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A revised checklist of the butterflies (Rhopalocera) of Corfu (Kérkira)

Authors:
  • Redborne Upper School

Abstract and Figures

A revised checklist of the butterflies (Rhopalocera) of Corfu (Kérkira) is provided, based on the ongoing research of the author, the records of contemporary recorders and available literature.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Bulletin
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Volume 71 • Number 501 April 2012
of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society
The
ISSN 0266-836X Editors: Dr P. Wilkins & Paul Sokoloff
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The photograph on this month’s cover is the
Common Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea.
The name “carnea” has the same Latin root as
“carnal” and “carnivorous” – relating to “flesh”. This
species hibernates as an adult, often finding its way
into houses, and as its bodily food reserves are
depleted it turns pink – or flesh-coloured!
It is a near Pandemic species and is probably absent
only from the Polar Regions. Recently what was
thought to be a single species has been divided into
many new species on the basis of ecology, the sonic
frequency of its “song” (a rasping, connected with
mating, produced by rubbing the abdomen on the
substrate), geography and DNA profiling. It seems
to provide a living example of active evolution.
In Britain, we have three valid, full species within
the complex carnea sensu stricto (this
photograph), which is near ubiquitous, lucasina,
probably ubiquitous but numerically far less
common, and pallida, which seems to be rather
restricted.
Photographed in Kent by Paul Sokoloff
Bulletin
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Volume 71 • Number 501 April 2012
of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society
The
ISSN 0266-836X Editors: Dr P. Wilkins & Paul Sokoloff
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of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society
The
Volume 71 • Number 501 April 2012
Editorial
Once again, I have the privilege of providing information about the
entomological fauna of Corfu. Since my last contributions about the
remarkable invertebrate fauna of the island (Corfu Special Edition:
Bulletin # 485, and Bulletin # 491: 131-136) I have visited the island twice
more, in April 2011 and February 2012, allowing me to see some of the
species that appear earlier in the year, including one of Europe’s most
spectacular butterflies, the Southern Festoon Zerynthia polyxena. This
edition provides a revised checklist of butterflies for the island with
photographs of this and other species, including the Eastern Baton Blue
Pseudophilotes vicrama, which, like Z. polyxena and a number of other
species, has declined dramatically in many parts of its range through the
loss of ruderal and bare ground habitats.
The coleopteran fauna of the island is also highlighted and shows that
the taxonomic issues regarding the status of a number of species are far
from being resolved! I hope that the prospect of becoming part of the
process of unravelling the true genetic identities of certain species will
provide a stimulus for their study. Brainteasing exercises aside, the
experience of finding some of these species in their natural habitat provides
its own rewards, be it the Eastern Orange-tip Anthocharis damone in the
mountain valleys of Mount Pantokrator or large and impressively powerful
water beetles in the temporary pools near Issos beach in the south.
This edition exemplifies the fact that the diversity of Corfu’s invertebrate
fauna is gained from its pivotal position in the Mediterranean. For exactly
the same reason that it was sought as a strategic outpost for so many
conquering empires, it forms a natural crossroads for the distribution of
species, where east meets west and north meets south. This, of course, is
an over-simplification, and a more detailed representation for Greece and
its islands is provided by Arndt et al. (see article on Carabidae in this issue):
Greece is an intersection point for several distribution patterns. There are
Palaearctic and Palaeotropical faunal elements with the following
distribution patterns: Eurasian, European-American, European, Iranian-
Turanian, Aegaeidean, Palaeomediterranean and Pontomediterranean,
and Balkan endemics.”
An example of the European-American fauna was found in February
2012 in the form of the stunning metallic purple ground beetle, Myas
chalybaeus, as shown in the carabids article in this issue.
Bulletin
Bulletin
42 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
A brief foray into the Orthoptera and Odonata provides a new species
of grasshopper for Corfu, and a few hints and tips regarding identification
of dragonflies and damselflies. This includes key features of the Migrant
Spreadwing Lestes barbarus, a species documented many years ago by
Dr Theodore Stefanides, who was so humorously immortalised in Gerald
Durrell’s famous trilogy of books about the island1. In the last special
issue, it was noted that, “…this work, in its entirety, was grown from a
seed planted by Gerald Durrell.” What I find remarkable is the fact that
all these years later, I am still referring to the work of Gerald Durrell’s
mentor, Dr Stephanides. Earlier this year, I was very kindly invited by Dr
Lee Durrell to the Jersey Zoological Park which is run by the Durrell
Conservation Trust in Jersey, and given access to Dr Stephanides’ work.
There was one volume in particular that I wanted to see, having been
unable to access it through the Durrell School of Corfu from its repository
in Athens, and rightly so, this important volume now apparently exists in
only 7 academic institutions worldwide. It was therefore a great privilege
to have in my hand Gerald Durrell’s copy of A survey of the freshwater
biology of Corfu and of certain other regions of Greece, signed to his friend
by Dr Stephanides himself, and to read from its pages the vibrant picture
of Corfu’s pre-war freshwater fauna (Figure 1). It was the polymath, Dr
Stephanides, who laid the foundation for so much of our knowledge
about the modern day aquatic fauna of the island.
Figure 1. The author and Dr Lee Durrell with Dr Stephanides’ work on the freshwater
biology of Corfu (Copyright: Colin Stevenson)
1My Family and Other Animals; Birds, Beasts and Relatives; and The Garden of the Gods.
43
Volume 71 • April 2012
I have now spent much time surveying the island of Corfu, but it is
visiting the old haunts described by Gerald Durrell in such evocative
terms that bring back so many memories from that golden trilogy of
books. A great favourite of mine is Lake Scotini, and I cannot absorb
myself in its warm sunlit waters without recalling Gerald Durrell’s
description of Theodore in The Pygmy Jungle chapter from Birds, Beasts
and Relatives:
“… armed with our collection of nets and collecting boxes, (we) would
approach the lake. Here we would potter happily for the rest of the
morning, pacing with the slow concentration of a pair of fishing herons,
dipping our nets into the weed-filigreed water. Here Theodore came into
his own more than anywhere else. From the depths of the lake, as he stood
there with big scarlet dragonflies zooming like arrows around him, he
would extract magic that Merlin would have envied.”
And the magic continues…
“Here in the still, wine gold waters, lay a pygmy jungle. On the lake bottom
prowled the deadly dragonfly larvae, as cunning predators as the tiger,
inching their way through the debris of a million last years leaves. Here
the black tadpoles, sleek and shiny as licorice drops, disported in the
shallows like plump herds of hippo in some African river. Through green
forests of weed the multicoloured herds of microscopic creatures twitched
and fluttered like flocks of exotic birds…”
I often wonder what Gerald Durrell and Theodore Stephanides would
have made of it all now. It is no secret that Gerald Durrell became
disheartened by the inevitable rise of the tourist industry on an island as
beautiful as Corfu, not least because of his perception that he was partly
responsible for popularising the island through his books. Nevertheless,
it is directly through him that so many of us have chosen to study and
enjoy the wildlife of Corfu, and place its riches into the wider context of
the global biodiversity that we are all striving to protect. Moreover, it is
the ongoing study of this wildlife that brings it to life for a wider audience,
and highlights the need to conserve and protect the areas where it can
still be found.
If Gerald Durrell and Theodore Stephanides could observe their legacy,
from the animated discussions about the taxonomy of Corfiot beetles and
other insects, and the examination of the habitat requirements of rare
butterflies on the slopes of Mount Pantokrator, to the review of the climate
induced appearance of some spectacular new species including the
electric pink dragonfly Trithemis annulata, they would probably not be
displeased!
44 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 2. The old masters, Dr Theodore Stephanides and Gerald Durrell OBE. Copyright:
Thames Television, London. Reproduced with kind permission from the Durrell collection.
45
Volume 71 • April 2012
Key identification features for the Red-veined Darter
Sympetrum fonscolombii (Selys, 1840) and other
Odonata in Corfu (Kérkira)
by Dr Peter G. Sutton (7388)
petersutton@freeuk.com
A previous checklist for the dragonflies (Odonata) of Corfu (Sutton, 2009)
described the presence of 40 species on the island, which is by far the
richest diversity of dragonfly species in the Ionian islands. Among these
were listed five species of red darter dragonflies, the Sympetrum species.
A recent article by Alker (2010) highlighted the fact that the degree of red
wing venation was, “…not adequately covered in the key identification
works, which could easily lead to misidentification and apparently does
so on a regular basis”, and goes on to make the statement, “A red
coloured darter species with red veins isn’t necessarily a Red-veined
Darter.” It appears that the Common Darter Sympetrum striolatum in
particular (which is found in Corfu), can possess the extensive red veining
that can lead to confusion with the Red-veined Darter Sympetrum
fonscolombii.
In April 2011 I recorded a red-veined dragonfly at Limni Korission in
southern Corfu and immediately assumed it to be the Red-veined Darter.
The first feature that I looked for to confirm the identification was the
yellow patch at the base of the hindwing. Interestingly, it wasn’t there!
Within a short time I had used two other identification features to confirm
it as fonscolombii: the blue underside to the eye and the black-bordered
yellow pterostigma on the wing tips (Figure 1).
I had previously encountered the Eastern Willow Spreadwing Lestes
parvidens in Corfu and in May 2011, I recorded another of the emerald
damselflies at a small farmland lake in the Ropa Valley. This time it was
the Migrant Spreadwing1Lestes barbarus (Figure 2). The key identification
feature for this species (which is larger and paler that the other emeralds)
is the pale, bicoloured pterostigma at the wing tips (Figure 3).
At the same lake were male and female specimens of the Variable
Damselfly Coenagrion pulchellum. The male was easy to identify using
the broken antehumeral stripe on its thorax (Figure 4). The female (Figure
5) was slightly more difficult and relied on the exaggerated shape of the
pronotum to confirm its identity. Boudot et al. (2009) confirm that this
species becomes scarce in southern Mediterranean Europe and indicate
that it may decline in the future due to global warming.
1formerly known as the Southern Emerald Damselfly.
46 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 1. Red-veined Darter Sympetrum fonscolombii, showing lack of yellow patch at base
of hindwing, black-bordered yellow pterostigma, and blue underside to eye.
Figure 2. Migrant Spreadwing Lestes barbarus, Ropa Valley.
47
Volume 71 • April 2012
Figure 4. Diagnostic feature for male Variable Damselfly Coenagrion pulchellum, broken
antehumeral stripe on pronotum.
Figure 3. Diagnostic feature for Lestes barbarus, pale, bicoloured pterostigma.
48 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 6. Common Blue-tailed Damselfly Ischnura elegans, immature female C-type
gynomorph, near Spartera.
Figure 5. Female Variable Damselfly Coenagrion pulchellum, Ropa Valley.
49
Volume 71 • April 2012
A trip to a stream at Spartera near the southern tip of the island
produced a final point of interest. I was initially thrown by the lack of an
antehumeral stripe and the apparent metallic green colouration of this
damselfly. In fact, it turned out to be an immature specimen of the
Common Blue-tailed Damselfly Ischnura elegans (Figure 6), the so-called
Immature female C-type gynomorph” described by Jödicke (2006).
The search for the two rarest odonatan residents in Corfu, the Greek
Red Damsel Pyrrhosoma elizabethae and the Turkish Red Damsel
Ceriagrion georgifreyi, continues, with a focus on well-vegetated
waterways on the island. Both species, especially the Greek Red Damsel,
are globally threatened (Kalkman, 2005; Lopau, 1999, 2000, 2006; Boudot
et al. 2009) and any information regarding the ongoing presence of these
species in Corfu would be very welcome.
In 2010, another indispensable Libellula supplement was produced
(Lopau, 2010), focussing on the dragonfly fauna of Greece. This
publication has high resolution maps throughout and shows the
approximate locations for the last sightings of both species in Corfu. The
flight period histograms indicate that both species are at their most
abundant in June.
References
Alker, P., (2010), Red Wing Venation in Darters, Atropos, 40: 49-51.
Boudot, J.-P., Kalkman, V.J., Azpilicueta Amorín, M., Bogdanovic, T., Cordero Rivera, A.,
Degabriele, G., Dommanget, J.-L., Ferriera, S., Garrigós, B., Jovic, M., Kotarac, M., Lopau,
W., Marinov, M., Mihokovic, N., Riservato, E., Samraoui, B., & Schneider, W., (2009), Atlas
of the Odonata of the Mediterranean and North Africa, Libellula Supplement 9: 1-256.
Dijkstra, K-D. B. and Lewington, R., (2006), Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Britain and
Europe, British Wildlife Publishing, Gillingham (Dorset), 320 pp.
Jödicke, R., (2006), Ischnura elegans Common Bluetail, in: Dijkstra, K-D. B. and Lewington,
R., (2006), Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Britain and Europe, British Wildlife Publishing,
Gillingham (Dorset), 320 pp.
Kalkman, V.J., (2005), On the distribution of the genus Ceriagrion Selys in the Balkans with
C. georgfreyi Schmidt new for Europe. Libellula, Supplement 4: 25-32.
Lopau, W., (1999), Bisher unveröffentlichte Libellenbeobachtungen aus Griechenland.
Libellula, Supplement 2: 91-131.
Lopau, W., (2000), Bisher unveröffentlichte Libellenbeobachtungen aus Griechenland II.
Libellula, Supplement 3: 81-116.
Lopau, W., (2006), Die Libellenfauna der Jonischen Inseln/Griechenland – Kefalloniá, Kérkira
(Korfu), Lefkáda und Zákynthos, Libellen. Naturkundliche Reiseberichte, 32: 3-37.
Lopau, W., (2010), Studien zur Libellenfauna Griechenlands IV, Libellula, Supplement 10: 1-
260.
Sutton, P.G., (2009), A checklist of the dragonflies (Odonata) of Corfu (Kérkira) including a
new record for the Ionian Islands, the Black Pennant Selysiothemis nigra (Vander Linden,
1825), Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc., 68, (485): 136-144.
50 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Cybister tripunctatus ssp. africanus Laporte, 1855,
Dytiscus mutinensis (Pederzani, 1971), and other large
water beetles in Corfu (Kérkira)
by Dr Peter G. Sutton (7388)
petersutton@freeuk.com
During a visit to Vatos in Corfu in 2007, three of Europe’s largest species
of water beetle were found in a large partially shaded pond: the Great
Silver Water Beetle Hydrophilus piceus (Linnaeus, 1758), the King Diving
Beetle Dytiscus dimidiatus Bergsträsser, 1778 and Dytiscus mutinensis
Pederzani, 1971. The latter species, which was formerly thought to be the
non-sulcate form of Dytiscus dimidiatus (ab. mutinensis Fiori 1881), has
been recognised as a distinct species since the 1970’s (e.g. Roughley,
1990), providing the basis for the discussion below.
In consecutive visits to Corfu in April 2011 and February 2012, two other
large species, Cybister (Scaphinectes) lateralimarginalis (De Geer, 1774)
and Cybister (Cybister) tripunctatus ssp. africanus Laporte 1855, were
also recorded.
As a result of these finds it has been possible to recognise and correct
two erroneous statements made in previous literature. The first, All three
Hydrophilus species have been recorded from the island (Corfu)” (Sutton,
2009), was based on inaccurate information which has not been
substantiated. In fact, it appears that only one species, Hydrophilus piceus,
has been recorded from Corfu (Robert Angus, pers. comm.) This is also
corroborated by the known distribution of the other two Great Silver
Water Beetles Hydrophilus aterrimus Eschscholz, 1822 and Hydrophilus
pistaceus Laporte de Castelnau, 1840, as depicted on the PESI Portal
website which is moderated by some of Europe’s leading coleopterists
(in this case, Ribera et al.). This site shows that while H. aterrimus and
H. pistaceus are both found in Italy, neither species, apparently, extends
into the Balkan region.
The second concerns a statement made in The Larger Water Beetles of
the British Isles (Sutton, 2008) which describes Cybister lateralimarginalis
as “...the only European member of a predominantly tropical genus”. In
fact, there are four Cybister species that can be found in Europe, but it is
only C. lateralimarginalis that extends into north-western Europe (a
prefix that would have corrected the above statement). Moving south and
east into the Mediterranean region finds Cybister tripunctatus ssp.
africanus1, which is found across the Mediterranean region from Spain
1In addition to the European subspecies, africanus, there are three other subspecies of Cybister
tripunctatus (Olivier, 1795): C. t. lateralis (Fabricius, 1798), C. t. tripunctatus (Olivier, 1795) and C. t.
temneki Aubé, 1838, whose collective distributions range from southern Asia to Australia.)
51
Volume 71 • April 2012
and Portugal, through the western Mediterranean islands (Balearics,
Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily), Italy and into the southern Balkan region
including some Greek islands. The final two species have a far more
restricted distribution. Cybister (Melanectes) vulneratus Klug, 1834 is a
predominantly African species whose range extends into the Arabian
Peninsula and Iraq. In Europe it is found in parts of Spain and has been
recorded from Sicily. It is described as being part of the North African-
European transition fauna (Ribera et al., 1996). Cybister (Cybister)
senegalensis Aubé, 1838 is even more restricted, with records from Sicily
and Sardinia only (distribution data for these Cybister species is provided
by Prof. Anders Nilsson, Fauna Europaea).Of the four species described,
Figure 1. Cybister lateralimarginalis, Ropa River, Vatos 14.ii.2012.
52 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
two have been found by the author on Corfu: C. lateralimarginalis (Figure
1) and C. tripunctatus ssp. africanus (Figure 2). The former has long been
known from the island, and was noted by Dr Theodore Stephanides in
his extensive work on the freshwater biology of Corfu (Stefanides, 1939)
according to the following extract:
Genus Cybister Curtis
1. Cybister laterimarginalis2de Geer. Very common and plentiful in
ponds. All the year.
Clearly, this species is not as common in Corfu as it once was. A specimen
was taken from the flooded Ropa River at Vatos by the author in February
2012, but was not found during extensive searches elsewhere; and two other
records have kindly been provided: one from Temploni in the1980’s
(Professor Robert Angus, pers. comm.), and one from near Ag. Matheos in
1974 (Dr Hans Fery, pers. comm.) It is interesting to note that the meticulous
Theodore Stephanides did not record this species, or any Dytiscus species
from Corfu. It is certainly possible that in view of the climate-induced
northward movement of a number of species in recent decades, at least one
of the species, C. tripunctatus ssp. africanus may not have been there. C.
tripunctatus ssp. africanus was taken from shallow temporary waters at
Figure 2. Cybister tripunctatus ssp. africanus, Gavrolimni ponds, 25.iv.2011.
2Note laterimarginalis is now lateralimarginalis (per explanation in Sutton, 2008).
53
Volume 71 • April 2012
the southern end of Limni Korission by the author on 24.iv.2011, and then
from the well-weeded shallows of a pond in Gavrolimni on 25.iv.2011.
For a while, the record appeared to be the first for the island and it had
(wrongly) been assumed that this might be linked to a recent climate-
induced range expansion for this species, coinciding as it did with the
first record of this species from one of the Balkan countries, Croatia,
during the summer of 2007 (Temunovi and Šeri Jelaska, 2009).
However, Professor Angus again kindly provided details of his records,
revealing that he had taken a specimen of C. tripunctatus ssp. africanus
from a pond in Temploni in the 1980’s.
In these days of northward range expansion by tropical species, nothing
should be taken for granted, and this raises an obvious question regarding
the identity of the Cybister species found in Corfu. Fortunately, the matter
can be settled without difficulty. Cybister lateralimarginalis can be
separated from the other species by its large size (30-37 mm) and the
yellow colouration of its underside (Figure 3). Cybister tripunctatus ssp.
africanus is the second largest species (23-32 mm) and has a rich glossy
brown underside (Figure 4). Cybister senegalensis also has a brown
underside and virtually a miniature version of the previous species, but
being considerably smaller (17-21 mm)3, can be separated easily by size.
Cybister vulneratus is also a relatively small species (26 mm) and can be
separated from the other two species with brown undersides by the
greatly reduced yellow margins on the sides of its elytra.
3A very good side by side comparison of photographs of C. senegalensis and C. tripunctatus is provided
in the dissertation by Reintjes (2004).
Figure 3 (left). Cybister lateralimarginalis, underside; Figure 4 (right). Cybister tripunctatus
ssp. africanus, underside.
54 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
C. t. africanus was found amongst vegetation in warm shallow water
on both occasions by the author. The specimen from the pond at
Gavrolimni took to the air almost immediately after it had burst through
the mat of algae in the net, leading to the following observation:
“The ponds at Gavrolimni were virtually impenetrable, surrounded by
a dense thorny scrub that left any overzealous attempt to get to the waters
edge requiring medical attention. On the two occasions that I found a
path through to the pond I found its warm shallow waters teeming with
life. The margins were green with occasionally dense patches of algae
between the many scrubby branches and thin tree trunks that sprang
from its tepid waters. There were beetles and dragonfly larvae aplenty
and somewhere in the upper echelons of this food web was the large
shining Cybister species that burst through the thick blanket of algae in
my net as it continued to kick at the air in the dazzling midday sun.
The large and hyperactive specimen was photographed but flew off loudly
at the first opportunity after it had hoisted itself up onto the edge of the
net.
In a short while, the strong-flying Cybister species that had disappeared
out into the meadow flew back loudly past my ear, narrowly avoiding an
instinctive swipe with my net, and I watched it as it made its way towards
open water. Seven or eight yards out, there was a sudden cessation of noise
as it folded its wings in mid-air, about a metre or so above the water, and
it dropped like a stone into the pond with an audible ‘plop’. I had not seen
this behaviour before, and assumed it was a simple strategy to avoid
folding wet wings.”
This was not the only large water beetle that had colonised the
temporary ponds at Gavrolimni, and a later diary extract reveals the
presence of what must have been a healthy population of Great Silver
Water Beetles:
“As I walked into some woodland at the edge of a clearing, I noticed a
collection of large shining black elytra and legs scattered on the path
(Figure 5). These were clearly from a Hydrophilus species and suggested
that it was present in the Gavrolimni ponds in good numbers. I looked
up into the tree above but saw no nest, roost or other signs of a winged
predator. I looked closely at the ground for clues, but again, there were
no obvious signs or tracks leading to this discarded inedible collection. I
came to the conclusion that the predator must have been a bird of prey
that had used the branch above as a temporary feeding station for beetles
that it had caught on the wing, and r ecalled Jonty Denton’s paper
regarding his observations of Dytiscus predation by the Hobby Falco
55
Volume 71 • April 2012
subbuteo (Denton, 2007)4. It was interesting to note that all of the elytra
were from one species and that whatever factor, e.g. the temperature of
the increasingly shallow water, had provided the appropriate signal for
the species to move en masse to another water body, appeared to be
relevant only to that species, at that time.”
Figure 5. The collection of Hydrophilus remains in woodland adjacent to the Gavrolimni
ponds.
The series of finds of large water beetles on Corfu prompted a number
of questions, many of which were related to the cyclic movement of
species between temporary and permanent water bodies. Cybister and
Hydrophilus had been found together in temporary ponds that would be
dry by late May, which at that time was four weeks away, and finding
the strewn collection of elytrae on the woodland floor provided evidence
that at least one species had already started to search for more permanent
water bodies on the island5.
4Denton writes: On Thursley Common I once found the remnants (which had been discarded and
carried to the shor e by the prevailing br eeze) of over twenty Dytiscus marginalis and seven Dytiscus
semisulcatus along a 25 metre shore length in one afternoon. The occasional Colymbetes fuscus had also
become a tasty in-flight meal.”
5A very interesting dissertation by Reintjes (2004) highlights the importance of temporary waters regarding
their faunal diversity which is “often higher than in permanent waters”, and the cyclic migration of species
between temporary and permanent aquatic habitats.
56 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Dytiscus dimidiatus Bergsträsser, 1778 and Dytiscus mutinensis
(Pederzani, 1971) in Corfu
The presence of Dytiscus dimidiatus in Corfu was noted in a previous
publication (Sutton, 2009) and at that time, it was assumed that this was
the only Dytiscus species present in the golf course ponds at Vatos.
However, a communication between the author and Professor Angus
regarding the remarkably abbreviated sulci of the female D. dimidiatus
specimens (Figure 6) prompted a more detailed comparison with what
was assumed to be the non-sulcate form of this species, Dytiscus
dimidiatus ab. mutinensis Fiori 1881, taken at the same time from the
pond at Vatos. Further discussion with Professor Garth Foster, who kindly
provided reference to the work of Roughley (1990), highlighted the
possibility of the non-sulcate form being a species in its own right,
Dytiscus mutinensis Pederzani, 1971.
Figure 6. Female Dytiscus dimidiatus showing the highly abbreviated sulci and obviously
green colouration of specimens from the pond at Vatos.
Roughley’s extensive work, A systematic revision of species of Dytiscus
Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Part 1. Classification based on adult
stage”, notes Franciscolo’s (1979) reservations about the species-level
separation of D. mutinensis from D. dimidiatus, notably highlighting the
57
Volume 71 • April 2012
inconsistencies regarding the number of punctures present on the male
metatarsomere6, a key feature used by Pederzani (1971) to distinguish
between the two species. Nevertheless, Roughley goes on to make the
following assertion:
“I have maintained the separation of these taxa as species for the following
reasons: 1, consistent, if slight differences in the shape of the median lobe
for males; 2, information provided by Franciscolo (1979) that specimens
assignable to both taxa were taken in the same ponds; and 3, a lack of
indeterminate specimens among the limited sample I have seen.”
The specimens of D. mutinensis from Vatos are consistent (with the
exception of yellow-rimmed eyes) with the description of this species
provided by the Italian Ermesambiente web-site:
“Length 28.0-35.0 mm. Body shape elongated oval, convex, rounded at
sides. Elytra always smooth in both sexes with slight lateral expansions in
the back half. Dorsal colouration blackish-brown, with greenish or
greenish-brown velvety auburn; sides of pronotum with a broad yellow
band which opens up towards the apex of the elytrae with two irregular
bifurcations. Head with v-shaped reddish central spot, yellow-rimmed
eyes”.
It is interesting to note that this description includes the thin yellow
margin around the eyes, and indeed, shows a photograph of a specimen
where this appears to be the case, yet this feature is not mentioned in
descriptive information elsewhere, and is notably absent in the dorsal
view of D. mutinensis provided by Roughley (loc. cit.). The D.
mutinensis specimens from the Vatos pond did not have yellow-rimmed
eyes.
It was noted from the author’s observations that this form appeared to
be slightly smaller, and had an obviously different colouration in
accordance with the above description. This colour difference can be seen
clearly when comparing the greener female (Figure 6) and male (Figure
7) specimens of the larger (32-39 mm) D. dimidiatus specimens, with the
brown D. mutinensis female (Figure 8). It also appeared to conform to
the more oblong shape (although no specific measurements were taken)
described in Roughley’s key:
Body oblong (TL/GW 1.98 to 2.00); male with protarsomere V about 1.3
length of longer claw and about 30 punctures on anterior surface; smaller
specimens, 28 to 35 mm; distributed in Italy, Corfu, Yugoslavia
D. mutinensis Pederzani
6There seems to be a discrepancy in the paper, where metatarsomere V is later referred to as the
protarsomere V in the key provided.
58 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 7. Male Dytiscus dimidiatus, showing green colouration, Vatos
Figure 8. Female Dytiscus mutinensis showing typically brown colouration, Vatos
59
Volume 71 • April 2012
Body more elongate (TL/GW 1.84 to 1.95); male with protarsomere V
about 1.5 length of longer claw and about 60 punctures on anterior
surface; larger specimens, 32 to 39 mm; distributed from Europe to
Transcaucasia, Asia Minor, Syria
D. dimidiatus Bergsträsser
In accordance with Roughley’s second point, all specimens came from
the same pond at Vatos (Figure 9).
Figure 9. The shaded golf course pond at Vatos where specimens of Dytiscus dimidiatus,
Dytiscus mutinensis and Hydrophilus piceus were taken, well-weeded and rich in leaf litter
and detritus.
60 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Pederzani (1971) notes that D. mutinensis has a preference for lentic
habitats (e.g. still ponds, lakes, swamps) with much detritus, with adults
occurring in both open and shaded habitats, but locally. The underside
of the female D. mutinensis specimen is shown in Figure 10.
Figure 10. Underside of Dytiscus mutinensis female, showing dark colouration and
comparatively blunt postcoxal processes.
Roughley provides additional information regarding the D. mutinensis
sample studied, including details of specimens from Corfu:
“I saw slight variation in external features of adults in 12 specimens of D.
mutinensis. Of the five males examined in detail, number of punctures on
the anterior surface of protarsomere V ranged between 24 and 34.
Presence or absence of the anterior yellow band of the pronotum varies,
61
Volume 71 • April 2012
but when present, this band is quite narrow, in most less than 10% of
width of lateral bands. Two of the four females from Corfu have slightly
impressed grooves.”
Professor Angus also alerted the author to the work of Dr Hans Fery,
who kindly provided another record of Dytiscus mutinensis from Corfu
taken near Ag. Matheos in 1974 (Hans Fery, pers. comm., 26.iv.12).
(Professor Angus’s paper on the water beetles of Corfu, which will include
the records of Dr Fery and other workers, will be published in Latissimus
Newsletter of the Balfour-Browne Club, in due course.)
A recent communication with Dr Lars Hendrich (pers. comm., 30.iv.12)
added one final twist to this tale:
I have seen the two photos you have sent to Hans. The female on one photo
shows reduced striae and could belong to mutinensis, too. The true
mutinensis is smaller and more elongate than dimidiatus and all females
are without striae. There are also some differences in the colour of the
ventral side. On the other hand I have studied a series of “dimidiatus (??)”
from the Camargue and all females have the same elytra as your female
from Corfu.
We have true mutinensis from Peloponnese in alcohol and want to
extract the DNA quite soon. There are a lot of COX1 sequences from
dimidiatus from Central Europe in Genbank or better in the lab of
Johannes Bergsten and by comparing them I hope we will find something.
Probably mutinensis is just a mediterranean subspecies of dimidiatus and
in the intermediate zone you have mixed populations. The ones from
Peloponnese (10 specimens, by Hans and me) and the one from Italy sent
to me by Pederzani are easy to separate from the numerous dimidiatus I
have from Germany and Austria.”
It is therefore likely that confirming the justification for separating
Dytiscus mutinensis from Dytiscus dimidiatus will only be resolved by
an appropriate DNA study.
Acknowledgements
Sincere thanks to Prof. Garth Foster, Prof. Robert Angus, Dr Hans Fery
and Dr Lars Hendrich, without whom this paper would not have been
possible.
References
Denton, J., (2007). Water Bugs and Water Beetles of Surrey. Surrey Wildlife Trust, Pirbright,
Surrey. 200 pp., 32 colour plates, distribution maps.
Ermesambiente website: http://ermesambiente.it/wcm/parchi/pagine/fauna_minore/Insetti/
Coleoptera/dytiscidae
62 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Franciscolo, M.E., (1979). Fauna d’Italia, 14. Coleoptera: Haliplidae, Hygrobiidae, Gyrinidae,
Dytiscidae. Ed. Calderini, Bologna, vi + 804 pp.
Nilsson, A.N., Cybister (Scaphinectes) lateralimarginalis (De Geer, 1774), Cybister (Cybister)
tripunctatus (Olivier, 1795), Cybister (Melanectes) vulneratus Klug, 1834, Cybister
(Cybister) senegalensis Aubé, 1838, accessed through Fauna Europaea at:
http://www.faunaeur.org (30.x.2011)
Pederzani, F., (1971). Il Dytiscus dimidiatus Bergstr. var. mutinensis Fiori elevato al rango
de specie. Bolletino della Società Entomologica Italiana, 103: 219-224.
Reintjes, N., (2004). Taxonomy, faunistics and life-history traits of Dytiscidae and Noteridae
(Coleoptera) in a West African savannah, Dissertation zur Erlangung des
naturwissenschaftlichen Doktorgrades der Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universität
Würzburg. 1-127 pp.
Ribera, I, Bilton, D.T., Aguilera, P. and Foster, G.N., (1996). A North-African-European
transition fauna: water beetles (Coleoptera) from the Ebro delta and other Mediterranean
coastal wetlands in the Iberian Peninsula. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater
Ecosystems, 6: 121-140.
Ribera, I., Ribera, H. and Hansen, M., Hydrophilus (Hydrophilus) piceus, (Linnaeus, 1758),
Hydrophilus (Hydrophilus) aterrimus Eschscholtz, 1822, Hydrophilus (Hydrophilus)
pistaceus Laporte de Castelnau, 1840, accessed through Fauna Europaea at:
http://www.faunaeur.org (05.iv.2012)
Roughley, R., (1990). A systematic revision of species of Dytiscus Linnaeus (Coleoptera:
Dytiscidae). Part 1. Classification based on adult stage. Quaestiones Entomologicae, 26:
383-557.
Stephanides, T., (1939). A survey of the freshwater biology of Corfu and of certain other
regions of Greece, Christou, Athens.
Sutton, P.G., (2008). The Larger Water Beetles of the British Isles, The Amateur Entomologists’
Society, Orpington, England. pp. 1-78, 5 colour plates, 31 text figures, 10 distribution
maps.
Sutton, P.G., (2009). A selection of beetles (Coleoptera) from the island of Corfu (Kérkira),
Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc., 68, No. 485, pp.145-151.
Temunovi, M. and Šeri Jelaska, L., (2009). First record of diving beetle Cybister tripunctatus
africanus Laporte, 1835 in the Croatian Hydradephagan fauna, in: Communications and
abstracts, Soldán T. et al., Biological Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic,
Institute of Entomology. 85 (ISBN: 978-80-7394-167-3).
63
Volume 71 • April 2012
A revised checklist of the butterflies (Rhopalocera) of
Corfu (Kérkira)
by Dr Peter G. Sutton (7388)
petersutton@freeuk.com
Introduction
Since the publication of a checklist for the butterflies (Rhopalocera) of
Corfu, (Sutton, 2009) a number of significant changes have been made to
that list. This process has been aided by the recent publication of several
books, which have provided confirmation of the status of certain species
in the Mediterranean region of Europe: Pamperis, L.N., (2009); Kudrna et
al. (2011); Tshikolovets, (2011).
The tabulated checklist provides details of sightings from a number of
recent recorders and changes made to the previous list are explained
below.
Papilionidae
Swallowtail Papilio machaon (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333
Southern Swallowtail Papilio alexanor (Esper [1800]) 333
Scarce Swallowtail Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333
Southern Festoon Zerynthia polyxena
([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775) 33 A
Pieridae
Large White Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333
Small White Artogeia rapae (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333
Southern Small White Artogeia mannii (Mayer, 1851) 333
Mountain Small White Artogeia ergane (Gayer, 1828) B
Green-veined White Artogeia napi (Linnaeus, 1758) 33 33
Krueper’s Small White Artogeia krueperi (Staudinger, 1860) 3333
Eastern Bath White Pontia edusa (Fabricius, 1777)/
Bath White Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333C
Eastern Dappled White Euchloe ausonia (Hübner, [1804]) 33
Orange Tip Anthocharis cardamines (Linnaeus, 1758) 333
Table 1. A revised checklist of the butterflies of Corfu (Kérkira)
Date Key: Baldock & Bretherton: 1980-81; Parker: 1995-2008;
Hall/Russell/Mandziejewicz: 2003-4; Vrabec: 2001-2002; Sutton: 2001-12
Baldock &
Bretherton
Parker
Vrabec
Hall/ Russell/
Mandziejewicz
Sutton
Additional
comments
64 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Eastern Orange Tip Anthocharis damone (Boisduval, 1836) 333D
Clouded Yellow Colias crocea (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785) 33333
Brimstone Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus, 1758) 333
Cleopatra Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) 33333
Wood White Leptidea sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758) 333
Lycaenidae
Purple Hairstreak Quercusia quercus (Linnaeus, 1758) E
Sloe Hairstreak Satyrium acaciae (Fabricius, 1787) 333
Ilex Hairstreak Satyrium ilicis (Esper, 1779) 33
Blue-spot Hairstreak Satyrium spini
([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775) F
Green Hairstreak Callophrys rubi (Linnaeus, 1758) 33 33
Small Copper Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761) 33 33
Grecian Copper Lycaena ottomana (Lefebvre, 1830) G
Purple-shot Copper Lycaena alciphron (Rottemburg, 1775) H
Lesser Fiery Copper Lycaena thersamon (Esper, 1784) I
Long-tailed Blue Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767) 33333
Lang’s Short-tailed Blue Leptotes pirithous (Linnaeus, 1767) 33
Little Tiger Blue Tarucus balkanicus (Freyer, [1844]) 33
Geranium Bronze Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 3J
Grass Jewel Chilades trochylus (Freyer, [1845]) K
Small Blue Cupido minimus (Fuessly, 1775) 3
Holly Blue Celastrina argiolus (Linnaeus, 1758) 333
Green-underside Blue Glaucopsyche alexis (Poda, 1761) 33 33
Eastern Baton Blue Pseudophilotes vicrama (Moore, 1865) 3L
Silver-studded Blue Plebejus argus (Linnaeus, 1758) M
Brown Argus Aricia agestis ([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775) 33333
Chapman’s Blue Agrodiaetus thersites (Cantener, 1835) 33
Common Blue Polyommatus icarus (Rottemburg, 1775) 33333
Mazarine Blue Polyommatus semiargus (Rottemburg, 1775) 3N
Libytheidae
Nettle-tree Butterfly Libythea celtis (Laicharting, 1782) 3O
Baldock &
Bretherton
Parker
Vrabec
Hall/ Russell/
Mandziejewicz
Sutton
Additional
comments
65
Volume 71 • April 2012
Danaidae
Plain Tiger Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) 3
Nymphalidae
Two-tailed Pasha Charaxes jasius (Linnaeus, 1767) 3
Southern White Admiral Limenitis reducta (Staudinger, 1901) 33333
Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus, 1758) 3
Large Tortoiseshell Nymphalis polychloros (Linnaeus, 1758) 3333
Peacock Butterfly Inachis io (Linnaeus, 1758) 333
Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333
Painted Lady Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333
Small Tortoiseshell Aglais urticae (Linnaeus, 1758) P
Comma Butterfly Polygonum c-album (Linnaeus, 1758) 333
Southern Comma Polygonum egea (Cramer, [1775]) 33333
Cardinal Argynnis pandora ([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775) 333
Silver-washed Fritillary Argynnis paphia (Linnaeus, 1758) 333
Queen of Spain Fritillary Issoria lathonia (Linnaeus, 1758) 3
Glanville Fritillary Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758) 33 33
Knapweed Fritillary Melitaea phoebe
([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775) Q
Spotted Fritillary Melitaea didyma (Esper, 1778) 33333
Satyridae
Balkan Marbled White Melanargia larissa (Geyer, [1828]) 3333
Eastern Rock Grayling Hipparchia syriaca (Staudinger, 1871) 333
Woodland Grayling Hipparchia fagi (Scopoli, 1763) R
Delattin’s Grayling Hipparchia volgensis
(Mazochin-Porshnjakov, 1952) 3333 S
Tree Grayling Neohipparchia statilinus (Hufnagel, 1766) 33
Great Banded Grayling Kanetisa (Brintesia) circe
(Fabricius, 1775) 33
Meadow Brown Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333
Oriental Meadow Brown Hyponephele lupina (Costa, 1836) T
Southern Gatekeeper Pyronia cecilia (Vallantin, 1894) U
Small Heath Coenonympha pamphilus (Linnaeus, 1758) 333 3
Speckled Wood Pararge aegeria (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333
Baldock &
Bretherton
Parker
Vrabec
Hall/ Russell/
Mandziejewicz
Sutton
Additional
comments
66 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Wall Brown Lasiommata megera (Linnaeus, 1767) 33333
Large Wall Brown Lasiommata maera (Linnaeus, 1758) 33333
Lattice Brown Kirinia roxelana (Cramer, [1777]) 333
Hesperiidae
Grizzled Skipper Pyrgus malvae (Linnaeus, 1758) 3V
Orbed Red-underwing Skipper Spialia orbifer (Hübner, [1823]) 33
Sage Skipper Muschampia proto (Ochsenheimer, 1808) 33 3
Mallow Skipper Carcharodus alceae (Esper, 1780) 33 33
Oriental Marbled Skipper Carcharodus orientalis
(Reverdin, 1913) 33 3 W
Inky Skipper Erynnis marloyi (Boisduval, [1834]) 3
Lulworth Skipper Thymelicus acteon (Rottemburg, 1775) 33X
Small Skipper Thymelicus sylvestris (Poda, 1761) 3333
Large Skipper Ochlodes sylvanus (Esper, 1777) 333Y
Pigmy Skipper Gegenes pumilio (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) 33
Baldock &
Bretherton
Parker
Vrabec
Hall/ Russell/
Mandziejewicz
Sutton
Additional
comments
An explanation of changes to the previous checklist (Sutton, 2009), and
confirmation of records for previously known species
A. Southern Festoon Zerynthia polyxena ([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775)
The paper by Baldock and Bretherton (1981) highlighted a number of
species whose ongoing presence in Corfu required confirmation,
including the Southern Festoon, for which there appeared to be no
modern records: “In the absence of later records of this conspicuous
species, confirmation of its presence in Corfu is needed.” The authors
also state that the almost century old April record in question referred to,
“a dark yellow female of the ab. ochracea Stgr.”.
During one of my visits to Corfu, my good friend, Dr Spiros Giourgas,
had put me in touch with Mr Stamatis Ghinis, and we went to visit him
in Corfu Town. Mr Ghinis is a well-recognised naturalist on the island
with a particular interest in butterflies. After showing me a dried juvenile
4-Lined Snake that had come into his possession, he proceeded to show
me his impressive collection of digital images of the butterflies and
moths of the island. At that point, a spectacular image of the Southern
Festoon flashed up on his computer screen and I was unable to contain
my excitement at the prospect of finding it on the island. “Where did
67
Volume 71 • April 2012
you find that?” I blurted out, as I pointed to the screen. “In the
mountains near Scripero” came the translated reply from his colleague.
On my next visit I allocated a whole day to the pursuit of this exquisite
butterfly and planned to visit the area in the middle of the week. In the
meantime, (21.iv.2011) I had some unfinished business near Spartera in
the south of the island pursuing Mole Crickets. To cut a long story short,
whilst walking along a sparsely wooded track, a Southern Festoon
appeared before me in the shafts of sunlight as the sun met the tree
line at the end of the afternoon (Figure 1). Luckily for me, not so for
the specimen, it appeared to have had trouble emerging from its
chrysalis, and the tips of its wings were somewhat crumpled. This
allowed me to get a close look at one of the most beautiful species that
Corfu had to offer, and did not diminish the flashing blue iridescence
of its wing scales. The yellow hue of the wing was fairly dark,
suggesting that it was f. ochracea.
Figure 1. Southern Festoon Zerynthia polyxena ([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775)
68 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
I few days later (21.iv.2011), whilst trying to find the impressive crested
newt Triturus carnifex ssp. macedonicus, I came across another specimen
near Temploni in the Ropa Valley, although I did not recognise it at first.
The recent torrential downpours appeared to have washed every scale
from its wings, leaving it but a pencil drawing of its former gaudy self
(Figure 2). A recent communication with Peter Russell revealed that this
species had also been found at two locations: in the northern mountains
(15.iv.2004), and again in the Ropa Valley (17.iv.2004).
Figure 2. Southern Festoon Zerynthia polyxena ([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775)
B. Mountain Small White Artogeia ergane (Gayer, 1828)
Found by Peter Taylor (per Parker, 1996) and presence confirmed by
Kudrna, et al. (2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009, several
records).
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C. Eastern Bath White Pontia edusa (Fabricius, 1777)/ Bath White Pontia
daplidice (Linnaeus, 1758)
It has not been possible to separate these species, which are both
migratory and can interbreed. The following summaries exemplify the
problems faced regarding the taxonomy of these species:
Specimens from different populations cannot be separated on a
morphological basis, and the recent split of the species based on allozyme
differences causes additional taxonomic problems with old taxa. It is not
possible to solve the status of the approximately 30 described taxa.
Tshikolovets, (2011)
They are morphologically indistinguishable and interbreed within a
narrow contact belt. Both species are migrants and their distribution data
cannot be distinguished from each other.” Kudrna, et al. (2011)
D. Eastern Orange Tip Anthocharis damone (Boisduval, 1836)
This species was added to the Corfu list by Showler (1984) and later found
by Parker (1996). Figure 3 shows a specimen found in a mountain valley
in the north-eastern part of the island.
Figure 3. Eastern Orange Tip Anthocharis damone (Boisduval, 1836)
70 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
E. Purple Hairstreak Quercusia quercus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Found by Peter Taylor (per Parker, 1996) and presence confirmed by
Kudrna, et al. (2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009, several
records).
F. Blue-spot Hairstreak Satyrium spini ([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775)
Not found by list of recorders but records confirmed by Kudrna, et al.
(2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009).
G. Grecian Copper Lycaena ottomana (Lefebvre, 1830)
As above.
H. Purple-shot Copper Lycaena alciphron (Rottemburg, 1775)
As above.
I. Lesser Fiery Copper Lycaena thersamon (Esper, 1784)
Found by Peter Taylor (per Parker, 1996) and presence confirmed by
Kudrna, et al. (2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009).
J. Geranium Bronze Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898
New species (Parker, 2010).
K. Grass Jewel Chilades trochylus (Freyer, [1845])
New species (per Pamperis, 2009).
L. Eastern Baton Blue Pseudophilotes vicrama (Moore, 1865)
The Baton Blue Pseudophilotes baton (Bergsträsser, 1779) has been removed
from the Corfu list in accordance with known European distribution of this
species. It is replaced in Eastern Europe and the Balkan region by the
Eastern Baton Blue Pseudophilotes vicrama (Figures 4 and 5).
M. Silver-studded Blue Plebejus argus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Not found by list of recorders but records confirmed by Kudrna, et al.
(2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009, two records).
N. Mazarine Blue Cyaniris semiargus Dalman 1816 (previously
Polyommatus semiargus (Rottemburg, 1775)
New species added by Hall, D. and Russell, P.J.C., Mandziejewicz, R.,
(2003).
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Figure 4. Eastern Baton Blue Pseudophilotes vicrama.
Figure 5. Eastern Baton Blue Pseudophilotes vicrama.
72 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
O. Nettle-tree Butterfly Libythea celtis (Laicharting, 1782)
..confirmation for Corfu desirable” (Baldock and Bretherton, 1981). This
species was found by Hall and Russell (25-31.v.2003) at three different
locations on the island (P.Russell, pers. comm.). Records also confirmed
by Kudrna, et al. (2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009).
P. Small Tortoiseshell Aglais urticae (Linnaeus, 1758)
Not found by list of recorders but records confirmed by Kudrna, et al.
(2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009, two records).
Q. Knapweed Fritillary Melitaea phoebe ([Denis and Schiffelmüller], 1775)
As above.
R. Woodland Grayling Hipparchia fagi (Scopoli, 1763)
This species shares its range with Hipparchia syriaca, presence in Corfu
(with appropriate explanation) confirmed in Pamperis (2009, several
records).
S. Delattin’s Grayling Hipparchia volgensis (Mazochin-Porshnjakov, 1952)
The Grayling Hipparchia semele (Linnaeus, 1758) has been removed from
list. Kudrna had re-examined his original material (a basis for including
semele on the original list) and concluded that they were consistent with
volgensis (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Delattin’s Grayling Hipparchia volgensis (Mazochin-Porshnjakov, 1952).
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T. Oriental Meadow Brown Hyponephele lupina (Costa, 1836)
First recorded by Dennis in 1990 (per Parker, 1996). Records also
confirmed by Kudrna, et al. (2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis
(2009, several records).
U. Southern Gatekeeper Pyronia cecilia (Vallantin, 1894)
Not found by list of recorders but records confirmed by Kudrna, et al.
(2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009).
V. Grizzled Skipper Pyrgus malvae (Linnaeus, 1758)
Added to Corfu list by McLean (1983), recorded by Sutton (2009, Figure
7), Kudrna, et al. (2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009).
Figure 7. Grizzled Skipper Pyrgus malvae (Linnaeus, 1758)
W. Oriental Marbled Skipper Carcharodus orientalis (Reverdin, 1913)
The above species replaces the Marbled Skipper Carcharodus lavatherae
(Esper, 1783) in the southern Balkan region and the Marbled Skipper has
therefore been removed from the Corfu list. Its presence is not confirmed
74 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
by Kudrna, et al. (2011), Tshikolovets, (2011), and Pamperis (2009) and
general consensus is that Marbled Skipper records for Corfu are doubtful.
X. Lulworth Skipper Thymelicus acteon (Rottemburg, 1775)
Found recently by Sutton (Figure 8), and Hall et al. (P. Russell, Pers.
Comm.), also confirmed in Kudrna, et al. (2011), Tshikolovets, (2011),
and Pamperis (2009).
Figure 8. Lulworth Skipper Thymelicus acteon (Rottemburg, 1775), Agios Gordis, 2007.
Y. Large Skipper Ochlodes sylvanus (Esper, 1777)
Kudrna et al. (2011) put the point succinctly, Ochlodes sylvanus (Esper,
1777) is the valid name for the distinct Palaearctic species formerly
considered conspecific with the Eastern-Asiatic Ochlodes venatus (Bremer
& Grey, 1853); their ranges overlap in the Far East, esp. in Korea and
Sakhalin.”
Conclusion
The checklist of butterflies for Corfu now lists 85 species. The following
species have been added to the list: Geranium Bronze Cacyreus
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marshalli, Grass Jewel Chilades trochylus, Mazarine Blue Cyaniris
semiargus and Woodland Grayling Hipparchia fagi.
The following species have been removed from the checklist: Baton
Blue Pseudophilotes baton, Grayling Hipparchia semele and Marbled
Skipper Carcharodus lavatherae.
Acknowledgements
I am indebted to those previous workers who progressively built the
foundation for a comprehensive checklist for Corfu, and to those who
have actively assisted in the revision of that checklist: Rob Parker, Peter
Russell, Vladimir Vrabec, Stamatis Ghinis, David Baldock, (the late) R.
Bretherton, Peter Taylor, David Hall, Robert Mandziejewicz, Alain Olivier
and Matt Rowlings.
References
Baldock, D.W. and Bretherton, R., (1981). Butterflies in Corfu (Kerkyra) in late August with a
provisional list of all species known from it. Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Soc., 14: 8-10 & 101-107.
Beneš, J., Konvika, M., Dvoák, J., Fric, Z., Havelda, Z., Pavlíko, A., Vrabec, V.,
Weidenhoffer, Z., (Eds.) (2002). Butterflies of the Czech Republic: Distribution and
Conservation I, II. SOM, Praha, 857 pp.
Hall, D. and Russell, P.J.C., Mandziejewicz, R., (2003). Two new butterfly records from the
Greek island of Corfu in May 2003. The Entomologist’s Record and Jour nal of Variation,
115: 287-288.
Kudrna, O., Harpke, A., Lux, K., Pennerstorfer, J., Schweiger, O., Settele, J. & Wiemers, M.,
(Eds.) (2011), Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Eur ope. Gesellschaft für
Schmetterlingschutz, Halle, Germany, 576 pp.
Lipscomb, C.G., (1977). Corfu Butterflies in Spring 1977, Ent. Rec. J. Var., 89: 326-328.
McLean, I.F.G., (1983). Spring Butterflies in Corfu. Proc. Trans. Br. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc., 16
(983): 53-54.
Pamperis, L.N., (2009). The Butterflies of Greece. (2nd edition), Editions Pamperis, Athens.
766 pp.
Parker, R., (1996). Pieris mannii and other animals on Corfu in May 1995, Bull. Amat. Ent.
Soc., 55 (407): 175-183 & 254-255.
Parker, R., (2010). Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898, newly recorded for Corfu, with notes
on other butterflies on the island in 2008. Entomologist’s Gaz., 61: 40-42.
Perkovic, D., (2006). Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae,
Danainae), a new species in the fauna of Croatia. Nat. Croat., 15 (1-2): 61-64.
Showler, A.J., (1984). Further Records of Spring Butterflies in Corfu. Proc. Trans. Br. Ent.
Nat. Hist. Soc., 17: 30.
Sutton, P.G., (2009). A checklist of the butterflies (Rhopalocera) of Corfu (Kérkira), Bull.
Amat. Ent. Soc., 68 (485): 130–135.
Tshikolovets, V.V., (2011). Butterflies of Europe and the Mediterranean Area, Tshikolovets
Publications, Pardubice. 544 pp.
Vanholder, B., (1993). Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) en andere trekvlinders op Kerkira
(Corfu), Phegea, 21 (2): 44.
Willemse, L., (1981). More about the distribution of Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera) in Greece,
Ent. Bericht, 41: 41-48.
Withrington, D., (1995), Corfu in late September – Butterflies. Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc., 54: 255.
76 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 9. Male Orange Tip Anthocharis cardamines,
near Spartera.
Figure 11. Ilex Hairstreak Satyrium ilicis, Agios
Gordis.
Figure 13. Underside, Southern Comma
Polygonum egea, Agios Gordis.
Figure 10. Female Cleopatra Gonepteryx cleopatra,
Gavrolimni.
Figure 12. Green-underside Blue Glaucopsyche
alexis, Acharavi.
Figure 14. Southern Comma Polygonum egea,
Agios Gordis.
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Volume 71 • April 2012
Figure 15. Glanville Fritillary Melitaea cinxia, near
Temploni.
Figure 17. Underside, Balkan Marbled White
Melanargia larissa, Vinglatouri.
Figure 19. Lattice Brown Kirinia roxelana, Ropa
Valley.
Figure 16. Balkan Marbled White Melanargia
larissa, Vinglatouri.
Figure 18. Meadow Brown Maniola jurtina,
Temploni.
Figure 20. Small Skipper Thymelicus sylvestris,
Acharavi.
78 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Oxythyrea cinctella (Schaum, 1841) and other members
of the Cetoniidae from Corfu (Kérkira)
by Dr Peter G. Sutton (7388)
petersutton@freeuk.com
Introduction
There appears to be a tendency to label any chafer with white spots on
a black background as Oxythyrea funesta, which is not unreasonable in
Western Europe as it is the only species likely to be encountered.
However, the picture regarding these black and white chafers becomes
more complex as you travel eastwards, with several more species
appearing in the eastern Mediterranean and eastern European countries.
A case in point is provided by one popular photoguide which describes
Oxythyrea funesta using an image of Oxythyrea cinctella. The genus,
Tropinota, is also there to muddy the waters, and as yet, there is little in
the way of an adequate identification guide to alert the wandering
entomologist to these possibilities. Corfu provides an opportunity to enter
into this world of uncertainty, and is home to several species that need a
keen eye to separate in the field.
There are a number of Oxythyrea species that may be encountered in
eastern countries and Mediterranean islands:
Oxythyrea abigail Reiche and Saulcy, 1856
Oxythyrea albopicta (Motschulsky, 1845)
Oxythyrea cinctella (Schaum, 1841)
Oxythyrea dulcis Reitter, 1899
Oxythyrea funesta (Poda, 1761)
Oxythyrea noemi Reiche and Saulcy, 1856
Of these, Oxythyrea cinctella (Figure 1) and Oxythyrea funesta (Figure
2) are present in Corfu. There appears to be an outside chance of
encountering Oxythyrea albopicta and Oxythyrea dulcis on account of
their known distribution in Greece, but not Oxythyrea abigail or
Oxythyrea noemi, which occur from Cyprus eastwards.
Tropinota hirta (Poda, 1761) (Figure 3) has also been encountered on
the island, together with a number of other chafers including Eulasia
pareyssei and the huge Potosia aeruginosa (Sutton: 2009, 2010). Two
more can be added to that list: Haplidia transversa (Fabricius, 1801)
(Figure 4), and what appears to be an Anisoplia sp. (Figure 5). Anisoplia
villosa immediately sprang to mind when I encountered this species at
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Volume 71 • April 2012
Figure 1. Oxythyrea cinctella, Ropa Valley – April 2011.
Figure 2. Oxythyrea funesta, Kavos – May 2008.
80 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 3. Tropinota hirta (Poda, 1761), near Kavos
Avlaki, but its European distribution does not extend into the Balkans or
Greece, where it appears to be replaced by Anisoplia flavipennis Brulle,
1832….which the specimen in question appears not to be. Again, in the
absence of more research, this species, and the two Oxythyrea species
shown in Figures 6 and 7, remain unidentified at species level.
Both Figure 6 and Figure 7 have been routinely identified by other
coleopterists as Oxythyrea funesta, but I am not convinced, as yet, and
would welcome any information regarding a field-worthy key for these
species….if there is one.
It is clear that much work needs to be done regarding the Cetoniidae
in Corfu, and I have yet to find another entomologist, familiar with the
eastern European fauna, to work with on this group. Perhaps this article
will stimulate some interest and a few names!
References
Sutton, P.G., (2009), A selection of beetles (Coleoptera) from the island of Corfu (Kérkira),
Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc., 68, No. 485, pp.145-151.
Sutton, P.G., (2010), More spectacular beetles and other insects from the island of Corfu
(Kérkira), Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc.,69, (No. 491): 131-136.
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Figure 4. Haplidia transversa (Fabricius, 1801),
Roda, May 2008.
Figure 5. Unidentified Anisoplia sp., Avlaki, May
2007.
Figure 6. Unidentified Oxythyrea sp., Ropa Valley,
May 2011.
Figure 7. Unidentified Oxythyrea sp., Ropa Valley,
May 2011.
82 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Chlaenius vestitus Paykull, 1790 and Scarites
buparius (Forster, 1771), new to the Ionian Islands, and
other carabids from Corfu (Kérkira)
by Dr Peter G. Sutton (7388)
petersutton@freeuk.com
Introduction
The Carabidae of Corfu have been studied as part of a wider survey of
the invertebrate fauna of the island, resulting in a number of new
observations. The recent work: Ground Beetles (Carabidae) of Greece
by Arndt et al (2011) has allowed the status of certain subfamilies
present on Corfu, including the Cicindelinae, Carabinae, and
Brachininae, and also the Chlaeniini (a tribe from the subfamily
Harpalinae) and Scaritini (a tribe from the subfamily Scaritinae) to be
reviewed.
Two species, Chlaenius (Chlaeniellus)vestitus Paykull, 1790 and
Scarites (Scalophorites)buparius (Forster, 1771), appear to be new to the
Ionian Islands according the above study (Arndt, E., pers. comm.;
Sfenthourakis, S., pers. comm). Some other carabids of interest, e.g. Myas
chalybaeus, are also described. In accordance with the above work, the
order and suprageneric taxonomy in this work follows the catalogue by
Löbl and Smetana (2003).
Cicindelinae – Tiger Beetles
The checklist provided by Arndt et al (loc. cit.) indicates the presence of
19 species of the Cicindelinae in Greece, of which the following four
species are recorded from the Ionian Islands:
Calomera littoralis nemoralis (Olivier, 1790)
Cephalota (Taenidia) circumdata circumdata (Dejean, 1826)
Cicindela (s.str.) campestris olivieria Brullé, 1832
Cylindera (Eugrapha) trisignata hellenica (Cassola, 1973)
Two of these species have been recorded from Corfu by the author:
Calomera littoralis nemoralis from Lake Korission (Figure 1) and San
Stephanos beach on the north-west coast (Figure 2) and Cicindela
campestris olivieria (Figure 3) from the Ropa valley.
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Figure 1. Calomera littoralis nemoralis from San Stefanos (N.W.Corfu).
Figure 2. Calomera littoralis nemoralis from Lake Korission
84 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 3. Underside of Cicindela campestris olivieria from Ropa Valley.
Carabinae
The checklist provided by Arndt et al (loc. cit.) indicates the presence of
31 species of the Carabinae in Greece, of which the following four species
are recorded from the Ionian Islands:
Carabus (Oreocarabus) preslii neumeyeri Schaum, 1856
Carabus (Oreocarabus) preslii preslii Dejean & Boisduval, 1830
Carabus (Pachystus) graecus graecus Dejean, 1826
Carabus (Procrustes) coriaceus cerisyi Dejean 1826
A fifth species, Carabus (Oreocarabus) hortensis Linnaeus, 1758 also
appears in the above checklist. However, the work of Turin (2003)
indicates that C. hortensis should not be present in the Ionian Islands and
is replaced by C. preslii in this southern Balkan region. This was raised
in a communication with Erik Arndt who revealed that an error that had
appeared in the checklist and that C. preslii had indeed replaced C.
hortensis in the Ionian Islands. It should be noted that the text describing
both species in Arndt et al (loc. cit) is absolutely correct in this respect.
Two of the above species, Carabus preslii neumeyeri (Figure 4) and
Carabus coriaceus cerisyi (Figure 5) have been found by the author on
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Corfu. Both species appear to have a fairly general distribution across the
island, and have been found together from the top of Mount Pantokrator
to the lowlands, albeit sporadically and in small numbers.
Figure 4. Carabus preslii neumeyeri (considered to be Carabus preslii jonicus in: Turin
(2003), see text.)
Figure 5. Carabus coriaceus cerisyi (considered to be Carabus coriaceus mediterraneus in:
Turin (2003), see text.)
86 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
The taxonomic status of Carabus preslii neumeyeri, which has in the
past been treated as a subspecies of Carabus hortensis, is by no means
clearly established. Turin (loc. cit.) indicates that further studies are
needed to clarify taxonomic status and that according to the work of
Deuve, it is Carabus preslii jonicus, that exists on Corfu, stating that it
seems to be distinct from neumeyeri.” Similarly, the work of Turin
suggests that Carabus coriaceus cerisyi has the following distribution: “C.
parts of Balkan peninsula, from Serbia and S.Romania, through
Macedonia, W. and C. Bulgaria to Greece (including Peleponnissos),
islands of the adjacent archipelagos, and widely distributed in Asiatic
Turkey, up to N.W. Syria” whereas the subspecies likely to be found on
Corfu, Carabus coriaceus mediterraneus Born, 1906, has the following
distribution: “S.Albania, Ionian islands, S.Italy (Calabria, Puglia)”.
Scaritinae: Scaritini
The Checklist provided by Arndt et al (loc. cit.) indicates the presence of
six species of the Scaritini in Greece, of which the following three species
are recorded from the Ionian Islands:
Distichus (s.str.) planus Bonelli, 1813
Scarites (Parallelomorphus) laevigatus Fabricius, 1792
Scarites (Parallelomorphus) terricola terricola Bonelli, 1813
Figure 6. Scarites buparius, wet sandy habitats, Lake Korission.
According to Apfelbeck (1904), Distichus planus (as Scarites planus)
has been found on Corfu. No mention is made of Scarites (Scallophorites)
buparius (Forster, 1771) being present on Corfu in any literature other
than Sutton, (2009). Scarites buparius (Figure 6), which is characterised
by its impressive size (23-45 mm), short ovate elytra and superficial striae,
adds a fourth species to the Ionian islands.
Chlaeniini
The Checklist provided by Arndt et al (loc. cit.) indicates the presence of
18 species of the Chlaeniini in Greece, of which the following six species
are recorded from the Ionian Islands:
Callistus lunatus (Fabricius, 1775)1
Chlaenius (Chlaenites) spoliatus spoliatus (P.Rossi, 1792)
Chlaenius (Chlaenius) festivus festivus Panzer, 1796
Chlaenius (Dinodes) decipiens (Dufour, 1820)
Chlaenius (Epomis) dejeanii (Dejean, 1831)
Chlaenius (Trichlaenius) aenocephalus aenocephalus (P.Rossi, 1790)
Figure 7. Chlaenius vestitus, freshwater habitat, Issos beach.
1I was pleased to see that Callistus lunatus had been recorded from Corfu, and this small but showy
carabid is a species that I will certainly look out for on the island. Callistus lunatus was one of the great
rarities in the UK that was a permanent fixture on my list of species to find as a boy. In later years I
searched for it in vain with my brother in the wastelands of east London, with an abiding memory of
high rise flat boys pushing rods through railings to catch fish in the now clean canals.
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88 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Chlaenius festivus and Chlaenius aenocephalus have been recorded
from Corfu according to Apfelbeck (1904). Three species from the genus
Chlaenius have been found by the author on Corfu. Chlaenius vestitus
was found running over wet mud near running water near Issos Beach at
the southern end of Limni Korission. The specimens were identified by
the conspicuously large yellow margin at the edge of the elytra and
appeared to be happy to completely submerge themselves under the
water. The elytra are covered with a fine layer of hairs that waterproof
the beetle and apparently allow it to retain a layer of breathable air. Both
features are visible in Figure 7. This species has not, apparently, been
recorded from Corfu or the Ionian islands (Arndt, E., pers. comm.;
Sfenthourakis, S., pers. comm).
Chlaenius spoliatus (Figure 8) was found at the waters edge on the
muddy banks of the Ropa River at Vatos (Sutton, 2009).
Figure 8. Chlaenius spoliatus, Ropa River banks, Vatos.
Chlaenius festivus (Figure 9) was found in a drier habitat near Temploni
in the Ropa Valley in February 2012. There was no obvious connection
with wetter habitats although the surrounding area was regularly flooded
during winter rains.
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Figure 9. Chlaenius festivus, drier habitats, Ropa Valley.
Brachininae (including the Bombardier beetles)
I have encountered the genus Brachinus on a number of occasions, from
the marshlands around Limni Korission and the temporary ponds at
Temploni, to the drier habitats in the Ropa Valley. On some occasions,
particularly on the banks of wetland habitats, they have been found in
large congregations, as illustrated in the following diary extract from
Temploni:
“On the muddy shaded banks there were remarkable hordes of
Bombardier beetles, literally by the hundred in the damp mud as I lifted
up a rock. I tried to separate what appeared to be an unusually marked
ground beetle from their number with a stick, which precipitated an
impressive firework display of audible explosions and miniature puffs of
smoke reminiscent of the view from an aerial bombing raid.”
While going through my pictures of Brachinus from the island, it
became clear to me that I had recorded more than one species.
90 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 10. Bombardier beetle Brachinus sp.
from the Ropa Valley.
Figure 11. Bombardier beetle Brachinus sp.
from Lake Korission.
It is extraordinary that while Corfu is, to a large extent, poorly represented
by some groups of carabids, the genus Brachinus is present in remarkable
diversity, and the following species have been recorded from the island by
Apfelbeck (1904) (updated in accordance with Arndt et al, 2011):
Brachinus (s.str.) ejaculans Fischer von Waldheim, 1828
Brachinus (s.str.) elegans Chaudoir, 1842 (by Apfelbeck (1904) as B.
ganglbaueri Apfelbeck 1904 (syn.))
Brachinus (s.str.) plagiatus Reiche, 1868
Brachinus (s.str.) psophia Audinet-Serville, 1821
Brachinus (Brachynidius)brevicollis Motschulsky, 1844 (by Apfelbeck
(1904) as B. peregrinus Apfelbeck 1904 (syn.))
Brachinus (Brachynidius)explodens (Duftschmid, 1812)
Brachinus (Cnecostolus)bayardi Dejean, 1831
Brachinus (Cnecostolus)exhalans (P.Rossi, 1792)
Brachinus (inc.sed.)nigricornis Gebler, 1829 (by Apfelbeck (1904) as B.
incertus Csiki (1914)
(Arndt et al (loc. cit.) also report Brachinus berytensis Reiche & Saulcy,
1855 from the Ionian islands.)
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The majority of these species can only be separated from each other
through microscopic examination. The prevalence of Brachinus species
on Corfu would certainly make an excellent subject of study for those
wishing to familiarise themselves with this group.
Bílý (1990) offers the following point of interest regarding the well-
known explosive anti-predator feature of the Brachinus species, which
is considered to be the most highly evolved defence mechanism of all
the carabids: “Peroxide is present in the gland in a concentration
unknown elsewhere in the animal kingdom (a full 28 per cent)”.
Regarding the species featured in the publication, Brachinus explodens,
he goes on to state that, “Despite the abundance of this bombardier beetle,
scientists have as yet been unsuccessful in determining its host.” This
statement has now changed and in 2008, Saska and Honek revealed that
the larvae of this species and another dryland species, Brachinus
crepitans (the species familiar to us in the UK), “develop on the larvae of
spring breeding species of the genus Amara.”
Brachinus species, along with carabids from the genus Lebia are
ectoparasites of other beetle larvae. Juliano (1984), in addition to citing
previous work revealing that (wetland) Brachinus sp. were ectoparasitoids
of pupal aquatic beetles from the Hydrophilidae and Gyrinidae, went on
to describe his observations of Brachinus larvae also parasitizing the
pupae of the Dytiscidae, with up to three larvae on each pupa.
Figure 12. A representative of the European-American fauna: Myas chalybaeus, Ropa Valley.
92 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 13. Zabrus sp., Mount Pantokrator.
Figure 14. Carterus sp., Ropa Valley.
Other species of interest from Corfu have included the visually stunning
Myas (s.str.) chalybaeus (Palliardi, 1825), (Figure 12), and two species
that have been identified to genus only: Zabrus (possibly graecus, Figure
13) and Carterus (possibly rufipes, which has not been reported from the
Ionian islands, Figure 14).
93
Volume 71 • April 2012
Acknowledgements
Sincere thanks must go to Erik Arndt and Spyros Sfenthourakis for their
kind help and generosity regarding the Greek Carabidae.
References
Apfelbeck, V., (1904), Die Käfer der Balkanhalbinsel, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung Klein-
Asiens und der Insel Kreta. 1. Band. Familienreihe Caraboidea. R. Friedländer und Sohn,
Berlin, ix + 422 pp.
Arndt, E., Schnitter, P., Sfenthourakis, S. & Wrase, D.W., (2011), Ground Beetles (Carabidae)
of Greece. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow, 393 pp.
Bílý, S., (1990), A Colour Guide to Beetles, Treasure Press, Artia, Prague. 223 p.
Juliano, S.A., (1984), Multiple feeding and aggression among larvae of Brachinus lateralis
Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae), The Coleopterists Bulletin, 38 (No.4), pp. 358-360.
Löbl, I. and Smetana, A., (eds) (2003): Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Volume 1,
Archostemata-Myxophaga-Adephaga. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 819pp.
Saska, P. and Honek, A., (2008), Synchronization of a coleopteran parasitoid, Brachinus
spp. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and its host, BioOne Online Journals,
http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs
Sutton, P.G., (2009), A selection of beetles (Coleoptera) from the island of Corfu (Kérkira),
Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc., 68, No. 485, pp.145-151.
Trautner, J. and Geigenmuller, K., (1987), Tiger Beetles Gr ound Beetles – Illustrated Key to
the Cicindelidae and Carabidae of Europe, Josef Margraf, Aichtal/Germany, 488 pp.
Turin, H., Penev, L., & Casale, A., (2003), The genus Carabus in Europe. A synthesis. Pensoft,
Sofia-Moscow, 511 pp.
Weisner, J., (1992), A Checklist of the Tiger Beetles of the World, Erna Bauer, Keltern, 364 pp.
94 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Tropidopola graeca graeca Uvarov, 1926, newly
recorded for Corfu (Kérkira) and other Orthoptera of
interest
by Dr Peter G. Sutton (7388)
petersutton@freeuk.com
A number of orthopterans from Corfu are described including Tropidopola
graeca graeca Uvarov, 1926, which is considered to be a newly recorded
species for the island. Several species that were identified in a checklist
for the Orthoptera and allied insects of Corfu (Sutton, 2009) have been
illustrated with photographs, including a species that was not previously
included, the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi, 1792).
Several visits to Corfu have been made by the author since the
publication of the above checklist, resulting in a number of interesting
observations. In August 2005, Chabrier’s Bush-cricket Eupholidoptera
chabrieri garganica La Greca, 1959 was found on sand dunes at Aghios
Stefanos on the north-west coast of Corfu (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Chabrier’s Bush-cricket Eupholidoptera chabrieri garganica, sand dune habitat,
Aghios Stefanos
95
Volume 71 • April 2012
Figure 2. Chabrier’s Bush-cricket Eupholidoptera chabrieri garganica, submontane habitat,
near Acharavi.
Several years later, a specimen (Figure 2) was found in the ascending
foothills of the northern mountains travelling from Acharavi towards Mt.
Pantokrator, and was assumed to be the same species in accordance with
the following statement: Chabrier’s Bush-cricket Eupholidoptera chabrieri
garganica La Greca, 1959, this is currently assumed to be the sole species of
Eupholidoptera occurring on the island of Corfu. There is no current
evidence to suggest that the Epirus Bush-cricket Eupholidoptera epirotica
(Ramme, 1927) was ever present on the island (L. Willemse, pers. comm.,
08.vi.2009)”. However, on closer inspection, there appeared to be some
differences between the two specimens and while it is unlikely that the
two Greek subspecies both occur together, it is worth investigating. The
Acharavi specimen was found in a sub-montane habitat in May, while the
other was found in coastal dune habitat in August. The subspecies in
question are shown in Figure 3, which provides the current known
distribution of Eupholidoptera chabrieri garganica and Eupholidoptera
chabrieri schmidti in Greece and Corfu. This latter subspecies has been
given species status Eupholidoptera schmidti (Fieber, 1861) by some
authors, e.g. Fontana et al. (2002). This reference also states that, The song
(of E. schmidti) can hardly be distinguished from the song of E. c. chabrieri,
(the Italian subspecies from the Veneto region), differences have so far not
been studied, and it is likely that this may also be the case for schmidti
and garganica. At present, further study is required to ascertain their status.
96 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 3. Current known distribution of Chabrier’s Bush-cricket Eupholidoptera chabrieri
garganica/schmidti in Greece (Reproduced with kind permission from Willemse (1984).)
The previous checklist highlighted the important contribution made by
Vrabec and Kcárek (2005), who recorded seven new species of
Orthoptera for the island. These species were included as part of a list of
37 species of Orthoptera recorded from the northern part of Corfu from
surveys conducted in 2001, 2002 and 2003. Work conducted around the
village of Almyros on the northern coast exemplified the species richness
to be found in certain areas of Corfu and yielded 33 species of Orthoptera,
including two members of the Mogoplistinae: Arachnocephalus vestitus
Costa, 1855 and Mogoplistes brunneus Serville, 1839. A recent
communication with Dr Karim Vahed, revealed that he had recorded the
third representative of that subfamily found in Corfu, Pseudomogoplistes
squamiger (Fischer, 1853) at a location “very near the sea (about 2ft away)
in Palaeokastritsa.”
Other members of the Gryllidae encountered on recent trips are the
Desert Cricket Melanogryllus desertus (Pallas, 1771), from the subfamily
97
Volume 71 • April 2012
Gryllinae, which was been found at Limni Korission and near Temploni
in the Ropa Valley (Figures 4a and 4b), and the diminutive Marsh Cricket
Pteronemobius heydenii (Fischer, 1853), the sole member of the subfamily
Nemobiinae in Corfu, which was found along the banks of the Ropa River
at Vatos (Figure 6).
Figure 4 (a) Male Desert Cricket Melanogryllus desertus, near Temploni, Ropa (b) female,
Lake Korission
Figure 5. Marsh Cricket Pteronemobius heydenii, Vatos.
98 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
The female specimen of the Desert Cricket was found in the marshy
fields at the southern end of Limni Korission. It was at this site that I saw
a spectacular emergence of winged termites1Reticulitermes lucifugus
covering the dead wood of a fallen tree, and transforming it, with the aid
of the morning sun, into a shimmering surface feathered with mother of
pearl leaves (Figure 6). On closer inspection I could see the bulldog
guards beneath them, with their sickle jawed heads. Elsewhere among
the colony I noticed, for the first time, that the pale translucent white
workers, which were blind, were accompanied by other white individuals,
which were not (Figure 7). I concluded that these were destined to
become part of a communal marital flight, like the one that was about to
occur. This appeared to be confirmed later when I observed white, eyed
individuals with developing wing buds (Figure 8).
Figure 6. A pre-marital congregation of termites Reticulitermes lucifugus, Limni Korission
1Termites were reclassified in 1996 as being more akin to cockroaches than Hymenoptera, and are now
routinely included in the list of species allied to the Orthoptera.
99
Volume 71 • April 2012
Figure 7. Reticulitermes lucifugus, workers
Figure 8. Reticulitermes lucifugus, eyed individual with developing wings.
100 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
My journey south
towards Issos beach
continued until I reached
the concrete leat that
allows the water draining
from the fields to reach
the sea through the dunes
(Figure 9). This artificial
waterway, which dries up
completely during the
summer months, is always
very productive for all
number of species, and in
addition to the many
beetles e.g. Scarites buparius, that haunt its hidden cavities, I found
another specimen of the Mole Cricket Gryllotalpa sp. when I lifted a mat
of algal-bound vegetation (Figure 10). A dead male specimen of the Mole
Cricket was found by Karim Vahed (11.xi.2011, pers. comm.) during his
last visit to Corfu and was promptly preserved in ouzo, providing an
outside chance of a DNA analysis to determine whether or not the species
on Corfu is G. krimbasi!
Figure 9. The concrete leat near Issos beach.
Figure 10. The Mole Cricket Gryllotalpa sp., near Issos beach.
101
Volume 71 • April 2012
Also present were large numbers of grasshoppers including the strong-
flying Long-winged Grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus (Fabricius, 1781),
(Figure 11). This species can be distinguished from the very similar
Aiolopus strepens (Latrielle, 1804) by the shape of the pronotum, but
perhaps more easily by the leg width to leg length ratio of the hind femur:
femur length is three and a half times greatest width for strepens, four
times greatest width for thalassinus (Willemse, 1985a).
Figure 11. Long-winged Grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus, Limni Korission
The undisturbed fields beyond Kavos are a regular destination, and
while these trips have been unsuccessful to date regarding my pursuit of
the Aesculapian Snake, they have always provided ample reward on the
entomological front. One particular site, where a small river meets the
sea to the north of the town is a hot-spot for Orthoptera, including several
species of grasshopper. A previous visit had produced Pyrgomorpha
conica conica (Olivier, 1791), which I expected to find again among the
stands of caned reeds that held the sand near the foreshore, along with
the blue and red-winged grasshoppers that flew between them. What I
found instead was a similar cone-headed grasshopper, Tropidopola graeca
graeca Uvarov, 1926 (Figure 12), which is newly recorded for the island
(Luc Willemse, 22.v.2011, pers. comm.). Both species are very adept at
102 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
maintaining their position on the opposite side of the reed stem from
your line of view, but a stealthy approach, and a slow hand movement
towards one side of the stem will bring them shuffling into view as they
respond to it.
Figure 12. Tropidopola graeca, near Kavos
Acknowledgements
Sincere thanks to Luc Willemse for useful discussion, and for confirming
identification and records, Fer Willemse and the Hellenic Zoological
Society for kind permission to reproduce the map shown in Figure 3, and
Vladimir Vrabec and Karim Vahed for their kind provision of data and
records regarding the orthopteran fauna of Corfu.
References
Fontana, P., Buzzetti, F.M., Cogo, A., Odé, B., (2002), Guida al riconoscimento e allo studio
di Cavallette, Grilli, Mantidi e Insetti affini del Veneto. Blattaria, Mantodea, Isoptera,
Ortheoptera, Phasmatodea, Dermaptera, Embiidina. Museo Naturalistico Archeologico di
Vicenza Ed., Vicenza: 1-592.
Kcárek, P. and Vrabec, V., (2005). Contribution to the knowledge of orthopteroid insects of
Corfu Island, Greece (Orthoptera, Mantodea, Dermaptera, Blattaria, Isoptera),
Entomofauna carpathica, 17: 8-10.
103
Volume 71 • April 2012
Sutton, P.G., (2009), A checklist of the Orthoptera and allied insects of Corfu (Kérkira), Bull.
Amat. Ent. Soc., 68, (485): 152-160.
Willemse, F., 1984. Fauna Graeciae I. Catalogue of the Orthoptera of Greece. Athens: 1-275.
Willemse, F., 1985a. Fauna Graeciae II. A key to the Orthoptera species of Greece. Athens: 1-
288.
Willemse, F., 1985b. Fauna Graeciae Ia. Supplementary notes on the Orthoptera of Greece.
Athens: 1-47.
Willemse, F., and Willemse, L., 2008. An annotated checklist of the Orthoptera-Saltatoria
from Greece including an updated bibliography. Articulata Beiheft, 13: 1-91.
104 Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society
Figure 1. (From left to right) the author, Dr Spiros Giourgas, and Leonidas
Collas, Secretary General for the Hellenic Society for the Protection of Nature.
Acknowledgements
Writing this collection of articles would not have been possible without
the generous assistance and expertise of a considerable number of
people.
It has been my great privilege to work with and correspond with the
following:
Erik Arndt, Spyros Sfenthourakis, Stamatis Ghinis, Robert Angus, Garth
Foster, Hans Fery, Lars Hendrich, Julia Lopau, Matt Rowlings, Martin
Rejzek, Maria Dimaki, Vincent Kalkman, K-D. Dijkstra, Peter Russell, Rob
Parker, David Baldock, Karim Vahed, Luc Willemse, Fer Willemse and
Vladimir Vrabec.
I should also like to thank Val McAtear for invaluable assistance at the
Royal Entomological Society library and headquarters at Mansion House.
A special thank you must go to Dr Lee Durrell for kindly allowing
access to the work of Dr Theo. Stefanides and allowing me to use
additional photographic material from the Durrell collection; Colin
Stevenson for photography at Les Augres Manor and kindly providing the
image used in Figure 1 in the introduction to this special issue; and Dr
Spiros Giourgas, who has been an indispensable asset to my studies on
the island of Corfu. Peter Sutton, April 2012
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The Amateur Entomologists’ Society
PO Box 8774, London SW7 5ZG
www.amentsoc.org
Volume 71 • Number 501 April 2012
Bulletin
Bulletin
of the Amateur Entomologists’ Society
The
© 2012. The Amateur Entomologists' Society.
(Registered Charity No. 267430)
All rights reserved.
Printed by Cravitz Printing Co. Ltd., 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA.
CONTENTS
Editorial ...........................................................................................................................
Sutton, P. G. Key identification features for the Red-veined Darter
Sympetrum
fonscolombii
(Selys, 1840) and other Odonata in Corfu (Kérkira)...................................
Sutton, P. G.
Cybister tripunctatus
ssp.
africanus
Laporte, 1855,
Dytiscus mutinensis
(Pederzani, 1971), and other large water beetles in Corfu (Kérkira)................................
Sutton, P. G. A revised checklist of the butterflies (Rhopalocera) of Corfu (Kérkira) ............
Sutton, P. G.
Oxythyrea cinctella
(Schaum, 1841) and other members of the Cetoniidae
from Corfu (Kérkira) ......................................................................................................
Sutton, P. G.
Chlaenius vestitus
Paykull, 1790 and
Scarites buparius
(Forster, 1771), new to
the Ionian Islands, and other carabids from Corfu (Kérkira)............................................
Sutton, P. G.
Tropidopola graeca graeca
Uvarov, 1926, newly recorded for Corfu (Kérkira)
and other Orthoptera of interest....................................................................................
Acknowledgements .........................................................................................................
41
45
50
63
78
82
94
104
... A day in the mountains overlooking the spectacular wetlands of Albania produced a memorable display of butterflies as we walked through the orchid lined paths, including a sighting of the Grecian Copper Lycaena ottomana (Lefèbvre, 1830) ( Figure 19). In 2012, a revision of the checklist of the Rhopalocera of Corfu (Sutton, 2012d) showed that this species had not been recorded on Corfu by a number of lepidopterists from western Europe, but that its presence on Corfu had recently been confirmed by Kudrna et al. (2011), Tshikolovets (2011 and Pamperis (2009). Subsequently, the work of Ghinis et al. (2013) provided information on the presence of this species in the Rechini area of the Melissoudi River valley, and in the Marsh of Kanoufadi area near Lake Antiniotissa to the north-east of the island. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an overview of the recent developments regarding the recording of a number of insect groups in order to gain a better understanding of their current status on the island of Corfu.
... This, of course, is related to the time and resources that these groups or individuals have been able to dedicate to the island, and the fact that generally speaking, they have examined Corfu as but a small part of a much bigger picture regarding the fabulous biodiversity of Greece. This situation has allowed me, through productive collaboration and considerable support from those involved with the study of invertebrate life on Corfu, to first construct, and then revise, comprehensive taxonomic lists for the Rhopalocera (Sutton: 2009b(Sutton: , 2012d, Odonata (Sutton:2009c), Orthoptera and allied species (2009d) and some aspects of the Carabidae, i.e. Cicindelinae, Carabinae, Scaritinae, Brachininae (Sutton, 2012f). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an overview of the author's attempt to study and document the 'Durrellian' aspects of natural history (reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates) on the island of Corfu
Article
Full-text available
Editorial: Discusses the contribution of Theodore Stephanides regarding the aquatic fauna of Corfu, and the development of one of the world's most effective and influential conservationists, Gerald Durrell.
Article
Full-text available
Observations of Oxythyrea cinctella (Schaum, 1841) and other members of the Cetoniidae from Corfu (Kérkira)
Article
Full-text available
This work describes the addition of Chlaenius vestitus Paykull, 1790 and Scarites buparius (Forster, 1771), to carabid fauna of the Ionian Islands, and provides details of other carabids known from Corfu (Kérkira) in accordance with contemporary observations and available literature.
Article
Full-text available
This article describes the discovery of Tropidopola graeca graeca Uvarov, 1926, newly recorded for Corfu (Kérkira) and other Orthoptera of interest.
Article
Full-text available
The presence of the Great Silver Water Beetle Hydrophilus piceus (Linnaeus, 1758), King Diving Beetle Dytiscus dimidiatus Bergsträsser, 1778, Dytiscus mutinensis Pederzani, 1971, Cybister (Scaphinectes) lateralimarginalis (De Geer, 1774) and Cybister (Cybister) tripunctatus ssp. africanus Laporte 1855 on the island of Corfu is reported, with a discussion regarding the need to further establish the relationship between Dytiscus dimidiatus and Dytiscus mutinensis using evidence from DNA analysis.
Article
Full-text available
Some spectacular examples of entomological fauna from the island of Corfu are provided, including: Potosia aeruginosa, Oryctes nasicornis and its parasite (the largest European solitary wasp) Megascolia maculata, Anthaxia hungarica and Stictoleptura cordigera.
Article
Full-text available
A checklist of the Orthoptera and allied insects of Corfu (Kérkira) is provided based on the research of the author and available literature.
Article
Full-text available
A checklist of the dragonflies (Odonata) of Corfu (Kérkira) including a new record for the Ionian Islands, the Black Pennant Selysiothemis nigra (Vander Linden, 1825)
Book
Full-text available
Survey of the 135 species of the genus Carabus L. belonging to the European fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Special part: Introduction, Checklist, Key to the adults, Key to the larvae, Species accounts. General part: Biology and ecology, Phylogeny, Biogeography, Conservation Biology, Carabus evaluations. 511 pages, ca. 540 illustrations and maps, 100 European transects.
Book
The Larger Water Beetles of the British Isles: pp 1-78, 5 colour plates, 31 text figs, 10 distribution maps. Describes life-histories, habitat requirements, current status and distribution of Dytiscus, Cybister, Hydrophilus, Acilius and Hydrochara spp. to be found in the British Isles.
Article
On August 15, 2004, three specimens of Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758) were caught at the mouth of the Neretva River near the town of Ploče in South Dalmatia. This is the first record of this migratory species in Croatia. A review of its zoogeographical characteristics and distribution in Europe is given. The results have been discussed and further study of this species is recommended.
Data
Ground beetles (Carabidae, including tiger beetles, paussid beetles and bombardier beetles) are one of the most diverse insect families in Europe. They occur in apparently all terrestrial habitats and represent a major part of the invertebrate predator guild of the soil fauna, e.g. in forests, maquis and agrocoenoses. Due to their abundance and ubiquitous occurrence, the overall ecological role of carabid beetles in these ecosystems can safely be assumed. Moreover, ground beetles are one of the most frequently used indicator groups for ecological surveillance, biodiversity research and studies on environmental change. Also pest control in agriculture and forests is possible using Carabid beetles. The Greek fauna of ground beetles is very rich because of a great variety of different habitats, a very high number of islands and many mountains. According to the present knowledge nearly 1000 species in 138 genera live in Greece. A proportion of 23% of these species is endemic. This book, written by a team of specialists from eight European countries, provides a determination key to all genera and species keys to almost all species, a complete checklist as well as colour photos of representatives of 96 genera. An introduction to the biogeography and habitat types of Greece as well as ecological data of the carabid species complete the content of this volume. It is the first comprehensive book on Carabidae not only for Greece but for all regions of the Balkan Peninsula, and will be an indispensable tool for anybody interested in ground beetles in connection with taxonomic, faunistic, ecological, and biogeographical aspects of this region.