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Reishi or Ling Zhi (Ganoderma lucidum)

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Abstract

Ling Zhi encompasses several Ganoderma species, which are widely used for medicinal purposes, e.g., G. lucidum, G. luteum Steyaert, G. atrum Zhao, Xu and Zhang, G. tsugae Murrill, G. applanatum (Pers.: Wallr.) Pat., G. australe (Fr.) Pat., G. capense (Lloyd) Teng, G. tropicum (Jungh.) Bres., G. tenue Zhao, Xu and Zhang, and G. sinense Zhao, Xu and Zhang. According to two famous Chinese plant medical books, Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (25-220 A.D., Eastern Han Dynasty) and Ben Cao Gang Mil by Li Shi-Zhen (1590 A.D., Ming Dynasty), six Ling Zhi species= varieties were known in China at that time. Worldwide, more than 250 Ganoderma species have been described.[2,3] However, in therapeutic practices and literature citations, Ganoderma usually refers to the species of G. lucidum.

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... It is mainly grown in wide variety parts of Himalayas on deciduous trees (dead/dying tree), specifically in oak, pyrus, maple, quercus, elm, willow, sweet gum, magnolia, locust, acer, alnus, betula, tilia, castanea, coryolus, fagus, fraxinus, populus, plums and less acquired in coniferous trees i.e. larix, picea, pinus. It is mostly growing on plum trees and furthermore found on bases usually close to the soil exterior or rarely rising from repressed roots [16,6]. ...
... Consequently, Ganoderma lucidum has assigned with therapeutic properties (State Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China, 2000) or medicinal remedy in Far East countries (North America and Europe) for old time in therapy of neurasthenia, sleeping disorder, anorexia, hepatopathy, nephritis, faintness, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, persistent hepatitis, hypercholesterolemia, mushroom poisoning antidote, coronary illness, hypertension, carcinoma or bronchial cough in mature age. As per Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and Japanese herbalists stated various kinds of Ganoderma lucidum have different tastes and distinctive biological activity and also be classified six unique sorts of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) on the basis of color i.e. green, black, white, red, yellow, and purple [7,16,17]. ...
... LZ-8 proteins also possessing strong antioxidant properties by inhibiting the oxidative reaction or altering the physical site of transition metals making insoluble metal complexes. While, Ganodermin isolated from Ganoderma lucidum display antifungal assets in contrast to Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Physalospora piricola [16,22,24,1]. ...
Article
ABSTRACT Ganoderma lucidum is generally called "Lingzhi or Reishi", and also be a Traditional Chinese medicine utilized in over 2000 y for their better therapeutic activity like antitumor, antiallergenic, antiviral, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, hypotensive, immunomodulator, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antibacterial and many other health benefits. Ganoderma lucidum is one of the oldest herbal remedies found and grow in wide variety parts on deciduous trees (dead/dying tree) specifically in oak, pyrus, maple, elm, willow, sweetgum, magnolia, locust, acer, betula, castanea, coryolus, fagus, populus, plums, and other plants species. It also contains 400 major bioactive chemical constituents include polysaccharides, triterpenoids, polysaccharide-peptide complex, β-glucans, lectins, natural germanium (Ge), adenosine, phenols, steroids, amino acids, lignin, vitamins, nucleotides or nucleosides possesses specific curative properties and formed a wide variety of viable products from Ganoderma fruiting bodies, mycelia, spores i.e. coffee, powder, dietary enhancements, tea, spore items, drinks, syrups, toothpaste, cleansers or creams. Many in vitro or in vivo analyses with regards to Ganoderma lucidum evidenced their antitumor activity but some conducted clinical studies are questionable and remain undefined for their antitumor effect. Though, we reviewed and summarized in this article about treatment and various pharmacological mechanisms against tumor concerning extracting (polysaccharide and triterpenoid) of Ganoderma lucidum.
... The fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum known as Ling Zhi in China, one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom, has been used extensively for longevity and health promotion in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years [1][2][3]. Although it is still not clear about Ling Zhi's mechanism on longevity and health promotion, Ling Zhi has been used for the prevention or treatment of various conditions and diseases such as anorexia, neurasthenia, insomnia, migraine, allergy, asthma, bronchitis, gastritis, hepatitis, nephritis, arthritis, lupus erythematosus, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular problems, and cancers [2,3]. ...
... The fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum known as Ling Zhi in China, one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom, has been used extensively for longevity and health promotion in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years [1][2][3]. Although it is still not clear about Ling Zhi's mechanism on longevity and health promotion, Ling Zhi has been used for the prevention or treatment of various conditions and diseases such as anorexia, neurasthenia, insomnia, migraine, allergy, asthma, bronchitis, gastritis, hepatitis, nephritis, arthritis, lupus erythematosus, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular problems, and cancers [2,3]. ...
... One of the potent biologically active compounds that has been shown to possess diverse and potentially significant pharmacological activities is the bitter triterpenes [2]. Since the first discovery of ganoderic acids A and B, more than 150 types of triterpenes have been isolated from various parts of Ling Zhi [2,3], among which ganoderic acids A and F ( Figure 1) have received considerable attention due to their conspicuous pharmacological properties for example, antihypertensive [4], antinociceptive [5], antioxidative [6], farnesyl protein transferase inhibitory [7], and hepatoprotective activities [8,9], especially anticancer activity [10][11][12][13] which is the most attractive character of this medicinal mushroom. Ganoderic acid A has been reported to suppress growth and invasion of highly invasive human breast cancer cells via downregulation of expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 that regulates cell cycle G 1 phase progression, and via suppression of secretion of urokinase-type plasminogen activator that implicates in tumor cell invasion and metastasis [12]. ...
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The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ganoderic acids A and F after a single oral dose of the water extract of MG2-strain Ling Zhi (MG2FB-WE) and to assess the influence of food on the pharmacokinetics in 12 healthy male volunteers. This study was a single-dose, open-label, randomized, two-phase crossover study with at least 2 wk washout period. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of 3,000 mg of MG2FB-WE in granular formulation dissolved in 200 mL of warm water, either under a fasting condition, or immediately after a standard breakfast (fed condition). Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 8 h after MG2FB-WE administration. Plasma ganoderic acids A and F concentrations were determined by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic profile of both ganoderic acids under a fasting condition was characterized by rapid absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (T(max) at approximately 30 min) and a short elimination half-life (<40 min). Food significantly decreased C(max) and delayed T(max), but did not affect the extent of ganoderic acid A absorption. However, concomitant food intake markedly impeded both rate and extent of ganoderic acid F absorption.
... Ganoderma lucidum is a polypore mushroom belonging genus Ganoderma that grows as saprotrophs or parasites [31]. It has been used for many years in Far East countries including China, Japan, and Korea, as a potent medicinal fungus [32]. It is known by two different names in China and Japan, the Chinese call it "lingzhi" referring to its essence of immortality and spiritual potency, while the Japanese named this mushroom reishi or mannentake which means 10,000 year mushroom [32]. ...
... It has been used for many years in Far East countries including China, Japan, and Korea, as a potent medicinal fungus [32]. It is known by two different names in China and Japan, the Chinese call it "lingzhi" referring to its essence of immortality and spiritual potency, while the Japanese named this mushroom reishi or mannentake which means 10,000 year mushroom [32]. ...
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Studies with mushrooms have been developed recently and it is figured out that potent properties of secondary metabolites from different mushroom species show great biological activities. There is a growing interest in active metabolites that are obtained from natural sources as an alternative to synthetic drugs. In the review, the potential use of mushroom extract as an anticoagulant agent has been discussed. Hydnellum peckii, Ganoderma lucidum, Geastrum fimbriatum and Auricularia auricula-judaeextracts exhibited a promising anticoagulantactivity.
... Also, GA-β has been seen to exhibit immune-modulator action decreasing the burden of the active immune system by reducing IL-5, but increasing CD8 + , IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 production of specific allergen-stimulated PBMCs. These effects have been observed to be significant for attaining immune competence in GA-R, S Antihepatotoxic activity [34] B, C2, and G Anti-ageing activity [35,36] Ganoderic acid, GA-A, B, C, and D Antioxidative activity [37] GA-A, B, G, and H Antinociceptive activity [38] GA-Me Arrest cell cycle, apoptosis [39,40] Ganoderic acid, GA-C, and D Histamine inhibition [38,41,42] Ganoderic acid, GA-A, F, and DM Anti-inflammatory activity [43][44][45] GA-Y, F, H, B, D, K, and S Antihypertensive activity [46] GA-Me, Mf, and Y Hypercholesterolemic activity [38,47] GA-Sz Anticomplement activity [48] GA-T Anti-metastatic, anti-invasion [ [61,62] asthmatic patients [81]. In addition, GA-S is known to suppress the thromboxanes and prostaglandins exhibiting the amphipathic effect on the platelets aggregation [77,83,84]. ...
... Ganoderma potently exhibits wide ranges of bioactivities, but akin to other natural products are not completely devoid of side effects. Ganoderma derived natural products have been observed to exhibit mild side-effects ranging from short to long term [42]. Literature survey reveals numerous in vivo and in vitro tests conducted to ascertain the toxicity of the various dosage forms of Ganoderma derivatives. ...
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Article
A Basidiomycetes fungus belonging to polypore family of mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum (GL), has been known since a long time for their myriad therapeutic indications. Renowned as an invaluable resource of cardinal mycoconstituents they encompass numerous terpenoids polysaccharides and proteins. Possessing the therapeutically potent lanosteroidal skeleton, terpenoids are upheld for their invariable participation in therapeutically diverse bioactivities. Polysaccharides and proteins exhibiting distinguishable bioactivities provide this oriental mushroom with additional edges over immune function and anti-cancer potential. This review is a concerted effort to throw light upon the therapeutic versatility of the fungus, shadowed by various other natural products. An effort has been made towards conglomerating the mycoconstituents decisive for the many activities portrayed by this fungus. More importantly, this review seeks to fathom the inextricable role played by derivatives in modulating signaling cascades such as downregulation of various mitogenic pathways, inhibiting growth factors, or upregulating certain pathways enhancing cellular integrity.
... Increase in PCV is not accompanied by corresponding increases in RBC counts and Hb concentration compared to pre-treatment and control. This finding agrees with that of Wasser [15] who reported that administration of 5 % Ganoderma lucidum powder in mice for 30 days did not have any hematological effects therefore, the increase in PCV in this study may be relative polycytaemia due to haemoconcentration as evidenced by the findings in acute and sub acute toxicity studies where increase in water intake was observed in the experimental rats, and the significant (P>0.05) decreases recorded in groups treated with 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg respectively The increase in circulating WBC is due extract treatment as the body's response to exogenous substance,and may be due to increase in circulating neutrophils that are shown to increase significantly (P < 0.05) especially between the second and third (day 14 -21) week of the experiment in all the treatment groups when compared to pre-treatment and control. ...
... The increase in neutrophils may also be due to presence of tumor necrotic factor-α and tumor necrotic factor-β (TNFα and TNFβ) and possibly a cleavage of the third compliments, which are derived from macrophages and other cells as reported by Latimer et al [16], but lymphocytes were observed to decrease with the extract treatment. However, release of cytokines such as interleukins (IL) reported by Wasser [15] can as well be responsible for both cellular and humoral immunity. The decrease in circulating lymphocytes were equally observed by Xi et al [17] who reported that immunomodulatory effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) was achieved in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with no increase in β-lymphocytes. ...
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ABSTRACT Some hematological parameters in normal albino rats were investigated using standard laboratory techniques. The albino rats were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) of 25 rats per group. Doses of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum orally administered consecutively for 21 days to rats groups A, B and C, while rats in D was administered water and served as the control group. Blood samples was weekly collected from sacrificed normal albino rats and analysed for Packed Cell Volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, White Blood Cell counts (WBC) and Differential Leucocytic Counts (DLC). While haematological indices such as the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined by calculating their absolute values from the initially analysed blood parameters. Findings from this study suggest that methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum is safe and can be exploited in healthcare delivery systems. Key words: Ganoderma lucidum, Methanolic extract, Hematological Parameters, Albino rats, Healthcare.
... Krast (Polyporaceae), a basidiomycete is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which has been used as tonic and invigorating medicine (Yan-Qun and Zhi-Cong 2012). G. lucidum has common sociocultural uses across Nigeria as a traditional herb and as an ingredient in herbal preparations, spiritualism and mysticism (Wasser, 2005). G. lucidum has a worldwide distribution in both tropical and temperate geographical regions, including South and North America, Africa, Europe, and Asia, growing as a parasite or a saprotroph on a wide variety of trees. ...
... Medicinally, over 300 reports have been published concerning the constituents of G. lucidum and related species. The fruiting body, mycelia, and spores of G. lucidum contain approximately 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly include triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleotides, steroids, fatty acids, protein/peptides and trace elements (Wasser, 2005 ). Recent pharmacological studies have proven that G. lucidum extract shows immune regulation (Zhang et. ...
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Biomass yield of G. lucidum in submerged culture was investigated on account of its requirements for sources of carbon, nitrogen and the carbon : nitrogen (C:N) ratio. The study was carried out with the culture medium of potato dextrose broth enriched with the different carbon (glucose, maltose, starch) and nitrogen (aspartic acid, nitrogen nitrate, peptone) sources over a period of 15 days following standard procedures. The highest biomass of 460±89mg was recorded in the broth medium incorporated with maltose which is significantly different (p<0.05) from that of glucose, 310±89mg, and lactose, 250±50mg. There was no growth on starch (0.00±0.000mg) while the control recorded 114±20mg. The highest biomass of 200±39mg among the nitrogen sources was recorded in the medium incorporated with aspartic acid which is also significantly different(p<0.05) from that of peptone, nitrogen nitrate and the control. A carbon : nitrogen (C:N) ratio (i.e. maltose : aspartic acid) source of 2:2 supported the highest biomass when compared to other carbon : nitrogen ratios. It was therefore deduced, that the presence of maltose as a source of carbon and aspartic acid as a source of nitrogen respectively favoured a good growth of G. lucidum when supplied in a definite amount and ratio. The implications and reasons for these results were highlighted and discussed. It was concluded therefore, that various carbon and nitrogen sources and certain carbon : nitrogen (C:N) ratio have effect on the biomass yield of G. lucidum grown in Potato dextrose broth medium. The findings of this study will be an addition to the baseline information for the growth of the mushroom in submerged cultures for its pharmacological and medicinal potentials.
... Approximately 400 chemical substances have been isolated from G. lucidum, which include mainly polysaccharides, triterpenoids, nucleosides, ergosterols, fatty acids, proteins/peptides, and trace elements. Particularly polysaccharide and triterpenoid components in G. lucidum have been proposed as the bioactive constituents responsible for the protective activities against toxin-induced liver injury [105][106][107]. In a broad review about the hepatoprotective properties of G. lucidum, Gao et al. [106] collected evidence to suggest possible molecular mechanisms to explain its hepatoprotective actions. ...
... The mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects are still undefined. Evidence suggests that antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, modulation of hepatic phase I and II enzymes, inhibition of β-glucuronidase, antifibrotic and antiviral activity, modulation of nitric oxide production, maintenance of hepatocellular calcium homeostasis, and immunomodulatory effects might be involved [107]. ...
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Article
The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.
... Biologically active metabolites (BAM) belong to several chemical groups-polysaccharides (PSH), proteins, and their complexes and various LMW metabolites such as PCs, polyketides, triterpenoids (TRIs) Karaman et al. (2012c), steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, lactones, and FAs (Paterson 2006;Boh et al. 2007;Karaman 2009;Karaman et al. 2010Karaman et al. , 2018bKlaus et al. 2011;Zhang et al. 2013;Baby et al. 2015;Friedman 2015;Rašeta et al. 2016Rašeta et al. , 2020aTešanović et al. 2017;Stilinović et al. 2020;Mišković et al. 2021;Venturella et al. 2021). Some of these compounds have immunomodulating activities and have been recognized as biological response modifiers (Wasser 2005), some are antioxidants (AO) , antidiabetics, antitumor or antimicrobial agents Karaman et al. (2010), ready for industrial trials and further commercialization and some of them are just in a starting stage of development. ...
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to introduce the main problems in the study of wild growing medicinal mushroom species by presenting the research from the period 2005–2020, with special emphasis on autochthonous species of Serbia and the Balkan region. Four major problems have been discussed regarding identification of the species, their biodiversity, chemical characterization, and environmental contamination, since they represent a great source of bioactive compounds with various activities: antioxidative, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anti-AChE inhibition.The aim of this chapter is to introduce the main problems in the study of wild growing medicinal mushroom species by presenting the research from the period 2005–2020, with special emphasis on autochthonous species of Serbia and the Balkan region.Four major problems have been discussed regarding identification of the species, their biodiversity, chemical characterization, and environmental contamination, since they represent a great source of bioactive compounds with various activities: antioxidative, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anti-AChE inhibition. A proper taxonomic identification is the first step in the further research. The identification is difficult due to similarity of morphological characteristics, especially within species complexes such as Pleurotus and Ganoderma . Molecular identification through multi-gene phylogenetic analysis helped to resolve some of these issues while full genome sequencing enabled annotation of genes, as it was done with Schizophyllum commune and Hericium erinaceus .Chemical characterization of the secondary bioactive compounds mostly confirmed the existence of terpenoids, phenols, and sterols, while polysaccharides and immunomodulatory proteins including polysaccharide-peptide complexes have been identified recently. Although wild fungal strains represent powerful sources of medicinal substances, they can also pose a potential risk to human health through (hyper) accumulation of toxic elements (e.g. Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni, 238U, and 137Cs) from different substrates, not only in the polluted urban environments, but also in protected natural areas. Their use should be well reasoned and controlled along with their conservation and protection.KeywordsAntioxidantsCosmeceuticalsDiversityMolecular identificationToxic elements
... This segment is usually sawdust (SD) from various hardwood tree species such as alder (Alnus spp.), oak (Quercus spp.), maple (Acer spp.), birch (Betula spp.), hornbeam (Carpinus spp.), chestnut (Castanea spp.), beech (Fagus spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.), walnut (Juglans spp.), apple (Malus spp.), cottonwood (Populus spp.), pear (Pyrus spp.), and locusts (Robinia spp.). [22][23][24] However, this part is not restricted only to SDs, and other lignocellulosic materials can also be applied. Among these, locally available agrowaste materials are worth further investigation due to their availability and disposal concerns. ...
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Mushrooms in the genus Ganoderma have been collected and used as medicine since ancient times. However, commercial basidiome production has only recently been achieved. The solid substrates for basidiome production usually consist of lignocellulosic materials as the major component and the supplements (e.g., different types of bran and flour) as the minor segment. Research on substrates for solid-state fermentation with the purpose of basidiome production has focused on investigating locally available agrowaste materials, and their suitability is judged by the economic outputs. This review summarizes the formulations of the substrates and discusses their effects on the yield of basidiome or its bioactive compounds. Through a comprehensive look, this review concludes that future research focused on various treatments to modulate extracellular enzyme production may bring more options to the table for innovative solid substrate formulation.
... Medicinally, over 300 reports have been published concerning the constituents of Ganoderema species. The fruiting body, mycelia and spores of Ganoderma contain approximately 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly include triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleotides, steroids, fatty acids, protein/peptides and trace elements  16 (Wasser, 2005). Bioactive polysaccharides in mushroom can be extracted from the mycelia of the mushroom species for medicinal and pharmacological activity. ...
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Research
The fruiting body, mycelia and spores of Ganoderma contain approximately 400 different bioactive compounds. At present, the demand for natural products with pharmacological activity and medicinal uses is markedly increasing and the submerged culture offer faster production of mycelia biomass with high nutrients and exopolysaccharide of medicinal importance in shorter period of time within reduced space and gets lesser chances of contamination with consistent quality. Mycelial biomass production of Ganoderma was carried out using five different liquid media viz., Glucose aspargine media (GLM), Hwang liquid media (HLM), Potato dextrose broth (PDB), Yeast wine media (YWM) and Glucose peptone liquid media (GPM). The highest dry weight was observed in yeast wine media (1.08g/300ml).
... In East Asia, it has been long used to treat many diseases such as nephritis, chronic hepatitis, gastric ulcers, arthritis, neurasthenia, bronchitis, asthma, and hypertension in oriental countries [1][2][3][4][5]. Recent studies on G. lucidum have shown that it has numerous bioactivities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and immunomodulating effects [6,7]. To gain insights into the mechanisms of polysaccharides and triterpenoids for health benefits, their effects on various human cell lines have been investigated extensively [8][9][10][11][12][13]. ...
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Red Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a popular medicinal herb commonly used in Vietnamese traditional remedies due to its potential value for health. In this study, polysaccharides were extracted from G. lucidum using ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction method. The response surface methodology and Box–Behnken design were employed to investigate the effects of pH, extraction temperature, extraction time, and ultrasonic power on the content of polysaccharides. Based on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis, the highest content of polysaccharides in the extract was 32.08 mg/g under optimum experimental parameters including enzyme concentration of 3%, pH of 5.5, extraction temperature of 45°C, extraction time of 30 min, and ultrasonic power of 480 W. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was also used to identify the functional groups in the extracts. The molecular weights of polysaccharides were determined by gel permeation chromatography. The obtained extract was then evaluated for anticancer activities by using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, showing the anticancer activities with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value of more than 512 μg/mL. This result suggested that UAEE could be considered as an appropriate and effective extraction method for bioactive crude polysaccharides from G. lucidum.
... 2,3 This mushroom is often called as "Mushroom of Immortality", "Herb of spiritual potency" and "Celestial Herb" due to its various medicinal properties. 4,5,6 Ganoderma lucidum is known since around 2000 years and has played a very significant role as a medicine in Chinese and Japanese culture. 7 Lingzhi, as a medicinal mushroom with various medicinal properties was also recorded in the first Chinese Pharmacopeia written in Ming Dynasty (A.D. 1590). ...
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Medicinal mushrooms have been used since olden days for the treatment of various diseases. Ganoderma lucidum or Reishi is a medicinal mushroom of significant importance which is gaining popularity due to the presence of numerous bio-active ingredients in it. Wild collection of this mushroom along with its cultivation is done worldwide to meet its everincreasing demand in the market. Although, artificial or sawdust method of its cultivation on different woody substrates is commonly used but wood log cultivation method is also in practice. The steps for its cultivation include spawn preparation, substrate preparation, fruiting body management, harvesting and storage with their own set of requirements and precautions for each step. Several healthcare, personal care, food and beverage products made of its extract are being marketed and consumed worldwide. In this review, a general understanding about the cultivation of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, current market scenario and its potential in Indian markets are discussed.
... Moreover, G. lucidum is a mushroom that has been used for years as a nutraceutical for the prevention or treatment of diseases of the most varied origin, which has the advantage of being used as a functional food. It is perceived here the timely viability of the use of this natural source as a food supplement to support on the management of alcohol-related disturbances as an adjuvant in therapeutics, since it presented low toxicity and interesting biological effects [74,80,81]. ...
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Ganoderma lucidum, mushroom used for centuries by Asian peoples as food supplement, has been shown interesting biological activities, including over the Central Nervous System. Besides, these mushroom bioactive compounds present antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. On the side, binge drinking paradigm consists of ethanol exposure that reflects the usual consumption of adolescents, which elicits deleterious effects, determined by high ethanol consumption, in a short period. In this study, we investigated whether the Aqueous Extract of G. lucidum (AEGl) reduces the behavioral disorders induced by alcohol. Male (n = 30) and female Wistar rats (n = 40), seventy-two days old, were used for behavioral/biochemical and oral toxicity test, respectively. Animals were exposed to 5 binges (beginning at 35 days old) of ethanol (3 g/kg/day) or distilled water. Twenty-four hours after the last binge administration, animals received AEGl (100 mg/kg/day) or distilled water for three consecutive days. After treatment protocol, open field, elevated plus maze, forced swim, and step-down inhibitory avoidance tests were performed. Oxidative stress parameters were measured to evaluate the REDOX balance. Our results demonstrated that AEGl elicited the recovery of spontaneous horizontal exploration capacity, anxiogenic- and depressive-profile, as well as short-term memory damage induced by binge-ethanol exposure. The behavioral effects of the extract were associated to the reequilibrium of the animals' REDOX balance. Thus, AEGl, a medicinal mushroom, ameliorates behavioral alteration on a model of motor, cognitive and psychiatric-like disorders induced by binge drinking paradigm and emerges as a useful tool as a food supplement in the management of disorders of alcoholic origin.
... On the other hand, G. lucidum, commonly known as the reishi mushroom, has been extensively used as a pharmaceutical product. Over 400 chemical compounds present in G. lucidum biomass have been classified as bioactive, including polysaccharides, proteins/peptides, steroids, sterols, and fatty acids, which are associated to antioxidative, antiaging, antifatigue, hypoglycemic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, hypolipidemic, sleep regulating, and analgesic properties [23,24]. Furthermore, both P. ostreatus and G. lucidum have demonstrated promising prebiotic properties, possibly due to their indigestible polysaccharides and, particularly, β-glucan content [25,26]. ...
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The successful management of olive by-products constitutes a major challenge due to their huge volume, high organic content, and toxicity. Olive-mill wastes (TPOMW) and olive pruning residues (OLPR) were evaluated as substrates for the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus. Chemical composition, glucans, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity were measured in mushrooms, and their prebiotic potential was assessed by examining their effect on the growth of four intestinal bacteria. Several substrates based on olive by-products had a positive impact on P. ostreatus mushroom production, whereas only one performed adequately for G. lucidum. Increased ratios of OLPR to wheat-straw resulted in an increase of crude protein content in P. ostreatus fruit-bodies by up to 42%, while G. lucidum mushrooms from OLPR-based substrates exhibited an up to three-fold increase in α-glucan, or a significant enhancement of β-glucan content, when compared to beech sawdust (control). The mushrooms’ FTIR spectra confirmed the qualitative/quantitative differentiation detected by standard assays. In regard to prebiotic properties, mushrooms powder supported or even enhanced growth of both Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. gasseri after 24/48 h of incubation. In contrast, a strain-specific pattern was observed in bifidobacteria; mushrooms hindered Bifidobacterium bifidum growth, whereas they supported a similar-to-glucose growth for B. longum.
... Ganoderma lucidum possesses different pharmacological effects, including, calming, antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, chemopreventive and anti-aging effect [13,14]. Radioprotective, cytotoxic, antitumor, antibacterial, sedative, hypolipidemic, antiviral (for HIV), antifibrotic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities have also been seen in the mushroom [15,16]. ...
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Background In traditional Chinese medicine Ganoderma lucidum is famous for its beneficial effect on nervous system. It was traditionally used to manage different neurological disorders. This study was designed to investigate the nootropic potential of the mushroom. Methods Nootropic activity was evaluated following the oral administration of two different doses (150 and 300 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum. Physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) and Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Distilled water was used as a control. Elevated plus maze and Morris water maze were used for the assessment of learning process. In elevated plus maze, initial transfer latency and retention transfer latency were assessed. In Morris water maze, TSTQ (time spent in target quadrant) and transfer latency were evaluated. For the assessment of locomotor activity, open field test was utilized. Furthermore, biochemical estimation of acetylcholinestrases (AchE) was performed by using Ellman’s method. Results The results of the study show that the Ganoderma lucidum extract has significantly increased the time spent in target quadrant (TSTQ) and decreased the escape latency (EL) in Morris water maze model. Whereas, a decrease in the Initial Transfer Latency (ITL) and Retention Transfer Latency (RTL) was observed in elevated plus maze model. Conclusion: The present study showed that Ganoderma lucidum has physostigmine like effect on brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity.
... G. lucidum is a wood-rot basidiomycete classified within the family Ganodermataceae of Polyporales order. Its constituent bioactive compounds and their associated therapeutic properties against a number of health disorders have globally established G. lucidum as a pharmacologically and commercially important medicinal mushroom [5]. For instance, polysaccharides like ganoderans A, B, and C were reported to exhibit anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory effects [6]. ...
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Ganoderma lucidum ( G. lucidum ) fungus (Family Ganodermataceae) is widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and many Asian countries on account of its numerous medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, energy enhancing, and immunostimulatory. This broad spectrum of therapeutic effects exhibited by G. lucidum is ascribed to its abundance in several classes of chemical constituents, namely, carbohydrates, flavonoids, minerals, phenolics, proteins, and steroids which possess substantial bioactivities. The aim of the current study was to prepare phenolic rich fractions (PRFs) from aqueous extract of the Indian variety of G. lucidum mycelium and fruiting body. These fractions were assessed for their antioxidant capacity by TPC (total phenolic content), TFC (total flavonoid content), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and ABTS [2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid] assays. Quantification of flavonoids and nucleobases present in the fractions was carried out by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The antibacterial activity of the fractions was evaluated against Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhi , and Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial mechanism of action of the PRFs was established to be generation of reactive oxygen species and leakage of proteins within bacterial cells. Additionally, the protective effect of the PRFs in counteracting hypoxia was observed in HEK 293 cell lines.
... About 400 chemical substances have been identified from Ganoderma lucidum, which include mainly polysaccharides, triterpenoids, nucleosides, ergosterols, fatty acids, proteins/peptides, and trace elements. Polysaccharides and triterpenoid obtained from mushrooms particularly, Ganoderma lucidum are the important bioactive constituents responsible for the protective activities against toxin-induced liver injury (Wasser, 2005). In vitro and in vivo studies reported that the β-glucan obtained from Ganoderma lucidum exhibit protective effect against liver injury induced by toxic chemicals like carbon tetrachloride and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). ...
Article
Mushroom species have been recognized as medicinal plant due to presence of various bioactive compounds. The well known bioactive compound for biological and pharmaceutical activities present in mushroom species is β-glucan. The β-glucan from other sources like yeasts and cereals is well summarized in the literature, but mushroom β-glucan is not well documented. Mushroom β-glucans provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and have attracted a great deal of attention due to many health benefits such as immunomodulatory, anticancerous, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. Mushroom β-glucans have the potential to enhance innate and cell mediated immune response. They exhibit varying degree of antitumor activities in humans due to the difference in their structure, water solubility, size and molecular mass; these differences in turn contribute to their medicinal properties. This review summarizes the literature on the structure-function relationship and nutraceutical potential of β-glucan obtained from various mushroom species.
... However, increased demand for fruiting bodies and preparations based on its bioactive compounds required shortening the production period and upgrading fruiting body yield and quality. Therefore, numerous studies have been done aiming to improve that traditional cultivation method (Chen 2002;Wasser 2005;Mishra and Singh 2006;Erkel 2009a,b;Peksen and Yakupoglu 2009;Gurung et al. 2012;Thakur and Sharma 2015). At the beginning, improvement went in the direction of cultivation on shorter logs and later on substrates based on sawdust from numerous broadleaf species commonly combined with various supplements, such as cereal bran, tea waste, gluten, molasses etc. Replacing logs with a sawdust based substrate significantly reduced the period required for substrate ...
Chapter
Increasing of heavy metals and dyes concentration in the surface and ground waters is mainly due to the effluent discharges from industrial activities. Generally, in most of industrial effluents the pollutants content exceed the maximum permissible limits, and therefore their discharges have negative impact on environment, with serious health and ecological consequences. Most of industrial and municipal wastewaters frequently contain large amounts of heavy metals and dyes, and represent the major sources of natural waters pollution with these kind of pollutants. Adsorption has become one of the most preferred in many cases due to its high efficiency, simplicity, ease of operation, minimization of secondary wastes, quantitative recovery of retained species and low cost. A wide range of natural materials and agricultural or industrial wastes have been tested for adsorptive removal of heavy metals and organic dyes from aqueous solutions, in various experimental conditions. The sawdust is a typical example for such applications, because it meets all the conditions required for a low-cost adsorbent: large availability, low-cost of preparation, active superficial sites and high surface area. This chapter presents an overview of most important applications of sawdust in the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing heavy metal ions or organic dyes, highlighting the most important benefits of its utilization. Also, the opportunities and challenges, which make that this low-cost material to be still an important research issue at international level, are reviewed.
... Recently, biomolecules including polysaccharides, sterols, triterpenes and many other bioactive metabolites isolated from mushrooms and their cultured mycelia, scientifically have been proven successful in diabetes treatment [11]. The antidiabetic potential of the G. lucidum fruiting bodies have been shown by several studies [11][12][13]. However, G. australe and G . ...
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Adipocyte dysfunction is strongly associated with the progression of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes. Appropriate regulation of adipogenesis and adipokine expression, notably adiponectin, are known to prevent or delay the onset of these disorders. The present study evaluated the insulin-like properties of ethanol extract of indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and Ganoderma neo-japonicum (KUM61076) through adipogenic, anti-lipolytic and adipogenesis targeted gene expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ganoderma lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was included in the study as a reference. 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with G. neo-japonicum mycelia, significantly stimulated adipogenesis and exerted relatively mild anti-epinephrine induced lipolytic activities. In general, the expressions of target genes such as adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) were up-regulated by the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with Ganoderma spp. mycelia. Taken together, these results suggest that Ganoderma especially G. neo-japonicum has insulin-like properties and may be useful as potential therapeutic agent in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
... Recently, a randomized placebo-controlled clinical study showed that treatment with G. lucidum polysaccharides for 12 weeks reduced hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA in 25% (13/52) patients with HBV infection. (111,112) Ganoderma tsugae (Family: Ganodermataceae) ...
Article
Liver, the most important metabolic organ of the body is also the major organ for the detoxification of the blood stream. If the accumulation of toxins is faster than their removal by liver, hepatic damage occurs. Although synthetic drugs are available in the market, long term use of such drugs has consequential side effects. Therefore, the growing need to find safe, cost-effective drugs devoid of adverse effects is spawning extensive research. Mushrooms are rising as a major medicinal food and pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes the medicinal value of different edible mushrooms on free radical, xenobiotic and drug induced hepatotoxicity.
... Los productos naturales para la salud a base de hongos constituyen un comercio millonario y en particular, en el caso del Reishi, supera holgadamente los US$ 2.500 millones al año Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr.)P. Karst es un Basidiomycete de la familia Ganodermateaceae, reconocido por sus múltiples propiedades beneficiosas para la salud por muchos siglos en China, Japón y Corea (Wasser, 2005) donde se lo conoce como el hongo de la longevidad o inmortalidad. Sus nombres comunes son Reishi y Lingzhi (hierba celestial). ...
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Conference Paper
En los últimos años, el mercado de los nutra y nutricéuticos ha tenido un marcado crecimiento, sobre todo a partir de la toma de conciencia de los consumidores de la eficacia de los mismos en la prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades. Ganoderma lucidum es un Basidiomycete conocido desde hace 2.000 años por sus propiedades medicinales. Este hongo produce numerosos compuestos bioactivos, que han sido extensamente estudiados y aplicados en la elaboración de alimentos funcionales, suplementos dietarios y fitoterápicos. Actualmente, la producción mundial de este hongo es aproximadamente de 6.000 toneladas y las últimas estimaciones disponibles colocan el valor anual de los productos de G. lucidum en más de US$ 2.500 millones. Sin embargo, en Argentina no existe producción industrial, comercialización, ni desarrollo de productos a base de Reishi. Este hongo puede ser cultivado en sustratos sólidos sintéticos formulados a base de diferentes residuos agro-industriales. Usualmente, su cultivo produce rendimientos menores comparado con otros hongos comestibles cultivables. Los altos costos asociados a su producción y su alto valor en el mercado hacen que cualquier mejora en los rendimientos redunde en un beneficio económico. En el marco de un proyecto PICT modalidad Start Up, fue posible trasladar los resultados de varios años de investigación a una escala piloto de producción, a fin de considerar la generación de una empresa de base tecnológica para el cultivo ecológico y normalizado del hongo Reishi. Este desarrollo continúa en el manejo post-cosecha, para la obtención de productos a partir del fruto seco del hongo para uso como fitoterápico o bien como suplemento dietario. La selección del sustrato, de los aditivos y el manejo de las condiciones de cultivo, resultaron estrategias eficientes para aumentar los rendimientos de la producción. Se ha desarrollado una tecnología de bajo costo de producción de G. lucidum utilizando como sustrato base cáscara de girasol, un residuo abundante de la industria aceitera. Se ha logrado incrementar los rendimientos en un 43% y acortar significativamente el tiempo de producción, con respecto a los datos reportados por otros autores, sin afectar la obtención de los principios activos. El manejo optimizado de la tecnología de producción de G. lucidum permitirá obtener mejores precios y asegurar calidad, cantidad y continuidad en el suministro; por lo cual es factible su transferencia al ámbito productivo.
... Recently, biomolecules including polysaccharides, sterols, triterpenes and many other bioactive metabolites isolated from mushrooms and their cultured mycelia, scientifically have been proven successful in diabetes treatment [11]. The antidiabetic potential of the G. lucidum fruiting bodies have been shown by several studies [11][12][13]. However, G. australe and G. neo-japonicum which are also considered as varieties of G. lucidum (Ling Zhi), have not been studied extensively, neither for their biochemical composition nor biological activities especially for the potential insulin-like properties in the management of hyperglycaemia or diabetes. ...
Article
Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp.
... The Chinese and Koreans know it as Ling Zhi (mushroom of herb and immortality), whereas the Japanese call this mushroom reishi or mannentake (10,000 year mushroom). [23] A detailed description of the reishi mushroom and its taxonomy can be found in References. [24,25] Worldwide, more than 250 Ganoderma species have been described. ...
... The β-glucans content represented approximately 40 to 45% of weight. This result is in agreement with previous research (Cheong et al., 1999;Wasser 2005). Judging from these results, it can be stated that the G. lucidum glucans were extracted at 443K, and they increased with a rising temperature at the same reaction time. ...
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Ganoderma lucidum (hereafter G. lucidum) has been known as a food and raw material used in the development of medications because of its high content of polysaccharides, or β-glucans, which support the immune function. In this work, subcritical water was applied to utilize G. lucidum for the extraction of polysaccharides at temperatures of 373-463K and a pressure level of 4.0 MPa using a semi-batch system. Furthermore, these extracts were atomized and contacted with hot air to produce microsphere particles. During extraction, thermal softening of G. lucidum occurred, allowing the removal of the polysaccharides and protecting other constituents in G. lucidum via hydrolysis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the microsphere particles formed were spherical and dimpled or shriveled particles with diameters varying from 1 to 6 μm. Characteristics of the molecular mass revealed that main massed peaks of water soluble products were distributed at around 688-2636 m/z with a peakto-peak mass difference of 162 m/z, consistent with the repeating unit of the glucans.
... The result showed that the β-glucan content in the particles was 40 to 45% in weight, approximately. This result is in agreement with the previous research in which water soluble β-glucans was isolated from G. lucidum (Cheong et al. 1999;Wasser 2005). ...
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Article
Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a mushroom-forming white rot fungus that contains a wide variety of bioactive components (glucans). In this study, G. lucidum was utilized for the extraction of polysaccharides by hot compressed water at a temperature of 160°C and a pressure of 4.0 MPa using a semi-batch system. Under these conditions, thermal softening of G. lucidum occurred, allowing the removal of the polysaccharides protecting other constituents in G. lucidum via hydrolysis. Next, the extract was directly atomized by spray drying to remove the water. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the particles formed were spherical and dimpled or shriveled with diameters varying from 1 to 6 μm. Based on these results it is proposed that this process is applicable to isolate polysaccharides from other types of biomass and may result in advances in extraction technology to obtain plant biomass components.
... Much attention has, therefore, been paid to this species. [1][2][3][4] As G. lucidum is rare in nature, the amount of this wild mushroom is not sufficient for commercial exploitation. Its cultivation in solid-state and submerged fermentation of GEORGE G. SONGULASHVILI ET AL. ...
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The genus Ganoderma includes medicinal species that belong to the group of white rot fungi due to their ability to produce extracellular ligninolytic enzymes: laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of various carbon and inoculum preparation methods for oxidative enzyme production by the medicinal mushroom G. lucidum. Mushroom growth, as well as the production of laccase and MnP, significantly depend on the inoculum age and cultivation method. Synthetic medium experiments have shown that xylose ensured the highest laccase activity of G. lucidum 447 accumulating 116 U L–1 after 12 days of submerged mushroom cultivation. In all lignocellulosic substrate experiment variants, laccase activity reached maximum after 8 days of mushroom cultivation. Analogical regularities were detected when the MnP activity was measured in submerged fermentation of ethanol production residue by G. lucidum 447. A more interesting finding is the fact that mycelium grown on solid agar medium and used as inoculum not only provided a 3-fold increase in laccase yield in submerged fermentation of both lignocellulosic substrates but also stimulated MnP accumulation by G. lucidum 447.
... The fruiting bodies of G. lucidum contain a variety of chemical substances, major components are terpenoids and polysaccharides. Currently 130 triterpenoids, and more than 100 types of polysaccharides are reported from G. lucidum [2]. ...
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Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) from tropical South India were investigated. The chloroform extract of the mushroom showed marked free radical scavenging activities. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract at con-centrations of 100 and 50 mg/kg was evaluated in carrageenan induced acute and formalin induced chronic inflammatory models in mice. The extract showed remarkable antiinflammatory activity in both models, comparable to the standard reference drug diclofenac. The results suggest that anti-inflammatory activity of the chloroform extract of G. lucidum is possibly attributed to its free radical scavenging properties. This study also reveals the potent therapeutic uses of G. lucidum from South India.
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Mushrooms have been an indispensable element of the human culture since antiquity and are cherished all over the globe for their nutritive and therapeutic benefits. Being acknowledged as “the new superfood” of the future, they are a cardinal component of human diet for boosting health status and well being. Mushrooms are endowed with antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, prebiotic, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities, upholding a great therapeutic potential and a huge spectrum of clinical applications. The wide ranges of bioactive compounds including polysaccharides, polysaccharides protein complexes, peptides and proteins, terpenoids and phenolic compounds have been reported from diverse groups of mushroom. Laden with a wealth of nutrients and innumerable biomolecules of therapeutic worth, they are internationally appreciated and envisaged as world's largest untapped resources of dietary supplements. In the recent years, owing to significant healthier lifestyle changes, dietary practices of people and consumers opting for immunity enhancing supplements especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, the yearning for mushroom based nutraceuticals and functional foods is on rise. This review gives comprehensive details on the biodiversity of mushrooms, its nutritional and medicinal importance, secondary metabolites especially of nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical potential, and their role as bioactive agents and application in preparing mushroom based value-added products.
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Ganoderma Lucidum is a valuable medicinal fungus that is used to prevent and treat various human diseases, delaying aging and improving health from very distant times in Asian countries. Ganoderma lucidum has a lot of biologically active substances and many secondary metabolites, including polysaccharides, peptides, and triterpenoids such as ganoderic acid, which produces high drug properties in this fungus. One of the medicinal properties of Ganoderma lucidum is the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Diabetes or diabetes mellitus is a metabolism disorder (metabolic) in the body. The purpose of this review study is to provide a part of the past scientific research on the anti-diabetes properties of Ganoderma lucidum.
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Ganoderma lucidum has a long history of medicinal uses in the Far East countries of more than 2000 years due to its healing properties. Recently, G. lucidum has come under scientific scrutiny to evaluate its content of bioactive components that affect human physiology, and has been exploited for potent components in the pharmacology, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics industries. For instance, evidence is accumulating on the potential of this mushroom species as a promising antiviral medicine for treating many viral diseases, such as dengue virus, enterovirus 71, and recently coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Still, more research studies on the biotherapeutic components of G. lucidum are needed to ensure the safety and efficiency of G. lucidum and promote the development of commercial functional foods. This paper provides an extensive overview of the nutraceutical value of Ganoderma lucidum and the development of commercial functional food. Moreover, the geo-origin tracing strategies of this mushroom and its products are discussed, a highly important parameter to ensure product quality and safety. The discussed features will open new avenues and reveal more secrets to widely utilizing this mushroom in many industrial fields; i.e., pharmaceutical and nutritional ones, which will positively reflect the global economy.
Chapter
Today mankind confronts a heap of challenges for survival due to the advent of health-related issues, drug resistances, and imbalances in the ecosystems. In the era of technology, man has perpetually been endeavoring to search for diverse biotic components that can potentially be addressing the complicated life troubling issues. In this context, the fungi in general and mushrooms in particular have played an indispensable role in protecting and curing various health problems. Macrofungi or mushrooms are contemplated as biological and genetic resources with high nutritional, medicinal, and biotechnological potential. The interest in mushrooms has cultivated momentously in the last few decades, being promoted by the discovery of a repertoire of chemically disparate biologically active compounds having biopharmaceutical applications arbitrated through defined mechanisms (anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative hepatoprotective, anti-viral, immunomodulating hypocholesterolemic, and anti-bacterial). The escalating knowledge about chemistry, biotechnology, and molecular biology of mushrooms as well as an improvement in screening methods has led to rapid surge in the application of mushrooms for medicinal purposes which in turn, have galvanized the development of several novel mycopharmaceuticals based on mushroom bioprospection. Taking into consideration the importance of mushrooms, this chapter aims to zero in on the nutritive value, functionalities of mushrooms, and potential applications in food industry.
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Reishi owes an exceptional value in nutritional, cosmeceutical, and medical treatments; however, none of the studies has provided its future‐driven critical assessment. This study documents an up‐to‐date review (2015–2020, wherever applicable) and provide valuable insights (preclinical and clinical evidence‐based) with comprehensive and critical assessments. Various databases ‘Google scholar’, ‘Web of Science’, ‘ScienceDirect’, ‘PubMed’, ‘Springer Link’, books, theses, and library resources were used. The taxonomic chaos of G. lucidum and its related species was discussed in detail with solution‐oriented emphasis. Reishi contains polysaccharides (α/β‐D‐glucans), alkaloids, triterpenoids (ganoderic acids, ganoderenic acids, ganoderol, ganoderiol, lucidenic acids), sterols/ergosterol, proteins (LZ‐8, LZ‐9), nucleosides (adenosine, inosine, uridine), and nucleotides (guanine, adenine). Some active drugs are explored at an optimum level to make them potential drug candidates. The pharmacological potential was observed in diabetes, inflammation, epilepsy, neurodegeneration, cancer, anxiety, sedation, cardiac diseases, depression, hepatic diseases, and immune disorders; however, most of the studies are preclinical with a number of drawbacks. In particular, quality clinical data are intensely needed to support pharmacological activities for human use. The presence of numerous micro‐, macro, and trace elements imparts an essential nutritional and cosmeceutical value to Reishi, and various marketed products are available already, but the clinical studies regarding safety and efficacy, interactions with foods/drinks, chronic use, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity are missing for Reishi. Reishi possesses many valuable pharmacological activities, and the number of patents and clinical trials is increasing for Reishi. Yet, a gap in research exists for Reishi, which is discussed in detail in the forthcoming sections.
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The popular medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. [Ling Zhi] has been widely used for the general promotion of health and longevity in Asian countries. Continuous cultivation may affect soil microbe and soil properties. However, the effect of G. lucidum cultivation on related wood segments, soil and tree roots microbial communities and soil properties is remain unknown. In our study, the microbial communities of soils, wood segments, and tree roots before and after G. lucidum cultivation were investigated by Illumina Miseq sequencing of both ITS and 16S rDNA, and taxonomic composition of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms were observed. Indices of microbial richness, diversity and evenness significantly differed between before and after G. lucidum cultivation. Each of the investigated sampling type harbored a distinctive microbial community and differed remarkably before and after G. lucidum cultivation. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota (fungi), Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria (bacteria) showed significant differences after Ling Zhi cultivation. The soil property values also changed after cultivation. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that both the fungal and bacterial community structure significantly correlated with soil humus, pH, nitrogen, carbon and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu) contents. The results indicated that G. lucidum cultivation may have significant differed the associated microbial community structures and soil properties. The study will provide useful information for G. lucidum cultivation and under-forest economic development.
Chapter
Mushrooms have been used globally for various nutritional and medicinal values and now are gaining worldwide recognition due to its various health benefits and potent and unique pharmaceutical properties. Researchers in different parts of the world have demonstrated different species of mushrooms possessing immunomodulatory, antitumor, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and antihypoglycemic properties. The chapter presents an overview of the research on the therapeutic efficacy of mushrooms.
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Mushroom fruiting bodies have been used as food and food-flavouring materials for centuries for their unique and subtle flavour. However, the whole cycle from mycelium colonization to the fruit-body formation is time-consuming and involves extensive labour. Submerged cultivation of fungi can be a promising alternative for obtaining potent substances for successful utilization in the composition of functional foods. Submerged culture is a speedy process that yields quality mushroom mycelia, considering the alternative of cultivation that takes much more time to produce fruiting bodies. Moreover, the culturing of mycelia on synthetic media is a convenient approach to obtain fungal biomass. Presence of bioactive components in mushroom mycelium makes it an attractive ingredient that is now used as dietary supplements or nutraceuticals. This review focuses on the optimum growth conditions required by mycelia for enhanced quality and yield prospects along with the biological mechanisms responsible for their therapeutic properties and their applications.
Chapter
Ganoderma lucidum, a specie belonging to the class basidiomycetes, family polyporaceae of the order aphyllophorales has been widely used as a source of potent nutracuetical products. The cell wall of Ganoderma lucidum contains ergosterol which gets increased over different stage of the cultivation process. Ergosterol serves as the precursor for vitamin D, serves as the immunodulating agent in cancer suppression and has been the molecule of choice for antimycotic drug development. Thus, drug formulations of ergosterols or its conjugating complexes may add to the dietary supplementations to enhance immunity and Vitamin D levels in the body. Ganoderma lucidum is also a rich source of pharmaceutical proteins and protein bound polysaccharides that can also serve as anti-cancer agents thereby improving the immune status of the individual. Other proteins found in Ganoderma lucidum are the morphogenesis related proteins such as hydophobins and anelaborate antioxidant enzyme machinery synthesized during the developmental stages. The intracellular and extracellular enzymatic profile of Ganderma exhibits enhanced activity during spawn run and the pinning of the cultures. A positive role of hydrophobic amino acids and hydrophobin proteins has been identified in mushroom fructification process. Thus, medicinal mushroom such as Ganoderma can serve as a potential reservoir of bioactive compounds of pharmaceutic importance that can be utilized for prevention and cure of several disorders.
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Background: Ganoderma lucidum was traditionally used to manage male sexual dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate and establish the traditional aphrodisiac potential of the herb. Methods: Aphrodisiac potential was evaluated following the oral administration of two different doses (150 and 300 mg/kg) of ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and distilled water were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Mounting, intromission and ejaculation frequencies, mating performance, and orientation activities towards females, towards the environment, and towards self were observed. Serum testosterone levels were also evaluated. Results: The results of the study show that the extract has significantly increased the mounting behavior and mating performance of the rats. There was also significant increase in the number of intromissions and ejaculations. The rats treated with extract were more interested in female rats as indicated by significant increase in the number of anogenital sniffing and climbing. Serum testosterone levels were also significantly increased in the treatment groups. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum possesses aphrodisiac activity in male Wistar rats. The lower dose of 150 mg/kg was more effective in terms of aphrodisiac potential of the extract. Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum, Sildenafil citrate, aphrodisiac, testosterone,
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Background: Since oxidative stress and inflammation are two linked factors in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Thus identification of effective treatment is of great importance. Edible mushroom and microalgae are rich in the effective antioxidant phytochemicals. Hence, their beneficial effects on oxidative stress-associated inflammation are extremely required to be investigated. Methods: This study evaluated the functional constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Malaysian Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLE) and Egyptian Chlorella vulgaris ethanolic extract (CVE). Also, the synergistic, addictive or antagonistic activities of the combination between the two extracts (GLE-CVE) were studied. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor-kappa B, as well as levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes were determined using in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated white blood cells.
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Both Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and G. sinense (GS) are used as Lingzhi in China. Their functions are assumed to mainly derive from triterpenes and polysaccharides; however, the two species have very different triterpenes profiles, if this was the case, then the bioactivity of these two species should differ. Instead, could the polysaccharides be similar, contributing to the shared therapeutic basis? In this study, two main polysaccharide fractions from different batches of GL and GS were systematically compared by a series of chemical and biological experiments. The results showed that the polysaccharides from two species shared the same structural features in terms of mono-/oligo-saccharide profiles, molecular size, sugar linkages, and IR/NMR spectra. In addition, these polysaccharides showed similar tumor-suppressive activity in mice. Further study on RAW264.7 cells indicated that these polysaccharides exhibited similar inducing effects to macrophages, as evaluated in the phagocytosis function, NO/cytokines production, inhibition against the viability and migration of cancer cells. Mechanistic investigation revealed the identical activation via TLR-4 related MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and gut-microbiota modulatory effects. In summary, GL and GS polysaccharides presented similar chemical features, antitumor/immunomodulating activities and mechanism; this establishes polysaccharides as the active principles and supports the official use of both species as Lingzhi.
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Natural peptides are emerging as a leading alternative to conventional drugs and antibiotics, owing to their remarkable potency, better stability and less toxicity. Such peptides encompass numerous healing properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, etc. Though plant- derived peptides have been widely studied for their therapeutic benefits, however, fungal peptides are still lesser explored. Ganoderma lucidum, a highly medicinal oriental mushroom comprises a vast array of phytoconstituents, namely flavonoids, phenolics, terpenoids, polysaccharides, proteins, glycolipids, etc and hence, is being used since several decades in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for its various ameliorative effects e.g. anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties. This study presents the isolation and characterization of antibacterial peptide fractions from fruiting body (GLF) and mycelium (GLM) of Indian G. lucidum. Representative amide bonds were identified in the fractions using established standard techniques. Peptide mass fingerprinting and HPLC confirmed the presence of cationic and hydrophobic amino acids in the peptide fractions which are known to be major structural features of antimicrobial peptides. Secondary structure prediction showed abundance of α-helices and random coils in GLF and GLM fractions respectively. The fractions exhibited appreciable antioxidant potential. Besides, these also possessed substantial antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi wherein it was observed that generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of intracellular protein leakage within the bacterial cells were the possible mechanisms of inhibitory action.
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Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the dominant antiviral drugs for treating influenza in the clinic. Increasing prevalence of drug resistance makes the discovery of new NA inhibitors a high priority. Thirty-one triterpenoids from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lingzhi were analyzed in an in vitro NA inhibition assay, leading to the discovery of ganoderic acid T-Q and TR as two inhibitors of H5N1 and H1N1 NAs. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the corresponding triterpenoid structure is a potential scaffold for the design of NA inhibitors. Using these triterpenoids as probes we found, through further in silico docking and interaction analysis, that interactions with the amino-acid residues Arg292 and/or Glu119 of NA are critical for the inhibition of H5N1 and H1N1. These findings should prove valuable for the design and development of NA inhibitors.
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Reishi (Ganoderma lingzhi) has been used as a traditional medicine for millennia. However, relatively little is known about this mushroom's proteins and their bioactivities. In this study, we used reishi's own proteases to hydrolyze its protein and obtained auto-digested reishi (ADR) extract. The extract was subjected to in vitro assays and administered to spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) to determine its potential for use as a hypotensive medication. Bioassay-guided fractionation and de novo sequencing were used for identifying the active compounds. After 4 h administration of ADR, the systolic pressure of SHRs significantly decreased to 34.3 mmHg (19.5% change) and the effect was maintained up to 8 h of administration, with the decrease reaching as low as 26.8 mmHg (15% reduction–compare to base line a decrease of 26.8 mmHg is less than a decrease of 34.3 mmHg so it should give a smaller % reduction). Eleven peptides were identified and four of them showed potent inhibition against ACE with IC 50 values ranging from 73.1 μM to 162.7 μM. The results showed that ADR could be a good source of hypotensive peptides that could be used for antihypertensive medication or incorporation into functional foods.
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Triterpenoids are the main bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum, a famous traditional Chinese medicine. After oral administration of total triterpenoids of G. lucidum (TTGL), the rat bile was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF/MS). From rat bile and TTGL samples, a total of 31 triterpenoids, including seven new compounds, were identified or tentatively characterized based on their fragmentation behaviors. Among them, 22 triterpenoids were identified from TTGL and 29 triterpenoids were detected from rat bile after oral administration of TTGL. The results indicated that the majority of triterpenoids detected in TTGL extract could be excreted through rat bile. It is the first report on excretion of total triterpenoids of G. lucidum in rat bile.
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