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Towards a Method of Participatory Planning in an Emerging Metropolitan Delta in the Context of Climate Change. The Case of Lower Parana Delta, Argentina.

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The Paraná Delta is a large and heterogeneous territory that can be considered an extreme and particular case due to the dynamics that interact within this area. Nevertheless, many of the conflicts that can be found in this area replicate in other deltas around the world, which are subjected to pressures related to urban growth and climate change, within a context of uncertainty and unpredictability. Those pressures interact at multiple scales and temporalities, affecting the components of the systems, as well as the relations between them and with the environment. This complexity reveals the need for the society (including governments, institutions, civil organisations, academia, etc.) to enhance the adaptability of the system of the delta, in order to cope with changes without losing their substantial characteristics. This thesis is focused on the study of the complexity of self-organising processes that emerge in metropolitan areas located in (or near) delta territories, in order to link climate adaptation with urban development from an actor-oriented perspective. For that purpose, this research based on the understanding of the self-organising processes that emerge in urbanising deltas to design and implement a methodology that can be applied at the local level, to generate an impact at other scales. The method designed in this thesis also includes the development of scenarios in order to think about possible future events and reflect on the necessary policy and actions to make the system respond to changes in a more adaptive way. The scenarios, as well as all the indicators analysed along the process, are developed through participatory workshops, after an analysis of the actor-network of the area, and also of the local, provincial and national regulations.
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... Asimismo, el territorio natural presenta dinámicas propias y se encuentra en constante transformación. Es así como las zonas costeras y los deltas alcanzan una doble complejidad derivada de la coexistencia de procesos emergentes tanto naturales como antrópicos, en un contexto de cambio continuo e impredictibilidad frente al futuro (Zagare, 2018;Meyer, 2014a). Esta incertidumbre está dada no solo por las tendencias sociales y económicas, sino también por los efectos del cambio climático, que muchas veces generan grandes impactos en estas zonas, aumentando su vulnerabilidad. ...
... El análisis Escenarios. (Zagare, 2018) fue estructurado siguiendo la metodología del Layer Approach o "Perspectiva de Capas" (McHarg, 1969), que distingue tres capas de organización espacial del territorio: substrato (ambiente), redes (infraestructura y comunicaciones) y ocupación (usos del suelo). Esta perspectiva, inicialmente desarrollada en Estados Unidos de Norteamérica en 1969, fue adoptada en los Países Bajos en la década del ochenta, y sentó las bases para numerosas políticas urbanas. ...
... Zagare, 2018). ...
Article
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This article is focused on the double complexity that takes place in emerging metropolitan deltas due to the coexistence of natural dynamics and urban processes, in a context of uncertainty regarding climate change and economic development. Within this scope, traditional planning turns ineffective to address current and future issues in a flexible and participatory way. In order to develop efficient planning methods and strategies, it is necessary to understand the structure and processes that define these systems. For that purpose, in this article the concept of emerging metropolitan deltas will be presented, deepening the understanding of these areas as complex adaptive systems. Then, the challenges of planning will be addressed by analysing the case of the Paraná Delta and presenting an adaptive and participatory planning method for the area.
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