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Crafting Engaged Employees Through Positive Work Environment



The chapter focuses on the positive aspects of the work environment and attempts to throw light on how in organizations different perspectives of positive work, positive social connections, positive culture leads with a more satisfying work environment and engaged employees. Beginning with an understanding of the definitions of employee engagement, the chapter takes the reader through the pillars of positive work environment, through the significance of fulfilling relationships at work, leading to greater employee engagement, importance of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism (HERO), and communication in enhancing employee engagement and to a greater organizational oeuvre. The chapter has tried to cogitate that a culture of employee engagement can be built, and it should be fabricated through the tenacious efforts of managers and leaders in the organization. Thus, the chapter highlights that employee engagement should in itself become the culture of any organization, and the role of positive work environment towards building this culture is indispensable.
Crafting Engaged Employees through
Positive Work Environment
Perspectives of Employee Engagement
Author Name: Tanusree Chakraborty1 and Madhurima Ganguly2
Affiliation, Country:1. Rajalakshmi School of Business, India
2. Heritage School of Business, India
Johnson and Johnson defines employee engagement as „the degree to which employees are
satisfied with their jobs, feel valued, and experience collaboration and trust. Engaged employees
will stay with the company longer and continually find smarter, more effective ways to add value
to the organisation. The end result is a high performing company where people are flourishing
and productivity is increased and sustained‟. (Catteeuw et al., 2007 p. 152)
The chapter focuses on the positive aspects of the work environment and attempts to throw light
on how in an organizations, different perspectives of positive work, positive social connections,
positive culture leads with a more satisfying work environment and engaged employees.
Beginning with an understanding of the definitions of employee engagement, the chapter takes
the reader through the pillars of positive work environment, through the significance of fulfilling
relationships at work, leading to greater employee engagement, importance of hope, efficacy,
resilience and optimism (HERO) and communication in enhancing employee engagement and to
a greater organizational oeuvre. The chapter has tried to cogitate that a culture of employee
engagement can be built, and it should be fabricated through the tenacious efforts of managers
and leaders in the organization. Thus the chapter highlights that employee engagement should in
itself become the culture of any organization and the role of positive work environment towards
building this culture in indispensible.
Keywords- Employee engagement, positive work environment, culture, social connections,
HERO, communication
In today‘s business world, the most commonly spoken terminology about retaining employees is
employee engagement; every organization has adopted a system-wide goal of employee
engagement. The benefits of employee engagement yield worthy tangible and intangible benefits
to the overall business entity. It is a matter of fact that employee engagement is possible to be
evaluated in terms of the overall organization; but it is also true that employee engagement is an
individual-level construct (Shuck &Wollard, 2010). Employee engagement might also be
identified as a term that has been more in discussions than actual practice. It is not that employee
engagement is not practiced; it is a fact that the thrust on intensive and extensive employee
engagement practices across all types of organizations should be enhanced. Employee
engagement has its definite implications on the organization, organizational performance as an
impact, but it is to be perceived positively and perceived judiciously by the employees who work
in the organization. Positive psychology talks of employee engagement as it results in perceived
organizational support among employees; their wellbeing is enhanced and commitment gets
heightened. Whether it requires understanding what the drivers of employee engagement are or it
needs to improve engagement levels worldwide, it cannot be denied that there are numerous
challenges HR leaders do face whileattempting to boost the right people behaviours. Right level
of employee engagement allows employees to absorb their roles sooner, yield a higher quality of
work and maintain a positive workplace marked by a happier work experience. Moving from
individual to team experience, employee engagement makes a team to aspire to more, and the
individual also witnesses that their hard work is appreciated.
Table 1: Employee Engagement Definition
A positive attitude held by the employee towards the organisation and its values. An
engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve
performance within the job for the benefit of the organization.
Robinson et al. (2004)
“The extent to which employees commit to something or someone in their organisation,
how hard they work and how long they stay as a result of that commitment‟.
Corporate Leadership
Council, 2004
Employee engagement concerns the degree to which individuals make full use of
theircognitive, emotional, and physical resources to perform role-related work
Kahn, 1990;
May et al., 2004
Defined as emotional and intellectual commitment to the organization or the amount of
discretionary effort exhibited by employees in their jobs
Baumruk, 2004; Richman,
2006; Shaw, 2005; Frank et
al., 2004
Define engagement as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is
characterized by vigour, dedication, and absorption.
Schaufeli et al. (2002)
Employee engagement is defined as the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural energy an
employee directs toward positive organizational outcomes
Shuck &Wollard( 2010)
Engaged employees are “Psychologically committed to their work, go above and beyond
their basic job expectations, and want to play a key role in fulfilling the mission of their
organisations‟, whilst disengaged employees were said to be „uninvolved and
unenthusiastic about their jobs and love to tell others how bad things are”.
Referred to the concept of engagement in their work related to organisational
Katz and Kahn (1966)
“An employee‟s drive to use all their ingenuity and resources for the benefit of the
Best Companies, 2009
Employee engagement is a positive force that motives and connects employee with their
organization, either emotionally, cognitively or physically.
Wellins and Concelman,
Explained it as a state of being positive, manifesting through enthusiastic contributions of
intellectual energy, attitudes of optimism and evidence of meaningful relations with
Alfes et al. (2010)
„Engaged employees are more likely to advocate the organisation as a place to work and
actively promote its products and services‟
Scottish Executive Social
Research, (2007)
A constant feature of today‘s work environment is large -scale change (Robinson and Griffiths,
2005). Companies are all the time converting their style of doing business while reciprocating
towards enhanced global competition , a varied group of employees,, ever more more
complicated work environments, and shareholder demands. (Lawler, 1986; Pettigrew, Woodman,
& Cameron, 2001; Robinson and Griffiths, 2005). Even though those alternate techniques need
to boost up an corporation‘s strategic and financial dreams by means of reforming organizational
approaches and offering cost saving options,that is not a frequent scenario as people find those
transitions much more intricate to enjoy (Marks, 2006). There is additionally an increasing
agreement that a key factor in figuring out the fulfillment of any organizational change includes
employees recognition of it (e.G., Bartunek, Rousseau, Rudolph, &Depalma, 2006) and
participation at some point of the change procedure
Unquestionably, a person's capacity to adjust to change is a key instance for managers to
understand and grow inside their organizations, which makes individual adaptability an
imperative area of study. Studies have reliably demonstrated that change can be horrendous for
people inside an association (Amiot, Terry, Jimmieson, and Callan, 2006; Ashford, 1988; Burke,
1988; Callan, Terry and Schweitzer, 1994;Kanter, 1983). Henceforth, it is useful for managers to
outline employee‘s responses to change in flexible ways with a specific end goal to better
encourage positive change. While a person‘s capacity to adjust to change partially originates
from his relatively steady features, it is mostly influenced by organizational culture.
Flexibility of organizational culture is the viable level exhibited by the organizations while
confronting distinctive difficulties and reacting to different changes that must be experienced.
The culture must adjust to the dynamic organizational situation so that it hopes to perform well
in the long haul. In this way, each individual within e the organization must plan to take pressure
from the external environment. To do that, a versatile culture is one of the keys to organization's
Positive OB is believed to be the use of positive human asset qualities and mental restrictions
that can be estimated, created and adequately overseen for execution and change (Avey,
Wernsing, and Luthans, 2008). A positive organizational culture is an essential component of
positive organizational behavior. Organizations with a positive organizational culture revolve
around remunerating employees and making a situation where they can create, develop and work
at their maximum capacity (Robbins and Judge, 2012). Employees, who are more engaged,
utilize their gifts, create beneficial connections, and nurture themselves through those
connections. It equips them to perform efficiently under pressure as well. They have innovative
ideas that give a boost to their organization. (Van Allen, 2013).Sok and associates (2014) found
that nurturing work culture diminish negative work-home overflows, take into account more
adaptable work-home arrangements,draw and retain more competent employees.
Positive organizational culture is likewise found to neutralize the negative impact of bad news
(French and Holden, 2012), which is significantly active amidst the change procedureThough all
changes are not beneficial to the worker, positive organizational change is viewed as any change
that accomplishes more positive than negative for any organization in terms of employees mental
faculties, conduct and performance that might be influenced by the change.
Organizations need to motivate employees to enable them to perform at their fullest potential.
Henceforth, they need to provide them a proper work environment that fosters innovation and
creativity. A proper and positive work environment can build a pool of engaged employees who
will create milestones for the organizations. The basic ingredients or pillars of a positive work
environment are discussed below:
a) Transparent and Open Communication- When employees aren‘t speaking across
departments, leaders want to build practices that improve relationships among one of a
kind of teams. There need to be an impactful culture of open comments and
communications, for instance, the globally allotted group can be added together for an
each day video name to rejoice latest successes and collect guide for challenges. The
key performance indicators have to be determined past dialogue with the employees and
should be made transparent and open to all. It‘s prudent to keep regular face-to-face
interactions where the leaders can ask questions empathetically about the subordinates
challenges and constraints. Leaders can comprehend precious insights into the
operations of each department by way of preserving normal, direct conversation with
team members, and be able to solve problems quickly. Communication and employee
feedbacks aren‘t just techniques for inspiring people; they‘re also mechanisms for
reinforcing worker loyalty, constructing alignment round goals, and increasing
b) Give And Take - Organizations have a keen interest in nurturing giving behavior. A
willingness to assist others to fulfill their dreams is the primary necessity for powerful
collaboration, innovation, improvement of quality and service superiority in providing
services. In offices wherein such behavior becomes the norm, the advantages multiply
quickly. A powerful way to justify both give and take is to assemble a relational
account‖—a rationalization for an individual request that focus on apprehension for
c) Work life Balance-Work life Balance is a very important aspect to motivate employees
and maintain a positive work environment. Numerous aspects of life actions that need
to be unprejudiced with employment can also encompass lessons, journey, game,
voluntary work, individual improvement, recreation or care for the elderly people.
Organizations can execute different work-life activities that may help employees to
better adjust their work and family duties, pick up changes in wellbeing and provide
organizational benefits. There are huge assortments of family friendly strategies which
incorporate yet are not restricted to these areas: adaptable working hours, job sharing,
part time work, compact work weeks, parental leave, and work from home, crèche. Also,
managers may be provided with a scope of advantages identified with workers'
wellbeing and prosperity, including broadened medical coverage for the employees and
dependents, personal days, and availability to projects or services to empower wellness
and physical and emotional well-being.
d) Training and development- Training and development are fundamental key devices for
viable individual and organizational performance. Hence, organizations are investing
monetarily on it with assurance that it will win them an upper hand in the realm of
business. However, for any organization to accomplish its expressed objectives and
target in this focused world, sufficient and pertinence preparing and improvement of
staff can't be over stressed. Organizations are relied upon to recognize training needs of
its employees and prepare training programs that will help to ideally use their workforce
towards completion of business target.
e) Recognition: Recognizing employees is essential to keep them nurtured and retained in
the work environment. They likewise need to be esteemed and acknowledged for their
work. Employees have faith in unbiased treatment, and respect those who are giving
them fair treatment. They need the open door for advancement and contribution in the
association. A recognition program can enable leaders to meet their organizational
objectives by drawing in and holding high-performing workers. Numerous associations
direct a planned retention program for the reasons underneath:
a.Building a positive work atmosphere
b. Building a culture of recognition
c. Nurturing high performance
d. Reinforcing desired behaviors
e. Enhancing employee morale
f. Supporting the organization mission and vision
g. Enhancing retention and reducing turnover
h. Enhance loyalty
i. Nurturing a culture change
f) Team Spirit- Employees working in any team is very important in an organization.
Team spirit is the essential attitude to perform in a collaborative way in an organization.
Team spirit can be enhanced by:
i.By empowering all inclusive participation among colleagues and divide them in
small groups to enable them to cooperate by supporting each other.
ii.By recognizing non value added work, for example, Bureaucracy, network, and
inefficiency that restricts the feeling of loyalty within the team. Apart from that,
team members can be involved into action plans that alleviate useless jobs.
iii.By building a solid and stable connection between the organization and clients.
Organizations need to include their clients in different occasions, training events
and make them participate in different festivities. This will help to manage the
characteristics and effectiveness of organization‘s items and services in presence of
huge number of individuals.
iv.By offering autonomy to the group and keeping everything as basic as would be
prudent. One ought not to work toward making things superfluously confuse and
should focus on keeping the tenets, controls, frameworks and standards indulgent.
v.By building up a solid situation by advancing humour and amusement sessions.
This can help in discharging strains and will enhance the intensity of assurance. It
should be guaranteed that humors don't mask point among the colleagues.
vi.Leaders should Share some tea with all his colleagues and reveal to them his
genuine encounters of how he has crossed all hindrances and extreme circumstances
to achieve where he is today. This will rouse them and help them fabricate a much
stronger organization.
vii.By keeping away from any sort of difference and miscommunication as these can
prompt negative feelings and hamper the sentiment of unity.
viii.By identifying and take part in all the huge activities and milestones reached and
should attempt to approach all towards an optimistic state of mind with a feeling of
"we will win
h) Spread happiness- Organizational culture must enable employees to feel happy in their
workplace. There should be participative management practice coupled with delegation of
authority,so that the leaders do not feel dominated by any single organizational member.
Enhanced team spirit with genuine mutual appreciation can make employees happy. A sense of
belongingness and being supportive of each other can make the employees feel happy as well
as make others happy by spreading happiness all around.
i) Encourage positive thinking: Positive thinking makes employees feel better. Researchers
suggest that it makes someone feel optimistic both in the present and in the future.
Frederickson‘s in his famous broaden-and-build theory (1998, 2001) has asserted that negative
emotions restrict pool of actions to be undertaken, while positive emotions spread the
yardsticks of creative thinking, consideration and reasoning ability, subsequently augmenting
the emotional capability of people.
Frederickson (2009) identifies the ten most common positive emotions as joy, gratitude,
serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe and love.
Joy is explained to describe the continuity of happiness, ranging from mild
comfort to thrilled bliss. This is the most widespread one to be recognized and
the one most usually required. However, it is more of a temporary nature, quick
to appear and rapid to fade, though happiness can be enhanced holistically by
identifying more joyful objects and events.
Gratitude- Gratitude is one of the most grounded associates with joy. Basically
by being thankful for what you have, you are concentrating on the positive,
instead of being troubled about what you don't have. Offering thanks duplicates
this as it strengthens the interior uplifting mentality as well as both of these
picks up the unselfish joy of helping other people. This positivity gets reflected
in their 'appreciation for appreciation' and how they look to make us cheerful in
Serenity- Serenity is the calmness of being satisfied with what one has. It is an
Epicurean delight in the way Epicurus characterized joy as the nonattendance of
agony. Peacefulness is connected with higher profound states where the
individual feels at one with the universe and neither a casualty nor a recipient of
Interest-Individuals have enthusiasm for those things that will assist people
with meeting needs and accomplish our objectives. Interest is likewise started
by uniqueness which provokes our inquisitiveness leading to excitement.
Simply appreciating what is happening in the environment and on the planet
there is space for the delight of disclosure to show up.
Hope- Hope is expectant bliss. It is the joy of an expected future where great
things happen and individual encounters delight or other positive feelings. Hope
is related with positive thinking and regular predisposition of individuals
towards this can bring joy into a troubled circumstance as they consider ways of
Pride- Pride comes with both negative and positive consequences. A prideful
individual is presumptuous and worried about their status over others. They may
feel glad, however to the detriment of others. The more positive type of pride is
epitomized by the pride in one's work or one's group. It is a pure and innocent
type of pride as it is inherently felt and isn't antagonistic towards other
Amusement-Amusement happens when people discover something entertaining,
from jokes to the mixed up nature of our general surroundings. Humor is a
simple method for interfacing with others and a mutual feeling of delight is a
useful social bond. Being effectively interested is likewise not to consider things
excessively important, particularly ourselves. In any circumstance if one can
giggle at their own oversights then one can be glad forever.
Inspiration-Inspiration is the thing that is felt when one sees perfect aptitude or
hears an incredible discourse, and are roused to accomplish something
therefore. Along these lines, inspiration is a solid motivational power and can be
intense for evolving minds. Pioneers specifically will utilize this, especially
when utilizing magnetic and transformational styles of initiative.
Awe- Awe is the feeling experienced when one sees a great dusk and happens
to encounters an extraordinary craftsmanship and wonder about the ability of
the craftsman. This can be accomplished through energy about painting,
execution or some other imaginative articulation. Awe can be spiritual bliss as
one stands amazed at the wonders of the unending universe or the totality.
Wonder can come just from receptiveness to involvement. When one thinks
about the miracles around themselves and even inside themselves they can
simply feel in wonder, all things considered,
Love- Love is an impactful feeling which is first experienced as a newborn child
from the parents and caregivers. It is enchanting and there are a few forms that
could possibly look for response. The most perfect and undiluted form of love is
unequivocal love, looking to give and not to get (romantic love looks for both to
offer and to get fondness).
j) Encourage Fun- Organizations should enable employees to enjoy some fulfilled activities
as well. The Human Resource Department should take initiatives to foster employee
engagement initiatives that will generate fun amongst the employees. Celebration of special
days in the organization like birthdays, anniversaries and special events will make the
employees have fun amongst them.
k) Appreciation- Employees want to be appreciated in the organization as it is a great source
of motivation for them. Appreciation can be through monetary forms or non monetary forms.
A small and positive gesture by the leader can serve as a great source of appreciation for
many employees. An effective leader should understand that gestures like small pat, smile,
and some positive words in any meeting may serve as source of big appreciation for many
employees, which is absolutely no cost incurring organizational practice.
l) Reducing Stress- Stress acts as a potential inhibitor of employee‘s happiness and
satisfaction. A moderate amount of stress is positive for functioning of any employee,
whereas the stress level rising above the threshold level creates distress amongst the
employees. A growth mindset oriented organization encourages healthy competition amongst
employees that does not lead to any organizational politics that foster stress. Organizations
now-a-days also arrange life management workshops for reduction in stress level of the
Man is a social animal. At every phase of life, starting from childhood, man has always wanted
to be in groups, being best buddies to others, be a part of play group; and always felt offended
when he used to be cast out of any group. So there has been an inherent need in humanbeings to
feel the social connection. It cannot be deniedthat beinghuman beings, people hanker for contact
and association with other people. But when it comes to workplace scenario, this might not be so
obvious. Many employees find their workplace to be a very lonely place, quite dull
Social connectedness is the measure and experience of having the feeling of belongingness and
relatedness among people. For workplace, it is the sum of all the various people interactions,
starting from collaborating with a manager to asking a colleague out for lunch.The higher the
social connectedness, the employee feels a sort of psychological safety. Those who are engaged
in full-time jobs, expend a majority of their daily time at the workplace, for them it is quite
obvious that they have to have satisfactory work relationships which are so vital to employee
well-being. Robust social connections have been found to impact people‘s physical and
psychological health positively, and that has a positive impact on performance. In his book, The
Happiness Advantage, the author Shawn Achor (2010), says that social connection is the main
predictor of happiness and is also related to reduced stress. Achor asserts that that friendship
increases happiness, and that happiness reduces emotional states of stress. He has also claimed
that most resilient people are those who invest on social connections and understands the benefits
of those. Social connections help boosting wellbeing in a lot number of ways. When employees
are together andthey have a fellow feeling, they start celebrating many small successes in their
team, and also celebrate birthdays and anniversaries, have appreciation days, go for team lunch
and senses engagement. Companies are today trying to foster lots of team building activities,
breaking the initial ice, and bridging some social connection. In this way, the island like multiple
functional areas also gets socially connected and employees feel more engaged. Companies are
also engaging in walking clubs, and the American Heart Association‘s Workplace Walking
Program Kit is gradually becoming very popular. Companies are using this toolkit, setting up
their own routes around the office and celebrating as well as rewarding their employees who are
coming out of sedentary lifestyle. This is physicallybeing more productive and socially getting
connected.Employers are also making attempts creating social engagement by organizing healthy
potlucks among team members.Another choice is a weekly team which endeavours to bring
employees together.
This is an era marked by social networking, emails and Facebook and Whatsapp, where hardly
there are chances for social interaction among people. Technology may be advancing very fast
and machines becoming more and more intelligent, it is very obvious and humans need to
socialize; and if this social connectedness need is not met, it might have major impact on
employee health and well-being. As technology has an increasingly momentous place in our lives,
the significance of creating and preserving social connections becomes more important than ever.
And with this background, researches are conducted towards employee wellbeing and
understanding, creating and maintaining engaged employees (Marchington & Kynighou, 2012).
Another relevant area of research that focuses on this is positive organizational behavior
(Luthans, 2002). With transparency and belief at the core of employee engagement, corporations
that embrace flexible plans often get the finest talent through the door, lesser absenteeism,
improved retention and increased productivity. The popularity of open plan design has come
under examination; with employees reporting that they dislike their workplace environment.
In business researches trying to identify employee engagement perspectives, it has been found
that if there is not sufficient employee engagement, it may impact employee productivity,
businessprofitability, lead to employee turnover, increased absenteeism and also have negative
impacton employee safety record. Enhanced employee engagement addresses many business
challenges, and gives employees justified reasons to stay committed to business.
So every organization should attempt to foster social connectivity among employees through
practices like:
1.Organizinghalf- or one-day workshop that foster fellow feeling and also learning together.
2.Organizing events to encourage a healthy lifestyle.
3.Volunteering and taking part in charitable events;this fosters credentials of the company
and individual employee too.
4.Arranging board games that involve team work in the name of giggles and laughter.
5.Happy hour events offer some light at the end of the tunnel after a demanding work week or
6.Engage in collaborative communication activities, problem solving and/or decision making
7.On-site yoga and little mindful meditation enhances social connectedness and also they can
reduce stress and anxiety
8. Retreats are a great way to reward employees with time out of the office
9.Creating friendly competition and prompting creative inspiration.
10. Friendly employee rivalry can actually help boost morale
11. Create fun programs that regularly and organically reward kind deeds, excellent
performance and important accomplishments both personal and professional.
12. Activities to ensure positive relationship among employees;
13. Developing team synergy through innovation,Improving team relationships, Creating
solution focused thinking
The concept of social ‗connectedness‘ embodies a potentially valuable avenue for discovering
the nature of work organization, and the impacts represented for employee wellbeing in a
workplace. Realizing this, trends of adopting social connectedness software‘s are in place ,
diverse range of organizational social software tools, such as wikis, weblogs, and social
networking sites, are bundled and integrated into enterprise social software platforms (Chan and
Morgan 2011). After implementing Employee Social Softwares, companies are experiencing
notable changes in the way their employees are interacting and communicating internally (Aral
et al. 2013).Besides impacting information distribution (Trier and Richter 2014) or knowledge
supporting behaviors (Zhang and Wang 2012), the present day network structures also transform
relationships among employees (e.g., Majchrzak et al. 2013; Riemer et al. 2015; Scheepers et al.
So, at the heart of social connectedness is being able to share and speak with your colleagues,
have a feeling of being more valued and more connected to workplace.
Among the many other psychological factors that fosters engagement at work, and have been
discussed under different sections, the concept of H.E.R.O is one of the most pertinent clusters of
psychological factors that impact employee engagement. In the latest literature, HERO (Hope,
Efficacy, Resilience and Optimism) have been summarized as constructs for Psychological
Capital or PsyCap (Luthans et al. 2004). All these variables are uniquely related to PsyCap and
are grounded in theory, established as having a positive relation on attitudes, behaviours and
performance, and they are identified as psychological states that can be developed (Luthans,
Youssef & Avolio 2007). All these elements are also related to thriving. In the following
sections, the concept of H.E.R.O and its relation to employee engagement is being discussed.
Hope (H) - Positive psychology at work offers emphasis on hope. Hope can be referred to as the
concept that someone could have an optimistic view of what happens to him in future. Hope tells
us how the man or woman‘s belief of his/her ability to certainly recognize his desires, and
accomplishing the goals and maintaining motivation are interlinked. Hope can also sound like an
ethereal notion; however it is extremely essential to effective management. It enables employees
in an organization continue to be positive and efficient within the face of adversity. The
employee has a futuristic perception about himself. Due to the fact he has hope, he sets dreams
for himself. Hope permits for the revitalization of commitment and self-control even when
antagonized with blockages, some other pertinent and alternative pathways were proactively
determined. The consequent increase in strength of will in turn motivates the quest for still
further alternativepaths in mild of the realities of the recent state of affairs. This hope system
permits blockages or troubles to be perceived as demanding situations and learning
opportunities. For employee engagement, encouraging hope is an indispensible requirement of
those who lead other people, not because it's required, but because it's unbelievably important to
followers. In today‘s job scenario, every job is oppressed with intricacy, change and challenging
objectives; at the face of such anxiety, the engagement of the employee can be held upright with
hope. Hope provides revitalization, drawing even stressed employees out of perceived
impossibilities into a positive future filled with responsibilities.
Gallup (2006)
Efficacy (E)-Taking its roots from the early works of Bandura, it could be stated that efficacy or
self-efficacy is the circumstance in which the person has both the self-belief to perceive the
pathway and self-belief in his or her personal skills to obtain the desired end result with the aid
of their very own behaviours (Bandura, 1977, 1997, Maddux, 2000). Maddux (2000) says that
efficacy tell someone what he believes he can do, not what he plans to do. Due to the belief in
self, Maddux says that people no longer only create positive desires for themselves however also
removes negative goals. People attempt to engage in activities that they suppose they may be
able to do and they will decide how a lot attempts they are going to give results and the how in
the long run sustainably they may keep persisting in their efforts based on their sense in their
personal self-efficacy (Bandura, 1982). Loss of self-belief can be the impact of a single
experience, ingrained negative thoughts, or people behaving consistent with their expectation.
Whateverbethe cause, people missing self-confidence or self-efficacy can be far more reluctant
to tackle new challenges, much less resilient to failure, and much less prompted towards
sustainability. Given the high value that this involves, there's super scope to use the techniques
defined to improve human being‘s feel of what they're able to and permit them to comprehend
their capacity.
Resilience (R)-Resilience is one of the major contributors towards employee engagement. When
a person is highly engaged in the job, it is true that they feel to attracted and connected to the job,
that no obstacles can actually stop them from proceeding ahead. Emerging into a healthy and
contented working place needs improving the sustainability of work that employees perform, and
the enterprise‘s resilience when pressure is felt. It additionally pays dividends via extended
loyalty and dedication and support from employees. But, the purpose isn't always sincerely to get
additional output out of the employees. It also needs to demonstrate your commitment of social
responsibility. This is a matter of ultimate importance to the employees to shareholders and to
customers. Engaged employees are much more likely to remain bonded and together with their
employers for longer, decreasing the job of recruiting more people. A vibrant, invested group of
workers is generally perceived as additionally attracted to their jobs - particularly to millennial in
their quest to discover jobs which might be enjoyable and inspiring. Employee engagement
opens avenues to train employees, hone ability sets and expand an effective expertise base from
inside. How can organizations start chipping away at those disengaged figures? According to
Cross et al. (2003) companies gain from positive dynamics and an energized group of workers
because employees work nicely collectively, when relationships are supportive, inspiring and
information is freely shared. Resilience offers self-directed motivating mechanisms and
processes that could have an effect on job overall performance and desired positive job attitudes.
When resilience is high, employees start believing in themselves more, and solve problems,
which has been discussed earlier as self-efficacy. They also start believing that good things will
happen to them. Here the outlook refers to the concept of optimism. Organizations are trying
these days to develop resilience among their members and engaging in activities to enhance
resilience. With resilient and engaged workforce, skyrocketing achievements can be witnessed.
Engaged employees are expected to bounce back from difficult situations much more, as they
care about the future of the company, success of the company. Resilience and engagement
among team members must be developed through focusing on employee growth, having a stable
system to recognize employees, bringing managers to a common pool of participative decision
making and the like.
Optimism (O)
Optimism of HERO is a very important contributor to employee engagement. Literature reveals
that there is a strong connection between optimism and employee engagement,and higher
optimism leads to higher levels of individual performance. Optimism is a component of human
behavior, can also be referred to some kind of attitude, which says that a person‘s belief of
consequent outcome of a situation would be positive. Optimism is all about how a person thinks
that at the f ace of any uncertain situation; his output will be the best. Optimism is also
associated with self-efficacy which refers that an individual is certain that he will fulfill any
jobefficaciously (Gist and Mitchell, 1992). Research evidences show that optimism is linked
with employee productivity and it boostsengagement. Researchers have also explored and found
that there is a healthy connection between optimistic behavior of employees and their performed
task particularly in manufacturing sector (Green et al., 2004).Generally optimist individuals
perceive stress at work as more eventful and challenging in nature rather than being pulled down
by them. They display both a contingent and a general tendency to depend on vigorous, problem
focused strategies, and are found to be more organized in case of stressful events (Carver,
Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Optimism can be emphasized as a basic requirement in managerial
work, in every organization, managers are desired to look forward to the future with a lot of
hope, expect positive results, and also be creative in nature. Optimistic managers generally tend
to treat difficulties as an opportunity, and thus deserve their engagement in work. In a study
conducted by Hakanen & Lindbohm (2008), optimism was found to be correlated with work
engagement among survivors of cancer. Optimismcushions the negative effect of low job
resources on work engagement, and on the other, optimism enables the deployment of job
resources thus improving the practice of work engagement.
An effective manager should lend an open ear to the employees and try to get the real fact by
asking questions, rather than assuming. Sometimes, there is a misconception, that listening
equals to agreeing, which an effective manager should never agree to. The manager can simply
accept the facts irrespective of his consent and then act upon it.
While listening to any employee, manager must pay attention to nonverbal cues or body
language, which is very important for any manager concerned. The very essence of open
communication is to listen and act in a complete non- judgmental way. Employees grievances
needs to be heard patiently ,which fosters an open environment in the organization because
unless listened and addressed properly employees would find other outlets for their feelings like
meetings with fellow employees, union representatives, government agents; or through passive-
aggressive behavior such as work slowdowns, carelessness, tardiness, absenteeism, and apathy.
Gallup (2006)
The culture of Communication needs to be one of the major requirements for developing a
culture of employee engagement communication in terms of its frequency, in its correctness
and depth. Employee and his/her peers needs to be accountable for building a culture that
energizes high performance and higher employee engagement. Employees need to feel that their
abilities are trusted and their involvement is factored. In order to develop a culture of strong
internal communication effort should be made to understand internal communication as a regular
priority of the manager‘s activity and also as an important substance of each employee‘s work.
In a study of Gallup's Communication Index was derived by testing an extensive series of items -
- in this case, ones that addressed organizational communication and information flow.
Individual item results indicate that engaged employees are five times as likely as those who are
not engaged to strongly agree that their immediate supervisor keeps them informed about what is
going on at the organization -- 45% vs. 9%, respectively.
A manager should take the following steps to facilitate the process of open communication and
emphatic listening:
Setting the appropriate environmental and conditions.
To be Mindful
To be non-Judgmental
To offer perspectives
To be empathetic
The ability of listening turns out to be critical when "upward communication." is discussed.
There are numerous roads through which managers can send messages descending through a
business association, yet there are few roads for development of data the upward way. Talented
communicators can construct compatibility with associates and business partners, which can help
move along more proficiently. They know whose skill to tap when they require help and are
proficient at settling clashes and building agreement among colleagues.
One's efficiency in using the quality of leadership and the vigor of a company is improved by
one's ability for communication. When leaders and managers are properly acknowledged and
cherished they are followed and supported .In the workplace, supervisors and their employees
have chance to develop non-threatening reciprocally satisfying relationships which turn out to be
fairly helpful towards individual and organizational health. They are synonymous to any
meaningful relationships. Supervisors who achieve such relationships with employees are said to
practice an affirmative human relations
Positive psychology talks about people‘s strengths and how in general they mature and flourish
(Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007). Sok and colleagues (2014) in their research came with the
conclusion that if there are supportive organizational cultures in an organization, it generally
reduces negative work-home repercussions, it allows employeesa higher flexible work-home
arrangement and draws and retain higher number of engaged employees. Not only that, such
employees are found to be more valuable to the organizations as well.A positive organizational
culture has also been reported toshield the unhealthy effects of bad news (French and Holden,
2012). It is trulymomentous that in any organization, there should be attempts made to develop a
culture of employee engagement. This is of course a slow and time consuming process. But it
needs to be ongoing. When an employee is engaged within their organization, everyone benefits.
Engaged employees are actually the builders of any organization. Research reports that
companies in the 99th percentile of engagement have four times the success rate (Van Allen,
2013). While organizations are intensely trying to maximize the influenceof every employee to
corporate imperatives and metrics, employees also wantto find some meaning and happiness in
their work. Policy makers do accept that the outcomes of employee engagement are positive
(Saks 2006). So, from every perspective, if engaged employees bring prosperity at workplace,
why not deliberately develop the culture of employee engagement. Organizationalculture has a
long way to go with employee engagement. Employee engagement in itself has to become the
culture of an organization. Culture in the organization is transmitted through the managers, who
have the major influence on employee engagement. They must be encouraged to develop
meaningful relationships with staff, recognize good performance and create work that is
challenging and has some purpose. Truly great leaders evolve from simply managing others to
developing employees to their fullest potential. Some drivers of engagement include the support
supplied by the organization, such as an effective performance management.
Researches show that there is significant impact that management has on engagement levels
from the moment people join an organization. As Ott et al. (2007) suggest, through name and
through the capability to choose the right people, good management can bring people into the
organisation with the possibility to be highly engaged in their work. As long as the employee
remains in the organization, it is the excellence of the relationship between a manager and
employee that can be a crucial driver of engagement and pleasure with the organization.
Robinson et al 2004, has indicated that certain factors are highly important for developing the
culture of employee engagement in an organization. Those factors should include two way
communication, cooperative management, employee development, employee health andbenefits,
transparent HR policies. Besides these, not to be ignored factors like the type and nature of work
the employee does, purposeful work and meaningful contribution, timely rewards and
recognition, encouragement, and again social connectedness. HR managers along with the line
managers also have a key role to play.
On the basis of the discussion carried in the chapter about the role of positive work environment
in engaging employees, it can be concluded that, positive work environment has definite effect in
employee wellbeing, productivity and engagement. When positive work environment is instilled
in the culture of the organization it can be said that there is a connection between employee
engagement and business results. So, it would not be an exaggeration of fact that employee
engagement is associated to employees‘ attitudes, behavioural intentions, and expressed
behaviors. Enhanced organizational performance is significantly expedited when employees feel
engaged at work. An engaged employee in a positive work setting will be more proactive and
committed to high quality work output.
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... This positive climate helps to develop trust at the workplace and the supportive environment encourages the employees to be adventurous with new ideas without the fear of failure. This is supported by Chakraborty and Ganguly (2019) who added more elements of a positive work environment which includes transparent and open communication, recognition, team spirit and appreciation. The workplace environment that consists of these elements can help employees to form social connection, engagement and motivation. ...
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Motivation at the workplace is influenced by the conditions at the workplace. Employees are reported to be more willing to commit and contribute to the company's success when they are motivated. This study investigates the factors that contribute to a positive work climate in various industries. The instrument used is a survey with 5-likert scales. Excluding the demographic profiles, the 24 items in the survey looked at were psychological and self-fulfilment needs of 88 respondents from various types of industries responded to the survey. The data was analysed quantitatively using SPSS. Findings revealed that employees preferred a work environment that allows them to have social interaction. They also liked the workplace to have an environment where they are encouraged to upgrade themselves. In addition to that, the physical and mental environment of the workplace are also important factors that motivate the workers to stay happy at work. They also value teamwork, trust, and fairness.
This chapter attempts to find the role of appreciative inquiry in employee engagement and organizational transformation. An attempt has been made to explain the impact of appreciative inquiry on employee engagement, which eventually helps in organizational transformation with minimal hindrances. Employee engagement has turned into an undeniably conspicuous issue in the region of organizational development (OD) likely because of the developing collection of research encompassing the positive connection between employee engagement and organizational development, which also comprises profit margin. Appreciative inquiry is a vision-based approach of open dialogue that is designed to help organizations and their partners create a shared vision for the future and a mission to operate in the present. The main thrust area of appreciative inquiry is to find out what works best for the organization. Instead of focusing on negativity, appreciative inquiry focuses on the positive aspect of the organization.
Full-text available
Workforce generational differences have been a subject of importance for corporate HR and academicians to understand their implications if any, on employee engagement. With Baby Boomers having reached the far end of their career, Gen X, Gen Y and Gen Z are constituting a majority of the workforce. Each of these generations bring unique challenges to the work environment and managers have to increasingly deal with issues related to work assignment, power distribution, team dynamics, conflicts and so on while designing and implementing policies and programs. A conducive atmosphere needs to be created where these multigenerational workforces are positively engaged so that they collaborate and work harmoniously towards company's goals while accomplishing their own career goals. The study attempts to identify the important antecedents to engagement of these multigenerational workforces especially Gen X and Gen Y in the backdrop of Covid 19 pandemic which affected the construction industry.
Appreciative inquiry is an ‘asset-based' approach that focuses on the positive things of life. Through its 4D cycle and principles it generates transformation of organization. AI when practiced goes through 4D cycle of discovery, dream, design, and destiny. An individual gets the scope to rediscover and reorganize when passing through these four phases. This liberates the mind through exploration and introspection. Interventions of AI even clarify the ‘shadow' area of the human mind. The chapter tries to establish AI as a potential tool that can be used at individual level to aid in up gradation of mental health awareness through reviewing existing literature in this field.
Employees of this day are not confined only to the physical space that they occupy during office hours. Today's workstations are connected environments ensuring instant access to other employees and anything that employees need for work which goes beyond any communication barriers and as a result is changing employee experiences to better engaged, innovative, and efficient ones. All these changes have given way to alterations in employee interrelation dynamics within the boundaries of technological environments. The chapter leads to an understanding of how today's work culture has changed, what the digitized workplace looks like, the where and how of task-technology fits, and the model of interpersonal relationships. The chapter also talks about the related implications of media richness theory at workplace with special reference to digitized work environment and virtual reality. Further, the chapter brings in the challenges of cyberloafing and phubbing as consequences of the digitized workplace and how those affect performance and employee relations.
Appreciative inquiry is an ‘asset-based' approach that focuses on the positive things of life. Through its 4D cycle and principles it generates transformation of organization. AI when practiced goes through 4D cycle of discovery, dream, design, and destiny. An individual gets the scope to rediscover and reorganize when passing through these four phases. This liberates the mind through exploration and introspection. Interventions of AI even clarify the ‘shadow' area of the human mind. The chapter tries to establish AI as a potential tool that can be used at individual level to aid in up gradation of mental health awareness through reviewing existing literature in this field.
This chapter attempts to shed light on a relatively new concept of appreciative inquiry, which is a learning as well as research technique. The uniqueness of this concept is in its focus on positive and growth-oriented changes in the lives of individuals as well as in organizational culture. The chapter attempts to relate the role of appreciative inquiry with some of the well-researched psychological constructs like emotional intelligence, need hierarchy, and self-determination. Studies related to such constructs and AI techniques are mentioned to highlight its contribution in organizational transformation. Though the importance of this technique is primarily in the field of human resource development, it can be applied with equal emphasis in promoting work culture and overall organizational climate.
Appreciative inquiry is an act of nurturing a group of people in a system to move into positive futures through relationship development and generative learning. The culture of a healthy institution is formed through shared values and beliefs. Appreciative inquiry gives people the experience of personal and collective power, a sense of liberation, and freedom. It enhances self-esteem and self-expression which leads to self-organization. Freedom comes with responsibilities and self-organization. Self-organizing systems take care of power inequality, balance resources, and optimize when required. Appreciative learning is the art of valuing and inquiring those possibilities that can create something profoundly new. Any innovative organization goes beyond the perceived constraints and focuses on opportunities around and evaluates internal strengths and strategises their moves. Appreciative inquiry nurtures creative and innovative thinking by fostering a positive focus.
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This chapter discusses the concept of appreciative leadership with emphasis on the formative stages of it and the five strategies, namely inquiry, inclusion, inspiration, illumination, and integrity. It also touches upon the characteristics needed to emerge as an effective appreciative leader, some of them being optimistic, compassionate, innovative, respectful, and treating everyone as equal. The chapter concludes by highlighting the role of appreciative leadership in organizational development.
This chapter attempts to find the role of appreciative inquiry in employee engagement and organizational transformation. An attempt has been made to explain the impact of appreciative inquiry on employee engagement, which eventually helps in organizational transformation with minimal hindrances. Employee engagement has turned into an undeniably conspicuous issue in the region of organizational development (OD) likely because of the developing collection of research encompassing the positive connection between employee engagement and organizational development, which also comprises profit margin. Appreciative inquiry is a vision-based approach of open dialogue that is designed to help organizations and their partners create a shared vision for the future and a mission to operate in the present. The main thrust area of appreciative inquiry is to find out what works best for the organization. Instead of focusing on negativity, appreciative inquiry focuses on the positive aspect of the organization.
Full-text available
The basic premise of self-efficacy theory is that "people's beliefs in their capabilities to produce desired effects by their own actions" (Bandura, 1997, p. vii) are the most important determinants of the behaviors people choose to engage in and how much they persevere in their efforts in the face of obstacles and challenges. Self-efficacy theory also maintains that these efficacy beliefs play a crucial role in psychological adjustment, psychological problems, physical health, as well as professionally guided and self-guided behavioral change strategies. This chapter provides an overview of self-efficacy theory and research by addressing three basic questions: (a) What is self-efficacy? (b) Where do self-efficacy beliefs come from? (c) Why is self-efficacy important? The chapter also discusses "collective efficacy"-group members' beliefs in their ability to collectively accomplish shared goals.
This article examines the coping mechanisms employees used to adapt to a major organizational transition. Research was conducted to assess both coping resources and coping responses. The sample consisted of employees of the Bell Telephone System who had to cope with the company's recent divestiture. The results of a multivariate analysis suggest that perceived uncertainty and fears about the impact of the transition were related to employee stress. This relationship was only moderately affected by the coping mechanisms. Feelings of personal control and the ability to tolerate ambiguity were linked with improved stress levels, whereas active attempts to structure the situation by obtaining information and feedback either failed to affect or actually increased stress levels. The author concludes with implications of this research for the management of change.
Like most companies in the healthcare industry, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C. (J&JPRD) faces the commensurate challenges of growing its business in an increasingly competitive marketplace while discovering and developing innovative new medicines. Understanding that internal and external change impacts productivity, J&J PRD's Global Organizational Development (OD) team identified employee engagement as an important tool to ensure long-term growth and success. Following both internal and external research, the OD team partnered with business leaders and Human Resource Generalists to develop and implement a global employee engagement model and strategy. At the time this model and strategy was developed and implemented, it was unclear what the model and strategy would do to, or for the organization's business reality of ongoing change. Although just recently implemented, the anecdotal evidence shows promise. This article concludes with suggestions for OD professionals to consider when planning a similar initiative in their organization. © 2006 Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C.
This book draws from a foundation of positive psychology and recently emerging positive organizational behavior (POB). Its purpose is to introduce the untapped human resource capacity of psychological capital, or simply PsyCap. This PsyCap goes beyond traditionally recognized human and social capital and must meet the scientific criteria of theory, research, and valid measurement. To distinguish from other constructs in positive psychology and organizational behavior, to be included in PsyCap the resource capacity must also be 'state-like' and thus open to development (as opposed to momentary states or fixed traits) and have performance impact. The positive psychological resource capacities that meet these PsyCap criteria - efficacy (confidence), hope, optimism, and resilience - are covered in separate chapters. These four resource capacities are conceptually and empirically distinct, but also have underlying common processes for striving to succeed and when in combination contribute to a higher-order, core construct of psychological capital. Besides these four, other potential positive constructs such as creativity, wisdom, well being, flow, humor, gratitude, forgiveness, emotional intelligence, spirituality, authenticity, and courage are covered in Chapters 6 and 7. The concluding Chapter 8 summarizes and presents the research demonstrating the performance impact of PsyCap, the PsyCap questionnaire (PCQ) for measurement and the PsyCap Intervention (PCI) for development. Utility analysis indicates that investing in the development of PsyCap can result in a very substantial return. In total, this book provides the theory, research, measure, and method of application for the new resource of Psychological Capital that can be developed and sustained for competitive advantage.