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SAUDI SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE
TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE USE OF ICT
TOOLS TO SUPPORT TEACHING AND LEARNING
submitted in partial fulfilment
of the requirements for the degree
Master of Education (ICT)
University of Waikato
Osamah Abdulwahab D. Almaghlouth
The University of Waikato
This research was conducted to investigate the Saudi science teachers’ perception of the
use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools to enhance teaching and
learning and undertake a small and groundwork examination of these teachers current use
It draws on the interpretive paradigm (Cohen & Manion, 1994), where the focus is on
how people interpret and make sense of their world. From this interpretive perspective
the beliefs of Saudi secondary school science teachers, in relation to the benefits of ICT,
their current use of ICT and their perceived needs for improvement in the use of ICT in
the classroom were investigated.
Saudi secondary schools science teachers from both girls’ and boys’ schools in three
different types of schools have been involved in this study. There were 28 government
schools (9 girls’ and 19 boys’ schools), four small schools in rented premises (2 girls’
and 2 boys’ schools) and four Aramco schools (1 girls’ and 3 boys’ schools). These
schools were in different districts: Aldammam city, Alkhobar city, Aldahran city,
Alqateaf city and Sufwa city. The teachers were asked to voluntarily participate in the
study and 131 teachers out of 200 (86 male and 45 female, 65 %) completed the
questionnaire. Analysis of the data, together with the relevant literature builds a picture
of the use of ICT in science education. Providing ICT hardware and software resources to
a school is not enough to ensure significant developments in use of ICT for teaching and
learning in Saudi science classrooms. Access to working ICT continues to be an issue for
these teachers. Although teachers identified many benefits to teachers and students from
using ICT and had made individual efforts to develop their use of ICT for admin
planning and lesson preparation, they also identified barriers. These barriers focused on a
lack of appropriate professional development and technical support.
The findings have implications for future development in the area of ICT. It is expected
that the results of the research will guide future research and development in the country
and outline the importance of the use of information and communication technology in
education for teachers, students, parents and decision-makers. It will contribute
information towards decision-making and planning in future projects.
I would like here to acknowledge all those people who devoted their time to helping me
on this research whether in the data collection or in the analysis or in the administering
the questionnaire. I would like to also acknowledge those who were generous in
providing me with advice.
I wish to thank the following people:
My father Abdulwahab who always encourages me and supports me to work
My mother Norah who was like the Dynamo that encourages me to do my best.
My wife Qadryah, the best advisor for me and without whose help and
cooperation this research could not have been conducted. She devoted her time to
create a suitable environment for me to I can study well far away from the noise
of the children. She was always worrying and crying about me. Therefore, I
appreciate that from her.
My brother Dawood who supported the main step of this research which was the
data collection from Saudi Arabia, he was the coordinator for this research. He
did this task very well.
My best job colleague in Saudi Arabia Mr. Moammar Alzahrani who help me in
the data collection step.
My cousin Mrs Khloud Almaghlouth, she helps in the data collection step as
All the teachers who participated in this research whether female or male
Vanwyk and Franco my work friends who are with me in our office in the
Waikato University, they helped me to develop my questionnaire.
Special thanks to my sons Abdulwahab and Adel, who encouraged me to finish
my research on time by asking me in every week when I will finish my research
to they can return to Saudi Arabia.
Finally, my supervisor Kerry Earl for her unwavering support and critical
observations that made my final report much better than the first draft. And for
the previous supervisor Dr. Judy Moreland who retired early in the first stage of
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Context and Background
1.3 Research Focus
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Information Communication Technology in Schools
2.2 Teachers’ Use of ICTs
2.3 ICT Professional Development Programme
Chapter 3: Methodology
3.1 Research Questions
3.3 Research Methods
3.4 Methods of Data Generation and Collection
3.5 Ethical Considerations and Access
3.6 Research Design and Role of the Research
3.7 Data Analysis
Chapter 4: Results and Findings
4.1 Teachers’ Current Use of ICT
4.2 Professional Development
4.3 Beliefs about ICT
Chapter 5: Discussion
5.1 Current use of ICT
5.2 Professional Development
5.3 Teachers’ Beliefs about ICT
Chapter 6: Conclusion
6.3 Limitations of Research
6.4 Suggestions for Further Research
Approval from the General Manager of Girls
Approval from the General Manager of Boys
Invitation Letter to take part
Administrators Consent Form for Questionnaire
Instructions for Participants
LIST OF TABLES
3.1 Questionnaire Methods 48
3.2 Cronbach values of questionnaire sections 53
4.1 Sample profile 55
4.2 Participants rating of their ability to use ICT tools 57
4.3 Number of teachers have personal computers 57
4.4 Period of years that teachers owned their Personal computer 57
4.5 ICT Tools available in Schools 58
4.6 ICT Tools available in rented schools and Aramco schools 59
4.7 ICT Tools most used in schools 61
4.8 How often teachers use ICT tools 63
4.9 Applications of ICT use 64
4.10 Reasons: For teachers who used specific ICT tools 69
4.11 Frequency of teachers’ use of activities 73
4.12 Barriers that Teachers have encountered 80
4.13 Rating of Teachers’ Agreement to beliefs about ICT 86
4.14 Rating of Teachers’ Agreement with Teaching by ICT 87
4.15 Rating of Teachers’ Agreement with PD for ICT 89
4.16 Rating of Teachers’ Agreement of Barriers to ICT 90
4.17 Most Valuable ICT Tools for Science Teachers 90
4.18 Teachers Responses to the importance of teachers’ improvement in ICT 91
4.19 Teachers Responses to the importance of students’ improvement from ICT 91
4.20 Teachers Responses to the importance of access to the Internet 92
4.21 Teachers Responses to the importance of other elements of ICT 92
LIST OF FIGURES
3.1 Stages in the planning of a survey 49
4.1 ICT tools that were available in schools 60
4.2 ICT tools most used in schools 62
4.3 Teachers’ use of ICT for administration 65
4.4 Teachers’ use of ICT for communication 65
4.5 Teachers’ use of ICT for lesson planning and preparation 66
4.6 Teachers’ use of ICT in the classroom 67
4.7 Teachers’ use of ICT for evaluation and assessment 68
4.8 Teachers’ ways of learning how to use ICT tools 74
This study focuses on the Saudi Arabia context. Background information for this
research is provided in the three main chosen areas has been illustrated under the
subheadings of Context and Background; Issues and Research Focus.
1.1 Context and Background
In Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Education is responsible for all other ministries in all
the different cities. It distributes funds to each ministry, depending on its size, which
is relative to how many schools belong in each ministry’s district. Girls’ and boys’
ministries are separated. In both girls’ and boys’ ministries there are different types of
schools, such as Aramco Company schools (which are usually expected to have a
high quality of resources and an ongoing maintenance of buildings and of the
resources as well), public schools, and small schools in rented premises. Private
schools are not part of this study.
In 2007, there was a big project by King Abdul Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz for the
development of public education. The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia
identified thirty-nine steps to implement this project which includes curriculum
development, professional development programmes for teachers, improvement of
the educational environment and the extra-curricular activities for students of the
more than five million students (Ministry of Education, 2007). The implementation of
this project required the preparation of curricula, digital electronic books and
educational elements of the curriculum, and building technical standards integration
into the curriculum, curriculum development at all stages, starting in kindergarten
through to secondary school. The cost of implementation was 11 billion riyals (USD
The Ministry also identified nine steps to improve the educational environment
including linking all schools through high-speed digital communication and
TO: All Participants
Date: / / 2007
From: Osamah Abdulwahab Almaghlouth, Centre for Science and Technology
Education Research at University of Waikato.
Title: Questionnaire on “Saudi Science Secondary School Teachers’ Perceptions of
the Use of ICT Tools to Support Teaching and Learning”.
I am a master’s student for centre for Science and Technology Education Research at
University of Waikato. I am involved in finding out about Saudi Science Secondary
School Teachers views of ICT. I am seeking these views through the use of a written
questionnaire. This study will involve two hundred Saudi science secondary schools
teachers from both girls and boys schools. The participants will be from different
groups of schools: Aramco company’s schools, public schools, and small schools in
rented premises. Private schools are not part of this study.
The study is being undertaken in performance of the obligation for the honor of a
Master of ICT in Education which I am pursuing at The University of Waikato in
New Zealand at the Centre for Science and Technology Education Research.
Accordingly, I would like to respectfully request you to participate by completing the
attached questionnaire to find out your perceptions of the Use of ICT Tools to
Support Teaching and Learning in secondary schools.
You are asked to complete the questionnaire, but you are not constrained to do so and
you may withdraw from completing it at any stage. Your response will be
anonymous, as you are not required to identify yourself on the questionnaire except
for your declaration on the consent form. I also wish to assure you that data collected
from this questionnaire will not be used for anything else other than my masters’
degree and presentations that arise from it. No one will be allowed access except me
and my supervisors, Dr. Judy Moreland of the Centre for Science and Technology
Education Research and Kerry Earl of the school of Education at the University of
Waikato. All data will be securely stored and destroyed three years from the
completion of the study. Guarantee of confidentiality is given and your completing
the questionnaire will not impact on your career in any way.
Should you have any queries, please contact me through email firstname.lastname@example.org,
or call me on my mobile phone (0064) 212078795 or contact Dr. Judy Moreland on
email@example.com or call on (0064) 7 838 4639, Fax (0064) 7 838 4272 or
Kerry Earl on firstname.lastname@example.org or call on (0064) 7 838 4506. On the occasion of
any questions please contact me in the first instance. If I am unable to resolve them,
you may contact Dr. Judy Moreland at email@example.com or Kerry Earl at
firstname.lastname@example.org. If the issues are still unresolved you may contact the director of
the Centre of Science and Technology Education Research, Dr. Bronwen Cowie at
Finally, I would like to thank you all for accepting my invitation to complete the
questionnaire. Please complete the consent form on the next page. When you have
completed the questionnaire, I would appreciate it if you could put it in the envelope
provided, seal it, and it will be collected. This is to ensure that no unconstitutional
person can see your responses on the questionnaire. If you do not wish to participate,
please feel free not to complete the questionnaire.
Thanking you in advance
Osamah Abdulwahab Almaghlouth
Teacher’s Consent Form for Questionnaire
I gladly consent to participate in this questionnaire on the understanding that:
* I have not been pressurized by anyone;
* The information will be stored securely;
* I will not be identified in any way. I will be given a code name;
* Guarantees of confidentiality have been given;
* The information I give will not impact on my career;
* My data will be destroyed three years after the completion of the study.
NOTE: Please attach one of these forms to the questionnaire brochure, which will be
collected by the Administrator, along with your completed questionnaire. The other
copy is for your information.
If you wish to withdraw in the course of completing the questionnaire, please feel free
to do so and sign below.
I wish to withdraw from participating in this questionnaire. I understand that my data
will not be used for the study and it will be immediately destroyed.
Administrator’s Consent Form for Questionnaire
I gladly consent to Administrate the questionnaire on the understanding that:
* I have to distribute all the questionnaires to the participants;
* Questionnaires will be secured in sealed envelopes, after completion;
* I am not able to read the questionnaires for any reason;
* Questionnaires will be collected, coded and passed to translator.
The following are including the guidelines for administering the questionnaire.
1. Completion the questionnaire, should not take more than one hour. And the
participants should therefore be advised not rush.
2. Distribute the invitation letter for participants to read it and attend to any
questions that the participants may face.
3. Advise any who wish to withdraw now to please do so.
4. Distribute the questionnaire booklet with a consent form attached and the
envelopes for putting the questionnaire in.
5. Advise participants to read the consent form and sign it if they wish to
participate before opening the questionnaire booklet.
6. Advise those not wishing to participate that they may withdraw any time.
7. Advice those willing to complete the questionnaire that they may withdraw at
any stage and they are free to sign withdraw form.
8. Advise the participants how to complete the questionnaire and you may read
out the instruction for each section.
9. At the end please correct all envelops containing the completed questionnaire,
used and unused, put them in the large envelop enclosed and seal it before
leaving the school.
Thanking you in advance
Osamah Abdulwahab Almaghlouth
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PARTICIPANTS
1. Complete the questionnaire unanimously for example; do not sign on any of
the pages of the questionnaire.
2. Read the instructions for each section.
3. At the end please seal your questionnaire in the envelope provided and sign
on the seal. This is to ensure that no one else reads your responses except the
researcher and my supervisors.
4. if you have any questions please ask the administrator or else send me an
email to email@example.com
or email my supervisors at
firstname.lastname@example.org or at email@example.com.
5. Thank you all for accepting my invitation to complete the questionnaire. A
summary of the findings will be sending to each participant’s school libraries
before the end of 2008 and you will be encouraged to read it.
Thanking you in advance
Osamah Abdulwahab Almaghlouth