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Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model's

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This study has the purpose to test and validate the Brand Resonance Model which is represented by a pyramid that contains cause and effect relationships between the constructs related to the brand (salience, image, performance, feeling, judgment and resonance), whose ultimate goal is to represent brand equity. Part of the research was carried out by a survey applied to hotel guests, at the end obtaining 302 questionnaires. Procedures were performed for data treatment, the constructs unidimensionality and reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity and nomological validity. The results indicate that the Brand Resonance Model has nomological validity, since all the theoretical relations between the constructs were statistically significant. In terms of outcome the rational path-formed by performance and judgment-has a greater impact on brand resonance than the emotional path-image and feeling. The R 2 of brands' resonance, the value obtained was 83%. Keywords: Brand Resonance. Brand Resonance Pyramid. Brand Equity. Brand management. Validation and Testing of a Model. Teste e validação do Modelo de Ressonância de marca Resumo Esse trabalho tem por objetivo testar e validar o Modelo de Ressonância de Marca que é representado por uma pirâmide que contém as relações de causa e efeito entre construtos relacionados com a marca (saliência, imagem, performance, sentiment, julgamento e ressonância), cujo objetivo é representar o brand equity. A coleta de dados ocorreu através de um levantamento com os hóspedes de um hotel obtendo-se 302 questionários. A análise foi realizada por meio do tratamento dos dados, verificação da unidmensionalidade e confiabilidade dos construtos, validade convergente, validade discriminante e validade nomológica. Os resultados indicam que o Modelo de Ressonância de Marca possui validade nomológica, pois, todas as relações entre os construtos são estatisticamente significativas. O caminho racional-formado pela performance e julgamento-apresenta um maior impacto na ressonância da marca do que o caminho emocional-imagem e sentimento. Foi obtido um valor de 83% para o R 2 da ressonância da marca. Resumen Este trabajo tiene por objetivo probar y validar el Modelo de Resonancia de Marca que está representado por una pirámide que contiene las relaciones de causa y efecto entre constructos relacionados con la marca (saliente, imagen, performance, sentimiento, juicio y resonancia), cuyo objetivo es representar el brand equity. La recolección de datos ocurrió a través de un levantamiento con los huéspedes de un hotel obteniendo 302 cuestionarios. El análisis fue realizado por medio del tratamiento de los datos, verificación de la unidmensionalidad y confiabilidad de los constructos, validez convergente, validez discriminante y validez nomológica. Los resultados indican que el Modelo de Resonancia de Marca tiene validez nominal, pues todas las relaciones entre los constructos son estadísticamente significativas. El camino racional-formado por la performance y el juicio-presenta un mayor impacto en la resonancia de la marca que el camino emocional-imagen y sentimiento. Se obtuvo un valor del 83% para el R 2 de la resonancia de la marca. Palabras Clave: Resonancia de Marca. Pirámide de Resonancia de Marca. Brand Equity. Gestión de marcas. Validación y prueba de un modelo.
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Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, Pedro Leopoldo, v. 19, n. 1, p. 04-24, jan./mar. 2019 4
Revista Gestão & Tecnologia
e-ISSN: 2177-6652
revistagt@fpl.edu.br
http://revistagt.fpl.edu.br/
Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
Luiz Rodrigo Cunha Moura
Doutor em Administração UFMG.Professor do Curso de Mestrado Profissional de Administração do
Centro Universitário UNA
luizrcmoura@gmail.com
Paulo Roberto Ferreira
Especialização em Docência Superior pela Universidade Gama Filho. Especialização em Gestão de
Negócios pela Faculdade de Estudos Administrativos de Minas Gerais, FEAD
paulo.vivid@gmail.com
Alessandra Duarte de Oliveira
Mestrado profissional em Administração pelo Centro Universitário UNA. Especialização em Avaliação
e Diagnóstico Psicológico pela Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, PUC Minas
alessandra.duarte@gmail.com
Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha
Doutora em Economia Rural pela Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Professora Titular da Universidade
Federal de Viçosa
ninarosaufv@gmail.com
Este trabalho foi licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons - Atribuição Não Comercial 3.0 Brasil
Editor Científico: José Edson Lara
Organização Comitê Científico
Double Blind Review pelo SEER/OJS
Recebido em 06.08.2018
Aprovado em 25.10.2018
Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, Pedro Leopoldo, v. 19, n. 1, p. 04-24, jan./mar. 2019 5
Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
Abstract
This study has the purpose to test and validate the Brand Resonance Model which is represented
by a pyramid that contains cause and effect relationships between the constructs related to the
brand (salience, image, performance, feeling, judgment and resonance), whose ultimate goal is
to represent brand equity. Part of the research was carried out by a survey applied to hotel
guests, at the end obtaining 302 questionnaires. Procedures were performed for data treatment,
the constructs unidimensionality and reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity and
nomological validity. The results indicate that the Brand Resonance Model has nomological
validity, since all the theoretical relations between the constructs were statistically significant.
In terms of outcome the rational path - formed by performance and judgment - has a greater
impact on brand resonance than the emotional path - image and feeling. The R2 of brands’
resonance, the value obtained was 83%.
Keywords: Brand Resonance. Brand Resonance Pyramid. Brand Equity. Brand management.
Validation and Testing of a Model.
Teste e validação do Modelo de Ressonância de marca
Resumo
Esse trabalho tem por objetivo testar e validar o Modelo de Ressonância de Marca que é
representado por uma pirâmide que contém as relações de causa e efeito entre construtos
relacionados com a marca (saliência, imagem, performance, sentiment, julgamento e
ressonância), cujo objetivo é representar o brand equity. A coleta de dados ocorreu através de
um levantamento com os hóspedes de um hotel obtendo-se 302 questionários. A análise foi
realizada por meio do tratamento dos dados, verificação da unidmensionalidade e
confiabilidade dos construtos, validade convergente, validade discriminante e validade
nomológica. Os resultados indicam que o Modelo de Ressonância de Marca possui validade
nomológica, pois, todas as relações entre os construtos são estatisticamente significativas. O
caminho racional formado pela performance e julgamento apresenta um maior impacto na
ressonância da marca do que o caminho emocional imagem e sentimento. Foi obtido um valor
de 83% para o R2 da ressonância da marca.
Palavras-Chave: Ressonância de Marca. Pirâmide de Ressonância de Marca. Brand Equity.
Gerenciamento de Marca. Validação e Teste de um Modelo.
Prueba y validación del Modelo de Resonancia de Marca
Resumen
Este trabajo tiene por objetivo probar y validar el Modelo de Resonancia de Marca que está
representado por una pirámide que contiene las relaciones de causa y efecto entre constructos
relacionados con la marca (saliente, imagen, performance, sentimiento, juicio y resonancia),
cuyo objetivo es representar el brand equity. La recolección de datos ocurrió a través de un
levantamiento con los huéspedes de un hotel obteniendo 302 cuestionarios. El análisis fue
Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, Pedro Leopoldo, v. 19, n. 1, p. 04-24, jan./mar. 2019 6
Luiz Rodrigo Cunha Moura, Paulo Roberto Ferreira, Alessandra Duarte
de Oliveira, Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha
realizado por medio del tratamiento de los datos, verificación de la unidmensionalidad y
confiabilidad de los constructos, validez convergente, validez discriminante y validez
nomológica. Los resultados indican que el Modelo de Resonancia de Marca tiene validez
nominal, pues todas las relaciones entre los constructos son estadísticamente significativas. El
camino racional -formado por la performance y el juicio- presenta un mayor impacto en la
resonancia de la marca que el camino emocional - imagen y sentimiento. Se obtuvo un valor
del 83% para el R2 de la resonancia de la marca.
Palabras Clave: Resonancia de Marca. Pirámide de Resonancia de Marca. Brand Equity.
Gestión de marcas. Validación y prueba de un modelo.
1 Introduction
Brand equity is one of the main research topics today (Bastos, Moura & Christino, 2014;
Aziz & Yasin, 2010), being considered very important in the services sector, because, unlike
products that can be tangibilized through packaging, labeling and products physical
characteristics, services are intangible and strong brand equity is an important aspect of brand
awareness in the service sector (Verma; 2012, Aziz & Yasin, 2010).
Brand equity is one of the main responsible for customer loyalty and the creation of this
relationship is a long-term process formed by several components, which must be identified
and described in terms of their importance for the formation of a strong brand equity. These
components and their interrelations form the models (Moura et al., 2017; Raut, 2015).
This work aims to test and validate the Brand Resonance Model developed by Keller
(1993), as well as to verify the scales validity of the scales used to measure the six components
of the Brand Resonance Model - and consequently the brand resonance - and also measure the
explained variance of the brands’ resonance (bond) with the Brazilian Hotels’ guests.
Recent studies have sought to create a scale that is reliable and valid to measure brand
resonance, which is considered a gap of current knowledge (Raut, 2015). In this work
specifically, scales based on recent work are used to test the psychometric characteristics of
these scales, that is, to test and create valid and reliable measures for the measurement of the
brand resonance.
It is important to be emphasized that the test and validation of theoretical models in
several countries and with different cultures is an indispensable theoretical contribution, since
it allows to reach the external validity and the generalization of results for other populations or
it helps to define the limits and possibilities of theories generalization. All these factors lead to
a knowledge higher level and science advancement (Rosenberger III, 2007).
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Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
Also in academic terms, it is described the need to carry out further studies on the Brand
Resonance Model in the service area and in different sectors such as hotels, travel agencies,
restaurants and others. This will allow the results’ cross-validation, besides the possibility of
results’ generalization (Gautam & Kumar, 2012; Aziz & Yasin, 2010). Another point is the
development of brand equity and brand relationship in developing countries is still incipient
and will differ from studies in developed countries considering factors such as economics,
culture, demographics, social groups, and so on (Raut, 2015).
In practical terms, it is important for service companies to create strong brands due to the
current level of competition in the market (Bastos, Moura & Christino, 2014; Farhana & Islam,
2012), generating an increase on companies’ competitiveness (Adrian, 2014), as well as a better
financial performance (Sandhe, 2016). Relationships creation between companies and their
consumers through brands is a key issue for brand managers (Raut, 2015; Bastos, Moura &
Christino, 2014).
2 Brand resonance model
The Brand Resonance Model is based on consumers’ perceptions, beliefs and attitudes
to measure brand strength. In order to achieve the desired results, marketing managers must
decide what and how consumers should know about the brand, what are their differentials and
associations, the desired responses and the reasons why consumers should be brand loyalists
(Markus & Fallmyr, 2014; Raut, 2015; Moura et al., 2017) and what will be the experience with
the brand (Tri, 2014). One can identify the strongest brands according to their consumers, but
also identify the brands that have problems (Farhana & Islam, 2012).
One of the major contributions of the Brand Resonance Pyramid in comparison with
Keller's original CBBE (consumer based brand equity) Model is the inclusion of the brand
overhang block o the pyramids’ base. Sailing has become much more important, since it is no
longer just brand awareness, but also brand recall and recognition on the most diverse consumer
occasions (Keller, 2016).
The process of building the brand equity - known as the Brand Resonant Model - involves
the execution of four steps (Keller, 2001; Ahrens, 2016; Tsai, Lin & Li, 2014; Farhana & Islam,
2012; Verma, 2012; Yasin, 2010), and the next step can only be performed adequately if the
previous step reaches its objectives (Markus & Fallmyr, 2014). For the brand to reach its
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resonance stage, managers need to be able to generate cognitive assessments and emotional
reactions by consumers towards the brand through the creation of a unique brand identity and
positive associations hard to be copied by other brands (Keller, 2001; Markus & Fallmyr, 2014).
In sum, the Brand Resonance Model is based on what it represents on consumers’ minds (Tri,
2014; Moura et al., 2017).
The first step is to create consumer identification and recognition of the brand, that is, a
deep and wide awareness coupled with brand recall. Creating a meaning for the brand is the
second step, in this case, brand associations and characterizations are elaborated, both in terms
of rational and tangible aspects related to brand performance, as well as in emotional terms and
to intangible aspects related to brand image (Keller, 2001; Storm, 2015; Márkus & Fallmyr,
2014; Tsai, Lin & Li, 2014).
The third step is represented by the generation of positive responses from consumers to
the brand, through judgments and feelings on consumers’ part (Keller, 2001; Adrian, 2014;
Aziz & Yasmin, 2010). In the case of brand judgments, it represents a general cognitive
assessment of the brands’ credibility, superiority, quality and other functional and symbolic
aspects compared to its competitors (Raut, 2015) and in emotional responses, feelings represent
the emotions and sensations that the brand generates in the consumer, and may represent the
level of identification between those consumers’ and the brand (Keller, 2001; Baird, 2015; Tri,
2014).
From the consumers’ positive responses to the brand, the fourth step is the goal of
achieving a strong relationship between the brand and its consumers (Adrian, 2014) in terms of
loyalty through consecutives purchases and other behaviors such as positive word of mouth and
the number of products increase and services purchased related to the brand. This involves the
highest level of relationship between the brand and its customers, in which brand resonance
exists (Keller, 2001; Márkus & Fallmyr, 2014; Yasin & Aziz, 2010), and may also represent
the sacrifices’ level for customer to consume the brand (Raut, 2015).
As these four steps’ execution consequences, one has the creation of six blocks that will
sustain the Brand Resonance Pyramid, which are the salience of the brand, brand performance,
brand’s image, brand’s judgment, the feeling in relation to the brand and the brands’ resonance
(Keller, 2001; Storm, 2015; Markus & Fallmyr, 2014; Tsai, Lin & Li, 2014; Gautam & Kumar,
2012)
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Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
STEPS
BLOCKS SUBDIMENTIONS
4 Relationships:
What kind of
relationship do I
want?
Resonance:
Fidelity
Adherence
Engagement
3 Answers:
What do I think
about you?
Judgments:
Quality
Credibility
Consideration
Superiority
Feelings:
Tenderness,
Fun
Enthusiasm,
safety, social
acceptance,
self esteem
2 Meaning:
What are you?
Performance:
Primary characteristics
and second aspects;
reliability, durability and
availability of services /
product assitance;
effectiveness, efficiency
and service empathy; style
and design.
Image:
User profiles;
purchase
situations and
of use;
personality
and values,
history, legacy
and
experiences.
1 Identification:
Who are you?
Salience:
Category identification;
Needs satisfied
Figure 1
Brand Resonance Pyramid and it’s sustainable blocks
Source: Adapted by Keller (2016; 2001).
The Brand Resonance Pyramid is formed by two paths: the rational path - located on the
pyramids’ left side - and the emotional path - located on the pyramids’ direct side and both lead
to the top of the pyramid, so the brands’ resonance (Storm, 2015; Tri, 2014; Adrian, 2014). In
order for brand resonance to occur, both paths must be traversed by the brand, both emotionally
and rationally (Keller, 2016).
In regarding to the Brand Resonance Pyramid is that it helps managers to more easily
identify the items to be managed to achieve brand equity (Adrian, 2014) and to achieve a strong
brand resonance or strong brand equity - according to the steps already described - involves the
Resonan
ce
Resonance
Jugdments
Feelings
Performance
Image
Salience
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de Oliveira, Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha
bottom-up path in the pyramid (Markus & Fallmyr, 2014), therefore the main goal is to reach
the top of the pyramid to achieve brand resonance (Tri, 2014).
The Brand Resonance Model is a structured model aimed at managing the brand equity
value through steps formed by the six blocks of the Brand Resonance Pyramid (Adrian, 2014),
helping marketers to make better decisions on trademarks (Choudhury & Kakati, 2014).
In addition, a brand with strong brand equity has consumer preference, better marketing
communications, lower costs, brand licensing possibilities, greater share value return, ease of
brand extensions, and dealing more easily with distribution channels (Baird, 2015).
The overhang is the Brand Pyramids’ first block (Keller, 2001; Baird, 2015) and is related
to consumer brand awareness, helping people to recognize or remember brand more easily,
(Keller, 1993, 2001; Sandhe, 2016; Márkus & Fallmyr, 2014), as well as consumers' propensity
to remember the brand in purchasing situations (Raut, 2015). Finally, it describes the strength
of brand recall and recognition (Tri, 2014), brands’ strength on consumers’ mind (Raut, 2015)
or how the brand can come to the consumers’ head in specific situations (Adrian, 2014).
It is possible to see that the salience of the brand generates competitive advantages for
companies (Tri, 2014), such as future purchase intention, the product or services’ value
perception, positive word of mouth advertising, loyalty, remembrance of marketing
communication and others alike (Adrian, 2014). In situations where there is a low purchase
involvement from consumer or when he or she is unaware of other brands, the brand overhang
is sufficient to make the purchase (Márkus & Fallmyr, 2014).
From the Brand Resonance Pyramid and the concepts described, hypotheses were
created:
Hypothesis 1: Brand saliency has a positive effect on brand performance.
Hypothesis 2: Brand saliency has a positive effect on brand image.
Brand performance is another block of the brand Resonance Pyramid is directly related
to the ability of the product or service to meet customer expectations. These products and
services are very important because they are the point of reference when consumers think about
the brand, hear something about it or even when the company wants to communicate something
about the brand to consumers (Keller, 2001; Sandhe, 2016; Raut, 2015; Choudhury & Kakati,
2014; Tri, 2014). Thus, products and services should always at least meet consumer
expectations through brand experience (Keller, 2001; Raut, 2015).
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Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
Hypothesis 3: Brand performance has a positive effect on brand judgment.
The brand image is related to the most intangible aspects of the brand (Baird, 2015,
Adrian, 2014; Márkus & Fallmyr, 2014), with its extrinsic aspects (Choudhury & Kakati, 2014;
Sandhe, 2016) and represents all perceptions (Keller, 1993), often learned over time through
brand experience (Aaker, 1991; Raut, 2015), through marketing communications and through
word of mouth (Adrian, 2014). It is the abstract and non-rational perception of what the brand
is (Choudhury & Kakati, 2014).
Hypothesis 4: Brand image has a positive effect on brand feeling.
The brands’ judgment is formed by the consumers personal opinions regarding the brand,
which consider all the images and all the associations related to the brand to create a general
evaluation of it (Keller, 2001; Baird, 2015; Raut, 2015; Márkus & Fallmyr 2014; Adrian, 2014).
In terms of consumer behavior, when there are many choice options, brand credibility
can be considered as an important differential for the company and a simplification of the
consumer purchasing decision process (Tri, 2014).
Hypothesis 5: Brand judgment has a positive effect on brand resonance.
Brand sentiment is also one of the blocks of the Brand Resonance Pyramid and is related
to the reactions and emotional responses of consumers to the brand (Keller, 2001; Sandhe,
2016), as well as being associated with the social aspects of the brand (Raut, 2015), being
considered as an irrational evaluation of the brand from its present image in the minds of
consumers (Tri, 2014), which can be positive or negative (Baird, 2015; Markus & Fallmyr,
2014), of high or low intensity (Keller, 2001; Adrian, 2014). It is to be considered that brand
feelings are easier to be affected by emotional and social factors than brand judgment (Tri,
2014).
Hypothesis 6: Brand feeling has a positive effect on brand resonance.
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de Oliveira, Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha
Resonance is the last block of the Brand Resonance Pyramid and represents the
relationship and level of identification between the brand and its consumers (Keller, 2001,
Sandhe, 2016; Baird, 2015; Choudhury & Kakati, 2014, Adrian, 2014), making brand clients
loyal and actively participating in its relationship (Markus & Fallmyr, 2014).
Brand resonance has two dimensions (the intensity of the psychological bond and the
type of consumer behavior generated by that link), which are divided into four categories
(behavioral loyalty, attitudinal relationship, community perception, engagement with the brand)
(Keller, 2001; Sandhe, 2016; Baird, 2015; Adrian, 2014; Markus & Fallmyr; 2014). All four of
these items have already been studied separately in marketing, but Keller (2001) was the first
author to work with all of them together (Baird, 2015). In order to achieve brand resonance, the
other five previous blocks must also have been adequately achieved (Baird, 2015).
3 Hypothetical model
From the foregoing and using the Brand Resonance Model, the hypothetical model was
elaborated, represented by Figure 2 below.
Figure 2
Hypothetical Model
Source: elaborated by authors.
4 Methodology
In order to correctly carry out the research, it was decided that the target audience of the
research were the Gran Lord Hotel guests, which has the information to achieve the research
objective, that is, to test the Brand Resonance Model.
H6
H4
H5
H2
H3
H1
Salience
Image
Performance
Feeling
Resonace
Judgement
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Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
The data collection instrument was elaborated considering the Brand Resonance Model,
both in theoretical terms (Keller, 2016, 1993) and in empirical terms from previous studies,
carried out mainly in the banking sector (Raut, 2015; Choudhury & Kakati, 2014; Farhana &
Islam, 2012; Aziz & Yasin, 2010; Yasin & Aziz, 2010), deciding to do the survey.
The questionnaire presented as anchors the terms "strongly disagree" and "fully agree",
using a scale ranging from "0" to "10". The scale used is classified as an interval, presenting
eleven points in which there is the possibility to register more precisely and in a more detailed
way the variations of the interviewees' opinions (Nunnaly & Bernstein, 1994; Fornell et al.,
1996).
After the instrument elaboration of data collection - the questionnaire - a pre-test was
carried out with the surveys’ target audience - Gran Lord Hotel guests - with the intent to verify
the possible problems and errs the questionnaire could present. Thirty questionnaires were
applied to the hotel guests and the results were quite satisfactory and no changes had to be made
to the questionnaire.
The process of data collection took place inside the hotel itself. At first, the number of
questionnaires collected was very small. Guests had no patience or interest in participating in
the survey. Later, the questionnaire was applied in the hotel restaurant and while the guests
waited for their meal to be ready, they answered the questionnaire because they had time
available. It should also be considered that a filter question was included in which it was asked
if the respondent was a hotel guest or if he was only having lunch or dinner. In the latter case,
we thanked the intention to participate in the respondent - but as the research is about the brand
equity and brand resonance of the guests of the Gran Lord Hotel - so the questionnaire wasn’t
applied.
Regarding to the samples’ size, it is necessary to emphasize the existence of at least 10
elements in the sample for each variable to be considered in the multivariable statistical
techniques, mainly in relation to the modeling of structural equations. Thus, the number of 302
questionnaires obtained and that compose the sample was considered satisfactory, even
considering the disposal to be made of some sample cases from the data processing activities.
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de Oliveira, Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha
5 Data analysis
Data analysis involved a number of activities over time. The first activity was data
treatment based on the identification of the multivariate outliers, discarding of the
questionnaires with a high number of missing data, withdrawal of the cases in which the
interviewees presented lack of coherence regarding the identical questions in the questionnaire
and verification of the samples’ normal distribution. Next, we carried out exploratory factor
analyzes for all six constructs, as well as the calculation of the Cronbach Alpha (scales
reliability), as well as the verification of the convergent validity and discriminant validity
verification.
Finally, the nomological validity of the Brand Resonance Model was tested through the
modeling of structural equations.
5.1 Sample characteristics and data treatment
The first activity related to the data treatment was the distance calculation D2 of
Mahalanobis and its subsequent comparison with the test value of X2. From this procedure it is
possible to identify the multivariate outliers present in the sample (Hair et al., 2009). As the
Brand Resonance Model present in this research has a total of twenty-two variables, the value
of the X2 Test (for 22 degrees of freedom and significance of 0.001) is 48,268. All sample
elements that presented Mahalanobis D2 distance values above 48,268 were considered outliers
and removed from the sample. At the end of the procedure, thirty sample elements were
removed.
In addition, all cases that had more than 20% of missing data were also taken from the
sample and since the questionnaire had two identical questions, all cases where the difference
was greater than two - the scaling ranged from 0 to 10 - between the two responses to these
identical questions were also eliminated. In the latter case, twenty-two cases were taken from
the sample. The final sample consisted of 225 elements, with a slightly higher ratio of ten
sample elements for each of the twenty-two questions present in the data collection instrument
and related to the Brand Resonance Model.
The next activity related to the data treatment was the verification if the sample had a
normal distribution. For this, the Kolgomorov-Smirnov Test (Malhotra, 2011) was performed.
As a result, no variables of the questionnaire had normal distribution and therefore, the
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Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
statistical methods used in the data analysis should be robust for samples that do not have
normal distribution.
The sample characteristics, which consists mainly of men with 59.1% of the total, and
the largest group of respondents is between 36 and 50 years old (44% of the total). In addition,
people in families that earn monthly between two and five minimum wages make up the largest
group in this category (38.2%). Finally, regarding to the motive of the trip, an almost identical
division was identified between those who traveled on business (51.6%) and those who traveled
on leisure (48.4%).
5.2 Unidimensionality, reliability, convergent validity and discriminating validity
In this step, the first one is to verify that the items or questions that represent each of the
six dimensions present in the model actually refer to only one dimension or factor. This
verification occurs through exploratory factorial analyzes (EFAs) for each of the constructs.
However, it must also be considered that for the calculation of each of the EFAs it is necessary
that each of the three assumptions described below are met.
The first assumption describes that there must be significantly positive correlations
between all items that form a construct. The results obtained indicate that all items of all
constructs are significant among themselves. In addition, there is another assumption related to
the suitability test of the KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) sample, which should results in values of
at least 0.60 are considered acceptable values. The results shown in Table 1 show this
assumption being met (Malhotra, 2011; Hair et al., 2009). The third assumption is related to
Bartlett's Sphericity Test, which must present a significant correlation at the 95% level (Morgan
& Griego, 1998). The results in Table 1 also indicate that this assumption was met.
In addition, Table 1 also presents the Cronbach Alpha values, which is used to verify the
reliability of each of the scales used to measure each of the six constructs present in the Brand
Resonance Model. The Cronbach's Alpha value ranges from 0 to 1 and should present values
above 0.60 for scales being tested for the first time and values above 0.70 for previously
validated scales are considered adequate values (Malhotra, 2011; Hair et al., 2009).
The results obtained can be considered very well. All six values for Cronbach's Alpha
presented values above 0.90, which means that all six scales used to measure constructs are
reliable.
Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, Pedro Leopoldo, v. 19, n. 1, p. 04-24, jan./mar. 2019 16
Luiz Rodrigo Cunha Moura, Paulo Roberto Ferreira, Alessandra Duarte
de Oliveira, Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha
Table 1
Dimensionality values, reliability and components validity of the brand resonance model
Construct
Items Description
Component
Standardized
Factorial Load
Image
V.E. = 91,49%
KMO = 0,752
E.B. = 715,04
Sig. = 0,000
A.C. = 0,953
A.V.E. = 0,874
C.R. = 0,976
IMAG1 - The Gran Lord Hotel appearance is attractive.
0,949
0,910
IMAG2 - The Gran Lord Hotel has a good image
0,971
0,980
IMAG3 - People have a positive image of the Gran Lord
Hotel.
0,949
0,913
Judgment
V.E. = 9,73%
KMO = 0,863
E.B. = .103,8
Sig. = 0,000
A.C. = 0,962
A.V.E. = 0,867
C.R. = 0,980
JUDG1 - My overall opinion about the Gran Lord Hotel is
good.
0,946
0,928
JUDG2 - I am pleased to be a client of the Gran Lord Hotel
0,968
0,973
JUDG3 - The Gran Lord Hotel is superior in comparison
with others hotels by the same category in Pará de Minas
0,958
0,949
JUDG4 - The Gran Lord Hotels’ quality is good.
0,916
0,870
Salience
V.E. = 90,24%
KMO = 0,765
E.B. = 641,49
Sig. = 0,000
A.C. = 0,946
A.V.E. = 0,854
C.R. = 0,971
SAL1 - I can recognize the Grand Lord Hotels’ brand better
than other Hotels.
0,945
0,910
SAL2 - I can easily remember the brand and logo of Gran
Lord Hotel.
0,961
0,956
SAL3 - The Gran Lord brand is easy to be recognized.
0,944
0,906
Performance
V.E. = 88,43%
KMO = 0,844
E.B. = 1031,82
Sig. = 0,000
A.C. = 0,956
A.V.E. = 0,866
C.R. = 0,980
PERF1 - Comparing to the same category Hotels in Pará de
Minas, the Gran Lord offers the best services.
0,911
0,886
PERF2 - The Gran Lord Hotel meets my expectations.
0,960
0,956
PERF3 - The Gran Lord Hotel services are efficient.
0,957
0,956
PERF4 - The Gran Lord Hotel supply my basic needs as a
client.
0,933
0,922
Resonance
V.E. = 85,91%
KMO = 0,861
E.B. = 1314,39
Sig. = 0,000
A.C. = 0,959
A.V.E. = 0,885
C.R. = 0,985
RES1 - Even though there is another cheaper hotel in Pará
de Minas, I prefer to stay at the Gran Lord Hotel.
0,922
0,931
RES2 - Next time when I come to Pará de Minas I intent to
stay at the Gran Lord Hotel.
0,931
0,958
RES3 - I am loyal to the Gran Lord Hotel when I need to go
to Pará de Minas.
0,930
0,921
RES4 - In Pará de Minas, the Gran Lord Hotel is my first
option.
0,932
0,938
RES5 - If I have good financial conditions I stay at the Gran
Lord Hotel.
0,919
0,915
Feeling
V.E. = 93,37%
KMO = 0,776
E.B. = 805,58
Sig. = 0,000
A.C. = 0,964
A.V.E. = 0,901
C.R. = 0,982
FEEL1 - I feel good when I stay at the Gran Lord Hotel.
0,960
0,932
FEEL2 - The Gran Lord Hotel makes me happy.
0,972
0,967
FEEL3 - Stay at the Gran Lord Hotel is a pleasure.
0,966
0,948
Notes: 1) V.E. is the explained variance by the factor. 2) KMO is the value of KMO. 3) E.B. is the value of Bartlett’s test of
stiffness. 4) Sig. is Bartletts’ statistical sphericity test. 5) A.C. is Alpha de Cronbach value. 6) A.V.E. is the mean variance
extracted. 7) C.R. is the composite reliability. 8) Pará de Minas is the city where Gran Lord Hotel is situated.
Source: research data
Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, Pedro Leopoldo, v. 19, n. 1, p. 04-24, jan./mar. 2019 17
Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
Another analysis is related to the convergent validity, which is verified through the
measurement of the Composite Reliability (CR) and the Average Variance Extracted (AVE)
values. In order for the convergent validity to be confirmed, it is necessary that the CR value
be at least 0.70 and the AVE value be at least 0.5 (Hair et al., 2009). Analyzing Table 1, the
constructs that form the Model of Resonance of the brand studied have convergent validity.
Besides the convergent validity, it is also necessary to verify the discriminant validity for
all the constructs that form the tested model. To verify the discriminant validity, it is necessary
to compare the results of the correlations of all the constructs with the square root values of all
AVEs (Hair et al., 2009). The results are presented in the Table 2, in which the diagonal matrix
- represented by the bold values - contains the square root values of the AVEs of the construct
and the values in italic and underline represent those relations between the constructs that do
not have discriminant validity.
Table 2
Correlations of all the constructs and square root values of the AVEs
CONSTRUCTS
Image
Judgment
Salience
Performance
Resonance
Feeling
Image
0.935
Jugdment
0.955
0.931
Salience
0.700
0.711
0.924
Performance
0.914
0.853
0.923
0.931
Resonance
0.847
0.881
0.697
0.848
0.941
Feeling
0.864
0.955
0.707
0.804
0.874
0.949
Source: research data.
When analyzing Table 2, of the 15 possible combinations total, only two did not present
values that were consistent with the discriminant validity, that is, the correlation value between
the two constructs was greater than the square root value of the AVE. These relationships are
between image and judgment; and feeling and judgment (underlined and italic values).
This means that judgment has a high level of redundancy with image and feeling, both
of which are on the emotional axis and the image is a predecessor of feeling. However, this fact
does not make it impossible to verify the Brand Resonance Models’ nomological validity, since
judgment is a predecessor of brand resonance, just as feeling is also a brands’ resonance
predecessor. In addition, several studies, despite studying the Brand Resonance Model, did not
perform the procedures of convergent validity, discriminant validity and nomological validity
(Sandhe, 2016; Gautam & Kumar, 2012; Verma, 2012; Farhana & Yslam, 2012; Aziz &
Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, Pedro Leopoldo, v. 19, n. 1, p. 04-24, jan./mar. 2019 18
Luiz Rodrigo Cunha Moura, Paulo Roberto Ferreira, Alessandra Duarte
de Oliveira, Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha
Yasmin, 2010). These studies analysis was based on only a linear regression in which the
dependent variable was represented by the brand resonance and the independent variables
represented by the other constructs - salience, image, performance, feeling and judgment -
besides verification of the scales reliability, of exploratory factorial analysis, as well as
correlations between these constructs. Only Rauts’ work (2015) presented the analysis of the
convergent and discriminant validity, reaching adequate values.
5.3 Nominal validity
This studies’ main purpose is to verify the nomological validity of the Brand Resonance
Model and for this, in addition to all previous steps, it is also necessary to perform a structural
equation modeling (SEM) to verify if the relations recommended in the theory is reached by
empirical data means, which was calculated from the generalized least squares estimation
method (GLS), considering that the sample has no normal distribution. The results are shown
in Figure 3.
Figure 3
Brand Resonance Model standard load values
Note: *** significant 0.01
Source: research data.
0.96***
0.96***
0.94***
0.93***
0.94***
0.95***
0.95***
0.95***
0.95***
0.96***
0.93***
0.95***
0.91***
0.92***
0.99***
0.99***
0.99***
0.95***
0.41***
0.51***
0.91***
0.94***
0.93***
0.93***
0.95***
0.95***
0.96***
0.92***
Salience
Image
R2 = 99%
Performance
R2 = 98%
Feeling
R2 = 91%
Resonance
R2 = 83%
Judgment
R2 = 99%
SAL1
SAL2
SAL3
IMAG2
IMAG3
FEEL1
FEEL2
FEEL3
JUDG1
JUDG2
JUDG4
RES4
RES3
RES5
IMAG1
RES2
RES1
PERF4
PERF1
PERF2
PERF3
JUDG3
Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, Pedro Leopoldo, v. 19, n. 1, p. 04-24, jan./mar. 2019 19
Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
From the data shown in Figure 3, it is possible to conclude that the Brand Resonance
Model has nomological validity. In addition, all relations between the constructs described in
the theory presented statistical significance.
Comparing the results obtained with some other studies, in the same way as with Verma
(2012), the rational path (performance and judgment) are more important than the image and
the feelings in the prediction of the brand resonance. In addition, in Aziz and Yasmim (2010)
and Farhana and Islam (2012) the feeling is as important in influence terms on the brand
resonance as performance and judgment, which diverges from the obtained results. In Gautam
and Kumar’s paper (2012), judgment and feeling are the items that most impact on brand
resonance and in Sandhe (2016) the feeling is more than twice as important as judgment and
performance in resonance branded. Finally, in the case of a greater involvement product
(cellular phone), the feeling and judgment are of similar importance, but when analyzing the
product results of low involvement (soft drink), the feeling becomes more important than the
judgment (Raut, 2015).
Figure 2 shows that the rational path influences brand resonance more strongly than the
emotional path, but in terms of the direct and indirect influence of the constructs through the
paths, it is verified that the image and the performance are fundamental for the brand resonance
formation. Furthermore, through indirect influence, it is found that the projection has an
enormous influence on the brand resonance formation, mainly through the rational path.
The R2 values were also quite significant. Regarding the image, its explained variance
was 99%, in the case of performance the explained variance was 98%. The performance
influenced the judgment, which presented a R2 of 99%. The feeling is influenced by the image
and its R2 was 91%. Finally, the resonance of the brand or its bond with hotel guests was 83%,
that is, 83% of the intention to stay as hotel guests in the future can be explained by the other
five elements of the Brand Resonance Model.
This 83% value for the explained variance is above the values obtained for the brand
resonance present in other studies, but it was calculated by means of a linear regression, in
which the brand resonance is the dependent variable and the other five dimensions (salience,
image, performance, feeling, and judgment) are the independent variables. The results obtained
for R2 were 77.4% (Sandhe, 2016), 75.9% (Farhana & Islam, 2012), 65.7% (Verma, 2012),
65.6% (Gautam & Kumar, 2012) and 62.5% (Aziz & Yasin, 2010).
The verification of the assumptions is described on Table 3.
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Luiz Rodrigo Cunha Moura, Paulo Roberto Ferreira, Alessandra Duarte
de Oliveira, Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha
Table 3
Verification of the Research Hypotheses.
HYPOTHESES
RESULTS
H1: Brand salience has a positive effect on the brand performance
Supported
H2 Brand salience has a positive effect on the brand image
Supported
H3: Brand performance has a positive effect on brand Judgment
Supported
H4: Brand image has a positive effect on brand feeling
Supported
H5: Brand judgment has a positive effect on brand resonance
Supported
H6: Brand feeling has a positive effect on brand resonance
Supported
Source: search data
In the case of SEM, in addition to the values considered in the relationships between the
constructs and the factorial load of the items that make up the constructs, it is necessary to
consider the adjustment indices, which have reference values shown in Table 4 together with
the values obtained for The Brand Resonance Model.
Table 4
Adjustment Indices for the Brand Resonance Model
Adjustment Measure
Brand Resonance Obtained
Value
Default Value
Qui-square (X2)
543.37483
Not defined
p-value
0.0000
Higher than 0.05
Freedom degree (df)
203
The highest possible above zero
(X2 / df)
2.67672
Above 1 until 3 and to complex
models until 5
GFI (Goodness Fit Index)
0.77947
Above or equal 0.90
RMSEA (Root mean square half
approach)
0.08652
Above 0.03 and below 0.08
Source: research data and Hair et al. (2009)
From the Table 4 results, it can be seen that only the X2/df value was presented within
the desired parameters. The RMSEA value presented a value close to the reference value and
the GFI and the value of X2 presented results that were farther from the reference values.
6 Final considerations
This research results corroborate with the Brand Resonance Model (Keller, 1993), which,
as already described, implies a series of steps to create and maintain a strong brand through
brand resonance. Thus, the Brand Resonance Model has nomological validity and the sequence
of the items that form the nomological chain has statistical significance. The psychometric tests
Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, Pedro Leopoldo, v. 19, n. 1, p. 04-24, jan./mar. 2019 21
Test and validity of the Brand Resonance Model’s
presented good values in general terms regarding to the constructs and their respective
indicators.
The obtained results are partially similar to the ones obtained by Gautam and Kumar
(2012), Aziz and Yasin (2010) and Yasin and Aziz (2010). Although these authors did not
perform the SEM and only performed a linear regression whose dependent variable was the
brand resonance, these studies concluded that the Brand Resonance Model is actually formed
by the steps defined in its theory.
These studies theoretical contributions are pertinent to the Brand Resonance Model’s
validation (Keller, 1993), as well as to the Portuguese data collection instrument, since no
similar studies have been found in Brazil and Portugal. In addition, other studies on the Brand
Resonance Model are aimed at banking institutions such as Sandhe (2016), Gautam and Kumar
(2012), Aziz and Yasin (2010) and Yasin and Aziz (2010), contrary to the brand equity study
of the Gran Lord Hotel. Contrary to what have been done in the other studies already - where
correlations used and a linear regression with the dependent variables and the other five
constructs forming the independent variables - the SEM was used to perform a confirmatory
factor analysis, representing the sequence of steps in the Brand Resonance Pyramid by a
nomological chain means. The study by Choudhury and Kakati (2014) also used SEM, but
considered all constructs directly related to brand resonance, which does not represent the
emotional and rational paths present in the Brand Resonance Pyramid.
These studies practical implications are manifold. From the Brand Resonance Model it
is verified that a strong brand development includes a series of activities that aim to strengthen
each of the other five antecedent constructs - salience, performance, image, judgment and
feeling - and present on the brand resonances’ nomological chain. Thus, strong brand awareness
and recognition created through well-defined communication activities are prerequisites for
good brand management. In addition, creating the brands’ positive image through appropriate
associations and consequently positive feelings consolidation are key elements for the brand
resonance development. They represent the emotional path within the Brand Resonance
Pyramid. The rational path consists of services and products performance - represented by the
brand - consistent with the positioning and promises branded, which influence the consumers
judgment about the brand. A positive judgment on the customers part, according to the theory
present in the Brand Resonance Model and according to the data obtained is essential for the
maintenance and brand development.
Revista Gestão & Tecnologia, Pedro Leopoldo, v. 19, n. 1, p. 04-24, jan./mar. 2019 22
Luiz Rodrigo Cunha Moura, Paulo Roberto Ferreira, Alessandra Duarte
de Oliveira, Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha
In addition, the Brand Resonance Model can be considered a valuable tool for managers
to manage their brands. A practical considerations number is shown of how each of the
constructs that lead to brand resonance can be strengthened. Thus, it can be considered a useful
contribution in the brand management terms and be a reference for the strengthening these
brands process. In addition, from the brand resonance’s measurement, has an important
indicator regarding the level of the brand's relationship with its customers. It is also necessary
to consider that this brand resonance indicator is also composed by five other constructs
(salience, image, performance, feeling and judgment), which can also be measured separately,
increasing the level of detail about the follow-up of the customer’s’ perception
Regarding this studies’ limitations, it should be noted that the sample was not randomly
composed regarding to the Gran Lord Hotel guests, which is a limiting factor in terms of the
results’ generalization. In addition, it is also important that since most of the respondents were
approach in the hotel restaurant, there is the possibility of generating some sort of bias in the
answers due to the evaluation bringing great importance to the restaurant rather than evaluating
the whole hotel. Also for the reason that not all the hotel guests attend the restaurant, which
may limit the opinions variety on the Gran Lord Hotels’ brand resonance.
Future studies could address a number of issues in order to improve the data collection
instrument, and perhaps make the model more parsimonious, which would greatly help
managers to apply a smaller data collection tool as well how to further improve the scales used
psychometric characteristics, notably in discriminant validity terms, as well as to improve the
SEM adjustment indexes. So, can indicators still be improved to represent the dimensions of
the Brand Resonance Pyramid? Existing dimensions that have a causal relationship, such as
image and feeling; and performance and judgment could each be replaced by only one
dimension?
Another item to be highlight in services terms would be the service type. Thus, services
related to entertainment, leisure, tourism and others alike could present different values in the
rational path and emotional path terms in the Brand Resonance Pyramid compared to services
related to a higher risk such as banking services, medical services, attorney services and other
similar ones?
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