• Mathematical Institute of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts and Faculty of Occupational Safety in Nish
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Hygiene and cleaning products are used for personal hygiene, household, workspace, and public area cleaning. However, since hygiene and cleaning products may contain substances with specific toxicological and eco-toxicological properties, they can negatively affect human and environmental health. Direct human health impact of hygiene and cleaning products is the result of their manipulation during their manufacture and their use for washing, cleaning, and other forms of hygiene maintenance. Indirect human health impact of these products is manifested through environmental pollution, e.g. through drinking water extracted from eutrophic areas. Negative environmental impact of these products and their packaging is manifested through anthropogenic eutrophication, increased water and energy consumption, ambient degradation, and generation of large amounts of packaging waste. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to highlight the negative environmental impact, which depends on the type, composition, and quantity of hygiene and cleaning products and their packaging waste. The paper presents results obtained within the research project Environmental Impact of Hygiene and Cleaning Products and Their Packaging, conducted at the recycling centre of the Public Utility Company “Mediana” in Niš, Serbia in 2014 and 2015. Key words: hygiene and cleaning products, environment, environmental impact, hygiene and cleaning products waste.

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... 8,[32][33][34][35] In addition to water pollution, the increasing amount of packaging waste poses an important problem. 36 As can be seen during the pandemic period, it is important to raise awareness of communities about developing correct cleaning behaviours and avoid of using unnecessary chemicals in order to protect both human health and environment. ...
Objective: The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting the use of cleaning products at the home environment and the frequency of problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional research was performed online between 30.08.2020 and 15.09.2020. The population of the study consisted of adults aged between 18 and 80 years, affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Data collection forms (Introductory Information and Risk Perception Form and Cleaning Products Usage Characteristics Form) were shared through Web2 tools. The questionnaire study was completed with 674 participants between the ages of 18 and 80 years in Turkey. Descriptive statistics and classification tree were used in the analysis of the data. Statistical significance was accepted as p≤0.01 in all analyses. Results: During the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period, it was observed that the frequency of cleaning (69.3%) and the amount of cleaning product usage (74.2%) increased significantly and the frequency of problems related to the use of cleaning products was found as 46.9%. The most common reported problems were skin disturbances (68%) and shortness of breath (23%). It was determined that the history of contact with the COVID-19 patient, the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection and risky cleaning behavior were predictive in determining the risk of experiencing problems related to cleaning products. The amount of bleach consumed per month among who did experience problems was higher than those who did not experience problems and was associated with the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: In the COVID-19 pandemic, human beings have been found to increase the frequency of cleaning and using cleaning products. In order to reduce the negative effects of chemicals used for cleaning on human and environmental health, the trainings to be given by the teams providing primary health care services can be effective as well as general education activities for community groups.
Rethinking of plastic rigid shampoo bottles based on “Design for the Environment” concepts is proposed. Bottles of most consumed shampoo brands with different capacities were selected. Bottle weight/capacity ratio was assessed and compression mechanical properties were evaluated. Oversizing of bottles and high amounts of material used in caps only for aesthetic purposes was proved. The analysis confirmed the need to change marketing strategies based on aesthetic attractiveness by an ecodesign based on functionality and sustainability aspects. The use of single material for the overall bottle is recommended, and it seems that HDPE is more suitable as it is appropriate to make all bottle parts, is recyclable, and has a low price/performance relationship. From a marketing point of view, a proper ecodesign would lead to a paradigm shift from an aesthetic approach to a sustainable one, in line with the environmental awareness of today's consumer.
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This study aimed to determine whether the waste management systems, that are presently applied in affluent countries are appropriate solutions for waste management in less developed regions. For this purpose, three cities (Vienna, Damascus and Dhaka) which differ greatly in their gross domestic product and waste management were compared. The criteria for evaluation were economic parameters, and indicators as to whether the goals of waste management (protection of human health and the environment, the conservation of resources) were reached. Based on case studies, it was found that for regions spending 1-10 Euro capita(-1) year(-1) for waste management, the 'waste hierarchy' of prevention, recycling and disposal is not an appropriate strategy. In such regions, the improvement of disposal systems (complete collection, upgrading to sanitary landfilling) is the most cost-effective method to reach the objectives of solid waste management. Concepts that are widely applied in developed countries such as incineration and mechanical waste treatment are not suitable methods to reach waste management goals in countries where people cannot spend more than 10 Euro per person for the collection, treatment and disposal of their waste. It is recommended that each region first determines its economic capacity for waste management and then designs its waste management system according to this capacity and the goals of waste management.
The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories - urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8MJ/kg to 14.2MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8MJ/kg to 10.5MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Union's solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the Czech Ministry of Environment to optimise the national waste management strategy.
The disposal of household hazardous waste and materials as municipal solid waste (MSW) remains a vexing problem for solid waste managers and policymakers. A major underlying factor is the inconvenience of special collection programs compared to general disposal. A properly designed, mandatory retail take-back program can significantly improve user convenience compared to centralized or periodic, voluntary special collection programs. San Luis Obispo County, California, population 271,960, was the first county in the US to establish a mandatory retail take-back program for specific household hazardous waste and materials (HHWM): fluorescent lamps, household batteries, medical sharps, and latex paint. This program uses retail locations as collection points for subsequent transport by the county to its transfer facility. This shared responsibility program has been highly effective at diverting HHWM from disposal as MSW. Between April 2009 and October 2012 the estimated collection/diversion rates increased dramatically from near zero percent to approximately 36.44% for fluorescent lamps, 21.4% for household batteries, 28.43% for latex paint, and 72.65% for used medical sharps. For household batteries and fluorescent lamps, the convenience of the collection container and the type of store were statistically significant predictors of the number of batteries and lamps collected.
World Waste Survey, Foreword by Denis Gasquet, CEO Veolia Environmental Services, Executive Vice President of Veolia Environmental
  • E Laceoste
  • P Chalmin
Laceoste E., Chalmin P., "From waste to resources", World Waste Survey, Foreword by Denis Gasquet, CEO Veolia Environmental Services, Executive Vice President of Veolia Environmental, 2006.
Integrated solid waste management: Engineering principles and management issues
  • G Tchobanoglous
  • H Theisen
  • S A Vigil
Tchobanoglous, G., Theisen, H., & Vigil, S. A., Integrated solid waste management: Engineering principles and management issues. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.
Otpad od higijenskih sredstava u životnoj sredini
  • Ž Vranjanac
  • D Pejčić
Vranjanac Ž., Pejčić D., Otpad od higijenskih sredstava u životnoj sredini [Waste from hygienic products in the environment], Smederevo ekološki grad, 2015, pp. 105-111.