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The results of assessment of energy potentials of forest and agricultural biomass are presented in the book. Study was made in a framework of FP�7 project “Biomass Energy Europe” (Grant Agreement №213417). For researchers and specialists in energy, forestry, natural protection and students studying forestry, ecology, biology and technical sciences.
Content may be subject to copyright.
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Institute of Forestry and LandscapePark Management
ScientificEngineering Centre “Biomass”
International Institute of Applied System Analysis
Energy potential
of biomass in Ukraine
Kyiv – 2011
УДК 630*54:620.9
ISBN 9789668006838
Authors:
Petro Lakyda, Roman Vasylyshyn, Sergiy Zibtsev, Ivan Lakyda
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Georgiy Geletukha, Tetyana Zhelyezna – Scientific Engineering
Centre “Biomass”, Ukraine
Hannes Böttcher – International Institute of Applied System Analysis,
Austria
Energy potential of biomass in Ukraine / [ Lakyda P., Geletukha G.,
Vasylyshyn R. at al.], edited by Dr., Prof. Petro I. Lakyda; Institute of
Forestry and LandscapePark Management of the National University of Life
and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv : Publishing Center of NUBiP
of Ukraine, 2011. – 28 p.
ISBN 9789668006838
The results of assessment of energy potentials of forest and agricultural
biomass are presented in the book. Study was made in a framework of FP7
project “Biomass Energy Europe” (Grant Agreement №213417).
For researchers and specialists in energy, forestry, natural protection
and students studying forestry, ecology, biology and technical sciences.
© P. Lakyda, G. Geletukha, R. Vasylyshyn, T. Zhelezna,
S. Zibtsev, H. Böttcher, I. Lakyda, 2011
© National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of
Ukraine, Scientific Engineering Centre “Biomass”,
International Institute of Applied System Analysis, 2011
3
INTRODUCTION
Energy crisis prompts European countries for searching an alternative
sources of renewable energy. Important part of those efforts is conducting
of integration research and development of road maps for sustainable
energy use for whole continents. The "Biomass energy Europe» Project
(BEE  Biomass Energy Europe), funded under the European Commission
Seventh Framework Programme, aims at harmonizing estimates of biomass
resources in Europe and neighboring countries. The results will enhance
consistency, accuracy and reliability of estimates of biomass potential,
which will facilitate transition of these countries to renewable energy.
The goal of the project is to improve the accuracy and comparability of
the results of future assessments of biomass energy resources by reducing
diversity of technical approaches, harmonization of procedures and
information sharing. Based on experience of project participants and
results of their ongoing research, the main attention was paid to
harmonization of evaluation techniques for assessing biomass potentials
and choosing source data. In addition, it was possible to ascertain
possibilities for combined use in order to assess biomass potentials based
on "onground" data as well as data obtained from satellites. The following
components of energy potential were assessed: forest biomass, energy
crops, residuals from traditional agricultural activities and other waste.
To achieve the goals set by European countries in renewable energy
sector, reliable information about the energy potential of biomass in Europe
is required. However, the results of different existing assessments of
biomass resources for fixed geographic areas vary significantly. The most
significant reason for variance in results is difference of approaches to
selection of general assessment methodology, source data, methods of
determining of potential of land available for growing energy crops, factors
and assumptions regarding production and utilization of biomass. Also,
sometimes some empirical data were missing (such as conversion rates,
waste composition, productivity). In addition, existing biomass resource
assessments are often very different among themselves in terms of time
range and depth of analysis, and by types of potential.
Ukraine is represented in the BEE project with two organizations which
have substantial experience in bioenergy sector – they are professionals of
Education and Research Institute of Forestry and Landscape Architecture,
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine and
Scientific and Technical Centre "Biomass".
Ukraine has great potential of biomass available for energy use. By
bringing this potential to energy production it is possible to satisfy 1315%
4
of the country demand in primary energy in the nearest perspective.
Development of bioenergy sector in Ukraine should be conducted
consistently and reasonably, taking into account possible impact on
national economy and environment. Harmonized method of estimation of
energy potential, which was obtained as a result of the project, was used to
assess the Ukrainian bioenergy sector. The main findings of the
assessment are presented in this booklet. The basic components of
biomass potential are agricultural residuals and forest biomass. Agricultural
biomass is concentrated in the central, southeastern and southern regions,
in places with the most fertile soils, while forest biomass may be produced
in the northern parts of the country, which is by 2530% covered with pine
forests, and in the western part  Ukrainian Carpathians, where the
dominant forest species are spruce, beech, fir and oak.
Estimation of energy potential was done for the country in whole as well
as for administrative regions (oblasts). Conclusions contain the major
legislative, technological and economic issues of sustainable use of
biomass energy in Ukraine and possible wayouts.
The authors of the brochure will be grateful for critical comments,
suggestions and proposals on the content of and perspectives for its
improvement.
5
1. FOREST BIOMASS
1.1. Overview of forest resources of Ukraine
The forests of Ukraine are distributed very irregularly over the country
(Fig. 1) as a result of climatic conditions and anthropogenic impacts over a
long period of time. The largest forest territories are concentrated on the north
and on the west parts of country, in Polyssja (mixed forests) zone and in the
Ukrainian Carpathians. Coniferous forests occupy 42% of the total forested
area, including pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) that dominates on 32% and spruce
(Picea abies Karst.) and Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) that cover ~10%.
Hardwood species cover 43%, of which European oak (Quercus robur L.) and
common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) dominate at 32%, and almost 15% of the
forest area consists of softwood broadleaves and shrubs.
Figure 1. Percent of cover in Ukraine by oblasts (administrative region)
Age structure of forest stands is as following: young forests – 32%, mid
aged – 44, immature – 13, mature and overmature – 11%. The overall
average age of forest stands is 54 years. Artificial stands (planted forests)
make up an amount near 50 % of the total area. Average growing stock per
1 ha of forested area is 186 m3. ha1, average change of growing stock volume
6
(net growth) is 4.0 m3•ha1•year1 and varies from 5.0 m3•ha1•year1 in
Carpathians to 2.5 m3•ha1•year1 in the Steppe zone. The total growing stock
exceeds 1.8 billion m3. Ukraine takes the 7th place in Europe in wood stock
after Russia, Sweden, France, Germany, Poland and Finland (TBFRA2000).
During the last 50 years forested area in Ukraine increased at about 1.5
fold basically due to extensive reforestation and afforestation programs
during the period. However, amount of forests in some zones (particularly,
in Steppe) is far from optimal in order to provide successful protection of
environment, soil and water. From this point of view no essential biomass
potential should be expected in Steppe zone due to needs to be in line with
sustainability criteria.
Wood is a major industrial forest product in the country. Annual harvest of
merchantable wood comprises about 15 million m3 (including 12 million m3
harvested in forests under jurisdiction of the State Forestry Committee of
Ukraine (SFCU)), of which final felling comprises 6.5 million m3 (5.6 million m3).
The distribution of harvested wood by tree species is presented in figure 1.
The major categories of wood usage after final felling are displayed in figure 3.
Annual maximum allowed harvest (final felling) for better sustainability
is limited by Annual Allowable Cut. AAC is assessed during forest inventory
and planning for every forest enterprise. During the last decade, the AAC
comprised from 5.2 to 5.7 million m3 of commercial wood. Taking into
account the current distribution of Ukrainian forests by age classes and
number of activities which are planned by the government it is expected
that during next decade, AAC will increase by 1015%.
In general, intensity of harvest is substantially less than in other
European countries  the rate of use of annual average increment (net
growth) in Ukraine is about 4050%. Annually only 0.9% of the total growing
stock is harvested.
pine; 39,40%
spruce; 12,10%
fir ; 3,50% ash; 2,70%
maple; 1,20%
lime tree; 1,20%
alder; 4,40%
oak ; 15,00%
aspen; 3,00%
poplars; 0,40%
beech; 5,90%
others; 1,20%
hornbeen; 4,70%
birch; 5,30%
Figure 2. Distribution of harvested wood by tree species
7
veneer materials
for slicing;
0,30%
veneer materials
for peeling ;
2,50%
saw logs;
35,40%
building
construction
timber ; 4,10%
paperwood;
10,80%
technical wood;
26,10%
fire wood;
20,90%
Figure 3. Major assortments of wood harvested by all felling
1.2. Methodology of forest biomass potentials assessment:
Resourcefocused statistical method
For calculation of potential of forest biomass in Ukraine BEE method
handbook definitions were used (BEE 2010):
Woody biomass – The mass of the woody parts (wood, bark,
branches, twigs, stumps and roots) of trees, alive and dead, shrubs and
bushes, measured to a minimum diameter of 0 mm (d.b.h.) Excludes:
Foliage.
Stemwood – Part of tree stem from the felling cut to the tree top with
the branches removed, including bark.
The primary forest residues (wood harvest residues) include several
types of woody biomass – biomass from precommercial thinning (often the
whole tree), logging residues (branches, tree tops and leaves or needles)
and stumps.
The secondary forest residues (wood processing residues) include
various types of biomass originating during industrial processing of timber:
sawdust & cutter chips, bark, slabs, lump wood residues, black liquor.
1.2.1. Stemwood
Stemwood is one of the most important forest biomass types in the
country. Stemwood for energy purposes accumulates after main kinds of
harvesting activities like final harvesting, sanitary felling (for improving
forest heath condition) and precommercial and commercial thinning.
Forest biomass potentials were assessed accordingly to methodology from
BEE Methods Handbook and theoretical and technical potentials were
obtained as a result. Both types of potentials were calculated per region
8
(oblast), natural climatic zones and for the country as a whole. Sources of
the data for calculations are given in the BEE Data Handbook.
Due to peculiarities of available statistical data for forest sector of
Ukraine, basic statistical method was modified for calculations of technical
potential of stemwood. In particularly, amount of industrial wood that comes
after certain type of harvesting were calculated not as share of industrial
wood in the total volume of icommercial thinnings or final felling in country
x in year y, like it is described in the Handbook, but based on actual volumes
of harvesting of industrial wood and firewood (2008) that were provided by
State Forestry Committee of Ukraine (SFCU) for forests that is under its
authority (68% of all forests of Ukraine). Due to absence of reliable
statistics about harvesting in forests of other constant users (Ministry of
Agrarian Policy, Ministry of Military, Ministry of Natural Protection etc) for
calculations were used coefficients that reflect relation between forest
cover area of SFCU and other users for every oblast.
1.2.2. Primary forest residues
Primary forest residues are that part of forest residues that practically
not in use for energy now in Ukraine. Brushwood and small diameter trees
cut during first silviculture interventions and, accordingly to current forest
management practice, retained for decomposition, while crown
components, brunches and other biomass that produced during final
harvesting burnt up. This kind of practice is not appropriate at current
conditions from economical point of view taking into account increase of
forest biomass demand on the market.
Primary forest biomass residues assessment was made with use of
basic resource oriented statistical method (Handbook), which allows
obtaining figures for both theoretical and technical potentials for all oblasts,
natural climatic zones and for Ukraine as a whole. In particularly, biomass
expansion factors were used obtained from data base of field experimental
data “Phytomass of forests of Ukraine”. Detail descriptions of sources of
the data are given in the BEE Data Handbook. Biomass expansion factors
were used for calculation of forest biomass potentials for forests of State
Forestry Committee (68%), while for other forests, where there are no
reliable statistics, extension coefficients were used that reflects relation
between areas of forests of State Forestry Committee and forests of other
users for every oblast.
1.2.3. Secondary forest residues
Not long time ago, forest processing industry ignored use of secondary
forest residues that related with low price of imported natural gas. During
last period situation dramatically changed and much more attention is paid
to energy potential of residues generated by wood processing industry. For
9
secondary forest residues assessment method that combined resource–
oriented approach and simple statistical one were used.
Assessment of technical potential of secondary forest residues was
calculated based on BEE Methods Handbook. Assessment of theoretical
potential was made based on statistical data about total volume of
produced in the country residues by timber processing industry (BEE Data
Handbook). Due to a number of reasons in Ukraine there is no statistics
related to timber consumption by wood processing industry and
effectiveness of timber processing (ratio of volume of produced production
and volume of consumed timber). Among reasons of this kind of situation
could be mentioned next: numerous users of forests in Ukraine (Ministry,
agencies etc – totally more 50) that often have their own processing
enterprises which do not submit any statistics; decreasing of internal timber
products market during last period; prevailing of export oriented tendencies
in timber trade. That’s why use of method proposed in the Handbook we
consider as incorrect under this circumstances. In the same time, it should
be underlined that in case of availability of proper statistical data the
Handbook method could be applied completely effectively in Ukraine as
well. Theoretical and technical potentials were calculated also for all
oblasts, natural climatic zones and for country as a whole.
1.3. Potential of forest biomass
The forest biomass potentials were assessed for total area of forested
lands in Ukraine (closed canopy forests) that consist 9.4 million ha or 15.7
per cent of the Ukraine’s territory. The theoretical and technical potentials
for forest biomass consist 312,24 and 89,08 PJ accordingly (Table 1, Table
2, Fig. 4).
Analysis of obtained results shows that potential of forest biomass in
Ukraine largely determined by regional features, which reflect uneven
distribution of forests over the territory of the country. For example, near
35% of all forest biomass for energy purposes are concentrated in Polissia
(Forest zone), near 30% in Carpathians Ms and in ForestSteppe zone and
only near 5% in Steppe zone of Ukraine. It should be underlined, that from
economical point of view most favorable energy biomass resources are
concentrated in Carpathian region. Forests of the Carpathians Ms are
characterized by the maximal density of energy biomass – 457,2 KJ per
square meter, while in the other natural zones these indices are significantly
lower: in Polissya – 255,8 KJ per square meter, ForestSteppe – 144,2 KJ
per square meter, and Steppe – 36,5 KJ per square meter. At the same
time, a major part of forest resources in the Carpathians are technically
inaccessible due to lack of forest roads.
10
Table 1
Potential of primary forest residues in Ukraine (2008)
Theoretical potential Technical potential Type of primary
forest residues PJ* Mt** PJ Mt
Logging residues 19.73 1.23 17.65 1.10
Thinning residues 8.97 0.56 4.98 0.31
Total 28.70 1.79 22.63 1.41
*1 PJ = 1015 joules, **1Mt = 106 tons.
Table 2
Potential of forest biomass in Ukraine (2008)
Theoretical potential Technical potential Type of forest
biomass PJ Mt PJ Mt
Stemwood 263.72 14.7 49.95 2.79
Primary forest
residues 28.70 1.79 22.63 1.41
Secondary forest
residues 19.82 1.11 16.50 0.92
Total 312.24 17.6 89.08 5.12
Figure 4. Potentials of forest biomass in Ukraine (2008)
11
In other regions, availability of transport network is better, but problem
of technical capacity for effective use of potential of forests arises there.
Taking into consideration age distribution of forests in Ukraine, it should be
underlined that during next 10year period share of mature stands will
increase dramatically, that consequently will lead to increasing of available
volumes of forest biomass for energy. So, Ukraine should be ready for this
kind of positive changes in terms of securing proper legislation base and
technological capacity for effective use of future potentials.
In order to access applicability of harmonized BEE Handbook method
of forest biomass assessment, alternative assessment with standwise
method were applied to one oblast. The method based on use of stand
wise database "Forest Fund of Ukraine" produced by National Forest
Inventory Enterpise “Ukrderzhlisproekt”. State Enterprise Dobrians'ke
Forest Economy of Chernihiv region served as a model forest enterprise
within implementation of this evaluation. Obtained potential of forest
biomass of the enterprise was extrapolated to the region level by means of
ratios by volume and forest area.
The results of the potential assessment are presented in Table 3, Table
4. The results show theoretical and technical potentials (in PJ/Mt). Analysis
of obtained results of alternative standwise assessment allow to conclude
that basic statistical method (Handbook) provides a good level of accuracy
and could be used for forest biomass assessment in both regional and
national scales in Ukraine under conditions of essential biomass potential,
low use and insufficient data that do now allow using more advanced
methods.
Table 3
Results of assessment of potential of forest biomass in State
enterprise “Dobryanka forest economy” based on standwise
method (2008)
Theoretical potential Technical potential
Type of forest biomass PJ Mt PJ Mt
Stemwood 1.18 0.066 0.23 0.013
Primary forest residues 0.14 0.009 0.13 0.008
Secondary forest residues 0.12 0.007 0.11 0.006
Total 1.44 0.082 0.47 0.027
Difference in theoretical potential assessment between two methods
reach near 20% which determined with fact that during using of standwise
method better accounted category of forest land, that exclude any
possibility to harvest timber for energy purposes on lands with high
12
conservation or other values. Close results obtained in technical potential
assessment could be explained by fact that in both methods real
(statistical) volumes of harvesting were used.
Table 4
Compare of results of forest biomass potential assessment by using
basic statistical method (BEE method handbook) and alternative
standwise method in Chernigiv region (2008)
Theoretical potential Technical potential
basic Statistical
method
(Handbook)
alternative
standwise
method
basic Statistical
method
(Handbook)
alternative
standwise
method
Type of
forest biomass
PJ Mt PJ Mt PJ Mt PJ Mt
Stemwood 20.10 1.124 15.31 0.856 2.85 0.159 2.90 0.162
Primary
forest residues 1.80 0.112 1.76 0.109 1.70 0.106 1.69 0.105
Secondary
forest residues 1.60 0.089 1.54 0.081 1.34 0.075 1.36 0.076
Total 23.50 1.325 18.61 1.046 5.88 0.340 5.96 0.343
Standwise methods that were used in a case study has more practical
importance because it allows to make longterm forecasts of forest
biomass potentials (in case of availability of growth models of main tree
species), while basic statistical method allows to make national or regional
assessment only for certain year when statistical data are available.
Negative feature of standwise method in compare with basic statistical
method is limitation in access to and to use of forest inventory information.
1.4. Implementation issues
Positive feature of current status of energy biomass use is that certain
legislative framework already has created in Ukraine. In 2009 Parliament of
Ukraine approved the law of Ukraine “About alternative type of fuels”. The
law provides all need legislative conditions and economical incentives for
implementation of modern technologies of use of forest biomass for energy
purposes. In parallel, by order of Cabinet of Ministries of Ukraine 25 millions
of Ukrainian HRN (2.5 mln Euro) were designated from stabilization fund of
Government for purchasing 10 technological complexes for harvesting and
utilization forest residues and low diameters timber to energy (fuel) pellets
and its transportation to boilers of municipal or regional levels. This kind of
decree shows that the issue now is in the level of national priorities and
policy and Government is trying to create some legislative and economic
environment for developing of use of biomass for energy purposes.
13
Current economical condition, in particular, world financial crisis does
not create favorable conditions for large scale utilization of secondary
forest residues into bio fuel. There is a lack of large wood processing
enterprises where economically feasible volumes of residues can be
processed, while costs of delivering of raw material from numerous middle
and small size enterprises is too high and reduce of potential profitability of
pellets production.
At the moment, only few wood processing enterprises are left in
Ukraine that can process 25 000 cub m of timber per year and more. It
happens because of number or reasons such as low average percentage of
forest cover lands in Ukraine (15.7%) (except Carpathian and Polissya
regions), reduction of timber import from Russia, high level of
fragmentation of forests, deterioration of forestry infrastructure etc. All
these factors play negative role in process of implementation of modern
technologies of fuel production from biomass like wood pellets, briquettes
and liquid biofuels.
Taken into consideration abovementioned, development of large and
complex wood processing enterprises with annual volumes of processing
more 100 thou cub m and production of modern fuel types from residues
should be approved as a strategic policy goal in Ukraine. Important feature
of this kind of production should be a creation of closed technological cycle
of wood processing starting with harvesting and ending in pellets or other
type of fuel. Production process should start from forest site and forest
road, including all logistics and other stages that guarantee high
economical efficiency, low production costs and, in the end, highly
competitive price in compare with oil and gas.
Lack of forest road network density and low quality of forest roads,
absence of internal production of special machines for timber harvesting
and transportation are other important reasons that make negative impact
on intensity of development of market of biomass for energy purposes.
Accordingly to expert estimations, for ensuring proper availability of forest
recourses of Ukraine, 500 km of new forest roads of high quality should be
constructing annually, based on use and implementation of modern
innovative approaches and technologies that substantially can reduce costs
for road construction.
Systems of informational, legislative and technological measures in
forestry and wood processing industry, including processed during
execution of this project will facilitate sustainable growth of share of
renewable energy from forest biomass in production of industrial products.
14
2. AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS
2.1. Overview of agriculture in Ukraine
Ukraine has 60.35 mill hectares of land. Of this, 70% is agricultural
land, 17% is used for forestry, the rest is for housing, industrial and other
purposes (used as state reserves, for recreation etc). Ukraine’s agricultural
sector employs 23.1 percent of the work force, but comprises only 6.5
percent of GDP.
Fertile soil makes it possible to grow a variety of crops. Ukraine has a
perfect climate for growing small grains throughout the country and is
excellent for corn or soybeans in the north. Among all the European
countries, Ukraine is the leader in growing sugar beet, buckwheat and
carrot; the country is on the second place in growing wheat (after Russia)
and tomato (after Poland). Ukraine is geographically the best situated of all
the European countries for marketing with easy access to the Black Sea,
China and all of Western Europe to feed a growing population. Ukraine,
overall, has the best port access in this region of the world.
Farms in Ukraine employ a variety of croprotation schemes, some
including four or more crops, some only two. A sixyear crop rotation in the
winter grain region often includes two consecutive years of wheat and one
season of "clean fallow," during which no crop is sown. The chief reason for
including fallow in the rotation is to replenish soilmoisture reserves, and it
is more widely used in southeastern Ukraine where drought is not
uncommon. The production of grain and oilseed crops is dominated by
large agricultural enterprises which were established when Ukraine’s
agricultural sector was restructured in April, 2000. In contrast, nearly 90
percent of the country's vegetables and virtually all of the potatoes are
grown on private household plots. Average size of agricultural enterprises in
Ukraine is more than 1000 ha of land. Changes in production volumes of
some agricultural crops over two past decades are presented in tables 58.
Table 5
Wheat production in Ukraine
Years
Items 1995 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Sown area,
th. ha 5509 5619 2828 5674 6665 5583 6288 7116
Harvested
area, th. ha 5479.4 5161.6 2456.4 5533.7 6571.0 5511.0 5951.3 7053.6
Yield,100
kg/ha 29.7 19.8 14.7 31.7 28.5 25.3 23.4 36.7
Production
quantity, th. t 16273.3 10197.0 3599.3 17520.2 18699.2 13947.3 13937.7 25885.4
15
Table 6
Sunflower production
Years
Items 1995 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Sown area,
th. ha 2020 2943 4001 3521 3743 3964 3604 4306
Harvested
area, th. ha 2007.6 2841.6 3810.0 3427.0 3689.1 3911.7 3411.4 4279.5
Yield, 100
kg/ha 14.2 12.2 11.2 8.9 12.8 13.6 12.2 15.3
Production
quantity, th. t 2859.9 3457.4 4254.4 3050.1 4706.1 5324.3 4174.4 6526.2
Table 7
Sugar beet production
Years
Items 1995 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Sown area,
th. ha 1475 856 773 732 652 815 610 380
Harvested
area, th. ha 1448.5 747.0 665.6 696.5 623.3 787.6 577.0 377.2
Yield, 100
kg/ha 204.7 176.7 201.2 238.3 248.2 284.7 294.2 356.2
Production
quantity, th. t 29650.4 13198.8 13391.9 16600.4 15467.8 22420.7 16977.7 13437.7
Table 8
Rice production
Years Items
1995 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Sown area, th.
ha 22 26 22 21 21 22 21 20
Harvested
area, th. ha 22.0 25.2 22.4 21.3 21.4 21.6 21.1 19.8
Yield, 100
kg/ha 36.4 35.6 37.5 37.7 43.4 46.0 51.1 50.9
Production
quantity, th. t 80.1 89.7 84.0 80.4 93.0 99.5 108.0 100.8
Being a large grain producer, Ukraine is one of the six world largest
exporters, supplying to 80 countries worldwide. Rising world grain prices help
make these exports even more viable. The total harvest of grain crops was 53.3
mill tonnes in 2008. The country is also the biggest exporter of sunflower oil and
has substantial potential in growing and exporting rapeseed.
Ukraine’s agriculture has been evolving since the country achieved
independence in 1991, following the breakup of the Soviet Union. State
and collective farms were officially dismantled in 2000. Farm property was
divided among the farm workers in the form of land shares and most new
16
shareholders leased their land back to newlyformed private agricultural
associations. The sudden loss of state agricultural subsidies had an
enormous effect on every aspect of Ukrainian agriculture. Due to
permanent decline of livestock, structure of the sawn area changed
significantly: percentage of land under fodder crops decreased from 37% in
1990 to 10.1% in 2008, and percentage of land under industrial crops
increased from 11.6% in 1990 to 25.0% in 2008 (Fig. 5). The transition of
Ukraine's agricultural sector from a command economy to a more market
oriented system has introduced the element of fiscal responsibility, and
farm managers are striving to make their enterprises as efficient as
possible. Decisions on crop selection, fertilizer application, harvest method,
grain storage, and all other aspects of farm management are made with an
eye toward boosting farm profit. Ukraine’s agriculture is going through a
winnowing process whereby unprofitable, usually smaller farms will either
collapse or join more successful farms.
Figure 5. Change in the sown area structure under main agricultural crop
Animal husbandry. Ukraine’s livestock sector includes cattlebreeding,
pigbreeding, poultry farming and sheepbreeding. A powerful economy
sector in Soviet Union time, it has been experiencing drastic changes the
last decade. Especially it concerns cattlebreeding which is the most
important branch of Ukraine’s animal husbandry: since 2000 the livestock
population has been decreasing constantly, and only the last two years one
can see some tendency to its stabilization (Fig. 6). Pigbreeding is the
second branch of Ukraine’s livestock sector by its significance. At present
the pig population is on the level of 2000 with rises and drops that occurred
during this period (Fig. 7). Positive trends can be observed in poultry
farming first of all regarding poultry factories. Total number of poultry heads
there has been stably rising since 2000 (Fig. 8). Taking into account all the
17
mentioned factors one can expect rise in manure volumes and therefore
biogas potential in Ukraine in the coming years.
Figure 6. Change in the cattle population, thousand heads
Figure 7. Change in the pig population, thousand heads
Figure 8. Change in the poultry population, thousand heads
All kinds of the farms A
ricultural enter
rises Households
All kinds of the farms A
g
ricultural en
t
er
p
rises Households
All kinds of the farms Households Poultr
y
factories
18
2.2. Methodology of biomass potential assessment in
agriculture: Resourcefocused statistical method
According to definitions given in the BEE Methods Handbook:
Primary Agricultural Residues (PAR) are those materials which remain
in fields as byproducts after the primary product of crops has been
harvested. These include different materials like cereal grain straws,
of wheat, barley, rice, etc., corn stover (stalk and leaves), etc.
Secondary agricultural residues (SAR) are specific type of residues
and include quite a wide variety of biomass types. SAR arise during
processing of agricultural products for food or feed production. They
are bagasse, sunflower husks, rice husks, nut shells, cocoa bean
shells, kidney bean shells and other biomass of such a kind.
Manure is organic matter used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
Animal manure includes farmyard manure or farm slurry (liquid
manure).
2.2.1. Primary agricultural residues
Regarding PAR the most important type of agricultural biomass
available for bioenergy is straw. It is produced after the harvesting of,
mainly, cereals or other annual lignocellulosic crops and rape. The
parameters which affect the straw potential are the area of land covered by
these crops and the amount of straw produced per tonne of a crop.
Competitive uses reduce the straw potential for bioenergy like the use for
animal litter and feed.
Assessment of PAR potential is performed on the basis of the resource
focussed advanced statistical method described in the BEE Methods
Handbook. The method gives opportunity to calculate theoretical and
technical potential of biomass. Data items required for the advanced
statistical method are: cultivated area of crops (ha), agricultural production
of crops (t/ha), site specific product to residue ratio of the crops, availability
of residues for the crops according to current harvesting system,
sustainability factor (region specific), and availability of residues for animal
husbandry (region specific). Sources of the data are given in the BEE Data
Handbook. In this report, the data are taken and calculations are made not
only for a country as a whole but also for the country’s regions (oblasts).
The following agricultural crops are considered in the assessment of
PAR:
9 wheat;
9 barley;
9 maize for grain;
9 other cereals as a whole (rye, oats, millet, buckwheat, rice);
9 rapeseed;
9 sunflower.
19
2.2.2. Secondary agricultural residues
In fact SAR are generated and collected at the enterprises which
process agricultural crops for food/feed production. The parameters which
affect the residues potential are the processed volumes of agricultural
crops and the amount of residues produced per tonne of a crop.
Competitive uses reduce the SAR potential for bioenergy like the use for
animal feed.
Assessment of SAR potential is done by means of the resource
focussed basic spatially explicit method described in the BEE Methods
Handbook. The method gives opportunity to calculate theoretical and
technical potential of biomass. It is based on regional statistical data that is
plotted in a spatially explicit way. Data items required for the basic spatially
explicit method are: actually processed volumes of agricultural crops (t),
product to secondary residue ratio of the crops, availability factor and use
factor of the crops. Sources of the data are given in the BEE Data Handbook.
In Ukraine’s conditions, the following types of secondary agricultural
residues are taken into account:
9 sugar beet bagasse;
9 rice husks;
9 sunflower husks.
2.2.3. Manure
Assessment of manure potential is performed by applying statistical
method described in the BEE Methods Handbook. The method gives
opportunity to calculate theoretical potential of biomass. It is based on
regional statistical data that is plotted in a spatially explicit way. Data items
required for the method are (for different types of livestock): number of
heads, amount of manure (t/head), and biogas yield for livestock manure
(m3/t). Sources of the data are those given in the BEE Data Handbook.
Comment. In this assessment, the availability factor (Av) is additionally
applied with the purpose to evaluate also the technical potential of manure.
For Ukraine, manure of three categories is assessed:
9 cattle manure;
9 pig manure;
9 poultry manure.
2.3. Potential of agricultural biomass
The results of the potential assessment are presented in Table 9 and
Figures 911. The results show theoretical and technical potentials (in PJ).
20
Table 9
Potential of agricultural residues in Ukraine (2008)
Type of agricultural residues Theoretical potential, PJ Technical potential, PJ
Primary agricultural residues 1135.52 415.05
Secondary agricultural residues 32.9 18.29
Manure (biogas) 90.87 68.09
Total 1259.29 501.43
It is obvious that primary agricultural residues make up the lion's share
of the technical potential (83%) followed by manure recalculated into
biogas (14%) and secondary agricultural residues (4%). Distribution of
agricultural residues over the country is rather unequal depending mainly
on sawn areas and animal livestock in the regions. The major part of the
potential falls upon central regions of Ukraine.
Two sustainability issues may arise here: 1  potential competition
between the use of residues for energy purposes and for animal husbandry; 2
– possible depletion of organic matter in the soil and nutrients in agricultural
lands because of removal straw from fields. These issues are taken into
account while calculating the technical potential through sustainability factor,
availability of residues for animal husbandry, and use factor.
Figure 9. The potential of primary agricultural residues in Ukraine (2008)
21
Figure 10. The potential of secondary agricultural residues in Ukraine
(2008)
Figure 11. The potential of biogas from manure in Ukraine (2008)
22
2.4. Implementation issues
Currently, woody biomass in the major type of biomass which is used for
energy production, mostly heat  about 30 PJ/yr. It is firewood (domestic
boilers in households) and wood waste/wood chips (industrial boilers at
forestry and woodworking enterprises). Besides some amount of straw,
manure and sunflower husks is also utilized for energy purposes but their
contribution to Ukraine’s energy balance is negligible. At present more than
60 straw fired boilers are in operation at agricultural enterprises and schools in
rural areas. Practically all the oilextraction plants have boilers which produce
heat from sunflower husks. Three large biogas plants generate power from
manure. In addition, there are a few experimental plantations of energy crops
which belong to different institutions/organisations, but there are no officially
arranged production and utilisation of energy crops. Up to 200 small and
mediumscale installations produce pellets and briquettes from wood and
agricultural residues.
One of the main barriers to wide utilisation of straw potential in Ukraine
is rather high cost of straw fired boilers. This applies to the boilers of foreign
manufacture as well as to the boilers of domestic production. Currently
there is a monopolistic manufacturer of straw fired boilers in Ukraine, and it
keeps prices which are high for most potential consumers. Another
important problem is unstable supply of straw. Practice of longterm
contracts for biomass supply is not established in Ukraine yet. An owner of
a straw fired boiler is aware that there is possibility of problems with straw
supply unless it is his own straw. Two ways can be suggested to solve these
problems:
- introduction of a 20% state subsidy for the purchasers of biomass
boilers;
- establishment of companies which business would be providing
secure and stable supply of biomass to consumers.
23
3. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
As a result of the research, it was found that in Ukraine in 2008
theoretical and technical potentials of forest biomass are 312.24 and 89.08
PJ respectively, agricultural waste  1259.29 and 501.43 PJ respectively.
Currently, technical potential of forest biomass is about 1,5% of the total
consumption of all types of energy in Ukraine.
Today about 30% of technical potential of wood biomass is used for
energy, first of all this is production of heat form firewood in private
households and social infrastructure in rural areas; use of wood residuals in
order to obtain thermal energy for heating and technological needs on
wood processing plants, production of wood briquettes, pellets (fuel
pellets), charcoal, etc. Over 60% of these amounts of wood biomass is
annually exported (sawdust briquettes, pellets, fuel wood chips, charcoal,
firewood).
It is also worth noticing that almost one fifth of the technical potential of
forest biomass in the form of logging residuals, wood residuals on small
scale wood working enterprises, wood residuals in households, communal
sphere is being rotten, thrown out, taken out as trash, burned or disposed
in other way of without any beneficial effect.
Currently, to ensure rational use of energy potential of forest biomass,
regional target programs for replacement of fossil fuels with biofuels from
wood are essential. When implementing those programs attention should
be paid to resolving the following issues:
9 to ensure harvesting, gathering, processing and transportation to
boilers existing wood biomass, which originates on logging areas of
final felling and areas, where formation and forest health
enhancement fellings are carried out;
9 to establish plantations for growing energy wood;
9 to ensure gradual systematic increase of planned logging taking into
account changing age structure of stands of main forest forming
species;
9 to construct forest roads in order to ensure transport access to wood
biomass resources, especially in mountainous regions;
9 to ensure deep wood processing that will allow for more efficient use
of forest resources and residuals.
Ukraine has quite a big potential of agricultural residues which mainly
consists of straw from cereals and production residues from sunflower and
maize from grain. At present, less than 1% of the PAR potential is used for
energy purposes (combustion in boilers, production of pellets and
briquettes). This is because of the poorly developed infrastructure and
logistics system for a reliable feedstock supply in Ukraine. These factors
prevent a lot of potential customers from installing straw fired boilers.
24
Taking into account the current situation in the biomass market, it is
expected that in the near future some companies will come forth whose
business will be the reliable delivery of biomass feedstock to a final
customer. This may lead to the introduction of longcontract system and
much wider use of agricultural residues for energy production.
The situation with SAR is much better though their technical potential is
incomparably less than PAR. 77% of sunflower husks is used in boilers,
another 20% is used for pellets production. Almost all the oil extraction
plants have biomass boilers for useful utilization of generated sunflower
husks.
Regarding biogas from manure, LFG and sewage gas, expert opinion is
that utilization of the technical potential will be more brisk after introduction
of feedin tariff for electricity produced from biogas. At present, the feedin
tariff for green electricity covers biomass but does not include biogas.
25
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carbonenergy potential of fir stands of Ukrainian Carpathians: Monograph. –
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Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Lviv, RVV NLTU of Ukraine, 2009. – Vol. 7. – P. 77
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E., den Uil, H., Vehlow J., Kåberger, T. and M. Rogulska (2006). Bioenergy in Europe:
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Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2009). FAOstat database. Web:
http://faostat.fao.org/
Lakyda P.I., Vasylyshyn R.D., Zibtsev S.V. Assessment of potentials of forest biomass in
Ukraine // Education, research and innovations in forestry and park management in
Ukraine in the context of regional and global challenges. – K, 2010. – P. 5455.
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Jantke, K., Kallio, A.M.I., Kraxner, F., Moiseyev, A., Obersteiner, M., Ramos, C.I.,
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productivity and land use in Europe. Agricultural Systems. 98: 208219.
27
CONTENT
INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 3
1. FOREST BIOMASS ........................................................... 5
1.1. OVERVIEW OF FOREST RESOURCES OF UKRAINE ....................................................... 5
1.2. METHODOLOGY OF FOREST BIOMASS POTENTIALS ASSESSMENT: RESOURCEFOCUSED
STATISTICAL METHOD................................................................................................. 7
1.2.1. Stemwood ..........................................................................................7
1.2.2. Primary forest residues.........................................................................8
1.2.3. Secondary forest residues ....................................................................8
1.3. POTENTIAL OF FOREST BIOMASS .......................................................................... 9
1.4. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES................................................................................. 12
2. AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS ................................................14
2.1. OVERVIEW OF AGRICULTURE IN UKRAINE .............................................................. 14
2.2. METHODOLOGY OF BIOMASS POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURE: RESOURCE
FOCUSED STATISTICAL METHOD .................................................................................. 18
2.2.1. Primary agricultural residues ............................................................... 18
2.2.2. Secondary agricultural residues ..........................................................19
2.2.3. Manure.............................................................................................19
2.3. POTENTIAL OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS ............................................................... 19
2.4. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES................................................................................. 25
3. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..............23
REFERENCES ....................................................................25
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... The forest biomass potential is obviously concentrated in highly forested regions: about 35% of all forest biomass for energy purposes is concentrated in Polissia (plain forest zone, north west Ukraine), 30% in the Carpathians and in the forest-steppe zone, and 5% in the steppe zone of Ukraine (Lakyda et al., 2011). From an economic point of view, most of the favourable energy biomass resources are concentrated in the Carpathian region (Lopatin et al., 2011). ...
... Provided that these barriers can be overcome, forest biofuel could significantly contribute to the energy transition, especially in the highly forested Carpathian regions (Lakyda et al., 2011). The better use of wood fuel could benefit both the local economy and the socio-ecological system as a whole. ...
... The total installed capacity of active renewable energy projects (excluding large scale hydro generation >10 MW) was around 7.7 MW, of which 72% belong to industrial solar, 8% solar in a private household, 15.7% wind, 1.5% small hydro, and 2.3% to biomass and biogas [27]. These data indicate the relatively low importance of biomass in energy production in Ukraine, although the analyses of Lakyda et al. [28] show that the technical potential of forest biomass can be estimated at the level of 2.1 Mtoe and that of agricultural waste at the level of 12 Mtoe. Assuming the demand for primary energy is at the level of 86.4 Mtoe (in 2020), this would meet approximately 16.3% of the country's energy needs. ...
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This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large‐scale district heating or co‐firing installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export‐driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with significant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second‐largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal‐based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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Land use is a key factor to social wellbeing and has become a major component in political negotiations. This paper describes the mathematical structure of the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model. The model represents simultaneously observed resource and technological heterogeneity, global commodity markets, and multiple environmental qualities. Land scarcity and land competition between traditional agriculture, forests, nature reserves, pastures, and bioenergy plantations is explicitly captured. Environmental change, technological progress, and policies can be investigated in parallel. The model is well-suited to estimate competitive economic potentials of land based mitigation, leakage, and synergies and trade-offs between multiple environmental objectives.
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