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Journal of Advanced Scientific Research STUDY ON ADVANCED APPLICATION OF MINT OIL

  • Environmental Management and Policy Research Institute
Vinutha Moses et al, J Adv Sci Res, 2014, 5(4): 01-03 1
Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 2014, 5(4)
Journal of Advanced Scientific Research
Available online through
Nethravathi Mahadevappa, Divya Kittayanapallya Hanumantharaju Pooja Vishwanath Suvarna, Vinutha Moses*,
Soumya Chandrashekar and Shobha Gowda
Department of Biotechnology, Sapthagiri College of Engineering, Bangalore-57
*Corresponding author:
Peppermint is most popular in traditional medicines such as herbal tea and essential oil. It is a cultivated natural
hybrid of Mentha aquatic L. (watermint) and Mentha spicata L. (spear mint) in many parts of the world.
It is extracted by steam distillation and shows potential actions like antioxidant, antiallergic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antimycotic, an
titoxigenic, antifungal, antiparasitical, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, insecticidal and antitumor. The unique property of mint is
analgesic (pain-killing). These properties contribute to its applications and hence it is widely used in pharmaceutical, food
industries, agricultural field and is also effective on gastrointestinal tissue, respiratory system, central and peripheral nervous
system. This study focuses on recent advances and application of mint oil.
Keywords: Peppermint, essential oils, antimicrobial activity, mint, production, analgesic, anti- inflammatory
Herbs are a boon to traditional medicine practiced from
ancient times. Plants are a potential source of traditional
ayurvedic medicine, either in its natural form or processed have
been used in curing many ailments. It provides a wide range of
bioactive compounds present in different parts of plants that can
be used for alternate therapy [1].There are different plants of
medicinal value but our interest lies on peppermint or
commonly known as mint Leaves.
1.1. Mint Leaves
Carl Linnaeus was renowned for first describing
peppermint from plants and leaves in England during 1753 [2].
Mentha is derived from Greek word mintha [3], very commonly
known as mint or peppermint. They are rarely yearly herbs
aromatic and perennial [4]. It has almost 25 perennial species,
belongs to the genus Mentha of the Lamiaceae family [5]. Mint
leaf is as shown in fig. 1.
Fig. 1: Mint Leaves1
It is distributed wildly and can be seen in almost all
environmental conditions especially wet and moist soil [6]. It
can also sustain sun heat and grows well even at this condition
[7]. Table1 shows its taxanomy.
In England, till 18th century the hybridization and cultivation
of peppermint was not done. It was only cultivated during 1500
BC being considered as a hybrid of water mint and spearmint
and thereafter it was used in cooking [8]. Before 2000 BC mint
has been used for medicinal purposes, but until 1771 menthol
was not isolated [9]. Rosmarinic acid, several flavonoids,
primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin are the phenolic
constituents of peppermint leaves [10]. Menthol, menthone and
cineol are the main volatile components present. Mint does not
produce seeds being a perennial plant [11].
Table1. Peppermint Taxanomy [3]
1.2. Mint Oil
When the mint leaves are crushed, ground and steam
distilled, the volatile distillate thus obtained is said to be mint
oil [12]. It is a carminative naturally occurring. Numerous
minerals and nutrients including manganese, iron, magnesium,
calcium, folate, potassium, and copper are present in
peppermint oil. It also contains omega-3 fatty acids, Vitamin A
Review Article
Binomial name
Mentha piperita
Vinutha Moses et al, J Adv Sci Res, 2014, 5(4): 01-03 2
Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 2014, 5(4)
and Vitamin C [13]. The chemical constituents of peppermint
are rich in menthol, menthone and menthyl esters (menthyl
acetate) [14]. Dried peppermint typically has 0.3-0.4% of
volatile oil containing menthol (7-48%), menthone (20-46%),
menthyl acetate (3-10%), menthofuran (1-17%) and 1, 8-cineol
(3-6%). It also contains small limonene, pulegone,
caryophyllene and pinenel15 as shown in Fig 2.
Fig. 1: Structures of components of mint oil [11]
Sustrikova and Salamon [16] in 2004, claimed oil is
contained in little vesicles existing throughout the plant, and
visible in the leaves. According to Jorge Gutierrez et al [17]
essential oils are oily liquids that are fragrant and volatile. They
are found in the stem, bark and leaves of the plant, formed by
some specialized group of cells. The oil is commonly stored in
bags like glands on the lower sides of the leaves.
Arun K. Tripathi et al [18] declared that terpenes, benzene
derivatives, hydrocarbons and other miscellaneous compounds
are the four main groups of volatile components present in
essential oil. They are the complex secondary metabolites,
having strong odour. The nature of oil is lipophilic.
According to Shrivastava Alankar [19] peppermint oil have
its own characteristic odour and taste, it appears to be yellow,
pale greenish-yellow in colour or may be colourless. The oil is
soluble in 70% ethanol and slightly soluble in water.
Salient properties of mint oil are as shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Properties of Mint Oil [12]
Gokalp Iscan et al [20] suggested that apart from using the
mint oil in food and herbal tea preparation, it can also be used
for medicinal therapy that includes carminative, anti-
inflammatory, antispasmodic, antiemetic, diaphoretic, analgesic
and stimulant application. It can be further used in the
treatment of nausea, anorexia, ulcer, bronchitis, sinus,
toothache, itching and skin irritation, cold and flu, headache
muscle pain, infections caused by bacteria and virus. Release
stress, mental exhaustion and depression, and it helps in
strengthening the immune system. It also acts as mosquito
In 2002 Patra et al [21], showed that Mentha spicata oil is
used as a nitrification inhibitor for maximum yield of
Japanese mint. The sensory test and effects of the fragrance of
peppermint oil on human inhalation was potentially carried out
by many researches and many of them declared harmless. Sara
Burt [22] in 2004 carried out antibacterial activity of essential
oils on some bacteria and exhibited that gram positive bacteria
is more susceptible than gram negative bacteria. Grigoleit et al
[23] stated in 2004, the choleretic and antifoaming effects of
peppermint oil showed an added advantage to medicinal
Benjamin Kligler and Sapna Chaudhary [14] in 2007
exhibited the potential effect of mint oil in reducing spasm,
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and non-ulcer dyspepsia. This
was already mentioned by Pittler and Ernst [24] in 1998,in
addition,it can be used as an excellent pain killer. Gutierrez et
al [25] in 2008 observed that peppermint oil showed excellent
antimicrobial properties; hence it acts against the bacteria that
affect food and food-borne pathogens. Alok et al [26] in 2012
demonstrated the potential benefit of increased productivity
and better soil condition by recycling of menthol mint via
vermicomposting. Abdelrazzaq et al [27] in 2013 showed that
antiradical values were significantly higher for leaf under soil
cultivation than leaf under soiless cultivation.
In a comparative study, experimented by Mei et al [28] in
2013 between peppermint and chocolate mint, antimicrobial
activity of peppermint was stronger and it also showed better
properties than the other. Neha Sambe et al [29] in 2014
showed that the mint oil and its three lead compounds showed
transitional properties and hence has a significant effect on the
secretion of enzymes during infection by the fungal cell.
According to Punitha et al in 2014 [30] inhibition zone
diameters obtained in well diffusion assays showed the
effectiveness of essential oils by forming methicillin-resistant
against biofilms.It also showed nearly equal antimicrobial effects
on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
Mint oils are one of the most popular and widely used
essential oils because of its components such as menthol and
isomenthonone [31] and the effective properties of these
components contribute a lot to medicinal application, further
development and advanced research is carried to enhance its
properties and increase its applications making peppermint a
valuable and precious plant.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
The quality and quantity of oil obtained from three different peppermint Mentha x piperita L. origins and the spearmint Mentha spicata L. were compared in micropropagated and conventionally propagated plants in northern Finland (64°40′N) in 1997–1998. Each block comprised M. piperita peppermint plants from three different origins; namely, the United States, Bulgaria and Egypt (Black Mitcham), and a spearmint, M. spicata of Egyptian origin. The micropropagated plantlets and conventionally propagated plants were transferred to the experimental field in June. In the first year, there were no differences in the dry leaf yield between the micropropagated plants and their conventionally produced counterparts, although the former had a higher leaf/stem ratio. In the second year, the dry leaf yield of micropropagated plants, which were left in 1997 in field and developed from the underground stolons, was higher than that of conventionally propagated plants. The percentage of oil was higher with conventionally propagated plants, but only in the first year. Significant differences were observed between mint origins in the different propagation methods. Moreover, conventionally propagated plants showed a higher menthol percentage. There was no significant difference in the isomenthone content of the plants. In spearmint, the dry yield was higher in the second year with micropropagated plants, but there were no significant differences in the percentage of carvone between the two propagation methods.
Menthol and related cooling compounds such as 'coolant agent 10', are widely used in products ranging from common cold medications to toothpastes, confectionery, cosmetics and pesticides. The review brings together a range of information on production and chemistry of menthol, and its metabolism, mechanism of action, structure-activity relationships, pharmacology and toxicology. In particular, the coolant action and carminative actions of menthol are discussed in terms of actions on calcium conductance in sensory nerves and smooth muscle. The actions of menthol on the nose, respiratory reflexes, oral cavity, skin and gastrointestinal tract are reviewed.
Peppermint oil is the major constituent of several over-the-counter remedies for symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As the etiology of IBS is not known and treatment is symptomatic, there is a ready market for such products. However, evidence to support their use is sparse. The aim of this study was to review the clinical trials of extracts of peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) as a symptomatic treatment for IBS. Computerized literature searches were performed to identify all randomized controlled trials of peppermint oil for IBS. Databases included Medline, Embase, Biosis, CISCOM, and the Cochrane Library. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. Data were extracted in a standardized, predefined fashion, independently by both authors. Five double blind, randomized, controlled trials were entered into a metaanalysis. Eight randomized, controlled trials were located. Collectively they indicate that peppermint oil could be efficacious for symptom relief in IBS. A metaanalysis of five placebo-controlled, double blind trials seems to support this notion. In view of the methodological flaws associated with most studies, no definitive judgment about efficacy can be given. The role of peppermint oil in the symptomatic treatment of IBS has so far not been established beyond reasonable doubt. Well designed and carefully executed studies are needed to clarify the issue.
New approaches directed to unraveling monoterpene metabolism and secretion and recent progress in transformation protocols have set the stage for the systematic genetic engineering of essential oil production. This article focuses on specific strategies to improve the quality and quantity of mint essential oils.
In vitro studies have demonstrated antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella dysenteria, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at levels between 0.2 and 10 microl ml(-1). Gram-negative organisms are slightly less susceptible than gram-positive bacteria. A number of EO components has been identified as effective antibacterials, e.g. carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, having minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05-5 microl ml(-1) in vitro. A higher concentration is needed to achieve the same effect in foods. Studies with fresh meat, meat products, fish, milk, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and cooked rice have shown that the concentration needed to achieve a significant antibacterial effect is around 0.5-20 microl g(-1) in foods and about 0.1-10 microl ml(-1) in solutions for washing fruit and vegetables. EOs comprise a large number of components and it is likely that their mode of action involves several targets in the bacterial cell. The hydrophobicity of EOs enables them to partition in the lipids of the cell membrane and mitochondria, rendering them permeable and leading to leakage of cell contents. Physical conditions that improve the action of EOs are low pH, low temperature and low oxygen levels. Synergism has been observed between carvacrol and its precursor p-cymene and between cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Synergy between EO components and mild preservation methods has also been observed. Some EO components are legally registered flavourings in the EU and the USA. Undesirable organoleptic effects can be limited by careful selection of EOs according to the type of food.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of plant essential oils (EOs) in combination and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on their efficacy. The EOs assessed in combination included basil, lemon balm, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme. Combinations of EOs were initially screened against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the spot-on-agar test. The influence of varying concentrations of EO combinations on efficacy was also monitored using E. coli. These preliminary studies showed promising results for oregano in combination with basil, thyme or marjoram. The checkerboard method was then used to quantify the efficacy of oregano, marjoram or thyme in combination with the remainder of selected EOs. Fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) were calculated and interpreted as synergy, addition, indifference or antagonism. All the oregano combinations showed additive efficacy against B. cereus, and oregano combined with marjoram, thyme or basil also had an additive effect against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The mixtures of marjoram or thyme also displayed additive effects in combination with basil, rosemary or sage against L. monocytogenes. The effect of food ingredients and pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oregano and thyme was assessed by monitoring the lag phase and the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes grown in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1.5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 1, 5 or 10%) and TSB at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The antimicrobial efficacy of EOs was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Starch and oils concentrations of 5% and 10% had a negative impact on the EO efficacy. On the contrary, the EOs were more effective at high concentrations of protein, and at pH 5, by comparison with pH 6 or 7. This study suggests that combinations of EOs could minimize application concentrations and consequently reduce any adverse sensory impact in food. However, their application for microbial control might be affected by food composition, therefore, careful selection of EOs appropriate to the sensory and compositional status of the food system is required. This work shows that EOs might be more effective against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria when applied to ready to use foods containing a high protein level at acidic pH, as well as lower levels of fats or carbohydrates.
Rodale's, All-new Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening
  • Fern Bradley
Bradley, Fern, Rodale's, All-new Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA: Rodale Press,1992; 390.
  • W Rayment
Rayment W J,In Depth Info on Pepper-Mint, 1999; Website: