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The Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage on Sleep Quality in Women With Type 2 Diabetes; a Clinical Study

Authors:
Original Article | Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Fac. 2018; 26 (5)
Scientific Journal of Hamadan Nursing & Midwifery Faculty - ISSN 2008-2819
1. Instructor, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University
of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2. Associate Professor, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran
University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3. Professor of Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares
University, Tehran, Iran
4. MSc Of Nursing, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran
University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Shadan Pedram Razi 1, Shokoh Varaei 2, Anoushirvan Kazemnejad 3, Fatemeh Bagheri*4
Introduction: Sleep disorders are one of the most important problems in patients
with diabetes. The most commonly used method for treating sleep disorders is med-
ication therapy. Therefore, it is important to perform an uncomplicated intervention
to relieve sleep disorders in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate
the effect of foot reflexology massage on the quality of sleep in women with type 2
diabetes mellitus in Arak city in 2017.
Methods: This study was a simple randomized clinical trial performed on 54
women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were randomly divided into control
and intervention groups. Before the intervention, Pittsburgh sleep quality question-
naire was completed for both groups. In the intervention group, foot reflexology
massage was performed for 8 sessions. After the intervention, sleep quality ques-
tionnaire was completed for both patients. Data was analyzed using SPSS version
24 by Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and T-test.
Results: Foot reflexology massage improved sleep quality in the intervention
group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the quality of sleep in the
control group (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Foot reflexology massage improved the sleep quality of women
with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Foot reflexology massage can be used as an effective
intervention to improve the quality of sleep in these women.
Keywords: Massage, Sleep quality, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Fatemeh Bagheri, MSc Of Nursing, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Mid-
wifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email: Fatemehbagheri817@yahoo.com
Copyright © 2018, Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Fac. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-noncommer-
cial 4.0 International License which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
Pedram Razi S, Varaei S, Kazemnejad A, Bagheri F. The Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage on Sleep
Quality in Women With Type 2 Diabetes; a Clinical Study. Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Fac. 2018; 26
(5): 283 - 289
Abstract
DOI:
Original Article
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Published Online:
2017/10/20
2017/11/18
2017/12/2
The Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage on Sleep Quality in Women With Type 2
Diabetes; a Clinical Study
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Original Article | Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Fac. 2018; 26 (5): 283 - 289
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      


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
         

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
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

      

 
   
 




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
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1397 ید و رذآ - 5 ۀرامش 26 ۀرود





      

      
     
 

Cho 

Luyster 




Chaput 



       


   
        
    




       


 
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CastroSánchez
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
 Hosseinabadi
 
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        
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

  

       
      
       
      

 
       

     

        
 





       
 

1

 







1. Random Allocation
 
 
  






Kheyri




     

        

         

     
Hosseinabadi

       
  
 


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
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       

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        
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 
       
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      
 
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         
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1397 ید و رذآ - 5 ۀرامش 26 ۀرود



<
<







        





       


       
Seyyedrasooli

Asltoghiri


Mordasi

 
Lee 
       



    Seyyedrasooli  
      


 Asltoghiri 

Mordasi 



Lee


 





Bahraini 

  




      Lee



       
 
 
Yeung      



KimSong
    
Field






     






 
 

         


 
       




      

 






         
 IR.TUMS.FNM.REC.1395.1654
 IRCT2017091236148N1



 
       




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Article
Objective: This study aims to determine the impact of foot massage given to postmenopausal women on anxiety, fatigue, and sleep. Methods: This randomized-controlled study was conducted with 70 women (35 experimental, 35 control) who resided in a village located in Northern Turkey. In the study, the women in the experimental group were given foot massage once every day for 7 days. No intervention was applied to the women in the control group. The data were collected using a Personal Information Form, the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage distribution, median, and Q1-Q3), χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon test were used in the analysis of the data. Results: It was found that the women in the control group had lower pretest BAI scores than those in the experimental group (P < 0.05), whereas before the foot massage intervention, the women in the experimental and control groups had similar FSS scores and sleep hours (P > 0.05). After the foot massage, the FSS scores were 2.3 (1.6-3.4) in the experimental group and 5.5 (4.6-6.2) in the control group, the BAI scores were 26.0 (23.0-29.0) in the experimental group and 36.0 (31.0-43.0) in the control group, the daily sleep hours were 8.0 (8.0-10.0) in the experimental group and 7.0 (6.0-8.0) in the control group, and the differences between the groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It was determined that foot massage applied during menopause increases the average daily sleep duration (hours) and reduces women's fatigue and anxiety levels.
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Objective (s): Diabetes is the most common metabolic syndrome that can cause debilitating complications due to its high prevalence. The aim of this study was to review the sleep quality of people with diabetes in Iran. Methods: This was a narrative review. Persian and English articles until May 2020 were reviewed using the ‘glycemic, diabetes, quality of sleep, metabolic syndrome, Iran’, keywords in databases such as: ProQuest, science direct, scopus, google scholar, Pubmed, Magiran, SID, and IranMedex. Results: In total 27 articles were reviewed. The articles were classified into three categories: the sleep quality (11 articles), interventions to improve the sleep quality (10 articles) and the effect of sleep quality on metabolic indicators (6 articles). The results showed that 15% of the articles reported that the sleep quality of diabetic patients was favorable, 35% of the articles reported the quality of sleep as unfavorable and 50% of the quality of sleep as moderate. Conclusion: Due to the low level of sleep quality of diabetic patients, the breadth of sleep and its quality among diabetes patients seems an important issue that needs appropriate interventions.
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Introduction: Hemodialysis is one of the chronic diseases that has negative effects on all aspects of the patient’s life. The quality of life of patients with hemodialysis is impaired due to the many problems and chronic nature of the disease. Also, fatigue is one of the common problems of these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sleep health education on the severity of fatigue and quality of sleep in hemodialysis patients in Hamadan. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 60 hemodialysis patients were selected by available sampling from Besat (Intervention) and Beheshti (Control) hospitals. All samples completed the demographic checklist, Piper Fatigue scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The control group received routine care and the intervention group, received sleep hygiene education face to face and by providing educational booklet in 3 consecutive dialysis sessions. After two months of training, sleep quality and fatigue intensity of the samples were checked. To analyze the data, SPSS software, descriptive and inferential tests were used. Results: There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in terms of underlying variables. There was a significant difference between the control and intervention groups regarding quality of sleep and fatigue after sleep hygiene education (P
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Background: Sleep disorder is one of most prevalent complaints in elderly people. Tension reduction can be effective in improving sleep quality. In this regard, reflexology can be effective in reducing anxiety and tension. This study aimed to determine reflexology effects on sleep disorders of elderly women undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods: This study was a non-randomized clinical trial (quasi-experimental). A total of 80 elderly women undergoing abdominal surgery were selected by continuous sampling method and simple random selection of two hospitals (Hazrat-e-Rasool [PBUH] and Firouzgar). Then, they were assigned in experimental and control groups. The study instrument was sleep quality questionnaire (PSQI). Descriptive statistics included calculating mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics were performed through the independent t-test and paired t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in terms of quality of sleep (P=0.504) between control and experimental groups, before the intervention. Also, There was no significant difference between means of quality of sleep scores (P=0.606) before and after the intervention in the control group. However, there was a significant difference between the means of quality of sleep scores (P=0.048) before and after the intervention in the experimental group. Finally, the means of quality of sleep scores of two groups after the intervention was significantly different (P
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Background: Sleep disorders are common mental disorders reported among the elderly in all countries, and with nonpharmacological interventions, they could be helped to improve their sleep quality. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two interventions, foot reflexology and foot bath, on sleep quality in elderly people. Patients and methods: This three-group randomized clinical trial (two experimental groups and a control group) was conducted on 69 elderly men. The two experimental groups had reflexology (n = 23) and foot bath (n = 23) interventions for 6 weeks. The reflexology intervention was done in the mornings, once a week for ten minutes on each foot. The participants in the foot bath group were asked to soak their feet in 41°C to 42°C water one hour before sleeping. The pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was completed before and after the intervention through an interview process. Results: The results showed that the PSQI scores after intervention compared to before it in the reflexology and foot bath groups were statistically significant (P = 0.01 , P = 0.001); however, in the control group did not show a statistically significant difference (P = 0.14). In addition, the total score changes among the three groups were statistically significant (P = 0.01). Comparing the score changes of quality of sleep between the reflexology and foot bath groups showed that there was no significant difference in none of the components and the total score (P = 0.09). The two interventions had the same impact on the quality of sleep. Conclusions: It is suggested that the training of nonpharmacological methods to improve sleep quality such as reflexology and foot bath be included in the elderly health programs. In addition, it is recommended that the impact of these interventions on subjective sleep quality using polysomnographic recordings be explored in future research.
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Background. The restricted usage of existing pharmacological methods which do not seem to provide the treatment of diabetic neuropathy may lead to exploring the efficacy of a complementary therapy. In this context, this paper was devoted to evaluate the efficacy of foot reflexology. This health science works on the hypothesis that the dysfunctional states of body parts could be identified by observing certain skin features and be rectified by stimulating certain specific areas mapped on feet. Method. Subjects (N = 58) with diagnosed diabetic neuropathy were randomly distributed into reflexology and control groups in which both group patients were treated with ongoing pharmacological drugs. Reflexology group patients were additionally treated holistically with the hypothesis that this therapy would bring homeostasis among body organ functions. This was a caregiver-based study with a follow-up period of 6 months. The outcome measures were pain reduction, glycemic control, nerve conductivity, and thermal and vibration sensitivities. The skin features leading to the detection of the abnormal functional states of body parts were also recorded and analyzed. Results. Reflexology group showed more improvements in all outcome measures than those of control subjects with statistical significance. Conclusion. This study exhibited the efficient utility of reflexology therapy integrated with conventional medicines in managing diabetic neuropathy.
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Regarding to increasing of life expectancy, women spend about one-third of their lives in menopausal stage. Many women are interested to use complementary and alternative medicines for relief from their menopausal complications. Reflexology is One of the complementary and alternative medicines .The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Reflexology on hot flash in menopausal women. This randomized controlled trial study was carried out on 100 retired menopausal women ranging from 45 to 60 in 2011. They were randomly divided in two groups as case and control. Data collection tools were questionnaire. Questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristic, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index. In case group reflexology was preformed for 15 minutes, daily through 21 days while there was no intervention in the control group. There was no significant difference in demographic and the menopausal complications between two groups before intervention in case group. The results showed a significant reduction sleep disorder after intervention (p < 0.001).Reflexology is effective in improving of sleep disorder and therefore midwives can learn it and teach it to menopausal women.
Book
Complementary and Alternative Medicine examines the real-life implications of patient issues and the healthcare system in which care is delivered. Because complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are not presently considered to be a part of conventional medicine, this book discusses the effect that CAM has on patients, physicians, healthcare, and policymakers. Also included are the implications that CAM has on traditional patient-physician relationships as well as the physician's ethical obligations on this subject.
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Introduction: Postpartum period is transition to a critical stage and the rapid changes that are experienced during postpartum expose mothers to unpleasant experiences such as changes in sleep pattern. Massage as one of the complementary therapies lead mothers to accelerate recovery in sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foot massage to improve sleep disorders in post partum mothers. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 primiparous women who referred to health care centers in Khoramshahr, Iran in 2011. Samples were divided randomly into two groups (30 women in intervention group and 30 women in control group).Data were collected by a questionnaire included demographic characteristics and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The intervention group received a single 30-minute foot massage session each evening at the same time for five consecutive days and the control group has not received any intervention. Research information were collected on enrollment (13th day after delivery), immediately after intervention and one week after the intervention were collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 17, repeated measure, chi-square and paired t-tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Mean of Pittsburgh sleep quality index in before, immediately after and a week after intervention showed significance differences (p<0.001) at the end of study. Conclusion: Foot massage was effective on improvement sleep disorders in mothers. Therefore foot massage is recommended to enhance the quality of postpartum care.
Article
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