, Bhatt,
and Suri (2018) postulated that companies need to promote green products by applying
all green attributes, as consumers could easily differentiate between green attributes and
greenwashed products. Effective advertising can help a firm in generating favorable at-
titude towards the brand (Hameed, Siddiqui, & Husain,2016). Evidences from various
researches suggest that consumers are very conscious about greenwashing and don’t rely
on advertising regarding green performance of organizations. So, it is hypothesized that:
H2: Consumers’ understanding of eco labels positively influence trust on green claims for
green products.
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Journal of Management Sciences
Trust on Eco Labels affects Consumer Eco Conscious Buying Behavior
According to Testa et al. (2015), consumers have established a positive attitude for the
consumption of environmental friendly products because they have developed associa-
tions with the brands. Atkinson and Rosenthal (2014) have argued that eco labels are
less effective in influencing consumers’ purchase behavior. However, it is found effective
to develop an attitude towards green products through eco labels. Therefore, compa-
nies should work on consumers’ personality traits and other factors that could lead to
the formation of an attitude for environmentally friendly products consumption. Because
environmentally conscious consumers are more cautious which is depicted in their pur-
chase decisions (Grimmer & Bingham,2013). Chen and Chang (2012) noted that number
of factors affect consumer decision making in purchase of green products, such as green
perceived risk, green perceived value and green trust. Companies need to work on green
perceived risk because consumers avoid purchasing products which they believe as risky.
Minimizing green perceived risk and maximizing green trust about companies’ product
enhances consumers trust for the green products and they would start considering green
products purchase.
According to Rettie et al. (2012), consumers have high level of skepticism for green
products due to greenwashing. Consumers have firm belief that green products are less
effective in terms of their functional benefits and are expensive which are deemed to be
consumed by small segment of consumers. Advertisements help firms generating favor-
able consumer response (Haq & Ghouri,2017). Atkinson and Rosenthal (2014) argued
about deceptive advertisement claims by companies regarding green products and ob-
served that consumers have less proclivity for products which they feel lacking in credi-
bility. Consumer’s perceived credibility about the firms and their offering have colossal
impact on their purchase decision (Aslam, Batool, & Haq,2016). It is, therefore, impera-
tive for the companies to be trustworthy in the eyes of consumers to excel in green seg-
ment. Credibility of the organization claims, and manufacturing less damaging products
have tremendous effect on consumers’ attitude for the green products which ultimately
leads to green consumption. Consequently, consumers’ trust on green claim act as a driv-
ing force to behave environmental friendly. Hence, it can be hypothesized that:
H3: Consumers’ understanding of eco labels positively influence Consumer’s Eco Conscious
Buying Behavior mediated by consumers’ trust on green claim.
Environmental Concern and Consumer Eco Conscious Behavior
Wei et al. (2017) investigated green consumption and defined that it includes various as-
pects of sustainability, which ensure safety of the planet. Manufacturers of green prod-
ucts can make products after the identification of factors that influence consumer deci-
sion making process. Consumers have deep emotional engagement to the safety of en-
vironment that could help in pursuance of products which are less damaging to the en-
vironment. Sheth et al. (2011) argued that human actions have depleted many natural
resources leading to the issues of fisheries, deforestation, soil erosion and biodiversity.
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Journal of Management Sciences
Xie, Bagozzi, and Grønhaug (2015) explained that consumers who have high regard for
the sustainability of environment will support green initiatives and condemn companies
that are involved in environmental degradation. Leonidou et al. (2013) noted that com-
panies use variety of tools to communicate with the consumers regarding environmental
claims. Green promotion strategies of the companies include environmentally friendly
packaging, portraying environmental image through advertising and making efforts to
publicize environmental claims. However, do Pac¸o and Reis (2012) suggested that con-
sumers who are more conscious about the safety of environment tend to be more skeptical
in their actions. Hartmann and Apaolaza-Ib ´
a˜
nez (2012) postulated that consumers con-
cern for environment has boosted their purchase intention. Polonsky (2011) noted that pro
environmental belief have strong effect on consumer green behavior. Furthermore, strong
relationship exists between health promotion and concern for the environment which is
ultimately supporting green products purchase behavior (Testa et al.,2015).
Paswan, Guzm´
an, and Lewin (2017) suggested that future benefits of conservation
may not result in pro environmental behavior; it can only activate pro environmental be-
havior which is not consistent with deeper environmental behavior. The positive and
negative aspects of green products may include cultural incompatibility, risk and prod-
uct, consumers’ intention and behavior are dependent upon evaluation of benefits and
safety associated with environmental friendly products (Sun, Teh, & Linton,2018;Hazen,
Mollenkopf, & Wang,2017). It is expected that eco labels are an imperative source of infor-
mation for consumers, this ultimately shape their thinking pattern towards environment,
and consumers concern for the safety and environmental issues increases. Thus, it can be
hypothesized that:
H4: Consumers’ understanding of Eco labels positively influence environmental concern.
Eco-labelling provides information to consumers related to green products. Marketers
use eco-labelling strategy to create value for green products to motivate decision makers
to adopt sustainable production (Miranda-Ackerman & Azzaro-Pantel,2017). Compa-
nies are focusing to establish market and build an image through its green products. In
view of environmental concern, consumers have developed high tendency towards eco-
friendly products (Chen & Chang,2013). The movement of “going green” is gaining
momentum as consumers are becoming more conscious about environment. Consumers
are looking for the products that are less damaging for the environment. Consumers’
consistent evaluation and demand for eco-friendly products have motivated companies
in maintaining the sustainability of environment (Nagaraju & Thejaswini,2014). Compa-
nies have changed their marketing approaches in response to consumers’ environmental
friendly behaviors (Chen & Chang,2013). However, the performance of green products is
depicting gloomy picture in terms of market share. There is a clear dichotomy regarding
consumers purchase intention and concern for the environment. Despite achieving envi-
ronmental certification, products failed to gain consumers acceptability. Environmental
concern has been investigated in this study to find out the causes of consumers motivat-
ing forces in selection of environmentally friendly products. Some studies have focused
on consumer demographic characteristics that can shape preferences for the green prod-
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Journal of Management Sciences
ucts (Testa et al.,2015). Labels are vital source of information for consumers; consumers
are consistently involved in search of information regarding the products, which they
want to purchase (Hameed, Siddiqui, & Husain,2015). Labels provide relevant infor-
mation regarding the production processes and attributes of the products, environmental
impact and origin. Manufacturers need to strategically market the products in a way that
should capture maximum segments of the target market (Bullock, Johnson, & Southwell,
2017). Eco-labeling programs by companies will help to communicate environmental and
safety benefits associated with the products and production process with the consumers.
By doing so, manufacturer establish a link with industry, provide information to pro en-
vironmental engineers and scientists, and devise a mechanism that support truly green
sustainable future (Long,2018). It can be inferred that consumers who have developed
tendency towards the protection of environment based on eco labels understanding will
prefer products that are green and less detrimental to the environment. Hence, it can be
hypothesized that:
H5: Consumers’ understanding of eco labels positively influence eco-conscious consumer buy-
ing behavior mediated by environmental concern.
H6: Consumers’ trust on green labelling will positively influence environmental concern.
Figure 1
Research Framework Adapted from Martnez (2015)
The conceptual The model in figure 1 focuses on the effectiveness of eco labels to elicit
consumer response towards the sustainability of the environment. For instance, Mart´
ınez
(2015) explored customer loyalty: the antecedents from green marketing perspective. Cur-
rent conceptual model in figure 1 proposes that consumers’ understanding of eco labels
will positively affect consumers’ eco conscious behavior. Additionally, it will analyze the
effects of green trust and consumers’ environmental concern direct and indirect effect on
eco-conscious behavior. Based on prior research on the mediating role of green trust and
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Journal of Management Sciences
environmental concern in other studies of Mart´
ınez (2015); and Reich and Soule (2016),
these variables have been used as mediators in the conceptual model, as shown above in
Figure 1.
Research Methodology
Data Collection and Sampling
This section deals with the collection of data and sampling procedure. Procedure of Data
collection and sample size was determined based on previous literature regarding green
consumers. Researchers noted that collection of responses from a big metropolitan city
is better to predict overall population responses (Ritter, Borchardt, Vaccaro, Pereira, &
Almeida,2015;Bailey et al.,2016;Hasnah Hassan,2014;Chekima, Wafa, Igau, Chekima,
& Sondoh Jr,2016). Karachi is the most populous city of Pakistan, and due to its cultural
and ethnic diversity, it represents collective belief of overall consumers in Pakistan. Many
authors have used convenience sampling for data collection as prior databases or records
of consumers were not available to select randomly (Ritter et al.,2015;Mart´
ınez,2015;
Mohd Suki,2016;Dekhil, Boulebech, & Bouslama,2017;Chekima et al.,2016). Moreover,
it is easier for researchers to collect data through convenience sampling. On the premise
of previous research and literature, convenience sampling was applied for the collection
of respondents’ data. Sample size of 300 respondents was gathered to analyze the effect of
eco labels on consumers. 300 is the average sample for a large population and this sample
size is based on previous researches in the field of green marketing (Bailey et al.,2016;
Felix & Braunsberger,2016;Dekhil et al.,2017;Yeniaras,2016).
Table 1
Sample Characteristics
Feature N Percentage (%)
Gender
Male 226 75.33
Female 74 24.66
Education
Intermediate/ A level 339 13.02
Undergraduate 371 23.66
Graduate 179 59.66
Doctorate 11 3.66
Occupation
Employee 121 40.33
Own Business 14 4.66
Student 165 55
Profile of Participants
Table 1 is showing the profile of the respondents. Out of total, 75.33% were male respon-
dents and 24.66% were female respondents. 59.66% of the participants were at graduate
level of study, followed by 23.66% undergraduate students, 13.02% of the respondents
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Journal of Management Sciences
were intermediate and 3.66% were doctorate students. As far as occupation is concerned,
40.33% were employees, 55% were full time students, and 4.66% were operating their
own businesses. In Pakistan, educated respondents have more knowledge about organic
food’s recycling detrimental effects on global warming than uneducated. Therefore, data
has been collected from educated respondents. Federal government of Pakistan, provin-
cial governments and social activists initiated green plantation campaigns to reduce the
adverse effects of global warming. Karachi is called mini Pakistan, having representation
from all provinces of Pakistan. Therefore, data has been gathered from Karachi city.
Research Instrument and Measures
Self-administered questionnaires have been distributed for the collection of consumers’
responses regarding understanding the effectiveness of eco labels, environmental con-
cern, consumer trust and Eco conscious consumer buying behavior. Questionnaires were
divided into two sections: demographic profile of consumers and questions related to the
hypothesized variables. All the items in the study were measured on a five-point Lik-
ert scale, where (5) represents “strongly agree” and (1) represents “strongly disagree”.
Second part of the questionnaire was comprised of questions related to consumers’ eval-
uation of eco labels and its effects on eco-conscious consumer behavior. Eco labels were
measured through three five-point Likert scale items from the study of Thøgersen et al.
(2010). Consumers’ concern for the environment was measured through three five-point
Likert scale items from Paul, Modi, and Patel (2016); Ritter et al. (2015); Haws, Winterich,
and Naylor (2014) scales were taken for the evaluation of consumers trust for eco labels.
Leary, Minton, and Mittelstaedt (2016) five items scale have been used to assess eco con-
scious consumer behavior. Pilot study with 50 MBA students was conducted to under-
stand their eco-conscious behavior. The values of cronbach’s alpha for the items were be-
low the threshold value 0.70. According to J. F. Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, and Tatham
(2009), the values in the range of 0.70 to 0.90 are acceptable. Though aware of these bor-
derline values, instruments were adapted based upon previous studies. However, few
modifications have been made in the instruments by removing the elements having low
cronbach’s alpha values, as proposed by J. F. Hair et al. (2009).
Data Analysis and Results
Table 2
Discriminant validity analysis, Means, and correlations of constructs.
Constructs Means S.D Eco Conscious Buying Green Environmental Eco Label
Behavior Trust Concern
Eco conscious buying behavior 3.5422 0.624 0.676
Green Trust 3.7422 0.609 0.361** 0.550
Environmental Concern 3.9422 0.669 0.160** 0.393** 0.664
Eco Label 3.7200 0.732 0.331** 0.267* 0.328** 0.707
Notes: The bold diagonal elements are the square root of the variance shared between the constructs and their measures;
off diagonal elements are the correlations among constructs .
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess the reliability of the measurement items. Though
final results showing low CFA values, we accepted the results based on previous research
findings on same instruments. Main reason to include low CFA values is the study con-
ducted in developing market context. Data was collected from Pakistani consumer, they
have less propensity towards green products due to insufficient campaign by government
and companies. Factor loading of items would have been higher if consumers had more
knowledge regarding the benefits of using green products. According to J. Hair, Ander-
son, Tatham, and Black (1998), the level of internal consistency for the four constructs
should exceed the minimum requirement of 0.60 for an exploratory study. The internal
consistency of four constructs were ranging from 0.633 to 0.691 which exceeds the min-
imum threshold of 0.60. To assess convergent validity, standardized factor loadings for
all measurement items and average variance extracted were estimated. All measurement
items had standardized loading estimates of .5 or higher and all were significant at alpha
level of .001. The items below 0.50 loading were deleted from the analysis as recom-
mended by Paul et al. (2016). Overall Cronbach’s alpha for 20 items was 0.824 which is
more than threshold value of 0.70. According to Fornell and Larcker (1981), the value
of average variance extracted (AVE) must be greater than the correlation among the con-
structs as shown in table 3 (confirming discriminant validity). For instance, the AVE’s
for the two constructs: eco-conscious consumer behavior and green trust are 0.676 and
0.55 which are greater than the correlation value of 0.361. Hence, it shows that there is
adequate discriminant validity between the constructs. Values of all AVEs are confirming
discriminant validity in the model.
Structural Model Results
Result of the SEM indicates overall model a fit (J. F. Hair et al.,2009): χ2= 83.131; df
= 48; p = 0.001. Byrne (1994) suggested the value for GFI and CFI should be .90 and
.93 respectively. MacCallum, Browne, and Sugawara (1996) suggested that the value of
RMSEA should be 0.01 for excellent model fit, 0.05 for good and 0.08 for mediocre fit.
The values of model fit are falling in the ranges proposed by authors such as: AGFI=.929;
GFI=.957; NFI=.873; CFI= .941; RMSEA=0.049 shown in table 3.
The findings of structural equation model show that Eco labels have positive influence
on eco-conscious consumer behavior (β= .45), Eco labels have positive influence on green
trust (β= .40), Eco labels have positive influence on environmental concern (β= .32). Posi-
tive influence of eco labels on eco-conscious consumer behavior mediated by green trust is
accepted with the path coefficient (β= .56). While path coefficient of environmental con-
cern as a mediator between eco labels and eco-conscious consumer behavior is rejected
with the negative path coefficient of β= -.32. Positive influence of green trust on environ-
mental concern is accepted with the standard coefficient value of β= .50. From the above
analysis it is concluded that all hypotheses were accepted except mediating influence of
environmental concern between eco labels and eco-conscious consumer behavior.
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Table 3
Hypothesis Proposed effects Path Coefficients Results
H1 + 0.45 H1 is supported
H2 + 0.4 H2 is supported
H3 + 0.32 H3 is Supported
H4 + (mediation) 0.56 H4 is supported
H5 + (mediation) -0.32 H5 is not Supported
H6 + 0.5 H6 is supported
NFI = .873 CFI= .941 AGFI=.929 GFI=.957 RMSEA= 0.049
Table 4
Sobel test Mediation Analysis
Estimates S.E
EL GT 0.28 0.077
GT ECCB 0.959 0.285
EL EC 0.408 0.132
EC ECCB -0.296 0.153
Z-value of green trust is 2.47 after applying sobel test analysis. This value is greater
than 1.96, which signifies that green trust is a mediator in the model. While Z-Value
for Environmental Concern is -1.64, it’s falling in the critical region of 1.96 depicts that
environmental concern is not a mediator in the proposed model. For the analysis of full,
partial and no mediation, we ran 1000 bootstrapping samples in AMOS. Full mediation
occurs when indirect is less than 0.05 and direct is greater than 0.05 which can be found in
case of green trust (GT). Indirect effect value greater than 0.05 signifies no mediation, the
value of environmental concern is .258 which is greater than 0.05, verifies no mediation
shown in table 5.
Table 5
Analysis of Mediation effects
Direct effect Indirect effect Total effect
Green Trust 0.280 0.000 0.280
Environmental concern 0.408 0.258 0.665
Table 5 is showing the Sobel test mediation effects. Eco label is the independent vari-
able, environmental concern and green trust are mediating variables. First of all, the val-
ues in indirect effects column were checked, value of mediating variable is greater than
0.05, which shows no mediation in the analysis. The value of green trust is 0.000 which is
less than 0.05 proved that green trust is a mediating variable and environmental concern
value is greater than 0.05, which signifies no mediation. For the confirmation of partial
and full mediation, we must check the values of direct and indirect columns. Full medi-
ation occurs when indirect is less than 0.05 and direct is greater than 0.05. Green trust is
acting as a full mediator in the proposed model as it is fulfilling the full mediation criteria.
Discussion
The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of eco labels on consumer eco
conscious behavior, the effects of two mediating variables were considered: environmen-
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tal concern and green trust. Eco label is an imperative source of information about en-
vironmentally friendly products; eco conscious consumer tends to invest more time in
probing about hazardous effects of products on health and environment. Polonsky et al.
(2012) argued that consumer knowledge precedes pro environmental attitude and behav-
ior. Hence, the study findings support the arguments suggested by previous researches
in the area of green marketing. The current research fills the gap by investigating the
effects of eco labels on pro environmental behavior of consumers. Eco labels are the pri-
mary source of information for the consumers. Additionally, the mediating effects of envi-
ronmental concern and consumers’ trust towards eco conscious consumer behavior have
credible contribution in the area of green marketing, that provides substantial guidelines
to practitioners and consumers towards the sustainability of environment. Detail discus-
sions for the variables in study are as follow:
Eco Labels and Eco Conscious Consumer Behavior
Eco labels has emerged out as one of the most indispensable variable in the literature of
green marketing that adds value to the attributes of product. Developed countries have
used eco labels, and they found eco labels an effective source of information, adding val-
ues in the features of green products. This paper includes the data of consumers from
a developing country, i.e., Pakistan. Understanding consumers’ acceptability of eco la-
bels in developing country is an essential aspect of this paper, to predict future need of
consumers and their propensity to consume eco- labelled products. This research will fill
the inconsistency that exists in the literature of green marketing related to green prod-
ucts’ labelling in developing markets. In this context, prominent stakeholders such as
regulators, government policies makers and corporate sectors play a vital role in defining
and shaping consumers’ opinion for the green products through eco labelling. Our find-
ings revealed that consumers are adaptive towards eco-labels and get influenced by the
benefits associated with the products that lead to green products consumption. Manufac-
turers need to design eco-labeled products that capture consumer’s desire towards green
products. Successful designing of eco-labels will ultimately induce consumer to behave
pro-environmentally.
Eco Labels and Green Trust
Across the world, there are certain criterion established for the claim of green prod-
ucts. Such claims are validated by an independent authority that provides certification
for green products. Subsequently companies use approved certifications for the promo-
tion of products through eco labels. It has been observed that consumers who have the
knowledge of green products and probe for it are afraid of greenwashing. Consumers’
trust on eco labels that have significant impact on pro environmental behavior which
is consistent with the findings of Atkinson and Rosenthal (2014) and Testa et al. (2015).
Eco labels, sometimes, have cogent source of certification which compel consumers to ac-
cept the green claims. Moreover, consumers believed that companies using eco labels are
maintaining highest standards to support and preserve the environment. Foremost man-
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Journal of Management Sciences
agerial implication of this research is the consumer trust about green claims made by the
companies. To develop eco conscious consumer behavior, managers need to ingrain the
trust about the green claims. It has been found that green trust has significant impact on
consumer decision making regarding green products acceptability. Thus, consumers who
hold positive attitude towards company’s green claims would be willing to accelerate
their consumption of green products.
Eco Labels, Environmental Concern and Consumer Behavior
Environmental concern has become an integral part of companies’ policies and govern-
ments around the world. Preserving environment form hazardous consumption and con-
forming the standard regulations to maintain highest standard would project companies’
responsible attitude towards the environment. Manufacturers design eco-labels to por-
tray the significance of environment, and at the same time promote effective attributes of
the products to consumers. Findings suggest that, consumers have regard for the sustain-
ability of environment and they want to preserve it, but they are more inclined towards
the functional benefits. However, environmental benefits through eco labels are less ap-
pealing to consumers’ emotions. Therefore, it is imperative for the manufacturer to be
more vigilant in the design of eco labels that help consumer to accept the attributes of
green products, a value addition to product. Moreover, management need to work on the
understanding of consumer psyche regarding environmental products acquisition and
potential effects of consumer behavior towards the safety of environment. The findings re-
lated to consumer’s environmental concern are inconsistent with the previous researches
(Hartmann & Apaolaza-Ib´
a˜
nez,2012;Polonsky, Vocino, Grimmer, & Miles,2014). Thus,
robust policies are needed to be implemented to raise substantial awareness about the
sustainability of environment. Producers and government regulators need to emphasize
the importance of environment through media campaigns in developing countries, which
will help them to increase consumer knowledge regarding the susceptibility of environ-
ment, which is associated with hazardous productions.
Green Trust and Environmental Concern
Another issue considered in the model was the impact of green trust on consumers’ pro-
clivity towards sustainability of environment. Green trust has meaningful impact on con-
sumer’s tendency for the safety of environment. Information acquired from the eco labels
served to deliver the intended message which arise consumers concern to preserve the
environment. Consumers probe more related to products’ attribute, production processes
and impact of company’s policies on the environment. Such concerns contributed to con-
sumer inclination for the safety of environment thus led to pro-environmental behavior.
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Journal of Management Sciences
Conclusion
Current research intends to explain the relationship between eco-labels and eco-conscious
consumer behavior. Many studies, in the past, have emphasized the different aspect of
green products and consumer behavior. However, this study has filled the gap by ana-
lyzing effectiveness of eco-labels which are the prime and immediate source of informa-
tion to consumers at the point of purchase. Eco-labels are certified labels used by man-
ufacturers to provide relevant information regarding product’s environmental friendly
attributes. This study has also incorporated two other novel variables as mediators be-
tween the relationship of eco-labels and eco-conscious behavior. Addition of two media-
tors “green trust” and “environmental concern” are pertinent in this study as these two
factors can contribute a lot in research framework. Green trust has been proved a vital
factor in the literature of green marketing because consumers around the world are very
much concerned about greenwashing. Many companies made claims about the greenery
of product, but it is opposite. Therefore, green trust has significant role in defining con-
sumers’ acceptability of green products. Besides this, environmental concern has been
used as mediator. Environmental concern is the burning issue across the globe; there
are many summits regarding the sustainability of environment which compelled govt,
manufactures to comply the standard rules for the safety of environment. Outcomes of
these summits and conferences, has largely, blamed the organizations for their hazardous
production processes that led to the degradation of environment. The findings of this
study depict that consumers get influenced by eco-labels which help them to be environ-
mentally conscious. The effect of green trust on eco-conscious consumer behavior has
been proved, which signifies that green trust has positive influence on consumer eco-
conscious behavior. Moreover, the effect of eco-labels on green trust was also significant
and positive; which implies that eco-labels are the true source of information for the green
products. The study further focused the effects of eco-labels on environmental concern.
It was found that eco-labels effects environmental concern positively. It was found that
eco-labels effect consumer concern for the safety of environment; it also confirmed the
suitability of eco-labels to carry environmental friendly messages.
However, the impact of environmental concern on consumer’s eco-conscious behav-
ior was not found. This is particularly related to consumers actual behavior. The rea-
son for consumers’ reluctance towards eco-conscious behavior could be the lifestyle of
consumers, which is not actually relevant to green market. Second reason could be the
country in which this research has been conducted as green laws are not practically im-
plemented in letter and spirit. Third, consumers’ might have environmental concern, but
they couldn’t get opportunity to transform their environmental attitude towards environ-
mental behavior due to lack of green products. Thus, these reasons act as a bottleneck
in the way of actual behavior of consumers. This research has also emphasized the rela-
tionship between green trust and environmental concern. The findings show that green
trust has positive influence on environmental concern. This suggest that consumer trust
for green products make them conscious about the safety of environment.
The results of the study depict a significant direct impact of eco labels on consumer’s
eco conscious behavior, green trust and environmental concern. In addition to this, study
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Journal of Management Sciences
shows positive effects of eco labels on eco conscious consumer behavior fully mediated by
green trust i.e., green trust positively influences environmental concern. This study fails
to provide empirical evidence that environmental concern mediates the relationship be-
tween eco labels and eco conscious consumer behavior. The findings of this study provide
a new framework and contribute into existing literature of green marketing research.
Limitations and Future Research
Firstly, the data of respondents have been collected from one metropolitan city of Pak-
istan, which could make the results biased. Data from other cities would portray better
scenario as behavioral pattern of consumers are different in different cities and new results
might improve values of confirmatory factor analysis. The study is not specific to any
product category and lacks physical appearance of eco labels that could have meaningful
impact in understanding eco conscious consumers behavior. Moreover, cross sectional
data have been used to understand consumer’s eco conscious behavior, future research
can be done by using longitudinal data to find the differences in consumers’ behavior
for the better understanding of eco labels. The impact of education and environmental
knowledge were not considered in the model, addition of these two constructs as moder-
ators will shed more light in understanding consumer environmental behavior as under-
standing of eco-labels in 21st century would be having substantial impact on consumer
eco conscious behavior. This research is based on anticipated eco-labels, research can
be conducted on actual eco-labels of certain products which may have more predictive
power eliciting consumers’ actual behavior, which will help researchers to substantiate
current research findings. Like most of the survey researches, convenience sampling ap-
proach has been used in main locations such as hyper stores, universities, super stores and
malls. To substantiate this research findings, future research can be conducted in different
geographical locations. Although current model has enough predictability for consumer
eco-conscious behavior, but its predictability can be further improved by adding factors
that are crucial for pro environmental behavior.
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Journal of Management Sciences
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... Increased global demand for seafood has led to more production and technological developments in processing, handling and transport which, in turn, has translated into increased energy and water demands (Tlusty et al., 2019;Tyedmers, 2004). Recent consumer awareness of the link between climate change and energy use and the fragility of global water systems has resulted in demands for 'green' products and accounting systems that make choices more transparent (Hameed and Waris, 2018). Clearly, accounting and highlighting the energy and water consumption along the seafood supply chain will not only provide consumers the information with which to make informed decisions, but potentially help the industry to increase efficiencies along the value chain (Tlusty et al., 2019). ...
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There is a gap in information in the literature regarding the energy and water embodied is seafood, especially wild catch fisheries. This work draws on primary and secondary data to assess, through a life cycle approach, the energy and water consumed to catch and process wild sockeye salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska (USA). The Bristol Bay sockeye salmon fishery is a very remote wild catch fishery. All material inputs and labor are either barged or flown in from other parts of Alaska, and the lower U.S. states. In addition, a large monitoring and enforcement effort by the State of Alaska is conducted to sustainably manage the fishery. We therefore expanded the system boundary to include energy and water for commuting laborer's and regulators to depict the system within a wider context. Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information from fishers and processors related to their use of water and energy and to ascertain potentials for reducing energy and water demand of the fishery. The energy associated with fishing and processing sockeye ranges between 24.6 and 33.8 MJ kg⁻¹ with fishing effort accounting for 43% of the total energy embodied in products. The water embodied in final sockeye salmon products ranged between 10 and 23 liters/kg, mainly the result of processing and packaging. Combined, labor transport and fishery management contributed 8% to the embodied energy in sockeye products, while contributing less that 1% of the water embodied in sockeye products. While not insignificant, the energy costs of fishery management are inconsequential and should provide adequate justification for continued sustainable management and forceful information for consumer choice. The combination of governmental regulations and the remote location results in few opportunities for lowering energy and water demand of this already efficient fishery.
... Evidence that supports this increase in the ecological environment is the increasing number of individuals who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products (Meyer, 2015). Consumers who have environmental awareness are often also called "green orientation" which in the future is predicted to increase (Hameed & Waris, 2018). Consumers who have high awareness of the environment will choose environmentally friendly products even though the prices are relatively more expensive (Pohjolainen et al., 2016). ...
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Objective: This research was conducted to know the role of perceived trust as mediating variable in the influence of green marketing awareness and product innovation on purchase intention of environmentally friendly products. Methodology: The population in this study is consumers who have used environmentally friendly products recycled fashion products, environmentally friendly drinking places, tissues, and food containers. The respondents are obtained using probability sampling technique through google form questionnaire distribution, and only 100 from 300 respondents are representative to be analyzed using structural equation analysis (SEM) by Smart PLS application. Results: The findings of the study indicate that a direct relationship between green marketing awareness and product innovation have a positive influence on product purchase intention. The perceived trust has a positive influence on product purchase intention. The perceived trust is also significant as mediating variable in the relationship between green marketing awareness and product innovation on product purchase intention. This means that the trust of customers must always be maintained through green marketing and product innovation. Conclusion: Customers' trust in products that care about the environment that do not damage the environment is realized by a green marketing system so that this becomes a driving force for customers' purchase intention.
... Citizen trust has been strongly linked to public policy support; therefore, governments consider it vital to smooth the transition towards sustainable and environmental-friendly actions (Hameed and Waris, 2018). Research suggests that governments in recent times have been using social media and other mobile apps to interactively engage with the public and disseminate information to gain citizens' trust (Alzahrani et al., 2018;Sawatsuk et al., 2018). ...
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Countries that encourage pro-environmental behaviors to safeguard their citizens' health and safety contribute positively towards safeguarding nature and the environment. Therefore, investigating the motivators and triggering factors of people's pro-environmental behaviors is of utmost importance for scholars. Thus, grounded on the bio-spheric value orientation theory, the impact of various cultural values, including collectivism, femininity uncertainty avoidance, and future orientation on the citizens' pro-environmental behavior, has been examined in the current study. Additionally, the moderating role of citizens' trust has also been examined to check the enhanced effect of cultural values on pro-environmental behavior. Surveying 576 citizens of Palangka Raya Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, at two different times with six months gap, results showed that collectivism, femininity uncertainty avoidance, and future orientation positively and significantly influence pro-environmental behavior. Furthermore, citizens' trust moderates these associations while depicting that more citizens' trust results in stronger cultural values associations with pro-environmental behavior. Overall, this study is incremental in exploring the interactive effect of citizens' trust with various cultural values to enhance pro-environmental behavior among citizens of Palangka Raya city, Indonesia. Besides, research brings multiple theoretical, managerial, and future research implications.
... In the tourism industry, trust is observed as a necessary requirement to institute a healthy and sound affiliation between customers and company . Moreover, customers' green trust signifies the reliable, consistent, and regular environmental performance of companies (Hameed and Waris, 2018). Researchers (Chen and Chang, 2012) also opined green trust as a trustworthy and dependable ability of products or services to meet consumers' beliefs and to ensure environmental protection. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is twofold. First, it aims to examine the influence of customers' green considerations in the form of perceived green knowledge and environmental concern on their intention to stay at green hotels; and secondly, to explain the mediating role of green trust among the considered variables. Design/methodology/approach The study investigates green hotel visit perceptions of 213 customers of hotel industry of Dhaka, Bangladesh using Partial Least Square method. Data was collected using a standard structured questionnaire. Findings The findings display a significant positive influence of perceived green knowledge and green trust on customers' green hotel visit intention. Moreover, green trust mediates the relationship of green visit intentions with customers' green knowledge and environmental concern. Practical implications The study demonstrates that environmental knowledge and green trust make customers choose green hotels. The findings of the current study may assist the hotel business administrators to understand the underlying factors for choosing green hotels and adopting green practices in their business operations accordingly. Originality/value To the best knowledge of the researchers, the study is first to measure the mediating impact of green trust on the influential factors of customers' green hotel visit intention in Bangladesh. The result reveals how considered variables interact with each other to influence green hotel choice decisions.
... Religious orientation and attitude toward sustainable-related behavior Decades ago, White (1967) argued that the Judeo-Christian belief system negatively influenced attitude toward the environment by focusing on the concept of "dominion-overnature." His piece continues to become the focal argument of the ecological crisis in the middle of the 20th century and today (Arbuckle and Konisky, 2015;Luetz and Nunn, 2020;Wright, 2020). On the one hand, there has been more focus on general consumer behavior and environmental concern (Cerri et al., 2018;Hameed and Waris, 2018), purchase behavior and eco-friendly/green products (Heo and Muralidharan, 2019;Suki, 2016), green manufacturer technology investment (Bian et al., 2020). For example, consumption values (such as functional value, social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value) have a positive impact on consumers' environmental concerns and could lead to green purchase intention (Suki, 2016). ...
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Purpose This study aims to apply legitimacy theory and self-identity theory to the online food delivery (OFD) app service and then to investigate the impact of green brand legitimacy and biospheric value orientation perceived by customers on eco-friendly behavior. Design/methodology/approach This study focuses on the mediating role of trust in green brands and its perceived benefits (including psychological and environmental benefits). This study involved an online survey of 445 customers who had experienced using OFD services in the past six months. Findings The platform's green brand legitimacy and consumer perceived biospheric value orientation positively impact trust in green brands. Trust in green products and services significantly affects customers' perceived benefits and has a positive impact on eco-friendly service using behavior. Mediating effect analysis indicated that brand legitimacy and biospheric value have a positive indirect influence on the psychological benefits of supporting green activities and utilitarian environmental benefits. Research limitations/implications The convenience sampling method is used, and its purely quantitative nature may limit the generalization of the research results. Practical implications The OFD platform should encourage online catering retailers to use more eco-friendly packages for packaging food and minimize the provision of disposable tableware. The platform manager can provide consumers with knowledge and information on lowering related environmental pollution sources when ordering food. Originality/value This study innovatively introduces brand legitimacy into the green consumption literature. This is an essential expansion of the content of brand legitimacy and a supplement for the research field of eco-friendly behavior.
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Abstract Purpose - This research paper explores the mediating role of attitude towards the advertisement and attitude towards the brand in the relationships between disparagement as a processing stimulus for humor in advertising and purchase intention of the customer. Design/Methodology/Approach - Data has been collected from 202 individuals. Confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, moderation and mediation analysis have been applied and a good fit between the data and tested model was observed. As predicted, purchase intention was positively related with disparagement and full mediation effect has been found. The results of moderation analysis are quite interesting and have been presented with the help of a chart showing interaction effect. Findings - Findings provide media agencies with an insight into the audience emotional consequences in exposure to disparagement used in advertisements. Findings are particularly salient for national and multinational media agencies in Pakistan as well in the other parts of the world. Originality/Value - This is one of the first studies to provide empirical support for the relationships between disparagement and purchase intention in Western and non-Western (Pakistani) context.
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This research paper explores the mediating role of attitude towards the advertisement and attitude towards the brand, and moderating role of self-monitoring in the relationships between perceived humor in the advertisement and purchase intention of the customer. Survey data was collected from 209 individuals after showing advertisements. Confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and macro developed by Preacher and Hays have been used to test moderation and mediation effect in the hypothesized model. A good fit between the data and tested model was observed. As predicted, purchase intention was positively related to perceived humor and full mediation effect has been found. The moderating role of self-monitoring has also been supported by the data. The findings are particularly salient for national and multinational media agencies in Pakistan as well in the other parts of the world.
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To cash in on consumers’ willingness to pay higher prices for green products, several companies are promoting conventional products as green by highlighting a few green attributes. Through a theoretical lens, the authors investigate how consumers perceive such attempts. This research illustrates that not so green products make consumers sensitive to the monetary sacrifice associated with the purchase of such products. The current research shows that consumers have a negative attitude toward such products and they become concerned about the ethicality of the company when they encounter such products. Both implicit and explicit measures suggest that consumers notice the company's motive behind such practices which, in turn, impacts their price perceptions.
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Several issues relating to goodness of fit in structural equations are examined. The convergence and differentiation criteria, as applied by Bagozzi, are shown not to stand up under mathematical or statistical analysis. The authors argue that the choice of interpretative statistic must be based on the research objective. They demonstrate that when this is done the Fornell-Larcker testing system is internally consistent and that it conforms to the rules of correspondence for relating data to abstract variables.
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This study investigates the impact of environmental knowledge and perceived product quality on purchasing intention and purchasing behavior of recycled products: A4 paper, mobile phones and printers. The intent is to understand how to move future generations toward more sustainable behavior, as currently unsustainable amounts of waste are generated across the Far East. Expectancy value theory and the theory of reasoned action are applied to the purchase of products with recovered and/or recycled content (n = 215). The study indicates: (1) a significant positive relationship was found between both the intention to purchase and the purchase of recycled products; (2) the perception of recycled product risk has a significant negative impact on the perception of recycled product quality and the attitude toward environmental protection; (3) perceived quality of recycled product is positively related to attitude toward environmental protection; (4) perceived quality of recycled product and attitude to environmental protection are positively related to intention to purchase recycled products; and (5) surprisingly, knowledge regarding environmental damage and pollution is unrelated to attitude toward environmental protection. This study offers new insights into the impact of education on environmental protection, purchasing of greener products and the need for environmental education to move from a goal of understanding to that of action.
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This chapter summarizes the history, drivers, advances, and challenges leading to the "greening" of consumer cleaning products. It addresses the common attributes of environmentally preferable cleaning products and the functional chemical class utilized in the formulation of these products. Major eco-labeling programs help consumer product manufacturers communicate the environmental and safety benefits of their products and are an important piece of companies' stewardship or sustainability initiatives. The eco-labeling and green-cleaning criteria based on verifiable, data-driven claims allowed companies to provide consumers with purchasing confidence when choosing a more sustainable cleaning products. Common cleaning products ingredients of a cleaning formulation include surfactants, solvents, builders, thickening agents, preservatives, colorants or dyes, and fragrances. Developing new methods and processes to evaluate materials and products, improving communication between industry segments, educating a new generation of green-focused scientists and engineers, and embracing life-cycle views will all push the envelope toward a truly green, sustainable future.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine different strategies for an increasing adoption of “environmentally friendly” products. Scholars have consistently shown that consumers with strong biospheric and altruistic beliefs are more likely to purchase these products, while marketers are increasingly appealing to consumers’ self-interest in their efforts to sell their “green” products. This paper explores this divide and offers a potential explanation for it, using the concept of value activation. Design/methodology/approach The paper presents results of two survey experiments that test this explanation in the context of organic food advertisements. In a simulated trip to a grocery store, participants were exposed to advertisements designed to activate the six different values in Schwartz’s framework. After viewing the advertisements, participants were asked to select among organic and non-organic options in six product categories – milk, bread, eggs, spinach, potatoes and chocolate. Findings The study’s results suggest that while advertisements designed to activate values may have limited effect on consumer intentions, those that relate to protecting the health of oneself and one’s family are most likely to increase organic purchases. Originality/value This paper is one of the first of its kind to explicitly test whether advertisements designed to activate a range of human values can increase consumers’ intention to engage in pro-environmental behaviors. The two studies reveal that value-based advertisements may have a stronger effect on the organic purchasing intentions of specific demographic groups (e.g. consumers who are aged under 40, lack a college degree and do not identify as liberal).
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New consumer awareness is shifting industry towards more sustainable practices, creating a virtuous cycle between producers and consumers enabled by eco-labelling. Eco-labelling informs consumers of specific characteristics of products and has been used to market greener products. Eco-labelling in the food industry has yet been mostly focused on promoting organic farming, limiting the scope to the agricultural stage of the supply chain, while carbon labelling informs on the carbon footprint throughout the life cycle of the product. These labelling strategies help value products in the eyes of the consumer. Because of this, decision makers are motivated to adopt more sustainable models. In the food industry, this has led to important environmental impact improvements at the agricultural stage, while most other stages in the Food Supply Chain (FSC) have continued to be designed inefficiently. The objective of this work is to define a framework showing how carbon labelling can be integrated into the design process of the FSC. For this purpose, the concept of Green Supply Chain Network Design (GSCND) focusing on the strategic decision making for location and allocation of resources and production capacity is developed considering operational, financial and environmental (CO2 emissions) issues along key stages in the product life cycle. A multi-objective optimization strategy implemented by use of a genetic algorithm is applied to a case study on orange juice production. The results show that the consideration of CO2 emission minimization as an objective function during the GSCND process together with techno-economic criteria produces improved FSC environmental performance compared to both organic and conventional orange juice production. Typical results thus highlight the importance that carbon emissions optimization and labelling may have to improve FSC beyond organic labelling. Finally, CO2 emission-oriented labelling could be an important tool to improve the effects eco-labelling has on food product environmental impact going forward.