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Hybrid Quantum Computing Apocalypse

Volume 5- Issue 4: 2018
ISSN: 2574-1241
DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.09.001769
Robert Skopec. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res
Review Article
Biomedical Journal of
Each universe in a multiverse contains different levels of dark
energy, according to the dominant theory. A hypothetical multiverse
seems less likely after modeling by researchers in Australia and the
UK threw one of its key assumptions into doubt. The multiverse
           
support among some of the world’s most accomplished physicists,
including Brian Greene, Max Tegmark, Neil deGrasse Tyson and the
late Stephen Hawking. One of the prime attractions of the idea is
that it potentially accounts for an anomaly in calculations for dark
The mysterious force is thought to be responsible for the
accelerating expansion of our own universe. Current theories
predict there should be rather more of it around than there appears
to be. This throws up another set of problems: If the amount of
dark energy around was as much as equations require- and that
is many trillions of times the level that seems to exist-the universe
would expand so rapidly that stars and planets would not form-
and life, thus would not be possible. The multiverse idea to an
extent accounts for and accommodates this oddly small-but life
permitting-dark energy quotient. It permits a curiously self-serving
explanation: There are a vast number of universes all with differing
amounts of dark energy. We exist in one that has an amount low
enough to permit stars and so on to form, and thus life to exist. So
far, so anthropic. But now a group of astronomers, including Luke
Barnes from the University of Sydney in Australia and Jaime Salcido
from Durham University in the UK, has published two papers in
the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society that
as previous estimates have suggested.
The team created simulations of the universe using the
supercomputer architecture contained within the Evolution and
Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) project.
This is a UK-based collaboration that models some 10,000 galaxies
over a distance of 300 million-light years and compares the
results with actual observations from the Hubble Telescope and
other observatories. The simulations allowed the researchers to
adjust the amount of dark energy in the universe and watch what
happened. The results were a surprise. The research revealed that
the amount of dark energy could be increased a couple of hundred
times-or reduced equally drastically-without substantially affecting
anything else. For many physicists, the unexplained but seemingly
special amount of dark energy in our universe is frustrating puzzle.
Above simulations show that even if there was much more dark
energy or even very little in the universe then it would only have
a minimal effect on star and planet formation. This implies that life
could potentially exist in many multiverse universes.
The multiverse was previously thought to explain the observed
value of dark energy as a lottery-we have a lucky ticket and live in
the universe that forms beautiful galaxies which permit life as we
know it. Cited works show that our ticket seems a little too lucky.
It’s more special than it needs to be for life. This is a problem for
the multiverse, a puzzle remains. It is a puzzle that goes right to
does a multiverse even exist? The formation of stars in a universe is
a hybrid battle between the attraction of gravity, and the repulsion
of dark energy. So why such a paltry amount of dark energy in our
universe? Probably, we should be looking for a new law of physics
to explain this strange property of our universe, and the multiverse
Researcher-analyst, Slovakia
 : August 10, 2018;  September 21, 2018
 Robert Skopec, Researcher-analyst, Dubnik, Slovakia
Chinese scientists won a major victory, by proving that the Majorana fermion-a particle we’ve found tantaliying hints for years–genuinely exists.
This discovery has huge implications for quantum computing, and it might change the world. Don Lincoln, a senior physicist at Fermilab, does
research using the Large Hadron Collider. He is the author of “The Large Hadron Collider: The Extraordinary Story of the Higgs Boson and Other Stuff
That Will Blow Your Mind” and produces a series of science education videos. To the question: Why is there (in our Universe) something including
 Volume 9- Issue 2: 2018
 Robert Skopec. Hybrid Quantum Computing Apocalypse. Biomed J Sci&Tech Res 9(2)-2018. BJSTR. MS.ID.001769.
DOI: 10.26717/ BJSTR.2018.09.001769. 2/6
Don Lincoln, a senior physicist at Fermilab, does research
using the Large Hadron Collider. He is the author of “The Large
Hadron Collider: The Extraordinary Story of the Higgs Boson and
Other Stuff That Will Blow Your Mind” and produces a series of
science education videos. To the question: Why is there (in our
Universe) something including cancer, rather than nothing? He
          
Give some scientists 65 pounds of rare isotope of germanium,
cool it to temperatures cold enough to liquefy air, and place their
equipment nearly a mile underground in an abandoned gold
mine, and you’ll have the beginnings of an answer. Their project is
called the Majorana Demonstrator and it is located at the Sanford
Underground Research Facility, near Lead, South Dakota. To grasp
why science has trouble explaining why matter exists -and to
      
know a few simple things. First, our Universe is made exclusively of
matter, all people, the Earth, even distant galaxies. All of it is matter.
Our best theory for explaining the behavior of the matter and
energy of the Universe contradicts the realities that we observe in
the Universe all around us. This theory, called the Standard Model,
says that the matter of the Universe should be accompanied by an
identical amount of antimatter, which, as its name suggests, is a
substance antagonistic to matter. Combine equal amounts of matter
and antimatter and it will convert into energy. And the street goes
both ways: Enough energy can convert into matter and antimatter
(since antimatter’s discovery in 1931). Modern cosmology says the
Universe began in an unimaginable Big Bang-an explosion of energy.
In this theory, equal amounts of matter and antimatter should have
resulted in cancer. So how our Universe made exclusively of matter?
However, we don’t know the process whereby the asymmetry in
the laws of the Universe arose. One possible explanation revolves
around a class of subatomic particles called leptons.
The most well-known of the leptons is the familiar electron,
found around atoms. A less known lepton is called the neutrino.
Neutrinos are emitted in a particular kind of nuclear radiation,
called beta decay. It occurs when a neutron in an atom decays into
a proton, an electron, and a neutrino. Neutrinos are fascinating
particles. They interact extremely weakly, a steady barrage of
neutrinos from the nuclear reactions in the Sun pass through the
entire Earth essentially without interacting. Still a mystery to
scientists is whether there is a difference between neutrino matter
and neutrino antimatter. While we know that both exists, we
don’t know if they are different subatomic particles or if they are
the same thing. We don’t know which kind of twins the neutrino
matter/antimatter pair are. If neutrinos are their own antimatter
particle, it would be an enormous clue in the mistery of missing
antimatter and proliferation of matter in cancer.
decay, called double beta decay. That’s when two neutrons in the
nucleus of an atom simultaneously decay. If neutrinos are their
own antiparticle, an even rarer thing can occur called HYBRID
neutrinoless double beta decay (the term: Robert Skopec). In this
process, the neutrinos are absorbed before they get outside of the
nucleus. In this case no neutrinos are emitted. The observation of
a single, unambiguous neutrinoless double beta decay would show
that matter and antimatter neutrinos were the same. If indeed
neutrinoless double beta decay exists, it’s very hard to detect and
it’s important that scientists can discriminate between the many
types of radioactive decay that mimic that of a neutrino. This
requires the design and construction of very precise detectors.
So that’s what the Majorana Demonstrator scientists achieved.
Once and for all, it can answer the question of whether matter and
antimatter neutrinos are HYBRID: the same or different. With that
information in hand, it might be possible to understand why our
Universe is made of matter leading to cancer too [1,2].
Chinese scientists won a major victory, by proving that the
Majorana fermion-a particle we’ve found tantalizing hints of for
years- genuinely exists. This discovery has huge implications for
quantum computing of cancer, and it might change the World.
A Majorana fermion is weird even by the standards of quantum
physics. The Majorana fermion doesn’t have a charge, which allows
the mystery of cancer to be HYBRID: matter and anti-matter at the
same time! The fact that it doesn’t have a charge, and also happens to
be the exact reverse of itself at the same time. Quantum computers
of cancer are like a huge pile of dimmer switches. You can set these
    
because the dimmers are all wired to each other’s, immediately
as tumors. These dimmers, e. i. quantum bits, are what’s called
entangled in cancer. If you change one quantum bit, the others it’s
entangled with change with it, even if they’re a million miles away
from each other. That’s where Majorana fermions as metastasis
come in due to their HYBRID: o-charge nature [3].
The neurological basis of synesthesia could help explain one
skill that many creative people share facility for using metaphor
to make links between seemingly unrelated domains. Metaphor
involves making links between seemingly unrelated conceptual
realms, while this is not just a coincidence. Cancer Coincidences
is at a deeper level a manifestation of HYBRID Quantum
Entanglement Entropy [4,5]. Mutation of the angular gyrus make
possible for synesthesia to provide excess communication among
different brain maps. Involved in cross-modal synthesis the brain
        
together are enabling the construction of high-level perceptions.
The angular gyrus is disproportionately larger in humans than in
apes and monkeys-evolved originally for cross-modal associations.
Probably later became co-opted for more abstract functions such
as metaphors [6]. The common abstract property is extracted
somewhere in the vicinity of the TPO, probably in the angular
gyrus. It is extracting the abstraction of the common denominator
(“ratio”) from a set of strikingly dissimilar entities. When the ability
to engage in cross-modal proliferation of metastasis emerged, it
is opening the way for more complex types of abstraction-e. i. for
geniality of thinking [7].
 Volume 9- Issue 2: 2018
 Robert Skopec. Hybrid Quantum Computing Apocalypse. Biomed J Sci&Tech Res 9(2)-2018. BJSTR. MS.ID.001769.
DOI: 10.26717/ BJSTR.2018.09.001769. 3/6
We can try to picture a fourth dimension. Veer left for a
second dimension, then jump up for a third dimension. Then dive
into a fourth dimension, in a direction we don’t have a word for
because our minds can’t grasp even the idea of it. That’s a fourth
dimension of space, about which two new studies yield some clues.
       
than we can. But if scientists can design them very carefully, their
studies can produce shadows of a sort, which suggest a fourth
dimension really is there lurking just beyond our grasp. Two such
physics experiments have done just that, according to two papers
published in the journal Nature. The research was conducted
mostly by independent teams tackling similar big questions with
very different little questions, although one co-author was involved
on both projects.
Researchers used two different approaches to dance around
 
our capabilities instead, as Gismodo has reported. In both cases,
the experiments demonstrated phenomena that actually require
just two dimensions, nice and mundane. The tools required to get
those phenomena to manifest were anything but mundane. One
experiment relied on lasers to trap individual atoms of a highly
reactive element called rubidium in a square, like a cat carefully
sitting between taped lines. The other experiment used a box
and seeing how the effects rippled throughout the box. Studies
let scientists explore fourth dimension theories in new ways. The
physicists on both these projects aren’t just looking for a nice
brainteaser, of course. They want to stretch our knowledge and
technology as far as possible. Even if we can’t actually experience a
fourth dimension ourselves, they think reaching for the fringes of it
could offer valuable lessons that we can implement right here in the
3-D world we live in. May be we can come up with new physics in
the higher dimension and then design devices that take advantage
of the higher-dimensioned HYBRID physics in lower dimensions [8-
Neurobiological correlates of value have been described in
orbitofrontal (conscience), cingulated cortex (critical intellectuals)
and the basal ganglia, areas of the brain traditionally associated
with reward-seeking behavior. Some neurons in orbitofrontal
cortex represent value independently from evidence, choice and
action. Anterior cingulate cortex is thought to represent negative
(critical, non-linear) value [12].
There is much evidence that a number of brain regions are
sensitive to expected reward (or “utility”). The most well established
are dopaminergic regions such as the striatum and midbrain
structures. The common ratio pattern can be reconciled by the
plausible assumption that people apply nonlinear decision weights
( )
to objective probabilities
, so that the ratio
( ) ( )
0.2 / 0.01
is much smaller than
( ) ( )
1 / 0.5
. Neural responses to probabilities
       
behavior well focused on between subjects measures and showed
that activity in anterior cingulate correlated with degree of
nonlinearity across subjects [13]. We can make the assumption that
neural activity is approximately a linear function of the behaviorally
derived utility function. The GLM model separates the weighting
function into two components: (1) component that is linear in
and (2) the component that is the nonlinear deviation term (NDT)
( ) ( )
p pp
∆= −
       
expected value function that is nonlinear in
; that is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, . ,.p ux pux p ux
πα α
= +∆
. We assume the function
is power function
, where the value of
is taken from the
individual behavioral estimate, and
( ) ( )
p pp
∆= −
, where the
mean group
=0.771 is used.
If the expected utility (EU) null hypothesis is an accurate
approximation of valuation of risky choices, there should be no
reward-related brain regions that respond to the deviation term
( ) ( )
,.p ux
. If the nonlinear weighting hypothesis is an accurate
approximation, there should be reward-related brain regions that
respond equally strongly to the linear component
( )
.pu x
and to the
nonlinear component
( ) ( )
,.p ux
nonlinear weighting inferred from choices is consistent with cross-
subject differences in neural activity caused by cancer. More highly
nonlinear functions will be approximated by a combination of the
linear term
and the nonlinear term
( ) ( )
p pp
∆= −
that puts
more weight on the nonlinear term. A linear-weighting subject will
put no weight on nonlinear deviation
( ) ( )
p pp
∆= −
of tumors.
Denote the true weighting function for subject
( )
, and the deviation from linear weighting by
( ) ( )
. A
brain region that represents
( )
with both
( )
That is, the linear term
and nonlinear deviation term with a
higher weight on the nonlinear deviation term [14]. Brain regions
        
nonlinear term include the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), the
striatum, motor cortex, and cerebellum. Our intuition is that brain
activity during valuation of risks is more likely to correspond to
cognitive components of prospect-masking in cancer, than to EU,
and it will be easier to construct an adaptationist account of how
evolution would have shaped brains to follow prospect-masking
in cancer rather than EU. The prospect-masking follows from
psychophysics of proliferation, while EU from normative logic [14].
The increased specialization required today for professional
credentials makes the broad thinking of that characterizes geniuses
harder to develop. I agree that the ritual culture of academia may
also hamper genius. As philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn has
 
existing formalistic academic paradigms tend to be dismissed the
counter-selection leading to cancer [15-17]. Many great scientists
have related how their most original ideas were repeatedly rejected
by their peers and caused cancer.
 Volume 9- Issue 2: 2018
 Robert Skopec. Hybrid Quantum Computing Apocalypse. Biomed J Sci&Tech Res 9(2)-2018. BJSTR. MS.ID.001769.
DOI: 10.26717/ BJSTR.2018.09.001769. 4/6
      
introduced by the Institute of Medicine’s Clinical Research
Roundtable, highlights two roadblocks (i.e., distinct areas in need
  
translational block (T2) prevents proven interventions from
becoming standard practice. An important role in the processes
of adaptation and masking in humans is playing also the immune
system. The innate immune system functions as an interpreter of
    
the information to other repair and defense systems in the body
by stimulating angiogenesis, wound repair, and activating adaptive
immunity. It is appropriate to consider autophagy a means for
programmed cell survival balancing and counter-regulating
apoptosis. Autophagy seems to have a dichotomous role in
tumorigenesis and tumor progression.
        
involves major reprogramming of cellular energy metabolism
in order to support continuous cell growth and proliferation
replacing the metabolic program that operates in most normal
tissues. The second involves active evasion by cancer cells from
attack and elimination by immune cells. This capability highlights
the dichotomous correlations of an immune system that both
antagonizes and enhances tumor development and progression.
         
serves counter-intuitively to promote tumor progression [15-17].
        
The quantum entanglement is a basis of twofaced reality in
which we are living our lives. From this reality are outgoing also
the science and healthcare too. Although metastasis is important
for systemic correlations expansion (as in tumors), it is a highly
dichotomous process, with millions of cells being required to
disseminate to allow for the selection of cells-correlates aggressive
enough to survive the metastatic cascade. To quantify the dynamics
of metastasis of correlations development, we need look at the
coincidences of metastases in terms of co-occurrence at every point
of time. To quantify co-occurrence, we can use the
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ij i j
ij i j
N tC t m tm t
mtmt N t mt N t m t
 
 
( )
is the number of co-occurrence at time t. Than i and
j represent particular site of metastasis, X represents the primary
correlations type. The pair-wise correlations (coincidences)
between metastasis network links for every primary correlation’s
The dichotomous correlations of the adaptation may be caused
also by the Quantum Entanglement Relative Entropy as a measure
of distinguishability between two quantum states in the same
Hilbert space. The relative entropy of two density matrices
( ) ( )
111 10
log log
S tr p p tr p p
= −
. When
are reduced
density matrices on a spatial domain D for two states of a quantum
 (QFT), implies that
increases with the size of D.
( ) ( )
11 00
log log
S tr p p tr p p∆=− +
is the change in entanglement
entropy across D as one goes between the states. When the states
under comparison are close, the positivity is saturated to leading
order [7]:
=∆ −∆ =
The problem of conventional adaptation may be given by
       
correlations lead to the resonances between the degrees of
freedom. When we increase the value of energy, we increase the
regions where randomness prevails. For some critical value of
energy, chaos appears: over time we observe the exponential
divergence of neighboring trajectories. For fully developed chaos,
the cloud of points generated by a trajectory leads to diffusion
[18]. Natural Law: The
HYBRID Quantum Entanglement Entropy (HQEE) [15]. Through
above resonances the QEE is causing a metastasis of correlations,
antagonistically intertwining (coincidences) all types of potentially
Physicists have done the seemingly impossible: found a way
to track mysterious quantum particles even when those particles
aren’t being observed. In classical physics, an object occupies only
one state of being at a time, something could be either alive or dead,
but not both simultaneously. But quantum physics, which seeks
to explain how life works at the subatomic level, isn’t so intuitive.
Quantum physics differs from classical physics in that under
quantum theory, objects can exist as both waves and particles,
occupying both states at the same time. They only exist as either
one or the another after they’ve been measured.
Researchers from the University of Cambridge have shown that
the movements of those particles actually can be tracked without
    
with their surrounding environments. A paper describing the work
         
of Schrdinger’s cat, the standard paradox for illustrating this
particular aspect of quantum theory. Premise of Schrdinger’s cat,
commonly referred to as the wave function, has been used more
as a mathematical tool than a representation of actual quantum
       
Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory, said in the statement. That’s
why they took on the challenge of creating a way to track the secret
movements of quantum particles.
When any particle interacts with its environment, it leaves
a tag. Those tags result in information being encoded into
particles. D. Arvidsson-Shukur and his colleagues theorized a
way that physicists could map how quantum particles tag their
 Volume 9- Issue 2: 2018
 Robert Skopec. Hybrid Quantum Computing Apocalypse. Biomed J Sci&Tech Res 9(2)-2018. BJSTR. MS.ID.001769.
DOI: 10.26717/ BJSTR.2018.09.001769. 5/6
environments without their having to look directly at the particles.
Researchers are able to explore the forbidden domain of quantum
mechanics: pinning down the path of quantum particles when no
one is observing them. Another hypothetical scenario used by some
scientists to illustrate quantum particles is called counterfactual
communication. In counterfactual communication, information
can be shared between two people, without any particles actually
travelling in the space between them. This concept is akin to
telepathy. It’s called counterfactual because the traditional facts
would hold that particles would have to move between Alice and
Bob in order for a message from one to the other.
To measure this phenomenon of counterfactual communication,
we need a way to pin down where the particles between Alice
and Bob are when we’re not looking. Above tagging method can
do just this. The researchers believe their new technique could
help quantum physicist follow the movements of particles they’re
experimenting on throughout the whole process-even if they don’t
actually measure them until the very end [19].
In the ancient world, they used cubits as an important data
unit, but the new data unit of the future is the qubit- the quantum
bits that will change computing. Quantum bits are the basic units
of information in quantum computing, a new type of computer in
which particles like electrons or photons can be utilizing to process
information with both sides (polarizations) acting as a positive or
negative, alternatively or at the same time.
According to experts, quantum computers will be able to create
breakthroughs in many of the most complicated data processing
problems, leading to the development of new medicines, building
molecular structures and doing analysis going far beyond the
capabilities of today’s binary computers. The elements of quantum
computing have been around for decades, but it’s only in the
past few years that a commercial computer that could be called
quantum has been built by a company called D-Wave. Announced
in January 2018, the D-Wave 2000Q can solve larger problems
than was previously possible, with faster performance, providing
a big step toward production of applications in optimization,
cybersecurity, machine learning and sampling. IBM announced that
it had gone even further-and that it expected and it would be able
to commercialize quantum computing with a 50-qubit processor
prototype, as well as provide online access to 20-qubit processors.
That was followed by Microsoft announcement of a new quantum
computing programming language and stable topological qubit
technology that can be used to scale up the number of qubits.
Taking advantage of the physical spin of quantum elements, a
quantum computer will be able to process simultaneously the same
data in different ways (HYBRID), enabling it to make projections
         
out, such as the fact that quantum computers can only operate at
cryogenic temperatures (at 250 times colder than deep space)-but
just a matter of time before the full power of quantum computing
is unleashed. Their quantum research has progressed to the point
where partner QuTech is simulating quantum algorithm workloads,
and Intel is fabricating new qubit test chips on a regular basis in
their leading-edge manufacturing facilities. Intel Labs expertise in
fabrication, control electronics and architecture set us apart and
will serve us well as venture into new computing paradigms, from
neuromorphic to quantum computing.
        
a quantum computer to operate is the main reason they are still
experimental and can only process a few qubits at a time- but the
system is so powerful that even these early quantum computers are
shaking up the world of data processing. On the one hand, quantum
computers are going to be a boon for cybersecurity, capable of
processing algorithms at a speed unapproachable by any other
system. By looking at problems from all directions-simultaneously
(HYBRID)-a quantum computer could discover anomalies that no
other system would notice, and project to thousands of scenarios
where an anomaly could turn into a security risk. Like with a top-
performing supercomputer programmed to play chess, a quantum-
based cybersecurity system could see the moves an anomaly could
make later on-and quash it on the spot. The National security
Agency, too, has sounded the alarm on the risks to cybersecurity
be applied anywhere where we’re using machine learning,
cloud computing, data analysis. In security that means intrusion
detection, looking for patterns in the data, and more sophisticated
forms of parallel (HYBRID) computing.
But the computing power that gives cyber-defenders super-
tools to detect attacks can be misused as well. Scientists at MIT and
the University of Innsbruck were able to build a quantum computer
    
computers to break the RSA encryption scheme. That ability to
process the zeros and ones at the same time means that no formula
based on a mathematical scheme is safe. The MIT/Innsbruck team
is not the only one to have developed cybersecurity-breaking
   
enough that representatives of NIST, Toshiba, Amazon, Cisco,
Microsoft, Intel and some of the top academics in the cybersecurity
and mathematics worlds met in Toronto for the yearly Workshop
on Quantum-Safe Cryptography last year.
The NSA’s Commercial National Security Algorithm Suite and
Quantum Computing FAQ says that many experts predict a quantum
computer capable of effectively breaking public key cryptography
within a short time. According to many experts, the NSA is far too
conservative in its prediction, many experts believe that the timeline
is more like a decade and a half, while others believe that it could
happen even sooner. And given the leaps of progress that are being
made on almost a daily process, a commercially viable quantum
computer offering cloud services could happen even more quickly,
the D-Wave 2000Q is called that because it can process2,000 qubits.
That kind of power in the hands of hackers makes possible all sorts
of scams that don’t even exist yet.
 Volume 9- Issue 2: 2018
 Robert Skopec. Hybrid Quantum Computing Apocalypse. Biomed J Sci&Tech Res 9(2)-2018. BJSTR. MS.ID.001769.
DOI: 10.26717/ BJSTR.2018.09.001769. 6/6
Forward-looking hackers could begin storing encrypted
information now, awaiting the day that fast, cryptography-breaking
quantum computing-based algorithms are developed. It’s certain
that the threats to privacy and information security will only
multiply in the coming decades. In fact, why wait? hackers are
very well-funded today, and it certainly wouldn’t be beyond their
         
encryption-busting services right now. It’s likely that not all the
cryptography-breaking algorithms will work on all data, at least
for now. This is a threat-in-formation- but chances are that at least
some of them will, cyber-criminals could utilize the cryptography-
breaking capabilities of quantum computers, and perhaps sell those
services to hackers via the Dark Web.
The solution lies in the development of quantum-safe
cryptography, consisting of information theoretically secure
schemes, hash-based cryptography, code-based cryptography
and exotic-sounding technologies like lattice-based cryptography,
multivariate cryptography (like the Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar
scheme), and even supersingular elliptic curve isogeny cryptography.
These, and other post-quantum cryptography schemes, will have to
involve algorithms that are resistant to cryptographic attacks from
both (HYBRID) classical and quantum computers, according to the
NSA. It’s certain that the threats to privacy and information security
will only multiply in the coming decades and that data encryption
will proceed with new technological advances [20-23].
The author gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Marta
Ballova, Ing. Konrad Balla, Livuska Ballova and Ing. Jozef Balla.
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ISSN: 2574-1241
Robert Skopec
. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res
... Naser, who specializes in gastroenterology research at the College of Medicine's Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, began the study after reports showed that autistic children often suffer from gastric issues such as irritable bowel syndrome. He wondered about a possible link between the gut and the brain and began examining how the microbiome -or gut bacteria -differed between people with autism and those who do not have the condition [19,20]. ...
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E-cadherin and p120 catenin (p120) are essential for epithelial homeostasis, but can also exert pro-tumorigenic activities. Here, we resolve this apparent paradox by identifying two spatially and functionally distinct junctional complexes in non-transformed polarized epithelial cells: one growth suppressing at the apical zonula adherens (ZA), defined by the p120 partner PLEKHA7 and a non-nuclear subset of the core microprocessor components DROSHA and DGCR8, and one growth promoting at basolateral areas of cell-cell contact containing tyrosine-phosphorylated p120 and active Src. Recruitment of DROSHA and DGCR8 to the ZA is PLEKHA7 dependent. The PLEKHA7-microprocessor complex co-precipitates with primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) and possesses pri-miRNA processing activity. PLEKHA7 regulates the levels of select miRNAs, in particular processing of miR-30b, to suppress expression of cell transforming markers promoted by the basolateral complex, including SNAI1, MYC and CCND1. Our work identifies a mechanism through which adhesion complexes regulate cellular behaviour and reveals their surprising association with the microprocessor.
Have physicists found the underlying science driving the origin and evolution of life? It follows from the fundamental laws of nature. From this standpoint, there is one essential difference between living subjects and inanimate carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. The mathematical formula, based on established physics, indicates that when a group of atoms is driven by an external source of energy and surrounded by a heat bath, will often gradually restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. Under similar conditions, matter inexorably acquires the key physical attribute associated with life. From the perspective of the Prigogine-England physics, Darwinian evolution is only a special case of more general phenomenon, including also the controversies in oncology. The ongoing Intelligent Evolution (IE) will develop the full Artificial Intelligence (AI).
Paradigms of sustainable exploitation focus on population dynamics of prey and yields to humanity but ignore the behavior of humans as predators. We compared patterns of predation by contemporary hunters and fishers with those of other predators that compete over shared prey (terrestrial mammals and marine fishes). Our global survey (2125 estimates of annual finite exploitation rate) revealed that humans kill adult prey, the reproductive capital of populations, at much higher median rates than other predators (up to 14 times higher), with particularly intense exploitation of terrestrial carnivores and fishes. Given this competitive dominance, impacts on predators, and other unique predatory behavior, we suggest that humans function as an unsustainable "super predator," which—unless additionally constrained by managers—will continue to alter ecological and evolutionary processes globally. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Prospect theory developed by Kahneman and Tversky has been among the most influential psychological models and explains many nonnormative decision-making phenomena, e.g. why people play the lottery or bet on long-shots. A Certainty Equivalent procedure was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural substrates that are important for nonlinear transformation of probabilities to decision weights. Differential activation in the anterior cingulate cortex during high versus low probability prospects correlated (r = 0.84, P < 0.01) with the degree of the nonlinearity of the transformation of probabilities to decision weights, which indicates that risk-seeking behavior for low probability prospects and risk-averse decision-making for mid to high probability prospects may be due to a lack of controlled processing by the anterior cingulate cortex.
The study of decision making spans such varied fields as neuroscience, psychology, economics, statistics, political science, and computer science. Despite this diversity of applications, most decisions share common elements including deliberation and commitment. Here we evaluate recent progress in understanding how these basic elements of decision formation are implemented in the brain. We focus on simple decisions that can be studied in the laboratory but emphasize general principles likely to extend to other settings.
Discovery of new code makes reprogramming of cancer possible
Mayo Clinic (2015) Discovery of new code makes reprogramming of cancer possible. ScienceDaily.