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COMPARISON OF REAL GARMENT DESIGN AND 3D VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING

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COMPARISON OF REAL GARMENT DESIGN AND 3D VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING

Abstract

Ever developing computer and production technologies have influenced the textiles and fashion industries. In the clothing industry CAD systems are mainly used in pattern preparation, pattern grading, garment design and so on. Shape analysis and viewing of the model from any direction and distance are also possible by modern 3D systems. In this work fabric and garment samples were designed by traditional methods and CAD systems. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods were compared.
15th AUTEX World Textile Conference 2015
June10-12, 2015, Bucharest, ROMANIA
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COMPARISON OF REAL GARMENT DESIGN AND 3D VIRTUAL
PROTOTYPING
Esra ÖGÜLMÜS, Mustafa E. ÜREYEN, Cafer ARSLAN
Anadolu University, Architecture and Design Faculty, Fashion Design Department Eskisehir/Turkey
ABSTRACT
Ever developing computer and production technologies have influenced the textiles and fashion
industries. In the clothing industry CAD systems are mainly used in pattern preparation, pattern
grading, garment design and so on. Shape analysis and viewing of the model from any direction and
distance are also possible by modern 3D systems. In this work fabric and garment samples were
designed by traditional methods and CAD systems. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods
were compared.
Key Words: Computer aided design, 3D, textile, fabric design, garment design
1. INTRODUCTION
CAD systems promise considerably cost saving to the company in the field of materials,
time, energy and labour. Whereas the engineering industry has accepted CAD widely, much
less progress has been achieved in designing and modelling textile materials and garments.
The reason is that fabrics and garments are complex surfaces by engineering standards [1].
However there are several successful CAD systems developed for facilitating users’ work in
every step of production process which begins from yarn to finished product design and until
even marketing stage. Nowadays, the virtual prototyping by 3D CAD systems can allows an
accurate and rapid development of garments. One of the main advantages of 3D CAD
systems is that the designed pattern can be applied on a standard mannequin or selected or
created models by the user [2]. 3D modelling of garments is a very complex process. Unlike
the deformable engineered structures, textile fabrics and garments needs a new approaches
for simulations because of highly versatile natures. On the other hand garments are
constructed from 2D patterns but the quality of fit is evaluated on 3D human models.
Therefore, the study of 3D body modelling has a great potential in both research and
application [3, 4].
The aim of this work is to design fabric and print samples and women clothes by traditional
methods and CAD programs simultaneously. During and after the design process, two
methods are compared. Hence effects of CAD systems on apparel design cycle from
conceptual design up to finished products is tried to examine. For this aim three samples are
designed, patterns of the samples are prepared and the 3D computer simulation of the
garment prototypes are made.
2. EXPERIMENTAL
Computer aided design techniques offer more efficient and time saving solutions to yarn and
fabric design, print design, pattern making and garment design. Two dimensional software
such as Illustrator, Photoshop and Corel Draw have been using by the fashion designers.
Customized programmes for the textile and fashion industry such as fabric design software
Kaledo, Ned Graphics, Tex Design, Arahne etc and pattern software such as Assyst,
Modaris, Accumark are being used around the world. These systems support geometrical
pattern drafting from first principles using only anthropometric measurements of the target
size and shape [5].
15th AUTEX World Textile Conference 2015
June10-12, 2015, Bucharest, ROMANIA
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In this work firstly fabric and garment sketches are designed by the authors. Approving the
sketches models were designed by Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator and Lectra Kaledo
programmes. Three female models are selected and patterns of designed garments are
prepared by the Assyst programme.
The 3D computer simulation of the garments prototypes are made. Reconstruction of the
garments on 3D virtual mannequins is realized by Optitex.
Selected fabric sample was woven and real sample was sewn.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. THE PROCESS OF GARMENT DESIGN
Garment design is a process that includes all the stages of a dream design from yarn
to fabric, to sewing and to presentation. This design process covers a period when a
need-base idea is transformed into a physical product and it is delivered to the
consumers. The leading role of this process is the designer or the manufacturer.
In fashion design process, after the gathering data by observing, designer creates an
idea or a concept and completes this process by choosing the most suitable solution
among the others. The design process is arranged in five categories [6]:
Preparation Stage
1) Research,
2) Analyse,
3) Development,
4) Production and
5) Evaluation.
To approach garment design process in a digital extent starts after the idea stage.
To draw the designs via CAD software is a commonly used method nowadays. This
enables that designs to be more established, more improvable, more duplicable and
most importantly faster to move. Within the scope of the work, these stages were
observed and textile fabric and textile printing designs were prepared by traditional
methods. Then the designs were prepared by using selected software. This
procedure was applied to selected three models:
Model 1; two-piece suit for women (Figure 1.a)
Model 2; single-piece shirt, printed dress (Figure 1.b)
Model 3; check patterned fabric dress (Figure 1.c)
Figure1. Drawings of the designs. (a) Model 1, (b) Model 2, (c) Model 3 (designed by Kaledo).
(b) (c)
15th AUTEX World Textile Conference 2015
June10-12, 2015, Bucharest, ROMANIA
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3.2. THE APPLICATION OF DIGITAL DESIGN PROCESS
In order to compare traditional design method and computer aided design, the same
process was made by the selected software. In this respect, Adobe Photoshop,
Adobe Illustrator, Lectra Kaledo, Assyst and Optitex software were used. Although
there are similarities with respect to traditional method in terms of sequence, there
are differences in terms of application and the results were investigated.
Model 1 is the design of a two-piece suit for women. A second top by waistline was
designed on a tight fitting dress with straight dart. This piece is a leather and there
are laser cut patterns on it. At first, the sketch of the model was designed and it was
prepared on artistic or technical drawing optionally. The drawings were applied with
Kaledo Style and Adobe Illustrator (Figure 2 (a) and (b)). The hem patterns of
technically expressed upper part of the design was prepared as vectors on Illustrator
for laser cut and were saved as ‘dfx’ to be able to perceived on laser cut area (Figure
4b). After the drawings had finished, the dress pattern was created in keeping with
the measurement of the model to whom the design is going to be applied. This
process was prepared by Assist pattern software (Figure 2c). The patterns were
saved as zip, and transformed into ‘dfx’ format to be compatible with other programs.
Although the measurement of the model is close to size 38, the hip and the breast
lines are out of box. The patterns which were prepared in dfx format are transformed
into ‘pds’ format to design comfortably on Optitex. Clothing pattern pieces were
opened in Optitex 3D and named (Figure 2d). First, the measurement of the model
was transferred into the virtual model for rigging, and then automatic rigging process
was started by determining and fixing seam lines of the patterns (Figure 2e). The
differences between the pattern and the size were spotted and corrected at this
stage. The design process for Model 1 is ready to produce after this stage.
15th AUTEX World Textile Conference 2015
June10-12, 2015, Bucharest, ROMANIA
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Figure 2. Digital design process of the Model 1.
Model 2 is the design of a single-piece shirt, printed pattern dress on hem. The
model for whom the design was prepared has size 34. The waist and breast
measurements are out of a 34 size woman. At first, some different nature and
flower photos were taken for this model (Figure 3a). The images were transformed
into vectors by using Kaledo Print software and different compositions were prepared
(Figure 3b). Prepared unit area is the smallest piece of the fabric pattern. The pattern
was duplicated to the desired direction and proportion in repeated printing studio
(Figure 3c). The dress whose printing design template was determined was drawn
with Kaledo Style in a technical way. After this process, the design was transferred
into the pattern in accordance with the measurements of the model (Figure 3d). The
pattern was transformed into zip and then to pds. By transferring pattern size to the
virtual model on the software, the desired form was created (Figure 3e). Seam of the
pattern pieces which were opened in Optitex were defined and fitted on the virtual
model of the desired sizes (Figure 3f). Finally, the fitting of the fabric and pattern was
analysed by applying ‘Catwalk’ procedure on virtual model on Optitex Runway
(Figure 3g).
(a) (b) (c) (a)
(d) (e)
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June10-12, 2015, Bucharest, ROMANIA
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Figure 3. Digital design process of the model 2.
Model 3 is the design of a fabric dress which is single-piece shirt, check patterned on
hem. At first, the design was applied on Kaledo Style Program technically. Check
pattern fabric which is going to be used on them was design on Kaledo Weave
(Figure 4a). The colour and weave report for check patterned fabric, which is
prepared by using twill weave (Figure 4b), was carried out with a few buttons on the
program. The designed fabric sample properties are 100% cotton, 2x2 twill weave
and 225g/m2 (Figure 4c). Plain weave polyester/cotton (50/50%) fabric was prepared
for the upper part of the dress. Prepared fabric area was fitted on the virtual model
on Kaledo Print ‘Drape Studio’ to understand the visual effect (Figure 4d). This
process was carried out with clipping method. The reason that to understand the
fitting of the designed fabric on the real human model. The pattern was drawn by
Assyst software according to the measurement of the real model (Figure 4e). Final
patterns were transferred into Optitex area in appropriate formats. By creating a
virtual model in accordance with the sizes of the real model, 3D rigging process was
carried out (Figure 4f).
(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e)
(f) (g)
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June10-12, 2015, Bucharest, ROMANIA
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Figure 4. Digital design process of the model 3.
The whole process can be carried out in 10 minutes by an expert user. Pattern
failures were fixed according to the final results. The model whose patterns and
virtual prototype was ready was printed by the printer and made prepared for the cut.
The clipped patterns were transferred to the production stage and the sewing
(a) (b) (c)
(d)
(e) (f)
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June10-12, 2015, Bucharest, ROMANIA
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process was carried out. There was no pattern failure on the design, which was tried
on the model, except for a few negligible differences (Figure 4g).
4. CONCLUSION
Ever developing computer and production technologies have influenced the textiles
and fashion industries. The foremost advantages of computer technologies in
application have been the shortening of design process and decreasing the labour.
Many processes which used to be performed manually can therefore conducted
virtually by design software. The designer solely can therefore perform the entire
procedure. The preparation of end product sample virtually by the designer
eliminates the need for sample production and enables a fast and satisfactory
communication with the customer. All these lead to savings in cost and time of
production. However the number of Professional designers in this area is limited due
to the software being complex and overpriced. The software costs have been
considered as overrated by the small scale companies. Digital design phase has not
been completed in terms of textiles and fashion. Software has been fairly used in the
market. In this study the conventional and digital design steps were compared in the
context of the entire design process.
In this study designs were fitted to three different models and the computer assisted
design procedures were gradually compared. The traditional procedure requires
sketch drawings, pattern making and sample production for each of the three models
whereas CAD procedure was fully conducted on digital media. In this study a three
dimensional dressing software was used without dressing the model on two
dimensional model and the simulation was performed. The foremost challenge in the
application of 3D systems to textiles and garment is the draping behaviour of fabrics
that is difficult to simulate. The results of this process have shown that the recent
technology offers promising features in this aspect. The actual and digital images of
Model 3 designed have confirmed these advances. The product prepared according
to the model’s measurements without any fitting, stitching and the presence of fabric
sample was presented on virtual models and the faults identified were fixed on the
pattern. When the product is produced the patterns was determined to be free of
faults as predicted by the simulation. In the imaging process the 3D dressing
software was concluded to meet most of the criteria while facilitating many
procedures. The preparation step of fabric surfaces has been swiftly performed in
the same manner. The woven fabric produced according to the data created in the
digital media by Kaledo software and the image has been almost identical to the
simulation.
The patterns prepared in the digital media have provided easy, fast and cost-
effective application compared to the manual pattern preparation methods. Pattern
preparation process by CAD/CAM system has been performed almost three times
faster than the conventional method. Moreover material savings have been achieved
in pattern, sketching and sample stitching steps. In addition a single cloth pattern can
be digitally copied and used without becoming worn out or dirty and archived easily.
Another advantage is that different design applications can be performed on the
same pattern as seen in Model 2 and Model 3.
In our future works new fabric and garment designs will be prepared for men and
children. All of the designed garments will be sewn. The real prototypes and virtual
prototypes will be compared. Fit comparison in accordance with pattern and body
shape of the real garments and virtual prototypes will be made. In addition to the
15th AUTEX World Textile Conference 2015
June10-12, 2015, Bucharest, ROMANIA
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virtual comparison, traditional design and production techniques and computer aided
design will be compared based on production time, number of production steps and
cost.
5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This study was supported by Anadolu University Scientific Research Projects Commission
under the grant no: 1409F390.
5. REFERENCES
[1] Hinds B.K., McCartney J., Hadden C. and Diamond J. 3D CAD for Garment Design.
International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 1992, Vol. 4(4), pp. 6-14.
[2] Ondogan Z. The Comparison of the Manual and CAD Systems for Pattern Making,
Grading and Marker Making Processes. FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe, 2006, Vol.
14(1), pp. 62-67.
[3] Stjepanovič Z. Reconstruction of a 3D Body Scan Model for Virtual Garment
Prototyping. International Joint Conference on Environmental and Light Industry
Technologies, 18 19 November 2010, Budapest, Hungary.
[4] Liu Y.J. A Survey on CAD Methods in 3D Garment Design. Computers in Industry.
2010, Vol. 61, pp.576593.
[5] Sayem A.M., Kennon R. and Clarke N. 3D CAD Systems for the Clothing Industry.
International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, 2010, Vol. 3(2), pp. 45-
53.
[6] Veryzer, R W. and Brigitte M. The Impact of User-Oriented Design on New Product
Development: An Examination of Fundamental Relationships. Journal of Product Innovation
Management, 2005, Vol. 22(2), pp. 128-143.
[7] Lectra, Kaledo, Educational booklet, 2014
[8] Assyst, Educational booklet, 2014, p. 30-67
[9] Optitex Ver. 12, Educational booklet, 2015
Corresponding author:
Esra ÖĞÜLMÜŞ
Anadolu University, Architecture and Design Faculty,
Fashion Design Department
26470 ESKISEHIR/TURKEY
Phone: +90.222.3350580 Fax: +90.222. 335 17 75 E-mail: esra_ogulmus@hotmail.com
Co-author(s):
Mustafa E. ÜREYEN
Anadolu University, Architecture and Design Faculty,
Fashion Design Department
26470 ESKISEHIR/TURKEY
Phone: +90.222.3350580/2837-2843 Fax: +90.222. 335 17 75 E-mail: meureyen@anadolu.edu.tr
Cafer ARSLAN
Anadolu University, Architecture and Design Faculty,
Fashion Design Department
26470 ESKISEHIR/TURKEY
Phone: +90.222.3350580/2856 Fax: +90.222. 335 17 75 E-mail: caferarslan@hotmail.com
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