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Principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical compounds’ content in different cultivars of peach fruits, including qualification and quantification of sugars and organic acids by HPLC


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The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition in different cultivars of Prunus persica L. fruits with special focus on polyphenols, carotenoids, sugars and organic acids content. In addition, the PCA model was applied to all data to determine the most important variables that explain the relationships between twenty selected cultivars of peaches and to identify the most attractive cultivars. The conducted study showed that the most interesting cultivars from the point of view of direct consumption are: ‘Early redhaven’, ‘Candor’, ‘Harrow beauty’ due to the large size of fruit, rich juiciness, high maturity index, as well as above-average content of polyphenols and carotenoids. In turn, fruits with medium-sized stones and fruits, a high content of dry matter and total sugars, and with a high content of carotenoids (‘Harrow beauty’, ‘Kijowska wczesna’, ‘Jersey land’), are ideal for the manufacture of healthy dried snacks. Additionally, juicy peaches with a high content of organic acids and bioactive compounds, i.e., ‘WB 258’, ‘Spring time’ and ‘Beta’, are suitable for the production of purees, smoothies, and juices. Finally, it has been shown that peach fruit is an interesting raw material with a varied chemical composition and nutritional value, strongly determined by the cultivar.
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European Food Research and Technology (2019) 245:929–938
Principal component analysis (PCA) ofphysicochemical compounds’
content indifferent cultivars ofpeach fruits, includingqualification
andquantification ofsugars andorganic acids byHPLC
PaulinaNowicka1 · AnetaWojdyło1· PiotrLaskowski2
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published online: 18 January 2019
© The Author(s) 2019
The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition in different cultivars of Prunus persica L. fruits with
special focus on polyphenols, carotenoids, sugars and organic acids content. In addition, the PCA model was applied to all
data to determine the most important variables that explain the relationships between twenty selected cultivars of peaches
and to identify the most attractive cultivars. The conducted study showed that the most interesting cultivars from the point
of view of direct consumption are: ‘Early redhaven’, ‘Candor’, ‘Harrow beauty’ due to the large size of fruit, rich juiciness,
high maturity index, as well as above-average content of polyphenols and carotenoids. In turn, fruits with medium-sized
stones and fruits, a high content of dry matter and total sugars, and with a high content of carotenoids (‘Harrow beauty’,
‘Kijowska wczesna’, ‘Jersey land’), are ideal for the manufacture of healthy dried snacks. Additionally, juicy peaches with a
high content of organic acids and bioactive compounds, i.e., ‘WB 258’, ‘Spring time’ and ‘Beta, are suitable for the produc-
tion of purees, smoothies, and juices. Finally, it has been shown that peach fruit is an interesting raw material with a varied
chemical composition and nutritional value, strongly determined by the cultivar.
Keywords Prunus persica· Chemical composition· PCA· UPLC-PDA· HPLC-ELSD· Bioactive compounds
Recently, the interest in the composition of fruits has grown
because of increased awareness of their possible health ben-
efits. This results from recent studies which demonstrate,
beyond any doubt, that fruits have a significant impact on
reduced morbidity and mortality from chronic non-commu-
nicable diseases’ society in the 21st century.
The benefits of eating fruit are mainly connected with
the richness of their chemical composition. Basic compo-
nents of fruits include protein, carbohydrate (especially fruc-
tose, sorbitol and glucose), minerals (Mg, Fe, P, Cu, Ca,
Na, K), vitamins (C, PP, B group, provitamin A), organic
acids, pectins and a lot of bioactive secondary metabolites of
plants (for example, isoprenoids and phenolic compounds)
[1]. The largest range of pro-health properties is attributed
to secondary metabolites (polyphenols, isoprenoids). Phe-
nolic compounds constitute a very numerous group of natu-
ral organic substances that occur in various morphological
parts of plants. They exhibit especially strong antioxidative
properties that protect defense systems of the body against
destructive effects of free radicals [24]. Another group
of secondary metabolites of plants that exhibit health-pro-
moting properties are isoprenoids that include triterpenes,
iridoids, carotenoids and chlorophylls. They are, likewise
polyphenols, classified as both preventive and intervention
antioxidants, and are characterized by valuable biological
properties the best documented of which is their provitamin
activity [5].
The other pro-healthy benefits are also ascribed to other
compounds occurring in fruits, e.g., organic acids, pec-
tins, vitamins and minerals. The organic acids stimulate
the secretion of digestive enzymes and regulate the proper
chemical reactions of the body [6]. Pectin inhibits the
absorption of dietary fats and their collection in the tissues
* Paulina Nowicka
1 Department ofFruit, Vegetable andPlant Nutraceuticals
Technology, Wrocław University ofEnvironmental andLife
Sciences, 37 Chełmońskiego Street, 51-630Wroclaw, Poland
2 Research Station forCultivar Testing inZybiszów
nearWrocław, 55-080KątyWrocławskie, Poland
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930 European Food Research and Technology (2019) 245:929–938
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of the liver. In addition, they influence the lower blood
glucose levels and improves peristalsis [7]. While vitamins
and minerals are responsible for the proper conduct of bio-
chemical reactions and functioning of the human body [8].
Considering the above, it seems advisable to undertake
any actions ascribing to the global trend of analyzing and
promoting raw materials with a high nutritive value and
health-promoting properties. Hence, the aim of this study
was to determine the chemical composition of fruits of
different cultivars of Prunus persica L. Batsch with spe-
cial focus on polyphenols, carotenoids, sugars and organic
acids content. Sugars and organic acid, as the main sol-
uble constituents of peach fruit, have a major effect on
taste and represent an index of consumer acceptability.
In turn, modern consumers are increasingly interested in
their personal health and expect the foods to be not only
tasty and attractive but also safe and healthy, therefore
polyphenols and carotenoids content were also analyzed
in this study. In addition, the PCA model was applied to all
data to determine the most important variables that explain
the relationships between the twenty selected cultivars of
peaches and to identify the most attractive cultivars.
Materials andmethods
Plant material
Twenty cultivars of peach fruit were used in this study:
Early maturing: ‘Harbinger’, ‘Kijowska wczesna,
‘Spring time’, ‘Beta’, ‘Maycresh, ‘Harrow diamond’,
‘Dixired’, ‘Candor, ‘Harnaś’, ‘Sweet haven, ‘WB
Mid-early maturing: ‘Early Redhaven’, ‘SB6A–35’,
‘Jerseyland’, ‘BL6’, ‘Red Cup’, ‘Royalvee’,
Late maturing: ‘Flamin Fury’, ‘Harrow Beauty’, ‘Madi-
son’ (Table1).
All of them were appropriate for food manufacturing
and were grown in Poland. The fruits were harvested at
the Research Station for Cultivar Testing in Zybiszów near
Wrocław (51°351.11N, 16°5443.56E) and were col-
lected at “ready-to-eat” ripening stage. Immediately after
harvest, in fresh raw materials, the content of Vitamin C,
soluble solids, pectin, ash, pH, titratable acidity, and fruit
weight were measured. In turn, for the analysis ofpolyphe-
nolic compounds, organic acids, sugars and carotenoids,
the whole fruits were freezing with liquid nitrogen and
crushing them to homogeneous powder by laboratory mill
and after that freeze-drying them.
Physicochemical analysis
The soluble solids’ content was determined by a refrac-
tometer and expressed as °Brix, while the pectins’ content
was analyzed according to the Morris method described
by Pijanowski, Mrożewski, Horubała and Jarczyk [9] and
expressed as g/100g fruit. Total content of
acid, ash and dry matter as g/100g was determined by
the PN norms—PN-90/A-75101/11, PN-90/A-75101/08,
PN-90/A-75101/03, respectively.
Determination ofsugar content byHPLC coupled
tolight scattering detector
A solvent for the analysis of sugar content and determi-
nation of sugar was prepared as previously described by
Nowicka, Wojdyło and Teleszko [10]. All determinations
were done in triplicate and results were expressed as
g/100g dm of peach.
Determination ofacids’ content byUPLC‑PDA
Obtained freeze-dried peaches (1g) were mixed with
50ml of redistilled water, and after that ultrasonificated for
15min, boiled for 30min and centrifuged for 10min. The
extracts were applied into the Sep-Pak C-18 and eluted by
water to give a sample solution for the estimation of acid
content. The analysis of acid content was carried out on
UPLC Acquity system consisting of a sample manager,
binary solvent manager, PDA detector. Empower 3 soft-
ware was used for data collection and integration of chro-
matograms. A 10µL sample was injected on the Supel-
cogel TM C-610H column (30cm × 7.8mm; Supelco,
Bellefonte, PA, USA). The elution was carried out at 30°C
under a isocratic flow using 1mM phosphoric acid solu-
tion at the flow rate of 0.5mL/min. Acid components were
identified by comparison with the standards. The calibra-
tion curves were prepared by plotting different concen-
trations ranging from 0.5 to 10mg/mL (R2 ≤ 0.9998) of
standards versus the area measurements in UPLC. Results
were expressed as g/100g dm of peach.
Analysis ofpolyphenol compounds
The quantitative analysis of total polyphenols by UPLC
was performed as described by Wojdyło, Nowicka,
Laskowski and Oszmiański [11]. The results were
expressed as mg/100g dm of peach fruits.
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931European Food Research and Technology (2019) 245:929–938
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Table 1 Nutritional and chemical components in different peach cultivars
WFW whole fruit weight (g), PFW pulp fruit weight (g), SFW stone fruit weight (g), DM dry matter (%), SS soluble solids (°Brix), MI maturity index, P pectins (g/100g), A ash (%), Vit C Vita-
min C (mg/100g)
ǂ Value ± SD are means of three repetitions; ǂMean values followed by different letters are statistically different at p≤0.05
Cultivars Date of harvest WFW PFW SFW DM SS MI P A Vit C
Harbinger July 1 64.0 ± 2.8e ǂ60.1 ± 2.5ef 4.0 ± 0.3f 11.2 ± 0.1l 10.1 ± 0.0m 15.8 1.1 ± 0.0efg 0.2 ± 0.1h 8.2 ± 0.2f
Kijowska wczesna July 1 84.4 ± 7.0de 77.2 ± 7.1def 7.2 ± 0.5cde 13.1 ± 0.2e 12.0 ± 0.0f 14.5 1.4 ± 0.0b 0.3 ± 0.0gh 12.0 ± 1.5bcd
Spring time July 1 60.1 ± 17.6e 56.4 ± 16.9f 3.6 ± 0.7f 10.8 ± 0.2m 10.1 ± 0.0m 18.7 0.9 ± 0.0i 0.4 ± 0.0gh 11.1 ± 2.1cd
Beta July 15 94.6 ± 7.8cd 88.3 ± 6.9cde 6.4 ± 1.0def 12.9 ± 0.0f 12.1 ± 0.0e 20.5 1.1 ± 0.1ef 0.4 ± 0.0de 11.2 ± 0.2cd
Maycresh July 15 109.2 ± 17.6bcd 104.7 ± 17.6bcd 4.5 ± 0.1ef 11.5 ± 0.1k 10.5 ± 0.1k 14.3 1.1 ± 0.0fgh 0.4 ± 0.1def 7.2 ± 0.3fg
Harrow diamond July 15 96.4 ± 6.1cd 91.6 ± 7.4cd 4.8 ± 2.0ef 10.7 ± 0.0m 9.9 ± 0.0n 14.8 1.0 ± 0.0ghi 0.5 ± 0.0cd 4.2 ± 0.5i
Dixired July 15 99.7 ± 9.9cd 94.8 ± 9.1cd 4.9 ± 2.6ef 12.2 ± 0.1i 11.1 ± 0.0j 20.6 1.2 ± 0.0def 0.5 ± 0.0bcd 7.9 ± 1.0fg
Candor July 15 119.3 ± 18.9bc 109.2 ± 19.8bcd 10.1 ± 1.1ab 12.7 ± 0.0h 11.1 ± 0.0j 24.1 1.2 ± 0.0de 0.5 ± 0.0ab 4.1 ± 0.7i
Harnaś July 15 113.0 ± 44.5bcd 105.5 ± 44.2bcd 7.5 ± 2.0cd 11.6 ± 0.0k 10.4 ± 0.0l 17.6 1.3 ± 0.1cd 0.3 ± 0.1gh 4.1 ± 0.7i
Sweet haven July 15 89.0 ± 7.0cde 83.7 ± 6.8def 5.3 ± 0.6ef 13.3 ± 0.1e 12.3 ± 0.1d 21.5 1.1 ± 0.0ef 0.4 ± 0.0de 4.9 ± 0.0hi
WB 258 July 15 111.3 ± 18.6bcd 101.1 ± 16.6cd 10.2 ± 3.2ab 11.9 ± 0.2j 10.4 ± 0.0l 15.5 1.3 ± 0.0cd 0.3 ± 0.0fg 13.6 ± 1.5b
Early redhaven July 27 114.1 ± 12.1bcd 105.5 ± 11.4bcd 8.6 ± 0.7bc 10.4 ± 0.1n 9.6 ± 0.1o 26.5 0.9 ± 0.0i 0.4 ± 0.0def 8.6 ± 1.5ef
SB6A-35 July 27 99.7 ± 15.7cd 94.0 ± 16.7cd 5.7 ± 1.3ef 10.3 ± 0.0n 9.0 ± 0.0p 13.2 1.0 ± 0.0hi 0.4 ± 0.0de 7.8 ± 0.9fg
Jerseyland July 27 140.3 ± 21.7ab 134.1 ± 22.3ab 6.2 ± 0.8def 14.3 ± 0.0b 13.1 ± 0.0b 16.4 1.4 ± 0.0b 0.5 ± 0.0abc 12.3 ± 0.2bc
BL6 July 27 111.1 ± 14.5bcd 107.2 ± 14.0bcd 3.9 ± 0.5f 12.8 ± 0.1gh 11.8 ± 0.0g 21.1 1.3 ± 0.2bc 0.4 ± 0.0ef 7.3 ± 0.1fg
Red cup July 27 160.2 ± 19.9a 148.2 ± 20.4a 12.1 ± 0.6a 12.3 ± 0.0i 11.4 ± 0.1i 20.6 1.1 ± 0.1ef 0.4 ± 0.0de 6.1 ± 0.2gh
Royalvee July 27 90.3 ± 3.2cde 84.8 ± 3.1def 5.6 ± 0.1ef 12.3 ± 0.1i 11.7 ± 0.0h 26.6 1.3 ± 0.1cd 0.4 ± 0.0ef 5.3 ± 1.1hi
Flamin fury August 23 100.2 ± 4.9cd 94.1 ± 5.6cd 6.2 ± 0.9def 14.1 ± 0.0c 13.0 ± 0.1c 19.9 1.3 ± 0.0cd 0.5 ± 0.0cd 10.2 ± 2.1de
Harrow beauty August 23 99.1 ± 20.9cd 92.3 ± 22.0cd 6.9 ± 3.2cde 15.7 ± 0.0a 14.4 ± 0.0a 22.9 1.6 ± 0.0a 0.6 ± 0.0a 16.3 ± 0.3a
Madison August 23 117.2 ± 5.4bcd 111.7 ± 5.2bc 5.5 ± 0.3ef 13.4 ± 0.1d 12.1 ± 0.0e 14.2 1.4 ± 0.0b 0.5 ± 0.0a 11.1 ± 0.2cd
Minimum 60.1 56.4 3.6 10.3 9.0 13.2 0.9 0.2 4.1
Maximum 160.2 148.2 12.1 15.7 14.4 26.6 1.6 0.6 16.3
Mean 103.7 97.2 6.5 12.4 11.3 19.0 1.2 0.4 8.7
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932 European Food Research and Technology (2019) 245:929–938
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Analysis ofcarotenoids
Determination of carotenoids by UPLC was prepared
as previously described by Wojdyło, Nowicka and
Bąbelewski [12]. The results were expressed as mg/100g
dm of peach fruits.
Statistical analysis
Results obtained in this study were analyzed and interpreted
using statistical methods, including principal component
analysis (PCA) to determine correlations, with the use of
Statistica ver. 12.50 software.
Result anddiscussion
Nutritional andchemical components indifferent
peach cultivars
In the present study, different physicochemical parameters
were evaluated in 20 cultivars of peach fruit including fruit
weight and contents of soluble solids, dry matter, pectins,
ash, and Vitamin C (Table1).
The average fruit weight was 103.7g, wherein 9 cultivars
were heavier and 11 were lighter. Among the analyzed peach
cultivars, the largest fruits were identified in ‘Red cup’ and
‘Jerseyland’ cv., weighing 160.2g and 140.3g, respectively.
In contrast, the smallest fruits were observed in the early
cultivars: ‘Spring time’—60.1g and ‘Harbringer’—64.0g.
Generally, the later cultivars of peach had heavier fruits than
those harvested earlier and vice versa. Other authors showed
that, except for the harvest time, fruit weight might also
depend on the cultivar of fruit, fruit load, and on climatic
and agricultural conditions [11, 13]. Although the early cul-
tivars ‘Harbinger’ and ‘Springtime’ were also characterized
by the lowest mass of the stones, the study showed no clear
relationship between harvest time and stone mass. Therefore,
it can be assumed that the size of stone is a cultivar-specific
Differences between peaches cultivars were also reflected
in the chemical composition of fruits. Dry matter content
of peach fruit ranged from 10.3% (‘SB6A-35’) to 15.7%
(‘Harrow Beauty’). Compared to the other fruits, the con-
tent of total solids was similar to that in apple (13–20%),
but definitely lower than in berry fruit, like chokeberry
(39.3–53.4%), blackcurrant (20.4–23.5%) or highbush cran-
berry (15.9–22.3%) [14, 15]. According to Zatylny etal.
[15], the content of dry matter depends on the cultivar, but
other authors showed that the total solid content might be
influenced by many factors like harvest time, degree of fruit
dehydration, an increase in the insoluble solids’ content of
the fruit during maturation or climatic and agricultural con-
ditions [13, 14].
The soluble solid content was also analyzed in this
study. It is a characteristic which largely determines the
final content of dry matter. Our study showed a relationship
between the content of soluble solids in the analyzed peach
fruits and their solids’ content. In the examined peaches,
the soluble solid content ranged from 9.0°Brix in ‘SB6A-
35’ to 14.4°Brix in ‘Harrow Beauty’, with the mean value
accounting for 11.3°Brix. This is consistent with findings
reported by Zhang, Peng, Zhang, Song and Ma [16] and by
Cirilli, Bassi and Ciacciulli [17] who showed the average
soluble solids’ content in peaches to reach 12°Brix. The
soluble solid content determined in our study in peach fruit
is similar to that determined in apricots (12.9°Brix), nectar-
ines (14.2°Brix) or apples (10.7–12.5°Brix), but definitely
lower compared to chokeberry (18.3°Brix) and blackcur-
rant (16.8°Brix). The soluble solids include: oligosaccha-
rides, polysaccharides, organic acids, dyes and tannins, and
other soluble compounds. Therefore, their content is usually
higher in strongly colored fruits containing more sugars and
In this study, we analyzed peach fruits also for the content
of ash, which depends not only on the species or cultivar, but
also on the growing conditions [18]. Among the analyzed
fruits, the highest content of mineral compounds was found
in fruits of ‘Harrow beauty’ (0.55%), ‘Madison’ (0.54%),
‘Candor’ (0.52%) and ‘Jerseyland’ (0.51%) cultivars. In
turn, ‘Harbringer’, ‘Kijowska wczesna’, ‘Spring time’, and
‘Harnaś’ cultivars had almost two times lower ash content
accounting for 0.28% on average. Ash content is basically
determined by minerals: magnesium, iron, phosphorus, cop-
per, calcium, potassium and sodium, which in fruits occur in
the form easily absorbable for humans [1].
Benefits that stem from fruit consumption are mainly
associated with the richness of their chemical composition,
including the contents of pectins and vitamin C. Pectins
inhibit the absorption of dietary fats and their deposition in
liver tissues. In addition, they contribute to blood glucose
level reduction and improve peristalsis [7]. In turn, vitamin
C is responsible for the proper course of biochemical reac-
tions and body functions and is classified as both preventive
and intervention antioxidants. In addition, it is characterized
by valuable biological properties, the best documented of
which is its provitamin activity [8]. In the peach fruits ana-
lyzed in our study, the content of pectins ranged from 0.9%
(‘Early redhaven’) to 1.6% (‘Harrow beauty’). Peach fruits
are considered to be very good sources of pectin, whose
content in these fruits is comparable to that in apple (0.9%),
Japanese quince (1.0%), and blackcurrant (1.7%) [15]. In
the case of Vitamin C content, it differed greatly in indi-
vidual peach cultivars, ranging from 4.13 to 16.28mg/100g
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933European Food Research and Technology (2019) 245:929–938
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of raw material. The highest ascorbic acid content (above
12mg/100g) was detected in ‘Harrow beauty’, ‘WB 258’
and ‘Jereseyland’ cultivars, while the lowest one (under
5mg/100g) in ‘Candor’, ‘Harnaś’, ‘Harrow diamond’ and
‘Sweet haven’ cultivars. This is in agreement with findings
reported by Gil, Tomas-Barberan, Hess-Pierce and Kader
[19], who determined from 3.6 to 12.6mg/100g of Vitamin
C in peaches. In addition, they pointed out that Vitamin C
was a cultivar-specific traits, which can also be observed in
our research.
Sugar andacid content indifferent cultivars
The analyzed peach fruits were also determined for sugar
and acid contents. Apart from determining the total content
of these compounds, in this study we analyzed the exact
profile of sugars and acids in different cultivars of peach,
and the results of these analyses were presented in Table2.
Both the total contents and individual profiles of these com-
pounds appear to be crucial in shaping the taste and degree
of sweetness of raw materials. Therefore, their detailed
analysis allows, at the first stage of the study, to identify the
best cultivars in terms of sensory properties.
Among the seven organic acids identified in peach
fruits, the major ones were: malic acid (31–52%) > quinic
acid (12–25%) > citric acid (2–25%) ≥ fumaric acid
(9–12%) > oxalic acid (< 1%) ≥ shikimic acid (< 1%) and
isocitric acid, but it was present in trace amounts and only in
three cultivars. The predominant organic acid in peach fruits
was malic acid, which is also confirmed by other authors
[20]. Generally, the analyzed cultivars can be divided into
two main groups in terms of malic acid content. The first
of these is peach fruits that contain more than 4g of malic
acid /100g dm (these were early and very late cultivars)
and the other ones were these with malic acid content lower
than 3.5g per 100g of dm (‘Dixired’; ‘Candor’, ‘Harnaś’,
‘Sweet haven’, ‘WB 258’, ‘Early redhaven,‘Royalvee’, ‘Har-
row Beauty’). Such great differences in malic acid content
were not shown by other authors who demonstrated its con-
tent to remain stable both during growth and maturation of
the peach fruit [20]. The conducted study showed also a high
content of citric acid which ranged from 2.87g/100g dm in
‘Beta’ cv. to 0.19g/100g dm of ‘Harbringer’. Such a great
difference in its content may be due to the degree of fruit
maturity. It has been shown that fully mature peach fruits
have a lower citric content [21]. Although, the malic acid
followed by citric acid were the major organic acids of peach
fruit—representing more than 65% of the total acid content
determined; quinic, shikimic, fumaric, oxalic and isocitric
acids were also identified in the analyzed fruits. Especially
noteworthy are the last two acids (isocitric and oxalic acids),
which have been never before identified in peaches.
Generally, the total content of acids demonstrated in this
study (5.43g–13.92g/100g dm of peach) fits within the
range of values previously described in literature, but it
obviously depends on the origin, cultivar, harvest date and
degree of fruit maturation [20, 21].
Sugars represent the main component of fruit edible
quality by imparting sweetness being one of the attributes
influencing the degree of consumer satisfaction regarding
peaches. The intensity of sweetness depends on the total
sugar content as well as on the sugar profile. It is due to
the fact that the sweetening power of fructose, glucose and
sorbitol differs from that of sucrose (1.7-; 0.8- and 0.6-fold,
respectively) and therefore it is important to determine the
relative content of each individual sugar [17]. Our study
showed sucrose to be the predominant sugar in different cul-
tivars of peach fruit, accounting for approximately 58–74%
of the total sugars content. The other major sugars were:
fructose (7–14%) > glucose (5–12%) > sorbitol (3–10%).
High contents of sugars in peach were also confirmed by
other authors [17, 22], who demonstrated that the sucrose
content should be from 40 to 80%, that of glucose and fruc-
tose (in variable ratios) together from 10 to 25%, and that of
sorbitol around 10%. In addition, it is noteworthy to us that
in each analyzed cultivar the content of fructose was higher
than that of glucose. According to Robertson and Meredith
[23], high-quality peaches have lower contents of glucose
and sorbitol and a higher content of fructose compared to the
low-quality peaches. Generally, the total content of sugars
determined in this study ranged from 49.54g/100g dm in
the case of ‘Maycresh’ cv. to 73.66g/100g of ‘Madison’
cv. Similar values were previously reported for peaches by
other authors [17, 22]. In addition, the authors agree that
the total and individual sugar contents are strongly affected
by seasonal variability, climate, irrigation or crop load, in
contrast to the sugar profile which is relatively stable across
environments and genotypes [17].
Also, maturity index (MI) of fruits was analyzed in this
study (Table1). It determines the relationship between con-
tents of total soluble solids content and acids and is used to
classify fruits as sour (MI: 5–7), sour–sweet (MI: 17–24),
and sweet (MI: 31–98) [24]. In addition, the MI appears to
be a key factor responsible for the flavor and taste of fruit
[11]. In the analyzed cultivars of peach, MI ranged from
13.24 (‘SB6A–35’) to 26.59 (‘Royalvee’). It may thus be
concluded that most of the studied fruits were semi-sweet,
but the later varieties were a little bit sweeter than those
harvested earlier.
Quantification ofbioactive compounds indifferent
cultivars ofpeaches
Figure1 presents results of determinations of polyphenols
and carotenoids content in peach fruit. The average content
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934 European Food Research and Technology (2019) 245:929–938
1 3
Table 2 Organic acids and sugar content in different peach cultivars
ǂ Value ± SD are means of three repetitions; ǂMean values followed by different letters are statistically different at p ≤ 0.05
Cultivars Sugar content (g/100dm) Acid content (g/100g dm)
Fructose Sorbitol Glucose Sucrose Total Oxalic acid Citric acid Isocitric
Malic acid Quinic acid Shikimic acid Fumaric
Harbinger 8.8 ± 0.0cǂ3.8 ± 0.1e 7.7 ± 0.0c 40.2 ± 0.0l 60.5 ± 0.16g 0.1 ± 0.0b 0.2 ± 0.0l nd 6.1 ± 0.1bc 1.9 ± 0.2d 0.02 ± 0.00e 0.8 ± 0.1de 9.1 ± 0.3ef
10.1 ± 0.0b 6.1 ± 0.1b 8.3 ± 0.0b 33.9 ± 0.0t 58.4 ± 0.20i 0.1 ± 0.0b 2.3 ± 0.0c nd 6.4 ± 0.3ab 3.5 ± 0.0a 0.09 ± 0.00a 1.6 ± 0.0b 13.9 ± 0.3a
Spring time 5.5 ± 0.0l 2.4 ± 0.1n 4.3 ± 0.0l 41.3 ± 0.0j 53.4 ± 0.12o 0.1 ± 0.0a 1.3 ± 0.1f nd 6.6 ± 0.1a 2.3 ± 0.0c 0.08 ± 0.02ab 2.3 ± 0.5a 12.8 ± 0.7b
Beta 4.7 ± 0.0n 2.6 ± 0.1l 3.3 ± 0.0r 53.1 ± 0.0b 63.7 ± 0.11d 0.1 ± 0.0a 2.9 ± 0.0a nd 4.6 ± 0.1f 2.6 ± 0.0b 0.04 ± 0.01cd 1.2 ± 0.1c 11.4 ± 0.4cd
Maycresh 5.5 ± 0.1l 3.6 ± 0.1gh 3.6 ± 0.0p 36.8 ± 0.0s 49.5 ± 0.16p 0.0 ± 0.0cd 0.4 ± 0.0kl nd 5.8 ± 0.6cd 1.3 ± 0.0hi 0.02 ± 0.00e 0.9 ± 0.0de 8.4 ± 0.6f
6.3 ± 0.0i 2.9 ± 0.0k 4.9 ± 0.0j 39.0 ± 0.0m 53.1 ± 0.15o 0.0 ± 0.0cd 0.8 ± 0.1ij 0.2 ± 0.1a 5.8 ± 0.1cd 1.2 ± 0.0hij 0.02 ± 0.00e 1.5 ± 0.1b 9.5 ± 0.3e
Dixired 4.1 ± 0.0p 1.5 ± 0.0p 2.7 ± 0.0s 47.2 ± 0.0e 55.5 ± 0.10lm 0.0 ± 0.0d 1.1 ± 0.1fgh 0.1 ± 0.0c 2.7 ± 0.1j 1.8 ± 0.5de 0.05 ± 0.00c 1.2 ± 0.3c 6.9 ± 1.0g
Candor 5.2 ± 0.1m 2.5 ± 0.0m 3.6 ± 0.0p 50.5 ± 0.0d 61.9 ± 0.15f 0.0 ± 0.0d 1.0 ± 0.0ghi nd 2.7 ± 0.0ij 1.6 ± 0.1ef 0.02 ± 0.01e 1.1 ± 0.1c 6.6 ± 0.2g
Harnaś 7.8 ± 0.0g 3.6 ± 0.1fg 6.9 ± 0.0d 40.6 ± 0.0k 58.9 ± 0.14h 0.0 ± 0.0d 1.2 ± 0.0fg nd 2.7 ± 0.0ij 2.0 ± 0.0d 0.03 ± 0.00de 0.7 ± 0.0ef 6.7 ± 0.0g
Sweet haven 5.8 ± 0.0j 3.5 ± 0.0ij 4.0 ± 0.0m 42.6 ± 0.0i 55.8 ± 0.14l 0.0 ± 0.0d 1.4 ± 0.1ef nd 3.1 ± 0.1hi 0.8 ± 0.0l 0.04 ± 0.00cd 1.0 ± 0.0cd 6.3 ± 0.2g
WB 258 8.0 ± 0.0f 3.7 ± 0.0f 5.2 ± 0.0i 38.4 ± 0.0n 55.3 ± 0.15m 0.0 ± 0.0e 2.5 ± 0.1bc nd 2.0 ± 0.1k 2.0 ± 0.0d 0.04 ± 0.00cd nd 6.5 ± 0.2g
Early red-
5.6 ± 0.1k 3.4 ± 0.1j 3.8 ± 0.0n 44.6 ± 0.0h 57.3 ± 0.16j 0.0 ± 0.0cd 0.8 ± 0.7ij nd 3.4 ± 0.2h 1.4 ± 0.1ghi 0.04 ± 0.00cd 1.7 ± 0.1b 7.3 ± 1.1g
SB6A-35 5.8 ± 0.0j 2.4 ± 0.0n 4.3 ± 0.0k 46.3 ± 0.0f 58.7 ± 0.12h 0.1 ± 0.0b 2.7 ± 0.1ab 0.2 ± 0.0b 5.6 ± 0.5d 1.3 ± 0.0ghi 0.05 ± 0.01c 1.7 ± 0.1b 11.6 ± 0.8c
Jerseyland 7.8 ± 0.1g 3.4 ± 0.1ij 5.6 ± 0.0h 37.1 ± 0.0p 53.9 ± 0.21n 0.1 ± 0.0b 2.0 ± 0.1d nd 4.8 ± 0.1f 1.5 ± 0.1fg 0.03 ± 0.00de 0.6 ± 0.1ef 9.0 ± 0.3ef
BL6 4.4 ± 0.1o 2.1 ± 0.0o 3.7 ± 0.0o 52.2 ± 0.0c 62.3 ± 0.15e 0.1 ± 0.0c 0.6 ± 0.0jk nd 4.2 ± 0.2g 1.2 ± 0.1hij 0.02 ± 0.00e 0.7 ± 0.1ef 6.8 ± 0.4g
Red cup 6.7 ± 0.1h 3.9 ± 0.0d 5.7 ± 0.0g 36.9 ± 0.0r 53.1 ± 0.23o 0.1 ± 0.0c 1.3 ± 0.2fg nd 6.4 ± 0.1ab 1.4 ± 0.1fgh 0.07 ± 0.00b 2.2 ± 0.1a 11.4 ± 0.5cd
Royalvee 8.6 ± 0.0d 3.5 ± 0.0hi 6.1 ± 0.0e 38.0 ± 0.0o 56.3 ± 0.13k 0.0 ± 0.0d 0.9 ± 0.1hij nd 2.7 ± 0.0j 1.0 ± 0.1jk 0.03 ± 0.01de 0.8 ± 0.0de 5.5 ± 0.3h
Flamin Fury 10.3 ± 0.0a 7.4 ± 0.1a 8.4 ± 0.0a 46.3 ± 0.0f 72.4 ± 0.27b 0.0 ± 0.0cd 1.7 ± 0.0e nd 6.5 ± 0.1a 1.3 ± 0.0hi 0.05 ± 0.01c 1.0 ± 0.0cd 10.6 ± 0.1d
8.2 ± 0.0e 5.3 ± 0.1c 5.9 ± 0.0f 45.4 ± 0.0g 64.8 ± 0.20c 0.0 ± 0.0d 1.2 ± 0.1fgh nd 2.6 ± 0.0j 1.1 ± 0.1ij 0.02 ± 0.00e 0.5 ± 0.0f 5.4 ± 0.2h
Madison 7.8 ± 0.0g 6.1 ± 0.0b 5.7 ± 0.0g 54.2 ± 0.0a 73.7 ± 0.20a 0.1 ± 0.0c 1.4 ± 0.0ef nd 5.2 ± 0.2e 0.9 ± 0.1kl 0.03 ± 0.00de 0.7 ± 0.1ef 8.3 ± 0.5f
Minimum 4.1 1.5 2.7 33.9 49.5 0.01 0.2 0.00 2.0 0.8 0.02 0.5 5.4
Maximum 10.3 7.4 8.4 54.2 73.7 0.10 2.9 0.24 6.6 3.5 0.09 2.3 13.9
Mean 6.8 3.7 5.2 43.2 58.9 0.05 1.4 0.02 4.5 1.6 0.04 1.1 8.7
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935European Food Research and Technology (2019) 245:929–938
1 3
of polyphenols and carotenoids was 1732mg and 241mg
per 100g dm of peaches, respectively. The total content
of polyphenols differed significantly and ranged from
722mg/100g dm in ‘Madison’ to 3116mg/100g dm in
‘WB 258’. In the case of carotenoids, the highest content
was determined in ‘Harbringer’—390mg/100g dm of peach
fruit, while the lowest in ‘Spring time’—40mg/100g dm.
Positive correlations were found between the results of both
bioactive compounds—PC = 0.260.
Many factors influence the content of antioxidative com-
pounds. The most important is the cultivar, the morpholog-
ical part and the technological processes used during the
processing of the raw material. The appropriate agrotech-
nical practices and cultivation under appropriate climatic
conditions are also important [25]. In addition, the phyto-
chemical composition is largely conditioned by the process
of fruit ripening—a series of physiological, biochemical and
structural changes leading to obtain the full maturity fruits.
Belhadj etal. [26] confirmed that the content of bioactive
compounds depends on the degree of fruit maturity. Fruits
during the last stage of maturity (red peaches) were char-
acterized by three to ten times higher concentration of the
tested compounds than the unripe fruits (green fruits).
The presented study showed that the total carotenoids
and polyphenols content in peach fruits is significantly
dependent (p 0.05) on the cultivar. Differences between
concentration of carotenoids in different cultivars were also
demonstrated by Belhadj etal. [26]. The research of these
authors comprised four cultivars (‘Chatos’, ‘Elegant Lady’,
‘Gladys’, ‘Royal Glory’), which in full maturity were char-
acterized by the following content of carotenoids—523.92;
504.95; 263.20; 244.22µg βCE/g, respectively. In turn,
according to Bento etal. [27], the total polyphenol content
ranged from 22.4mg/100g dm to 134.2mg/100g dm. How-
ever, according to Nowicka etal. [28], peach puree contained
429mg/100g of product. The main reason for significant
differences may be the cultivar, cultivation method, climatic
conditions and the degree of fruit maturity—it was shown
that green peaches are a much better source of polyphenols
than partially mature ones [26]. The reduction of the total
content of the tested fruit compounds during maturation is
associated with an increase of polyphenol oxidase activity
[26; 29].
Principal component analysis ofdifferent cultivars
ofpeach fruits andtheir compounds
The PCA model was applied to all data to determine the
most important variables that explain the relationships
between the twenty selected cultivars of peaches and to
identify any group patterns (Fig.2). In addition, PCA was
carried out separately for early, mid-early and late maturity
cultivars of peach fruits.
Two principal components explaining 52% of the over-
all variance (31% and 21% for PC1 and PC2, respectively)
divided the analyzed cultivars into four distinct clusters.
The first principal component (PC1), which explains
31% of the overall variance, is clearly identified with the
MI, polyphenols, acid and ash content, while the second
principal component (PC2) is related to the carotenoids,
Vitamin C, pectins, sugar, dry matter content and physical
properties. The factors that most contributed to PC1 (posi-
tive side) were: MI, ash and polyphenols’ content, and
the organic acids to the negative side. On the other hand,
the main contributors to PC2 (negative side) were sugars,
WB 258
Jersey land
SB6A - 35
Spring m
Flamin fury
Sweet have
Red cup
mg/100 g dm
Fig. 1 Total content of polyphenols and carotenoids (mg/100g dm) in different cultivars of peach fruits
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936 European Food Research and Technology (2019) 245:929–938
1 3
vitamin C, pectins and dry matter, whilst carotenoids and
fruit size contributed to the positive side.
Thus, it was shown that the common feature for the
‘Jerseyland’, ‘Candor’, ‘Harnaś’, ‘WB 258’, ‘SB6A–35’,
‘BL6’ cvs. was the high content of polyphenolic com-
pounds and also maturity index and ash content. In addi-
tion, the PCA model showed that the early-maturing vari-
eties as ‘Kijowska wczesna’, ‘Harbringer’, ‘Spring time’,
‘Dixired’, ‘Maycresh’, ‘Harrow diamond’, and ‘Early red-
haven’ were characterized by a high content of vitamin C
and organic acids. In turn, the sweetest varieties, with the
highest mass of fruit and a high content of pectins were
the late-maturing cultivars: ‘Madison’, ‘Harrow beauty’,
and ‘Flamin fury’.
The PCA analysis carried out for the purposes of this
study thus confirmed significant differences in the chemical
composition of peach fruit depending on the cultivar. At the
same time, it indicated some common features of selected
cultivars, owing to which it is possible to divide the analyzed
peaches into more sweet ones, more sour ones or those with
a higher content of polyphenolic compounds.
The conducted study allowed for a very accurate analysis
of the physicochemical properties, including the content of
phytochemicals, in different cultivars of peach fruit grow-
ing in Poland. The analysis of the obtained results enabled
indicating differences between particular cultivars, as well
as identifying the most valuable peaches for both direct con-
sumption and processing. And so, the following cultivars
seem to be the most interesting from the point of view of
direct consumption: ‘Early redhaven’, ‘Candor’, ‘Harrow
beauty’ due to the large size of fruit, rich juiciness, high MI
index, as well as above-average content of polyphenols and
carotenoids as well as ‘WB 258’ with a slightly lower MI
index but a very high content of phytochemicals—polyphe-
nols, carotenoids and vitamin C. In turn, fruits with medium-
sized stones and fruits, a high content of dry matter and total
sugars, and with a high content of carotenoids—‘Harrow
beauty’, ‘Kijowska wczesna’, ‘Jersey land’, are ideal for the
manufacture of healthy dried snacks. Additionally, juicy
peaches with a high content of organic acids and bioactive
Fig. 2 PCA map showing the relationship among the physicochemi-
cal properties and analyzed peaches fruit. WFW whole fruit weight,
PFW pulp fruit weight, SFW stone fruit weight, dm dry matter, SS
soluble solids, MI maturity index, P pectins, Vit C Vitamin C, acids
total content of organic acids, sugars total content of sugar
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937European Food Research and Technology (2019) 245:929–938
1 3
compounds, i.e., ‘WB 258’, ‘Spring time’ and ‘Beta’, are
suitable for the production of purees, smoothies, and juices.
The PCA analysis carried out for the purposes of this
study thus confirmed significant differences in the chemical
composition of peach fruit depending on cultivar. At the
same time, it indicated some common features of selected
cultivars, owing to which it is possible to divide the analyzed
peaches into more sweet ones, more sour ones or these with
a higher content of polyphenolic compounds. Finally, it has
been shown that peach fruit is an interesting raw material
with a varied chemical composition and nutritional value.
Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Foundation for
Polish Science (FNP). Publication was supported by Wroclaw Centre of
Biotechnology, the programme The Leading National Research Centre
(KNOW) for years 2014–2018 and purpose subsidy 2017 (MNiSW) for
The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Wrocław University
of Environmental and Life Science.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of in-
Compliance withethics requirements The research does not in-
clude any human subjects and animal experiments.
OpenAccess This article is distributed under the terms of the Crea-
tive Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creat iveco
mmons .org/licen ses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribu-
tion, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate
credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the
Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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... The HPLC-ELSD and UPLC-PDA methods were used to determine the sugar content and organic acids, respectively, as described previously by Nowicka et al. [42]. All determinations were performed in triplicate, and the results were expressed as g/100 g dm of fw. ...
... The highest content of soluble solids (TSS) was found in AJ+F5 and AJ+C5 (16.00 and 16.10 • Brix), while the lowest was detected in 100% apple juice (13.20 • Brix). The TSS is a parameter that largely determines the final dry matter content [42] and depends on the content of soluble compounds such as dyes, tannins, and non-volatile organic acids (citric, tartaric, or malic), and principally on the total sugar content [52]. Thus, TSS content is usually higher in strongly coloured fruits containing more sugars and acids. ...
Full-text available
Using a multi-analytical approach, this paper aimed to investigate the effect of apple juice enrichment with Arbutus unedo and Diospyros kaki fruits, Myrtus communis berry extract, Acca sellowiana, or Crocus sativus flower by-products on both bioactive compounds content and antioxidant activity. Physico-chemical parameters, vitamin C, sugars, organic acids, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and sensory attributes were evaluated. An LC-PDA/MS QTof analysis allowed for the identification of 80 different phenolic compounds. The highest polyphenol content (179.84 and 194.06 mg of GAE/100 g fw) and antioxidant activity (CUPRAC, 6.01 and 7.04 mmol of Fe2+/100 g fw) were observed in products with added A. sellowiana and D. kaki, respectively. Furthermore, the study showed a positive correlation between polymeric procyanidins and antioxidant activity (0.7646–0.8539). The addition of A. unedo fruits had a positively significant influence on the increment of vitamin C (23.68 ± 0.23 mg/100 g fw). The obtained products were attractive to consumers, especially those with 0.1% C. sativus flower juice, M. communis berry extract, and persimmon D. kaki fruits. The synergy among the different analytical techniques allowed us to obtain a complete set of information, demonstrating that the new apple smoothies were enriched in both different beneficial molecules for human health and in antioxidant activity.
... Quali-quantitative analyses of sugars and organic acids were performed by HPLC-ELSD and UPLC-PDA methods, respectively, according to the procedure reported by Nowicka et al. [24]. All determinations were performed in triplicate and the results were expressed as g/100 g fw. ...
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In this study, original smoothies obtained with strawberry tree fruit puree and apple juice enriched with Diospyros kaki fruits, Myrtus communis purple berry extract, Acca sellowiana, and Crocus sativus petal juice were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and inhibition of targeted digestive enzymes. Values of CUPRAC, FRAP, ORAC, DPPH•, and ABTS•+ assays generally increased with plant enrichment, particularly for A. sellowiana addition (ABTS•+ 2.51 ± 0.01 mmol Trolox/100 g fw). The same trend was observed regarding the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) tested in Caco-2 cell cultures. Inhibitory activity on α-amylase and α-glucosidase was increased by D. kaki, M. communis, and A. sellowiana. Total polyphenols evaluated by UPLC-PDA analysis ranged between 535.75 ± 3.11 and 635.96 ± 5.21 mg/100 g fw, and A. sellowiana provided the higher amount. Flavan-3-ols accounted for more than 70% of phenolic compounds, and only smoothies enriched with C. sativus showed a high amount of anthocyanins (25.12 ± 0.18 mg/100 g fw). The outcome of this study indicates these original smoothies as a possible ally in counteracting oxidative stress, as established by their favourable antioxidant compound profile, thus suggesting an interesting future application as nutraceuticals.
... The effect of melatonin treatment on postharvest quality and oxidative stress markers of litchi fruit during cold storage was determined using PCA as well as correlation analysis, showing that melatonin treatment effectively delayed the fruit senescence by enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities and modulating peel browning [54]. Paulina et al. [55] identified the most important variables in the relationship between 20 selected peach varieties based on PCA model and identified the most attractive varieties. ...
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Botryosphaeria dothidea is the source of the deadly kiwifruit disease known as soft rot. In order to explore the role of melatonin in regulating the postharvest quality and disease resistance of kiwifruit at different growth and development stages, in this study, we applied melatonin at different concentrations to kiwifruit at the young fruit, expansion, and late expansion stages to assess its effect on fruit resistance to B. dothidea, minimize soft rot, and maintain postharvest fruit quality. The results showed that melatonin significantly suppressed the mycelial growth of B. dothidea, with 1.0 mmol/L melatonin inhibiting it by up to 50%. However, 0.1–0.3 mmol/L melatonin had the best control over soft rot. Furthermore, spraying MT during kiwifruit growth can successfully increase fruit weight; preserve postharvest fruit firmness; reduce respiration intensity in the early stages of storage; delay the rise in soluble solids, while maintaining a high titratable acid content to ensure suitable solid acid ratio; increase total phenol, flavonoid, chlorophyll, carotenoid, and ascorbic acid contents; and delay the rise in soluble sugar contents in the late stages of storage. These results have a positive effect on maintaining the nutritional composition of kiwifruit. However, the effects on weight loss, dry matter content, and soluble protein content were not significant. In addition, the results of the principal component analysis demonstrated that 0.3 mmol/L MT increased kiwifruit’s resistance to soft rot while preserving postharvest fruit quality.
... Peaches comprised of sugars, dietary fiber, vitamins and organic acids (Stanjanovi et al., 2016). This rich chemical composition is associated with fundamental biochemical function in human body (Nowicka et al., 2019). The dietary fiber in peach peel and pulp is valuable nutritious component (Yangilar , 2016) playing an important role in gastrointestinal health. ...
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Peach is unique stone fruit belongs to subtropical zones. It is getting high in demand due to its immense nutritional importance and dessert quality. High quality peach produce is dependent of various factors such as variety, rootstock, climate and soil etc. In pursuit of that the performance of eight different cherry varieties namely Florida King, Peach 8, Mario Delicizia, Peach 3, Early Grand, A-669, Nectarine and Spring Crest were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Tret (4000 ft). The experiment laid out according to randomized complete block design (RCBD), with four replications and one plant per treatment for the consecutive three years. Data regarding Flowering time , Fruit setting, Color break stage, Date of maturity, Ripening Stage , Fruit Weight (g), Fruit Length (cm), Fruit Width (cm), Yield per plant (kg), TSS % and Firmness. Peach 8 is the early maturity variety followed by Florida king. The Highest TSS value was shown by Florida King (13 oBrix) followed by Peach 8 (12 oBrix). Regarding the firmness (15) Florida king surpasses all other varieties. Regarding yield per plant Early Grand exhibited better results (15 kg/plant). In the long run, it will be an effective protocol for production of peach on commercial scale and development of market as well as storage on sound basis
... Fruit acidity depends on both the content and composition of organic acids [48] Peach fruits contain mainly three kinds of organic acids, citrate, malate and quinate [49]. Such great differences in both malate and citrate contents along with a relatively small difference in quinate content were also noted in a recent study [50,51]. A number of studies have shown that peach fruit acidity is mainly controlled by the D locus on chromosome 5 (Chr5), with low The cutoff is set to 0.75 with p < 0.05. ...
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Background Organic acids are important components that determine the fruit flavor of peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch ). However, the dynamics of organic acid diversity during fruit ripening and the key genes that modulate the organic acids metabolism remain largely unknown in this kind of fruit tree which yield ranks sixth in the world. Results In this study, we used 3D transcriptome data containing three dimensions of information, namely time, phenotype and gene expression, from 5 different varieties of peach to construct gene co-expression networks throughout fruit ripening of peach. With the network inferred, the time-ordered network comparative analysis was performed to select high-acid specific gene co-expression network and then clarify the regulatory factors controlling organic acid accumulation. As a result, network modules related to organic acid synthesis and metabolism under high-acid and low-acid comparison conditions were identified for our following research. In addition, we obtained 20 candidate genes as regulatory factors related to organic acid metabolism in peach. Conclusions The study provides new insights into the dynamics of organic acid accumulation during fruit ripening, complements the results of classical co-expression network analysis and establishes a foundation for key genes discovery from time-series multiple species transcriptome data.
... Moreover, it emphasizes variation and exhibits relationship among variables which in turn makes data easy to explore and visualize. PCA model is applied in different aspects of agricultural research to visualize the variability and relationship among variables (Nowicka, Wojdyło, and Laskowski 2019). The PCA model for shoot mineral content indicated more than 92% of variance defined by PC1 and PC2 (Figure 2). ...
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Production of quality fruits has always been the priority for ensuring better nutrition and market value. Considering the role of potassium in fruit quality improvement a study was carried out in dragon fruit under open field condition during 2020 and 2021 in the eastern tropical climatic condition of India. The treatments comprised viz., K-absentia as control (T1), K 50 g hill−1 year⁻¹ (T2), K 100 g hill−1 year⁻¹ (T3), K 200 g hill−1 year⁻¹ (T4), K 300 g hill−1 year⁻¹ (T5), K 400 g hill−1 year⁻¹ (T6) and K 500 g hill−1 year⁻¹ (T7). Application of K @300 g hill−1 year⁻¹ exhibited the maximal acquisition of minerals such as N, P, K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu in shoot and fruit pulp of dragon fruit. However, calcium did not exhibit a discernible trend. However, excessive dose of K (500 g hill⁻¹year⁻¹) resulted in declination in mineral acquisition. K 300 g hill−1 year⁻¹ (T5) also demonstrated enhanced absolute fruit growth rate, maximal yield, marketable yield, fruit weight, color attributes, bio-chemical attributes such as TSS, carbohydrate, reducing sugar (∼20%), protein, citric acid, ascorbic acid content (∼2 times). Additionally, the same treatment also manifested an enhancement in biochemical attributes such as betacyanin (∼2.2 times), total phenol (∼55%), total flavonoid (∼2.7 times), α-amylase and sucrose synthase activities, and antioxidative property (FRAP activity). Principal component analysis (PCA) illustrated the maximal proximity of most of the variables (quality attributes and mineral nutrient contents) with T5 (K 300 g hill−1 year⁻¹), exemplifying it as the best representative of all the studied variables.
... Content of MGS: High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) (Shimadzu. Ltd., JPN, SPD-M20A, Kyoto, Japan) was used for analyzing MGS content by a modified method of Nowicka's [26]. A 10 µm sample was injected into the C 18 chromatographic column (250 nm × 4.6 nm, 5 µm). ...
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Momordica grosvenorii saponin (MGS), as a promising dietary supplement with remarkable biological properties, has poor stability under acidic conditions and thus hinders its application in functional foods. In this study, capsules of chitosan and sodium alginate were successfully prepared to enhance the stability of MGS. The optimized parameters for preparing MGS capsules were established. Sodium alginate of 20.8 mg/mL and triplication of MGS powder were added to chitosan of 4 mg/mL and calcium chloride of 10 mg/mL at a volume ratio of 3:1, stirring at 1000 r/min for 30 min to form the capsules. In this case, the fresh particles averaged 1687 μm with an encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 80.25% MGS. The capsule tolerated acidic environments better, and in vitro MGS could be controlled to release in a stimulated gastrointestinal tract system. The antioxidant activity and delayed release of MGS could be achieved by microencapsulation of chitosan/sodium alginate. Moreover, one drink containing 19 mg/mL MGS was successfully developed for the fruit.
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The variation in physicochemical characteristics, bioactive components, antioxidant capacity, and volatile compounds of different cultivars of green plum during the ripening was investigated. The alterations in bioactive components and volatile compounds of six cultivars green plum (‘Baifen’, ‘Nangao’, ‘D-1’, ‘Yingsu’, ‘Qingzhu’, and ‘Changnong’) during the ripening were determined by HPLC and GC–MS, respectively. The levels of total phenolics, ascorbic acid, organic acid, phenolic acid, and antioxidant capacity of green plum samples showed a first upward and then downward tendency during the ripening process. The cultivar had a great impact on the phytochemical compounds contents of green plum during ripening, and the ‘Qingzhu’ green plum (QZ) showed higher bioactive compounds concentrations and antioxidant capacity in comparison to the other cultivar green plums. Moreover, the volatile compounds of green plum were also affected by maturity stage and cultivar. The green plums (‘Baifen’, ‘Nangao’, ‘D-1’ and ‘Yingsu’) in the ripening stage presented the highest contents of esters and alcohols, while the main aroma substances of QZ and ‘Changnong’ green plum were aldehydes and terpenes, which were responsible for a strong fruit flavor. The results of this study provided valuable information for the processing and utilization of green plum.
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Grape berries contain a variety of metabolites, such as anthocyanins, sugars, fatty acids, and antioxidants. Endogenous phytohormones strongly influence these metabolites, which regulate berry quality improvement. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 2,4-epibrassinolide (EBR, brassinolide (BR)-like growth regulator), jasmonic acid (JA), and their signaling inhibitors brassinazole (Brz), and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DIECA) on berry quality and antioxidant ability. Overall, the pre-harvest application of 0.5 mg L ⁻¹ EBR and 100 μmol L ⁻¹ JA significantly influences the quality of the grape berry. Results showed that EBR was superior to other treatments at enhancing the content of different metabolites, including anthocyanins, fructose, glucose, and a variety of fatty acids, in grapes. EBR and JA also enhanced the synthesis of gibberellin 3 (GA 3 ), cytokinin (CTK), salicylic acid (SA), JA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), BR, and abscisic acid (ABA), while inhibiting the synthesis of auxin (IAA). Most genes related to BR/JA and anthocyanins/sugars/fatty acids biosynthesis were up-regulated. The effects of Brz and DIECA on the grape berry quality were totally reversed throughout the study, as shown by EBR and JA. According to correlation analysis, EBR and JA have a beneficial positive interaction that promotes the formation of strong coherences in grape berries between ABA/IAA/ZT-fruit expansion, BR/JA/MeJA/GA 3 /ZR-biochemical characteristics development, JA/MeJA/ABA/GA 3 /SA/ZR-antioxidant capacity enhancement, and JA/MeJA/IAA/GA 3 /ZT/ZR-fatty acids accumulation. In this regard, we concluded that preharvest exogenous 0.5 mg L ⁻¹ EBR and 100 μmol L ⁻¹ JA is a successful way to improve grape berry quality.
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Harvest maturity is closely related to peach fruit quality and has a very important effect on the fresh fruit market. Unfortunately, at present, it is difficult to determine the maturity level of peach fruits by artificial methods. The objectives of this study were to develop quadratic polynomial regression models using near-infrared spectroscopy that could determine the peel color difference, fruit firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), soluble sugar, organic acid components, and their relationships with the absorbance of chlorophyll (index of absorbance difference, IAD) in late maturing ‘Xiahui 8’ peach and ‘Xiaguang’ nectarine fruits. The analysis was based on data for fruits at veraison, fruits at harvesting maturity, and all fruits. The results showed that firmness has the highest correlation coefficient with IAD. Prediction models for fruit maturity were established between firmness and the IAD of the two cultivars using the quadratic polynomial regression method. Further variance analysis on the one degree term and quadratic term of each equation showed that every partial regression coefficient reached a significant or extremely significant level. No significant difference was observed between estimated and observed values after regression prediction. The regression equations seem to fit well. Other peach and nectarine varieties were used to test the feasibility of maturity prediction by this method, and it was found that maturity was successfully predicted in all the samples. The result indicated that the IAD can be used as an index to predict peach fruit maturity.
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The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of five different pomegranate cultivars. Fruit mass ranged from 109.27 to 78.07 g. Peel thickness of the fruit was recorded from 5.05 to 2.70 mm. The pH, total soluble solids content, the titratable acidity content were within the range of 4.23 to 4.36, 20.00 (◦Brix) to 14.05 (◦Brix), 0.04 to 0.007 mg per 100 g of juice, respectively. Ascorbic acid content was from 4.73 to 1.98 mg per 100 g of juice. The amount of total phenolics in pomegranate cultivars was between 6.36 and 1.78 mg GAE/100 ml. The total flavonoids content also ranged between 4.93 to 2.24 mg GAE/100 ml. The level of antioxidant activity was varied from 86.77 % to 79.54 %. Reducing sugar content ranged between 5.81 to 1.72 mg/100g. Glucose content was found from 3.48 to 1.14 mg/100g. In total based on these results, the cultivar is the main parameter which influences the physic-chemical properties and antioxidant activity in pomegranates.
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The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders.
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Nutritional compounds (phenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid), antioxidant activities, and physicochemical characteristics (fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids, pH, acidity, total and reducing sugars) of 33 different sour cherry cultivars were studied. Polyphenols were identified by LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. A total of 41 polyphenolic compounds found were identified and presented as 14 flavan-3-ols, 11 anthocyanins, 5 hydroxycinnamic acids, 10 flavonols, and 1 flavon. The content of total polyphenols (TPs) ranged from 2982.51 ('Wisok' cultivar) to 1539.43 mg/100 g dry weight ('Erdi Nagygyϋmϋscu'cultivar). Flavan-3-ols, the major class of sour cherry polyphenols, represented ∼40% of the TP compounds, whereas anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids amounted for about 25% each. The content of l-ascorbic acid did not exceed 22.18 mg/100 g fresh matter. Some polish sour cherry cultivars (especially 'Agat', 'Ametyst', 'Wider', 'Winer', and 'Wisok') may be selected to promote the growth of cultivars with strong nutritional and phytochemical beneficial effects on human health.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mixing sour cherry puree with apple, pear, quince and flowering quince juices on characteristics of 17 different products (12 smoothies and 5 semi-products). Compounds (phenolic compounds, vitamin C, sugar, pectin), antioxidant activity (ORAC, ABTS, FRAP), and physicochemical parameters (titratable acidity, soluble solids, viscosity, colour) of different products were evaluated. Depending on the type of product, 8 to 20 phenolic compounds, belonging to the anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcone, were identified by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF-MS). The highest content of polyphenols was observed in the sour cherry–flowering quince smoothie, while the lowest was observed in the sour cherry–pear smoothie. The study showed that the major polyphenols compounds in the smoothies were polymeric procyanidins, which were positively correlated with antioxidant activity. In addition, some kind of synergistic effect was observed between some compounds of sour cherry and flowering quince which could increase the antioxidant activity of the final product. The mixing of various fruit products could be interesting from a nutritional as well as commercial perspective.
To understand better the regulatory mechanism of the carotenoid accumulation, the expression profile of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were compared between two peach cultivars with different colors during fruit development. Meanwhile, the change pattern of carotenoid content and expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in peaches after harvest in response to blue light were also investigated. As compared to the yellow fleshed-cultivar ‘Jinli’, lower carotenoid levels were observed in skin and pulp in white peach cultivar ‘Hujing’, which might be explained by differentially expression of PpCCD4 gene. With respect to ‘Jinli’, the carotenoid accumulation during fruit development in fruit skin was partially linked with the transcriptional regulation of PpFPPS, PpGGPS, PpLCYB and PpCHYB. However, in the pulp, the accumulation might be also associated with the increased transcriptions of PpPDS, along with the above four genes. Blue light treatment induced carotenoid accumulation in ‘Jinli’ peaches during storage. In addition, the treated-fruit displayed higher expression of all the eight genes analysed with a lesser extent on PpCCD4, which suggested that the much more increased carotenoid synthesis rate could result in the higher carotenoid content in blue light-treated fruit. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in peach fruit.
Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36 mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764 mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit.