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Designing Technology‐Enhanced Learning Environments in Vocational Education and Training

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Abstract

Societies and economies all over the world are currently experiencing substantial transformations driven by, among other factors, the rise of new digital technologies. These transformations are going to fundamentally change all aspects of our private, social, and professional lives, and will also have substantial influences on vocational education and training (VET). The goal of this chapter is to demonstrate how these technologies can be used to effectively support learning and teaching processes in this educational field. We start by introducing the potentials and affordances of technologies as a means to connect different learning locations and provide a set of examples of prototypical uses of several technologies as boundary‐crossing tools.

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... In one example, learners undertake tasks examining 'workplace relevance', thereby becoming 'responsible through the ways they choose to engage' (Smith 2018, 108). Aprea and Cattaneo (2019), furthermore, call for tutors and instructional designers in online TVET to 'address complex and broad-ranging learning goals such as the development of professional competence and identity as well as employability' (p. 374). ...
Article
Learner agency, often understood in terms of self-direction and negotiated engagement, is considered important in technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Yet nurturing and supporting agency is resource-intensive and difficult. In this paper, we consider learner agency for online TVET—a setting where content delivery models can be experienced as stultifying. We document the design and evaluation of specific task designs using the method and principle of double-stimulation, where prompts help participants to reconceptualise problematic situations and break out of conflicting motives. We draw on data from a research-intervention with adult learners undertaking a facilities management diploma online, while working. We explore how, across nine online workshops, task designs engendered transformative agency: the ability to collaboratively diverge from instructional intent, question dilemmatic conditions, and propose and enact change. We claim (1) that specific double-stimulation tasks encouraged participants to engage in understanding institutional practice, exposing conflict, and enacting change; (2) that participants came to view their own problematic conditions as stimuli for resistance, criticism, and development; and (3) that online resources were crucial for highlighting evidence of failure and learners’ potential roles in change. Our findings are of importance to help learners set and evaluate their own learning agendas.
... A number of studies involved the use of video annotation tools, demonstrating the growing popularity of professional learning environments based on such tools (for example Aprea & Cattaneo, 2019;Borowczak & Burrows, 2016;Cattaneo et al., 2019a). ...
Article
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The growing use of video technologies has revealed the need for pedagogical models to support collaborative learning as part of teacher professionalization processes. We conducted a state-of-the-art review of 120 empirical studies from 2003 to 2019 to identify pedagogical models for the facilitation of teachers’ professional development via video-supported collaborative learning. The study identified four pedagogical models: observation and collaborative analysis of video-recorded professional practices, collaborative video-supported authoring, collaborative learning based on video content, and video-supported synchronous collaboration. The study provides an initial contribution toward the construction of an evidence-based video pedagogy. Such pedagogies can help to answer the continuing need for appropriate education and training for professionals in the areas of teacher education and professional development, higher education, and vocational education and training.
... Multiple investments at the policy and school levels have been made to reinforce reciprocal collaboration between teachers and company supervisors to promote effective integrated learning. In particular, boundary crossing artefacts and practices have been promoted to improve mutual exchange for codesigning teaching arrangements and support learners connecting learning at multiple sites (Aprea & Cattaneo, 2019;Aprea et al., 2015;Caruso et al., 2016;Cattaneo & Aprea, 2014). ...
... Η ανοικοδόμηση της νέας ψηφιακής σκέψης για την μάθηση στην ΕΕΚ δεν θα πρέπει να έχει ως στόχο να «σπαταλά» τον χρόνο εκπαίδευσης των μαθητών σε ευκολίες ή σε αφελή πειράματα ή εργαστηριακές ασκήσεις αναπαραστάσεων ή προσομοιώσεων αλλά, θα πρέπει να «ρίχνει φως» στην σειρά των αιτιών των φαινομένων των οποίων περιγράφονται και να ενημερώνει τους μαθητές για του «καρπούς» των νέων τεχνολογιών όσο αυτοί παραμένουν πραγματικά ενεργοί (Aprea & Cattaneo, 2019). Οι αναφορές στις θεμελιακές ποιότητες του τεχνικού οικοδομήματος και η συμπερίληψη των ειδικών θεμάτων προϋποθέτουν την χρήση προηγμένων τεχνολογιών επικοινωνίας και ειδικών πλαισίων αναφοράς (ειδικές πλατφόρμες εκπαίδευσης και παραγωγής ασκήσεων, εικονικά περιβάλλοντα σχεδίασης κατάλληλα προετοιμασμένα κλπ.). ...
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Η εκπαίδευση στην Επαγγελματική Εκπαίδευση και Κατάρτιση (ΕΕΚ) περιλαμβάνει για τους εκπαιδευτικούς και τους μαθητές κυρίως, στοιχεία ενεργούς (θεωρητικής και εργαστηριακής) εμπλοκής για την κατάκτηση νοητικών σταδίων και ψυχοσωματικών δεξιοτήτων. Η «εξ αποστάσεως υλοποίηση» των μαθημάτων (θεωρίας και εργαστηρίων) της ΕΕΚ, όπως πραγματοποιήθηκε την περίοδο εγκλεισμού τη σχολική περίοδο 2019 – 2020, λόγω της διάδοσης του Κορωνοϊού (COVID-19), απομάκρυνε τους μαθητές από το φυσικό χώρο και τόπο μάθησης, και επέφερε έναν κατακερματισμό στον πνευματικό και ψυχικό ορίζοντά τους. Σκοπός του άρθρου είναι να καταγράψει τις επιπτώσεις από τη βίαιη μετατροπή η οποία επιχειρήθηκε λόγω της επιβολής των μέτρων της πανδημίας στην εκπαιδευτική κοινότητα της ΕΕΚ. Επιπρόσθετα, και εξ αιτίας ακριβώς αυτής της επείγουσας κατάστασης, θεωρήσαμε αναγκαίο να αναζητήσουμε τα κριτήρια τα οποία θα διασφαλίσουν την ομαλή ένταξη των ψηφιακών εργαλείων διδασκαλίας και μάθησης στην εξ αποστάσεως διδασκαλία για το τεχνικό λύκειο, καθώς η υπόθεση της αντιμετώπισης του Κορωνοϊού δεν έχει κλείσει και οι επόμενες φάσεις της πανδημίας είναι σε εξέλιξη.
... This is an important consideration given the ways in which digitalisation has changed the world of work, and it results in an orientation towards the development of learners' digital competence. Additionally, it seriously considers the specificities of vocational education, and in particular the articulation and interplay among and across learning sites (Aprea and Cattaneo 2019;Schaap et al. 2012). Thus, the Digital Facilitator completes her/his profile by developing knowledge, skills and attitudes (i.e., competence) aimed at promoting digital transformation in educational institutions, which also assumes an updated and critical thinking attitude towards the digitalisation of the job market and of vocation profiles. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Digital transformation requires the field of education to increasingly deal with the interplay between the teachers’ individual development of digital competence and institutional integration and adoption of digital technology. This is especially crucial in the vocational education context, which is closer to the world of work and, therefore, more sensitive to the disruptive changes of digitalisation. This chapter addresses this issue by proposing the result of a project that aimed to identify a new professional profile in the context of dual vocational education in Switzerland. The Digital Facilitator is a new term that refers to a teacher with advanced digital competency who is an expert in facilitating digital innovation adoption within educational institutions. Thus, it constitutes a possible concrete way to address the issue of integrating the individual and the organisational perspectives related to digital transformation. The profile is discussed by presenting an analysis of acknowledged existing frameworks and by considering the specificities of the context in which it was developed. The opportunities and challenges associated with introducing the profile are also critically addressed.
... This is an important consideration given the ways in which digitalisation has changed the world of work, and it results in an orientation towards the development of learners' digital competence. Additionally, it seriously considers the specificities of vocational education, and in particular the articulation and interplay among and across learning sites (Aprea and Cattaneo 2019;Schaap et al. 2012). Thus, the Digital Facilitator completes her/his profile by developing knowledge, skills and attitudes (i.e., competence) aimed at promoting digital transformation in educational institutions, which also assumes an updated and critical thinking attitude towards the digitalisation of the job market and of vocation profiles. ...
Chapter
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This concluding chapter takes a summarizing look at the contributions of the anthology, guided by two overarching questions: What dimensions are involved in the digital transformation of learning organizations? Which design perspectives can be used for digital transformation in learning organizations? In conclusion, this chapter leads back to the starting point of the anthology: the project #ko.vernetzt and the question of what significance the dimensions and design perspectives of digital transformation have in learning organizations.
... In light of our literature review, we hypothesize that the retrospectively situated digital VET type is serving more to facilitate the learning of the cognitive processing of, and the immediately situated VET type more the training of the behavioral skills for coping with a work situation. We moreover speculate that retrospectively situated digital VET is especially suitable for bridging work-and school-based learning in dual VET systems ( Aprea & Cattaneo, 2019;Cattaneo & Aprea, 2018). ...
Article
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Context: The ongoing change of work life by digital technologies requires vocational education and training (VET) to adapt constantly. This "digital transformation" of work life gives therefore rise to the question how to advance the use of digital technologies in VET. A possible answer may be found by considering that VET should be transferable to work life. This goal may be achieved by coupling educational activities with examples of work situations. Such situated education may be accomplished by using digital technologies. Until five years ago this mainly consisted in using digital photos, videos, and the internet for educational scaffolding or learning tasks. In research this situated digital VET taxonomy is currently expanding. Hence, the use of digital technologies in VET may be advanced by considering current research literature on situated digital VET. Method: Here, we have searched and reviewed scientific publications on situated digital VET published in the past five years. In the peer-reviewed publications that we had selected, we first identified which digital technologies were used for situated VET and which educational activities were coupled with work situation examples. Subsequently, we identified the categories to which the publications could be grouped together by analyzing the content of their full texts. Results: Situated digital VET was accomplished in about half of the reviewed publications by a digital video on a work situation, and in almost half of the publications by a work situation presented in a 3D virtual environment. Digital videos on work situations mostly served all types of learning tasks and rather rarely educational scaffolding. Work situations presented in 3D virtual environments mostly served cognitive or behavioral learning tasks and never educational scaffolding. Situated digital VET was moreover accomplished by using the digital representation of a work situation that either had occurred previously or that was immediately taking place. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that retrospectively and immediately situated digital VET may be the two categories of an up-to-date basic taxonomy of situated digital VET. Hence, an important question to investigate for advancing the use of digital technologies in VET is the following: Which of the two identified types of situated digital VET can facilitate which kind of vocational learning? Based on the reviewed publications we are not able to give any answers to this. Hence, there is a massive need to investigate which kind of vocational learning can be facilitated by retrospectively, and which by immediately situated digital VET.
... Ανασκευή των Γενικών Ιδεολογικών και Κοινωνιολογικών Στερεότυπων τα Οποία Εμπόδιζαν και Εξακολουθούν να Εμποδίζουν την Αναβάθμιση της ΕΕΚ Αλλά και την Ανάπτυξη του Χαρισματικού Μαθητικού Δυναμικού της Η ΕΕΚ σχετίζεται με έναν κορμό γνώσεων και δεξιοτήτων, ο οποίος εφαρμόζεται με πρακτικό τρόπο είτε σε τεχνικά επαγγέλματα μηχανικών, είτε σε υπηρεσίες (Aprea and Cattaneo, 2019) και συνδέεται άμεσα με την παραγωγή και τις παραγωγικές βαθμίδες. Η ΕΕΚ, με βάση τα θεσμοθετημένα πλαίσια λειτουργίας της, παρείχε και παρέχει βασικές επιστημονικές γνώσεις, τεχνικές και δεξιότητες σε όσους φοιτούν σε αυτή (Makrygiannis et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Το παρόν άρθρο αναφέρεται σε στοιχεία αναγνώρισης της χαρισματικότητας των μαθητριών και των μαθητών της Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης και Κατάρτισης καθώς και τα ιδιαίτερα χαρακτηριστικά χειρισμού για την ανάδειξη της. Τα χαρακτηριστικά αυτά, αρχικά εντάσσονται ως επέκταση των βασικών θεωρητικών προσεγγίσεων της βιβλιογραφίας για τη χαρισματικότητα. Στο άρθρο ανασκευάζονται όσα αρνητικά στερεότυπα επενεργούν αρνητικά και αντί αυτών των προκαταλήψεων, προτείνεται μία ολική στρατηγική διαχείρισης των χαρισματικών μαθητριών/των για την Επαγγελματική Εκπαίδευση και Κατάρτιση. Στη συνέχεια, αποδελτιώνονται μέσω στατιστικών μετρήσεων και επικαιροποιημένων αξιολογήσεων επιδόσεις από διάφορα πεδία της μαθησιακής συμπεριφοράς των μαθητριών/των της Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης και Κατάρτισης. Το άρθρο κλείνει με τα συμπεράσματα σχετικά με την παρουσίαση των ιδιαίτερων στρατηγικών σχετικά με τις γνώσεις, τις στάσεις και τις δεξιότητες οι οποίες επενεργούν στην ανάδειξη των χαρισματικών μαθητριών και μαθητών στις δομές της Επαγγελματικής Εκπαίδευσης και Κατάρτισης καθώς αυτοί οι μαθητές αποτελούν πρωτοπόρα τμήματα για την υπεράσπιση των αξιών του τεχνικού πολιτισμού και του κόσμου της εργασίας στην Ελλάδα.
... This is an important consideration given the ways in which digitalisation has changed the world of work, and it results in an orientation towards the development of learners' digital competence. Additionally, it seriously considers the specificities of vocational education, and in particular the articulation and interplay among and across learning sites (Aprea and Cattaneo 2019;Schaap et al. 2012). Thus, the Digital Facilitator completes her/his profile by developing knowledge, skills and attitudes (i.e., competence) aimed at promoting digital transformation in educational institutions, which also assumes an updated and critical thinking attitude towards the digitalisation of the job market and of vocation profiles. ...
Book
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This open access volume provides insight into how organizations change through the adoption of digital technologies. Opportunities and challenges for individuals as well as the organization are addressed. It features four major themes: 1. Current research exploring the theoretical underpinnings of digital transformation of organizations. 2. Insights into available digital technologies as well as organizational requirements for technology adoption. 3. Issues and challenges for designing and implementing digital transformation in learning organizations. 4. Case studies, empirical research findings, and examples from organizations which successfully adopted digital workplace learning.
... The concept of boundary object is used because learning often involves the crossing of social, cultural and conceptual boundaries between different social worlds of students, academics and business (Akkerman and Bakker 2011;Aprea and Cattaneo 2019). Marketing, logistics, accounting, and other disciplinary communities of practice all approach business from different perspectives. ...
Article
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Business education has been criticized for being theoretical and distant from the dynamisms of the business life. To answer to this criticism, different types of experiential learning environments, such as manual role-plays, computer simulations, and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, have been used. In this paper, we study how a holistic learning environment, combining a practice enterprise model, an ERP system and a simulation, improves learning results and why. We present a full-year long case study to compare the learning outcomes of the holistic learning environment with a manually-oriented practice enterprise model. Our findings indicate improvements on different domains of Bloom’s taxonomy. We suggest that the improvements are due to the holistic learning environment acting as a boundary infrastructure where the practice enterprise model, the simulation and the ERP system are all different kinds of boundary objects. This boundary infrastructure functions as a point of interaction and communication, and enables the students and teachers to cross social, cultural and conceptual boundaries between different communities of practice, and importantly, between theory and practice.
Chapter
This contribution explains why, once a number of issues which were an explicit and implicit feature of the connective typology of work experience (Griffiths/Guile, 2004) are conceptualised as the recontextualisation of knowledge, it becomes possible to see that boundary crossing is a ubiquitous feature of vocational and professional education, rather than an issue of learners crossing the boundary between education and work. The contribution tackles this goal in the following way. Firstly, it offers a brief explanation of the development of the connective typology of work experience. Next, it explains why the notion of ‘resitation’ in the connective typology of work experience was an early, but circumscribed, attempt to articulate the concept of recontextualisation. It then explains the origins and development of the concept of recontextualisation and that this concept offers a unified perspective on initial and continuing vocational formation. The contribution concludes by identifying a) the practical implication of the concept of recontextualisation for capacity/ competence development and b) the future research challenge for VET, especially in relation in the emergence of 4th generation technologies.
Chapter
Game-based learning is a dynamic field that has recently garnered much interest from different areas. Although game-based learning is not limited to digital games, and has in fact a long-standing history in human learning and development far beyond the times of digitalization, the growing interest in educational settings can also be attributed to technological advances as well as to particular preferences in users’ digital media behavior. If games exert such a fascination, it is only natural to ask whether and how they can be used to successfully promote learning purposes. This edited volume presents a wide-ranging collection of work and findings on game-based learning inside and across various disciplines. This concluding chapter aims to situate the single contributions of the volume within more general reflections on the concept and potential benefits of game-based learning as well as to provide an analysis and synthesis of major themes that have emerged in the previous chapters. Finally, it intends to sketch ideas for future research on game-based learning from an inter- and transdisciplinary perspective.
Chapter
There are myriad ways digital technologies may support and enhance learning for vocational education and training learners (see, e.g. Cattaneo, Evi-Colombo, Ruberto, & Stanley, 2019, for an overview on the use of video to support VET). In keeping with the precepts through this volume, the specific focus in this chapter is on the use of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) to support the feedback processes revolving around the learning of trades work, as framed by the approaches of ‘learning as becoming’. Digital tools provide many advantages for supporting the processes of ‘learning as becoming’. Firstly, digital records of learning, especially in the form of video, provide access to some of the multimodal/multisensory experiences inherent in trades learning. These records may be useful as resources to support deliberate practice (Ericsson, 2006). In particular, moving images provide some indications of the many nuances and modalities of practice, assisting learners to access the sociomaterial influences characteristic of trades work. Reference to movement, actions or other phenomenon may be achieved through non-verbal means, as often there is limited language to describe the processes of work. Secondly, recordings may form the platform for timely or asynchronous feedback from peers, teachers, experts and others (i.e. the socio-cultural). The collation of digital evidence of learning to showcase ‘learning as becoming’ is also an advantage afforded by digital technologies. The challenges of developing, implementing and supporting TEL in trades learning environments are also discussed.
Thesis
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For decades, business education has been criticized for being too theoretical and distant from the realities of actual business. The business school curricula are poorly aligned with the competencies and knowledge needed to succeed in today’s business world. In addition to disciplinary knowledge and soft skills, graduates need the capabilities to be able to integrate these skills and implement them in practical settings. Learning practical, integrative skills in an environment that emphasizes theoretical orientation and academic research is challenging. Experiential learning has been widely used to bring the practical element into business studies. In particular, technology-driven learning environments such as simulations, games, business information systems, virtual worlds, and social media have offered great possibilities for experiential exercises. And yet the criticism continues. Despite the technological developments, education still continues to be theoretical and academic. Experiential business education has not become mainstream. Different types of experiential learning solutions have been presented but they tend to solve specific areas of business management. They often focus on the technology rather than on a holistic, pedagogical model. Business education research is yet to present an experiential learning environment that combines people and information technology in a holistic way. This dissertation investigates how an experiential business learning environment should be constructed to provide a holistic business perspective and a practical training ground to enhance the competencies required of future business graduates. First, the theoretical foundations of learning and learning environments are examined. Second, the relevant research on business learning environments and curricula is presented. These lead on to the refined research questions. A design science approach is chosen as a method to construct and study a business learning environment artifact consisting of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, a business simulation, and learning communities of students and teachers. It is structured around a supply chain network, and the business transactions utilize automated information flows in an information system structure that is based on the principles of ERP II. The artifact alone does not solve the challenge of integrated business learning. It needs to be attached to the whole learning process. This dissertation presents an integrated business learning model that combines the artifact with a business curriculum based on the dynamic capabilities’ framework. This brings the intellectual coherence that indicates how disciplines, courses, and the business learning environment influence each other. It is the concrete combining factor between the people and the disciplinary topics on the curriculum plans and documents. There are positive indications of learning on all of Bloom’s domains. In particular, the artifact appears to improve the poor and average students’ long-term lower-level cognitive learning. The dissertation offers an explanation for such improvement: The artifact acts as a boundary infrastructure where different stakeholders carry out their own roles and tasks and interrelate with each other. It provides a common ground to join the theoretical perspective to the practical processes and tasks of business management. It is flexible and can be used from many different perspectives and for many different purposes at the same time.
Chapter
The combination of different learning locations such as schools and workplaces is a core concern in nowadays discussion regarding the requirements of digitalized and globalized economies. The alternation of school-based and work-based tracks is also a key characteristic of many well-developed dual vocational education and training (VET) systems, for example, Austria, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland. However, even in these systems, it is not always easy for the actors to conceive and fully understand the relationships among the different learning locations, and there still persists a gap between learning at school and learning at the workplace. The aim of this chapter is to show how technologies in general and visual technologies in particular can help to bridge this gap. More specifically, we adopt a connectivity and boundary-crossing perspective of teaching and learning in VET. Against this background, we outline a VET-specific pedagogical model, the so-called Erfahrraum (space for reflection on experiences), which views technologies as boundary objects that could support teaching, learning, and communication across the sites. In addition, we exemplify how this model was put into practice in initial VET of chefs, butchers, and scrub nurses. The chapter ends with a discussion in which we will summarize our considerations, outline key learnings, and provide an outlook for future research and development.
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