Nutritional analysis of value-added product by using pearl millet, quinoa and prepare ready-to-use upma mixes

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Rapid urbanization, industrialization and consequent changes in eating habits of people have lead to development of instant dry mixes and ready-to-eat convenience foods. With the availability of "Retort Technology" developed by Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL); food processing sector like Ready to Eat (RTE) and Ready to Use (RTU) food segment has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors in the Indian economy. The study has been carried out in research laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School for Home Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow. Two value-added products i.e., Quinoa Upma mixes and Pearl Millet Upma mixes with the Quinoa (75%) and Pearl Millet (75%) as a basic ingredient were developed. These products were analyzed nutritionally. The result of the nutritional analysis indicated that the nutritional composition of Pearl Millet upma mixes is: Protein(13.29%), Fat(23.17%), Carbohydrate(53.49%), Calcium(23.9mg), Vitamin C(19.5mg) and the nutritional composition of Quinoa upma mixes is: Protein(13.29%), Fat(23.17%), Carbohydrate(53.49%), Calcium(27.96mg), Vitamin C(14.69mg).The products are highly recommended for all the age groups, degenerative diseases and heart diseases.

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... Pasta (Mostafa, 2017) [19] biscuits (Ibrahium, 2015) [11] breads (Salazar et al., 2017) [27] cookies (Nisar et al., 2018) [21] and other processed products. As per reports of research conducted in various parts of world it can be observed that by using traditional cooking methods products were developed from cereals and pulses such as RTC upma mix from quinoa (shaivya, 2016) [28] , kesaribath from soy semolina (Yadav et al., 2007) [37] , laddu from garden cress seed (Uma Rani and Sucharitha, 2016) [33] , chikki from multigrains (Abhirami and Karpagapandi, 2018) [1] and chakli or muruku from multigrains (Saiyed and Sengupta, 2014) [26] . However, the comparative study of quinoa incorporated products in different cooking methods was not reported so far. ...
... Quinoa incorporated upma and kesaribath showed good nutrient content due to quinoa incorporation which is basically good source of protein, fat, fibre, calcium and minerals compared to control upma and kesaribath prepared out of wheat semolina. Similar results were reported for the nutritional composition of quinoa upma mix developed by Shaivya and Sunita (2016) [28] , where in quinoa upma mix had 13.29% of protein, 23.17% of fat and 53.49% of carbohydrate and the products were highly recommended for all age group people suffering from degenerative diseases and heart diseases. Even our results are in agreement with study by Dhumketi et al., (2017) [8] on instant upma mix from foxtail millet and soy grits, indicated good amount of protein, fat and crude fibre contents. ...
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In the present study, the quinoa bar was prepared by combining different proportions of quinoa and ragi flour, as well as various traditional products prepared by incorporating quinoa using various cooking techniques, including baking (cookies), roasting (laddu, khakhara), and frying (mathari). For the various formulations, the quinoa and ragi flour levels varied from 0 to 10, 20, 30, and 40 % for T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. In terms of sensory quality, the ratios of 30 % quinoa, 30 % ragi, and 40 % wheat flour or refined flour in khakhara, mathari, and laddu, and 20 % quinoa, 20 % ragi, and 60 % wheat flour in cookies were determined to be acceptable. The sensory features and nutritional content of the manufactured items were examined. It was discovered that quinoa-ragi based products were an excellent source of protein ash, crude fibre, and iron. Thus, ragi and quinoa flour may be effectively exploited as a functional component in the preparation of nutritional quinoa-based food products.
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Ready-to-eat food product was studied and developed by using superseeds (pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, sunflower seeds and almonds). The ready-to-eat products, also called convenience foods, are partially cooked when packed. With ready-to-eat foods, people do not have to skip their meals and compromise with their health. Foods can be refrigerated, are shelf-stable, require minimal heating or are served hot and easy to carry and manageable to prepare. Changing food consumption behavior among consumers, increased willingness to spend on such food and the lack of time to cook at home are a result of the rapid urbanization. To balance health among consumers and preserve the quality of food, organoleptic evaluation or sensory properties like taste/flavor, texture/mouth feel, appearance, aroma and colour of ready-to-eat food is important to increase the growth of the ready-to-eat food market and make lasting for food quality. Superseeds are full of nutritional powerhouses wrapped in very small packages. They are a great source of fiber, essential fatty acids, proteins, minerals, vitamins and life enhancing nutrients-especially important in vegetarian and vegan diets. Innovative and healthy food product as simple semolina upma by adding superseeds (pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, sunflower seeds and almonds) as functional ingredients which enhance and enrich the traditionally recipes as therapeutic diet food according to the demands of public health and requirement, convenience and organic foods. Advancement in areas of packaging technology are expected to provide a future growth opportunity in the sector.
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Due to changing lifestyle of individuals, they don't have time to eat proper diet and the people who are pure vegetarian are unable to get that source of nutrient which is mainly required and beneficial for health. Presently, food sectors, food manufactures and food processing producing "Ready-to-eat-food" products are developing day by day as according to the demand for the public health and their time saver. The study was carried out in Research laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School for Home Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow. Develop the product, with a simple form of semolina upma adding super seeds (pumpkin, chia, sunflower and almonds) and converted into a healthy and therapeutic diet. Pumpkin seeds are rich source of zinc, essential amino acids, minerals and fatty acids. Chia seeds are rich in omega fatty acids and calcium. Sunflower seeds are rich source in magnesium and monounsaturated fats. Almonds are rich in antioxidant, monounsaturated fats, fibres and protein. Product was nutritionally analysis and the result of "Ready to eat super seeds upma" product which has comprised nutrient as per 100 gram, energy (440 Kcal), protein (15.64 g), carbohydrates (70.86 g), fibres (3.45 g), fats (7.14 g), zinc (7.81 mg), magnesium (90.69 mg), calcium (583 mg), and iron (9.76 mg). Nutritional value is compared with simple upma and both products are ready to eat and recommended by all the age group.
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The annual grasses pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] and sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are alternatives to warm-season perennials in forage systems for lactating dairy cows (Bos taurus) in the southern USA. Large fluctuations in forage production during a short growing season, however, make their management difficult. During 2 yr, seeding date and cultivar effects on dry matter (DM) yield, yield distribution, and nutritive value of these grasses were measured, and treatments were replicated four times. There were four seeding dates in 1996 starting on 10 May and six in 1997 starting on 20 March. Seeding dates were 3 wk apart. Three millet ('GK 600', 'Millex 32', and 'Tifleaf 2) and two sorghum ('Hygrazer' and 'SX 15') cultivars were tested. Soils were a loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleaquult and a hyperthermic Grossarenic Paleudult. Total DM yield, averaged across cultivars, decreased from 7.4 to 5.6 Mg ha(-1) from the first to the fourth seeding date in 1996 and from 7.4 to 4.4 Mg ha(-1) from the first to the sixth seeding date in 1997. Leaf percentage generally was above 70% and often greatest for Tifleaf 2. Seasonal distribution of DM was affected by planting date but not by cultivar. In conclusion, choice of species or cultivar had less impact on the responses measured than did planting date. Seeding at two dates approximately 3 to 6 wk apart is a good strategy for improving yield distribution of these cultivars and providing high nutritive value forage for nearly 5 mo.
Lipids isolated from quinoa seed and seed fractions were characterized for lipid classes and their fatty acid composition. Quinoa seed lipids contained the largest amount of neutral lipids among all the seed fractions analyzed. A very high content of free fatty acids was detected in whole quinoa seed and hulls, accounting for 18·9 and 15·4% of total lipids, respectively. Triglycerides were the major fraction present and accounted for over 50% of the neutral lipids. Diglycerides were present in whole seed and contributed 20% of the neutral lipid fraction. Of the phospholipids examined, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, was the most abundant and made up 45% of the total polar lipids. Phosphatidyl choline was the second largest phospholipid component and contributed 12% of whole seed phospholipids. Considerable variation in phospholipids was evident between the different fractions. The overall fatty acid composition of whole quinoa seeds, however, was similar to that reported for other cereal grains, with linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids as the major acids present.
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