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The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior: Key Readings

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... The rejection-identification model (Branscombe et al., 1999) posits that perceived group-based discrimination and stable attribution to prejudice lead to an increase in group identification and subsequently affect well-being among members of disadvantaged groups. On the basis of social identity theory (Tajfel, 1978;Tajfel & Turner, 1986), the model assumes that people derive their sense of self from the social groups to which they belong. In the face of group-based discrimination and rejection, members of disadvantaged groups may develop low selfesteem because their group is excluded from valued positions in society (Schmitt & Branscombe, 2002). ...
... Particularly, when members of disadvantaged groups believe that discrimination is legitimate or they are blameworthy for the stigma, the protective effect of attributions on prejudice would diminish, and they are less likely to undertake collective action (Major & Crocker, 1993). This view is consistent with social identity theory which argues that group identification is attenuated and collective action is less likely when members perceive intergroup status differential as legitimate (Tajfel & Turner, 1986;van Zomeren et al., 2008). The theory suggests that the extent to which group members consider their low group status to be legitimate or illegitimate may determine whether they are motivated to identify with their ingroup and undertake attempts to improve their group's status position collectively (Bettencourt et al., 2001;Ellemers et al., 1993;Tajfel, 1978). ...
... Grounded in minority stress theory (Meyer, 2003), the rejection-identification model (Branscombe et al., 1999), and social identity theory (Tajfel, 1978;Tajfel & Turner, 1986), the present study used a prospective, longitudinal research design to (1) examine the mechanisms underlying minority stress processes (i.e., perceived discrimination and internalized stigma), group identification, and collective action among sexual minority individuals and (2) test the moderating effect of internalized stigma on the association between perceived discrimination and collective action. It was hypothesized that perceived discrimination would be positively associated with private and public collective action via increased levels of group identification and commitment to social justice (Hypothesis 1). ...
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Minority stress remains pervasive in various aspects of life among sexual minorities. Driven by the awareness of social injustice, some sexual minority individuals may undertake collective action to counteract discrimination, but this does not apply to all members of sexual minorities. The present study used a prospective, longitudinal research design to examine how different dimensions of minority stress (i.e., perceived discrimination and internalized stigma) interact to affect group identification and collective action. A total of 628 sexual minority individuals in Hong Kong were involved in the study. The results showed that prior discriminatory experiences were positively associated with collective action at follow-up through increased levels of group identification and commitment to social justice. The moderating effect of internalized stigma was found in which perceived discrimination was not significantly related to group identification and collective action among those with high levels of internalized stigma. The study extends the literature on the rejection-identification model by understanding collective action as a form of group-level coping in the face of discrimination. It highlights the importance of fostering group identification, strengthening collective action, and mitigating internalized stigma among sexual minorities in psychological practice.
... Yükseköğretim kurumlarında çalışanların KSS algılarını kavramsallaştırarak açıklayabilmek için iki teori ön plana çıkmaktadır. Bunlar; sosyal kimlik kuramı (Tajfel ve Turner, 1985) ve sosyal mübadele kuramıdır (Blau, 1964;Cropanzano ve Mitchell, 2005). Hem sosyal kimlik kuramı hem de sosyal mübadele kuramı örgütsel kimliğin bireysel seviyesinin sosyal mübadeleyi etkileyebildiğini varsayar. ...
... KSS uygulamalarının neden çalışanların örgütsel bağlılığı üzerinde olumlu bir etkiye sahip olabileceğini açıklamak için sosyal kimlik kuramı ile örgütsel adalet kuramı önerilmektedir (Hofman ve Newman, 2014). Sosyal kimlik kuramı, bireylerin öz duygularının ait oldukları sosyal gruplardan kaynaklandığı varsayımıyla (Tajfel ve Turner, 1985) pozitif benlik kavramı üzerinde durur. Pozitif benlik, bireylerin belirli bir organizasyonun üyesi olduklarını hissettikleri bir özelliktir (Tajfel ve Turner, 1985). ...
... Sosyal kimlik kuramı, bireylerin öz duygularının ait oldukları sosyal gruplardan kaynaklandığı varsayımıyla (Tajfel ve Turner, 1985) pozitif benlik kavramı üzerinde durur. Pozitif benlik, bireylerin belirli bir organizasyonun üyesi olduklarını hissettikleri bir özelliktir (Tajfel ve Turner, 1985). Bu özellik bireylerin, çalıştıkları kurumlar da dahil olmak üzere, tüm sosyal grup üyeliklerinde öz benlik duygularını ve başkalarıyla nasıl ilişki kurduklarını etkiler. ...
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Bu araştırma sosyal kimlik kuramı, sosyal mübadele kuramı ve örgütsel adalet kuramı perspektiflerinden kurumsal sosyal sorumluluk (KSS) ve örgütsel adalet faktörlerinin örgütsel bağlılık üzerindeki etkisinde, kamu hizmetleri motivasyonunun (KHM) aracılık etkisinin tespit edilmesini amaçlamaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemi Yükseköğretim Kurulu’nun 2019 yılında yayınladığı üniversite izleme ve değerlendirme raporlarına göre topluma hizmet ve sosyal sorumluluk kategorisinde, üniversite sosyal sorumluluk proje sayısı alanında birinci sırada yer alan Atatürk Üniversitesinde çalışan öğretim elemanlarından seçilmiştir. Çalışmanın evreninden çok aşamalı örnekleme yöntemi kullanılarak evreni temsil gücü yüksek bir örneklem grubu belirlenmiştir. Veriler beşli Likert ölçeğine dayalı anket yöntemi ile 341 katılımcıdan toplanmıştır. Bu verilerden yola çıkarak kullanılan ölçeklerin istatistiksel olarak geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik analizleri yapılmıştır. Daha sonrasında yapısal eşitlik modeli kullanılarak değişkenler arasındaki ilişkiler, doğrudan etkiler, dolaylı etkiler, tam aracılık rolleri ve kısmi aracılık rolleri analiz edilmiştir. Anketten elde edilen verilerin analizi neticesinde öğretim elemanlarının örgütsel adalet ve KSS algılarının duygusal ve normatif bağlılıkları üzerinde hem doğrudan hem de dolaylı etkilerinin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Diğer taraftan bu çalışmanın bulguları ile örgütsel adalet ve KSS’yi örgütsel bağlılığın önemli öncül değişkeni olarak kabul eden literatüre önemli bir katkı olarak KHM’nin aracılık etkisi olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kamu Hizmetleri Motivasyonu, Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk, Örgütsel Adalet, Örgütsel Bağlılık
... Specifically, the study focuses on female leadership and investigates its effectiveness on gender D&I climate and employees' hope in Japan. Synthesizing ambidextrous leadership theory (Rosing et al., 2011), social information processing theory (Salancik and Pfeffer, 1978), and social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), the study clarifies how female ambidextrous leadership helps shape and strengthen a diversity climate and thus increases employees' hope on their work. Even though studies on female leadership have been gradually increasing, these have been confined to the expected advantages of female leadership (Eagly and Carli, 2003;Stoker et al., 2012), the effectiveness of such leadership (Szymanska and Rubin, 2018), and female leaders in specific sectors and contexts (Girdauskiene and Eyvazzade, 2015). ...
... The salient organizational information and its relative importance are different depending on individual social groups (McKay et al., 2008;Newman et al., 2018). According to social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1986), people tend to seek an environment that is of immediate interest, and if they perceive that environment is supportive, its expected positive effect is relatively greater for them than for those in other social groups. ...
... The study assumed that the effect of pro-gender D&I climate on hope would be greater among female employees than male employees (Hypothesis 3). Contrastingly, the results showed a non-significant effect of gender on the relationship between gender D&I climate and employee hope-a phenomenon that contradicts the view advocated in social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1986;McKay et al., 2008). A possible explanation for this result lies in the diversity of individual social identity, which thus means that the extent to which a certain social identity is shaped depends on individuals (Newman et al., 2018). ...
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There are two well-known truths about Japan: one is that Japan is one of the most advanced economies, which takes pride in its highly advanced technology, social infrastructure and system; the other is that Japan ranks lowest at women’s social participation among Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Even though the Japanese government has initiated programs to promote female participation and advancement in society, these initiatives have not yet borne remarkable fruit. This study intends to address this issue by investigating the effectiveness of female leadership in Japan, specifically its effect on organizations’ gender diversity and inclusion (D&I) climate and employees’ task-related positive attitudes. Synthesizing social information processing theory and social identity theory, the study examines 306 Japanese employees working with their female supervisors in medium- and large-sized manufacturing companies. The findings show that female ambidextrous leadership contributes to shape and strengthen a gender D&I climate and ultimately enhances employees’ hope on their work. In addition, the positive effect of a gender D&I climate on employees’ hope is the same for all employees regardless of gender. The findings clarify the role of female leadership and the underlying psychological mechanism through which female leadership influences employees’ positive work attitudes. This first empirical study in Japan contributes to the research on female leadership and D&I management.
... Collective action can be defined as individuals acting collectively as group members for a joint purpose (see Brunsting & Postmes, 2002;van Zomeren et al., 2008; see also Wright et al., 1990). Collective action is thus rooted in people's social identity, that is the part of a person's self-concept based on identification with and emotional connection to a group (Tajfel & Turner, 1979, 1986. Many scholars regard collective action as a prerequisite for socio-ecological transitions (see Hornsey et al., 2006;. ...
... 2). Social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) offers a perspective on more collective forms of efficacy beliefs, by highlighting that people's perceptions and actions depend on their social identification. Through the lens of social identity theory, individuals cannot only perceive efficacy regarding their personal self, but also concerning a collective entity (Drury & Reicher, 2005;van Zomeren, 2014). ...
... This way, predictors can be compared to each other and investigated more systematically. Manuscript 1 to 4 identified social identification (Tajfel & Turner, 1986), positive efficacy affect (Drury & Reicher, 2009), having a vision (Einwohner, 2002), past PEB (van Stekelenburg et al., 2016), individual and collective skills (Almers, 2013), structural factors (Corcoran et al., 2011), and action-focused efficacy beliefs (see Manuscript 4; Bandura, 1997) as relevant predictors of aim-focused efficacy beliefs. Even though these predictors did not explain self-efficacy and collective efficacy equally, it still appears that the same construct that explained selfefficacy on an individual level (e.g., action skills) could predict collective efficacy if constructed at the collective level (e.g., collaboration skills). ...
Thesis
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In the face of numerous environmental crises, empowering large groups of people seems to be a key ingredient for any socio-ecological transition. Unless people gain a sense of efficacy and believe that they can contribute to a transition, they are likely paralyzed by the dimension of environmental problems and remain inactive. In this thesis, I therefore asked the following questions: How do beliefs about efficacy relate to pro-environmental action? What factors predict efficacy beliefs? And do efficacy beliefs play a role in explaining when activism spills over to private behavior and vice versa? Taking a multimethod approach, this thesis includes an experiment, an interventional field study, a longitudinal study, and a conceptual paper. Based on self-efficacy theory and current social identity research in environmental psychology, I examined three efficacy agents (personal self-efficacy, collective efficacy, participative efficacy), two efficacy aims (direct: promote environmental protection, indirect: encourage others for environmental protection), four pro-environmental behaviors (private, indirect, public, activist), and two types of samples (environmental volunteers, non-volunteers). Three empirical manuscripts showed that people who reported more pro-environmental behavior usually had stronger efficacy beliefs (i.e., inter-individual relation). This was true for all of the investigated efficacy types. Yet, longitudinal analyses revealed that a change in efficacy beliefs did not necessarily go hand in hand with a change in pro-environmental behavior (i.e., intra-individual and longitudinal relations). Looking at specific efficacy types, self-efficacy regarding the indirect aim that one can encourage others best explained private and indirect behavior inter-individually. In a non-volunteer sample, this efficacy type also predicted activist behavior. We also found intra-individual relations of self-efficacy and private behavior. In a volunteer sample, participative efficacy was the best predictor of activist behavior both inter-and intra-individually. Associations of collective efficacy and pro-environmental behavior depended strongly on the group agent. Collective student efficacy predicted private and public intentions. Collective efficacy regarding all humanity revealed positive bidirectional longitudinal relations to private behavior. Collective efficacy regarding one's volunteer initiative lost its predictive value in all studies when participative efficacy was analyzed simultaneously. Despite their generally strong relations, efficacy beliefs did not mediate any spillover effects from private to activist behavior and vice versa. Notably, a number of correlative predictors of efficacy beliefs emerged that should be considered in future studies: social identification with a volunteer initiative, positive affect, visioning, perceived knowledge and skills, and structural factors. Moreover, private behavior was a positive and activist behavior a negative longitudinal predictor of collective efficacy regarding all humanity. In a conceptual manuscript that builds on these empirical insights, I proposed the triple-A framework of agents, actions, and aims. This framework facilitates research integration in the field of efficacy beliefs and makes suggestions on how to unfold psychology's transformative potential by considering concepts of agency. I conclude by integrating all findings into pre-existing literature, elaborating on theoretical implications, and presenting practical recommendations on the role of efficacy beliefs for socio-ecological change.
... Furthermore, there has not been a systematic investigation of how different types of group identities influence news effects. Depending on a group's status in society and the possibility to leave it for another, citizens may adopt a mindset aimed at leaving the group for a higher status one (a social mobility mindset) or a mindset aimed at improving the current group's status (a social change mindset; Tajfel and Turner, 1986). These mindsets should, in turn, hinder or promote identification, respectively. ...
... Yet, the theoretical underpinnings of these studies require testing an important assumption: does priming a group identity in the news actually increase identification with the corresponding group? According to Social Identity Theory, individuals make sense of the world by dividing people into ingroups or outgroups (Tajfel and Turner, 1986). Anyone's identity entails many ingroups (e.g. ...
... Group identification is considered a prerequisite of any group effect and should therefore underlie the effects of group primes in the news. Tajfel and Turner (1986) define a cognitive and affective dimension of identification. Scholars have proposed additional dimensions, but cognitive and affective identification are fundamental parts of every definition of group identification (Ellemers et al., 1999;Cameron, 2004;Leach et al., 2008;Postmes et al., 2013). ...
... Within the work setting, immigrant employees' cultural identity becomes more salient as they are acutely aware of their group membership in a minoritized group-culturally and ethnically (Alam, 2018;Schwartz et al., 2006). According to the social identity theory (SIT) (Tajfel & Turner, 1986), immigrants select acculturation strategies by defining their social identity in relation to members of their heritage cultural group versus those of the host cultural group (Sam & Berry, 1997). As heritage cultural identity salience (HCIS) is situational specific and exists on a spectrum, it allows immigrant employees to prioritize their heritage culture over all other social roles (e.g., gender) when needed (Samnani et al., 2012). ...
... Representing high relationship orientation, HE is the degree to which an individual actively engages in social activities to establish and maintain high-quality interpersonal relationships (Leung, 1997). To borrow from SIT (Tajfel & Turner, 1986), interpersonal cultural values like HE can influence immigrant employees who identify with a particular cultural group to act in ways that are consistent with cultural group norms and values (Gürlek, 2021 can utilize HE to establish favorability with group members by highlighting their similarities while minimizing their differences (Leung et al., 2011). Immigrants low in HE do not care to belong in the host culture and therefore have no desire to establish personal relationships with members of either cultural group. ...
... Against this backdrop, it is therefore assumed that HE is a protective factor that minimizes the risks associated with a salient minority identity (Gürlek, 2021). Further, to borrow from SIT (Tajfel & Turner, 1986), having a shared cultural identity fulfills the need to belong, and establishing relationships with individuals from both cultural groups may help buffer the negative costs associated with a salient minority identity. In this case, having a strong HCIS may have fewer negative effects for immigrant employees who adopt an integration strategy as opposed to a marginalization strategy (Gürlek, 2021). ...
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There has been growing interest among organizational researchers in the relationship between acculturation strategies and organizational outcomes of immigrant employees. However, what is noticeably missing from the literature on acculturation strategies is how cultural values such as heritage cultural identity salience affect an immigrant employee’s acculturation strategy and subsequent work attitude and behaviors. Drawing on Berry’s (1997) acculturation strategy and framework, we examined heritage cultural identity salience, harmony enhancement, integration and marginalization acculturation strategy, turnover intention, and affective commitment among immigrant employees in the USA. In this time-lagged study, we found that heritage cultural identity salience was negatively related to marginalization and positively related to integration. Harmony enhancement significantly buffered the relationship between heritage cultural identity salience and marginalization and integration, respectively. Heritage cultural identity salience had significant indirect effects on affective commitment via marginalization and both affective commitment and turnover intention via integration. Lastly, results from the moderated mediated analysis showed that the indirect effect of heritage identity salience on affective commitment and turnover intention via integration was significantly different at varying levels of harmony enhancement. Our study affirms existing research on acculturation strategy and extends the literature by introducing harmony enhancement as a moderator. The use of Berry’s (1997) framework and the results of this study provide useful insights into the inclusion and retention of immigrant employees in the US workforce. Practical implications, as well as theoretical contributions, are discussed.
... Social groups act as cognitive instruments to segment the social environment into in-groups (to which one does belong) and outgroups (to which one does not belong) and, therefore, are parts of the social reality of any consumer (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Natural examples of in-groups and out-groups are related to political preferences (e.g., liberals vs. conservatives), sports (e.g., supporters of two rival teams), college life (e.g., fraternities and sororities), music (e.g., rock vs. rap listeners), local versus global brands (e.g., Oreo vs. Leibniz-Loebnitz & Grunert, 2019), or brand communities (e.g., Ford vs. Holden GM- Ewing et al., 2013). ...
... Research on brand prominence has aimed to explain consumer preferences for subtler or louder logos. In line with social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986), which examines the influence of group identity on in-group and intergroup behaviors, some major contributions have focused on the role of brand signs in multigroup signaling dynamics. Berger and Ward (2010) showed that individuals with a greater cultural capital in a particular consumption domain (e.g., fashion) tend to prefer subtle logos of high-end products to satisfy a desire for distinction from the mainstream, especially in identityrelevant domains and in public consumption conditions. ...
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The present research addresses an area of brand behavior that is under studied to date but has important implications for national and international brands. Brand prominence, that is, the extent to which a product reveals important visible brand identifiers, plays a fundamental role in determining consumer signaling behavior towards social groups and requires accurate brand management decisions. Integrating the literatures on brand prominence and social groups, this study proposes that the presence (vs. absence) of dissociative desire towards an out‐group increases the preference for products featuring more prominent signs of a brand relevant for an in‐group. Brand self‐verification explains the relationship between dissociative desire and brand prominence preferences. Moreover, this effect disappears when the brand is used by the minority (vs. majority) of other in‐group members and the identification with the in‐group is lower. Results of two experiments and one survey support our conceptual framework and suggest that managers should use more prominent brand signs to attract consumers desiring to dissociate from relevant out‐groups. Our research thus provides implications for defining branding strategies according to consumers' identity signaling goals towards social groups, which are becoming more important as brands assume global roles in tension with consumer identities and marketing strategy.
... Pereira et al. (2021) proposed and empirically supported the political identity hypothesis. Derived from the principles of social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986), the hypothesis states that individuals' news preferences are shaped by whether the information allows them to maintain favorable in-group-to-out-group comparisons. These comparisons are maintained either by reinforcing their positive image of the political in-group or by highlighting negative aspects of out-groups. ...
... Theories of social identity provide a plausible explanation for how strong group identities such as national identity can influence patterns of media effects. As individuals perceive and evaluate their social world through relevant group memberships, they rely on in-group biases (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). For those individuals whose national identity is especially salient in a polarized information environment, messages which underscore perceived differences between members of the own group and a demonized (foreign) "other" will be easily accepted as they enhance individuals' self-esteem and validate in-group identity. ...
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This study examines the relationship between personal traits, news use via YouTube algorithmic searches, and engagement with misinformation about U.S. Muslim congresswomen. Based on analyses of survey data, we find that those with lower cognitive ability and frequent algorithmic use were more likely to believe and share misinformation. Republicans and those with higher levels of nationalism and prejudice against Muslims were also more likely to believe the misinformation. Moderation findings suggest that higher algorithmic use strengthens belief in misinformation about U.S. Muslim congresswomen. The results highlight the importance of both individual ideologies and systematic factors in understanding misinformation engagement.
... In order to explain how and why workforce gender and racial diversity impacts collective turnover, we draw on the social categorization perspective (Pfeffer, 1983;Tajfel and Turner, 1986;Turner, 1982). According to this perspective, greater workforce gender and racial diversity triggers social categorization and negative contagion, which results in intergroup biases, lower levels of social integration and weaker psychological attachment among employees; these, in turn, reduce job satisfaction and undermine the organizational commitment of both minority and majority employees, thus increasing collective turnover (Choi, 2009;Pelled, 1996). ...
... 4 However, organizations must overcome a variety of challenges to capture the benefits of workforce gender and racial diversity (DiTomaso et al., 2007;Joshi and Roh, 2009;Julian and Ofori-Dankwa, 2017). As the social categorization perspective suggests (Pfeffer, 1983;Tajfel and Turner, 1986), a high degree of workforce demographic dissimilarity prompts the cognitive processes of social categorization. This means that employees classify themselves and other employees into distinct groups based on their demographic characteristics, and those of the same gender or race are more attracted to each other. ...
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Modern workplaces are becoming increasingly demographically diverse. However, the influence of workforce diversity on organizational outcomes is not fully understood. In this work, we study how and why workforce gender and racial diversity impacts collective turnover at the organizational level, and whether participation in and experience with diversity charters moderate this link. We particularly argue that greater workforce gender and racial diversity leads to greater collective turnover because it prompts social categorization and negative contagion in organizations. To mitigate these processes, organizations may participate in diversity charters, which are expected to provide support with managing workforce diversity and employee retention. We further argue that the influence of diversity charters follows a trajectory of maturity, so their benefits are magnified as an organization's experience with them increases. Drawing on a panel of UK universities, we find strong evidence that greater workforce racial diversity is associated with higher levels of collective turnover, but only weaker evidence for the positive link between workforce gender diversity and collective turnover. We further find that diversity charters may attenuate this link, but simply participating in them is not sufficient: instead, organizations must develop experience with charters over time.
... Further, based on the social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979), which asserts that people define their selfconcepts by identifying themselves as members of specific social groups, the customer-brand identification (CBI) framework (Lam et al., 2010) demonstrates that customers can perceive, feel, and value their sense of belongingness with a brand, which in turn contributes to sustained consumption. Applying the notion of CBI to retail brands, consumers who perceive a close bond with a retail brand, defined as retail brand identification, should, therefore, have strong motivations to patronize the retailer. ...
... Researchers have long discussed that people can identify themselves as members of an organization , a company (Bhattacharya and Sen, 2003), or a brand group (Lam et al., 2010), regardless of whether they have a formal membership (e.g., Pratt, 1998) or contact with other specific members (Turner, 1982). This discussion stems from the social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979), which posits that people can define their self-concepts by identifying or categorizing themselves as members of specific social groups. This socialization identification takes place when individuals perceive oneness and share a joint identification with a group of people (Ashforth and Mael, 1989). ...
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This study applies identity and social identity theories to develop and test a framework in which retail brand personality influences consumer outcomes [i.e., positive word-of-mouth (WOM) about and patronage intention toward the retailer] through public and/or private self-congruity, strengthened by shopping conspicuousness situation, and retail brand identification (RBI). This is the first study to include social shopping situations to study brand personality and self-congruity. A questionnaire with a 2 (retailer image format) × 2 (shopping situation conspicuousness) between-subjects design was conducted on a sample of US consumers. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. The findings suggest a framework in which Genuine , the most influential dimension of retail brand personality, predicted outcome behaviors both directly and indirectly through self-congruities and RBI. The high shopping conspicuousness situation strengthened the relationship between public self-congruity and the overall RBI. The concept of RBI provides an additional theoretical perspective for guiding future research on shopper–brand relationships. In addition, this framework provides practical implications for retail environment design and customer-brand relationship management.
... Although identity has been studied extensively as a psychological phenomena (e.g., Tajfel & Turner, 1986;Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987), communication scholars specify mutual influences between identity and communication and the interpenetration of different identity levels (Hecht, 1993). This approach indicates that communication is not merely a product of psychological categorization processes but, rather, underscores that identity is fundamentally formed, reformed, and manifested at different levels in communication (Arroyo & Harwood, 2014;Hecht, Jackson, & Pitts, 2005). ...
... The malleability of weight as a category in this way highlights how group members cope with their perceived low status. For instance, trying to move out of a group (e.g., lose weight: "I wish I were skinnier"), creatively interpreting group membership (e.g, "I've got more to love"), and even engaging in social competition (e.g., "Large and in charge!") fall in line with Tajfel and Turner's (1986) social identity theory. ...
Chapter
Weight-based stigma is pervasive and is propagated via sociocultural and interpersonal messages that influence individuals’ identity. The ideals communicated in these messages place disproportionate value on appearance and have made weight an important component of attractiveness. Some cultures, particularly Western culture, hold a bias toward thin bodies and promote a bias against those who do not fit cultural ideals of slender or lean body shapes. This bias, judgment, stigma, prejudice, and discrimination toward individuals based on their size, shape, or weight is known as weightism. Most of the research regarding weightism has been conducted on obesity and overweight individuals because of the related public health concerns. However, because weight is a continuum on which individuals are frequently evaluated, stigmatization is experienced by individuals who are either over or under cultural norms for appropriate weight and toward those who engage in deviant weight-control behaviors (e.g., purging). Thus, because individuals with eating disorders are often underweight and have deviant eating behaviors, they also experience weight-based stigma and discrimination. There are a multitude of negative effects associated with being a part of these stigmatized weight groups, including lower self-esteem, less social confidence, greater body dissatisfaction, poorer mental health, and increased substance use and self-harm behaviors. These negative outcomes create a social divide between the stigmatized weight groups and others, wherein stigmatized individuals turn to negative health behaviors (e.g., bingeing and purging) in an effort to cope with their negative social experiences. Subsequently, they perpetuate their affiliation with their stigmatized weight group and the related health conditions.
... Previous research has further suggested that social identity signals help individuals to show their sacrifices for the community (Goenka and Thomas, 2020;Van Vugt and Hart, 2004). Indeed, when members of a society are vocal about their social identity, it facilitates group cohesion by highlighting the shared-values of the group (Tajfel and Turner, 2004). In a similar manner, because charitable giving is an aspect of communal behavior (Penner et al., 2005;White et al., 2020), we could expect that such behavior will be strengthened when social identity is more salient. ...
Purpose The present research aims to investigate the influence of organizational positioning by drawing upon moral foundations theory in relation to driving charitable giving, and the moderating role of recognition in this regard. Design/methodology/approach Two experimental studies were conducted to examine the interactive effect of organizational positioning emphasizing a binding (vs an individualizing) moral foundation and donation recognition on charitable giving. Study 1 was conducted in Indonesia, while Study 2 was conducted in the US. Findings This research demonstrates that individuals will give higher donations to an organization with a binding (vs an individualizing) moral foundation that provides donation recognition. Further, this effect is mediated by social identity signaling. Originality/value The findings of this research provide a novel perspective on how organizational positioning can influence whether donation recognition increases charitable giving. Moreover, the findings offer managerial implications to non-profit organizations developing effective charitable campaigns in terms of combining appropriate organizational positioning and donation recognition strategies.
... Según la Teoría de la Identidad Social, las personas incorporan aquellas pertenencias grupales que son relevantes en su autoconcepto y tienden a asumir los juicios, evaluaciones y comportamientos que el grupo promueve o que benefician al grupo. Además, dentro de los grupos, las personas tienden a favorecer a sus miembros (Hogg y Terry, 2000) y, por el contrario, ven con indiferencia a quienes consideran fuera del grupo e incluso llegan a excluirlos activamente (Tajfel y Turner, 1986). ...
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Objectives: This paper examines the effect of the effort-reward imbalance on health complaints. A moderated mediation model was conceptualized, with group identification as the mediator variable and overcommitment acting as a moderator. Method: A 459 Spanish health professionals sample completed the questionnaire: effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment, subjective health complaints and group identification was measured. Results: The direct effect of the imbalance on health complaints was significant and negative. The indirect effect, mediated by group identification, was statistically significant and more intense for employees with medium or high overcommitment scores, but not for those with a low overcommitment. Conclusions: The present study can contribute to a better understanding of how Effort-Reward Imbalance and subjective health complaints are related. It also helps to explain the role of group identification as a mediator. Consequently, early interventions should encourage group identification. Objetivos: El presente trabajo examinó el efecto del desequilibrio esfuerzo-recompensa en las quejas subjetivas de salud. Se conceptualizó un modelo de mediación moderada, en el que la identificación grupal media la relación, y la Sobreimplicación actúa como moderador. Método: La muestra estuvo compuesta por 459 profesionales de la salud españoles que cumplimentaron un cuestionario sobre desequilibrio esfuerzo-recompensa, sobreimplicación, quejas subjetivas de salud e identificación grupal. Resultados: Al contrario de lo hipotetizado, el efecto directo del desequilibrio sobre las quejas subjetivas de salud resultó significativo y negativo. El efecto indirecto, mediado por la identificación grupal, fue más intenso y estadísticamente significativo para los empleados con Sobreimplicación alta o media, mientras que fue no significativo para aquellos con una baja Sobreimplicación. Conclusiones: El presente estudio puede ayudar a comprender mejor cómo se relaciona el desequilibrio de esfuerzo-recompensa y las quejas subjetivas de salud. También contribuye a explicar el papel de la identificación con el grupo como mediador. En consecuencia, la intervención temprana debería fomentar la identificación grupal.
... In other words, experiences are evaluated more in absolute terms and less by social (relative) comparison, creating a greater sense of uniqueness (Carter & Gilovich, 2010). While people seek connection and commonality with others, they also desire distinctiveness (Tajfel & Turner, 1985). ...
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More than 50 million consumers participate in online group buying, hence its importance to retailers cannot be ignored. Four studies are conducted to determine (a) whether customers' preferences to participate in group buying relative to buying alone are more in the case of experiential (vs. material) purchases; (b) underlying psychological mechanisms affecting an individual's willingness to invite additional buyers; and (c) the moderating role of analytic versus holistic thinking orientation within the mediational framework. Consistent with expectations, preferences to invite additional buyers to receive a further discount (vs. buying alone and taking the deal‐of‐the‐day) were greater for experiential purchases than material purchases. Three psychological motivators, namely social relatedness, conversational value, and anticipatory enjoyment, act as parallel mediators. Finally, moderated‐mediation analysis shows holistic thinking accentuates the mediational pathway of anticipatory enjoyment but not for social relatedness, whereas analytical thinking accentuates the mediational pathway of conversational value. Of practical relevance to those designing group buying websites is that offering an additional discount to buyers if they are willing to expend the effort to form a larger group not only reduced the number of individuals indicating that they would not make a purchase at all, but about a quarter of respondents indicated that they would endeavor to find additional buyers. In addition, there is a clear preference for experiential goods; and for material goods, the findings suggest drawing attention to the experiences that material goods offer.
... All submissions should be based on strong theoretical foundations that serve to conceptualise 'context' and that contribute to theoretical advancement. Relevant theories to explain and predict the how, when, and why of SIEs' careers in context are, for example, structuration theory (Giddens, 1981;Giddens, 1984) as a grand theory to explain the dependency between structure and agency; the multiple cultures perspective (Sackmann & Phillips, 2004) to understand the role of culture as related to space and institutions; the chaos theory of careers (Bright & Pryor, 2011) to analyse the effect of time in terms of sequences and patterns; the social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) to understand the group with which SIEs are associated, the resulting boundaries and their perceived permeability, leading to different mobility strategies across institutions, space and time. Also the seminal human capital theories of migration and labor markets may contribute to our understanding on the impacts of temporary and permanent labor mobility and their returns for individuals, households and organizations (Sjaastad, 1962;Mincer, 1958Mincer, , 1978 considering inter alia risk and uncertainty of mobility decisions (Dixit & Pindyck, 1994;Burda, 1995) and return migration (Dustmann & Görlich, 2016). ...
... This social prejudice is a cognitive result of stereotypes, which not only affect the outgroup's perception of the in-group, but also how in-group members react to that perception, namely, the meta-stereotype (31, 32). According to social identity theory (33,34), identity is primarily formed by identifying with the group, and when members of the group compare themselves with out-groups and find themselves to be in disadvantage, their self-assessments are skewed negatively, thus resulting in identity threat that hinders achieving positive self-esteem. Therefore, we hypothesize that self-identity can predict POGU through self-esteem, i.e., self-esteem plays a mediating role in self-identity and POGU. ...
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Secondary Vocational School Students are particularly susceptible to online game addiction due to adolescent characteristics and superimposed pressures of academic and employment. Based on the theoretical framework of self-identity and self-esteem, the present research conducted a questionnaire survey using samples of secondary vocational school students to investigate the relationship between pathological online game use (POGU), self-esteem and self-identity. The results showed that 15.56% of secondary vocational students' level of POGU met the diagnostic criteria, and POGU and self-esteem appeared significant differences in gender and family types. Moreover, lower self-esteem and self-identity were associated with higher POGU and self-esteem played a partial mediating role in the relationship between self-identity and POGU. We briefly discussed practical implications of our findings and the future research.
... Tajfel and Turner's (1979) social identity theory explains how an individual's social comparisons and categorizations as a member of one or more groups create, define, and shape his or her identity. Essentially, this theory posits that individuals derive their identity from membership in social groups (i.e., social identity) (Tajfel 1982) and individuals try to identify with groups that enhance their self-concept and distance themselves from groups that decrease their self-concept (Tajfel and Turner 2004). Accordingly, Priesemuth et al. (2014) found that collective perceptions of abusive supervision in work units signaled to the members of those units that they are neither valued nor respected, which led to their reduced group identification followed by their reduced group OCB and cooperation. ...
Article
The interest generated by abusive supervision among researchers can be gauged from the fact that more than 140 articles on abusive supervision have been published by leading journals in the last five years alone. However, a comprehensive understanding of the same is lacking. As a result, we systematically reviewed 273 articles on abusive supervision published between 2000 and 2022. This enabled us to present five interrelated aspects of abusive supervision literature. First, we focus on the definitional issues associated with abusive supervision. Second, we examine two widely used abusive supervision scales. Third, we review and critique different research designs utilized in abusive supervision studies. Fourth, we look at the key theories underpinning abusive supervision research and map the nomological network of abusive supervision. Fifth, we suggest novel avenues for theoretical advancement. In sum, we endeavored to portray a detailed picture of research on abusive supervision.
... One reason for this may be the ingroup-outgroup effect (cf. Reference [64]): The remote workers perceive themselves as a group due to the special working conditions, and, therefore, they also support each other. This may have been additionally reinforced by a self-selection effect in the remote group: it is possible that those who chose to work remotely are similar to each other (e.g., sample characteristics indicate a lower age than in the branch group), and this may have further reinforced the group feeling. ...
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1) Background: In view of the advancing digitalization of the German banking sector, offering remote work can be an opportunity for banks to meet changing customer and employee needs at the same time. It allows flexible consultations at changing locations and, due to the high degree of autonomy, it also increases motivation, meaningfulness, happiness at work, and commitment. (2) Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental design to investigate how remote work affects happiness at work and affective commitment among employees in a German public bank. Therefore, two groups of customer advisors were examined, who work either remotely (N = 32) or stationary (N = 110) at similar tasks. (3) Results: The group comparisons show significantly higher values overall on three of the investigated four happiness dimensions ("meaningfulness", "self-ac-tualization", and "community professional") for employees in the remote group. Commitment also differs, as employees in the remote group show significantly stronger commitment. The quantitative results were confirmed by qualitative interviews. (4) Conclusions: By investigating the positive effects of remote working, this study shows new findings on what is likely to be a growing design form of New Work in the future. The study provides evidence that self-selected work environments and working hours offer an opportunity to make work more conducive to happiness-even in a sector that still undergoes significant shifts.
... The potential influence of personal information (e.g., information about someone's private life) may be explained through the Common Ingroup Identity Model (CIIM; Gaertner & Dovidio, 2012), "a social categorization-based perspective for reducing intergroup bias and improving intergroup relations" (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2012, p. 439). The basic features of the CIIM are based on the assumptions of social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) and the related self-categorization theory (Turner et al., 1987), which posit that people have a natural tendency to identify themselves and others using social categories and to assign themselves to groups (i.e., as ingroup vs. outgroup members). ...
... Moreover, it is not only the objective similarity that matters but also the degree to which individuals perceive themselves to be similar to others. This intervening mechanism of perceived similarity can be grounded in Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1982;Tajfel and Turner, 1986) and similarity attraction hypothesis (Byrne, 1971) such that increased similarity with a targetwith respect to attitudes, personality traits or a number of other attributesis associated with increased attraction and liking to the target. When individuals are attracted to a referent other, they tend overall assess more favorable this referent other. ...
Article
Purpose Using a within-subject vignette experiment, this study aims to disentangle the differential effect of task and relationship conflict on team effectiveness and interpersonal outcomes. In addition, the authors aimed to test the moderating role of the conflict inducing person’s gender on task and relationship conflict outcomes. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using four vignettes administered to 151 participants from an Air Force military organization. Findings Relationship conflict was more damaging than task conflict for team effectiveness, the harmonious interpersonal relations and the expected positive affective team climate. Task conflict triggers more positive emotions than relationship conflict and, in consequence, team effectiveness is higher in scenarios with the task rather than relationship conflict. The groups in which conflict is induced by a woman are not expected to perform better than groups in which the conflict is induced by a man. The similarity between participant’s gender and the gender of the person that generated the conflict accentuates rather than attenuates the effectiveness decline associated with relationship conflict. Task conflict triggers cooperative, while relationship conflict triggers assertive conflict management strategies. Research limitations/implications This study provided only a snapshot on how task and relationship conflict are perceived to relate to the various team and individual-level outcomes, particularly in military settings. Originality/value The findings evidence the differential effect of task and relationship conflict not only on team effectiveness but also on attitudinal and emotional team and individual-level outcomes.
... 사회 범주화 이론은 개인은 범주화 하려는 속성이 있기 때문에 자기 자신을 기준으로 자신 과 비슷한 사람들을 내집단으로 범주화하고 자신과 다 른 사람들을 외집단으로 범주화 한다 (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, and Whetherell, 1987). 이러한 범주화 행위는 자기 자신을 사회 구성원 및 집단 구성원으로서 인지하게 하는 역할을 수행한다 (Turner, 1985 (Harrison, Price, Gavin, and Florey, 2002;Tsui, Egan, and O'Reilly, 1992) (이근모, 2010;이용현, 2009;Keidel, 1987 (Tajfel, 1982;Turner, 1987 (Tajfel and Turner, 1986;Turner, 1985 Smith, and Flood, 1999;Simons, Pelled, and Smith, 1999), 또는 유 의하지 않은 (Bantel and Jackson, 1989;Smith, Smith, Sims, O'Bannon, Scully, and Olian, 1994 (Milliken and Martins, 1996;Pelled, 1996;Pelled 등, 1999;Sessa and Jackson, 1995). ...
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The purpose of this research was to empirically investigate the effects of team diversity on professional basketball team performance in Korea based on social categorization theory. Team diversity was operationalized as players' age, origin of university, job-related skill, and tenure. Among 160 team observations (10 teams for 16 seasons) and 2,366 players comprising Korean Basketball League (KBL) for 16 seasons (1997/1998 to 2012/2013), our final panel sample for empirical testing is manifested with 158 team and 2,047 player data. According to Hausman test, we employed fixed effect Generalized Least Square (GLS) regression to examine our research model. Empirical findings reveal that team diversity categorized into dimensions of players' age, university origin, job-related skills, and tenure have negative relationships with professional basketball team performance. This study elucidate several practical implications. First, the study on exploitation of negative aspects of team diversity on professional basketball team performance should be able to provide guidelines to managers and coach operating professional teams when they orchestrate team members to seek for sustainable competitive advantage through rational decision making in the aspects of sport industrial management. This research can offer reference information to aid practitioners in regard to strategies of drafting new players, trade, salary appropriation and readjustment, and free agents contracts to think particularly about team diversity concerns on professional sport team performance consequences.
... At first glance, this result may be attributed to the player investing time and effort into the game thereby increasing the cost of switching to another game. Yet, the result may also be attributed to the social identity theory, which states that individual's self-concept is determined through associations with groups of individuals and communities that the individual feels that they belong to (Tajfel and Turner 2004). However, this theory also posits that individuals must first identify with the group (e.g. ...
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Through the lens of trust–commitment and co-creation theories, this study explores the effect of trust on commitment and co-creation intentions within the free-to-play (F2P) gaming industry, to extend our understanding of co-creation within a service context. Responses from an online survey were used as inputs into a structural equation model (SEM). The findings reveal that trust in a F2P game influences commitment to continue playing the F2P game and elicit behaviour in the form of co-creation intentions. The findings also found that involvement and achievement motivations partially mediate the relationship between trust and commitment and escapism significantly moderates the relationship between trust and involvement.
... Esta perspectiva pone el énfasis en prejuicios y conductas y analiza los efectos directos sobre las relaciones interpersonales e intergrupales. La teoría de la identidad social (Tajfel y Turner, 1985) es representativa de este enfoque En el nuevo racismo, la esencia del racismo ya no es la herencia biológica, sino la irreductibilidad de las diferencias culturales. Ahora el estudio se desplaza al racismo encubierto, centrado en una dinámica de doble prejuicio -uno manifiesto y otro sutil (Pettigrew y Meertens, 1995)-caracterizada por desplazar su argumentación de la raza y la biología a la etnia y la cultura, sustituyendo la defensa de la desigualdad por el énfasis en la preservación de la diferencia (Taguieff, 1987). ...
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Ante las expresiones actuales del racismo es útil considerar que el antirracismo requiere un renovado armazón teórico y conceptual que revise de manera crítica sus basamentos. Por lo anterior, se exponen los modelos implícitos explicativos del racismo. Asimismo, se evidencian nuevas coordenadas del problema, recomponiendo las premisas del viejo racismo, nuevo racismo y los estudios de raza en Latinoamérica. El fin es avanzar conceptualmente hacia el fenómeno del endorracismo, situándolo en el debate teórico actual y proponiéndolo como un concepto clave para entender la reproducción del racismo al interior de los grupos subalternos, subrayando las categorías analíticas relevantes.
... For example, a child may think of their neighbor as the nice person wearing an eccentric jacket on holiday (low level construal) or a White man (high level construal). Though both characterizations are equally valid, concrete and abstract representations serve different functions, for example, in temporal forecasting (Trope & Liberman, 2003), afford different social inferences (Charlesworth & Banaji, 2019;Landrum et al., 2016), and may lead to different behavioral reactions (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Therefore, effective social functioning-and social development by implication-requires the ability to adjust (social) abstraction levels dynamically to varying requirements. ...
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Social categorization is a crucial information processing strategy that adults deliberately adjust depending on goals and situational requirements. This study investigated whether flexibility in categorization is similarly present among preschool children. More specifically, we tested whether spontaneous gender categorizations are more pronounced for children with a situationally induced abstract compared to concrete construal level mindset. Sixty-one children first participated in a construal mindset induction task before completing a visual variant of the “who said what” memory task. Systematic memory confusions indicated that all children engaged in gender-based social categorization but that this tendency was accentuated in the abstract compared to concrete mindset condition. These results suggest an ability of children to modulate social categorizations. Implications for the development of intergroup biases are discussed.
... Particularly, it has been argued that people's identification with relevant social groups might drive pro-environmental behavior [see e.g., Ferguson et al. (2016) and Fritsche et al. (2018)]. Social Identity Theory and Self-Categorization Theory state that people do not only define themselves as individuals via different aspects of their personal identity but also as members belonging to different social groups (Tajfel and Turner, 1986;Turner et al., 1987). Moreover, people can also identify on a global level with all humanity. ...
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Concerted, timely action for mitigating climate change is of uttermost importance to keep global warming as close to 1.5°C as possible. Air traffic already plays a strong role in driving climate change and is projected to grow—with only limited technical potential for decarbonizing this means of transport. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the expansion of air traffic or even facilitate a reduction in affluent countries. Effective policies and behavioral change, especially among frequent flyers, can help to lower greenhouse gas emissions. For both, a positive evaluation and public support is indispensable. This study contributes to understanding air travel behavior and the perception of regulative policies. We examined the role of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, efficacy, global identity, and justice concerns for intentions to avoid flights and aviation-related environmental policy support. We conducted an online survey study with a quota sample of N = 2,530 participants in Germany. The strongest positive predictors of intentions to refrain from flying and policy support were perceived behavioral control to travel without flying, efficacy beliefs that avoiding air travel contributes to climate change mitigation, and intergenerational justice concerns; pro-travel attitude was a negative predictor. Moreover, we tested whether the provision of additional information on climate impact, global and intranational inequalities as well as subsidies (implying intranational inequality) affected the intention to avoid air travel and policy support. We found no effects of the different types of information. Nor did we find an interaction between the type of information provided and global or national identity. Our results highlight the need for a shift within the mobility sector that facilitates attractive and accessible transport alternatives in order to strengthen people’s behavioral control to choose other means than planes and their efficacy perceptions. Moreover, raising awareness of the impacts of climate change on future generations and developing strategies to promote people’s concern for intergenerational justice might motivate people to reduce air travel and thereby contribute to a livable future for new generations.
... Relatos da ocupação em Catanduva abordam como um servidor que havia atacado e pressionado os estudantes se transformou em alvo de suas brincadeiras, materializadas em memes. Essas brincadeiras são entendidas apenas por aqueles que fazem parte do grupo, o que fortalece ainda mais a identidade social (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) e coletiva (Sandoval, 2001) dos ocupantes. Pessoas que não participam do grupo não entendem as piadas e podem achá-las até "pesadas" e "pervertidas". ...
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Resumo Os anos de 2015 e 2016 foram marcados politicamente por movimentos de ocupações estudantis pelo Brasil, os quais pautavam a defesa da educação pública e tiveram a autogestão como grande marca organizativa. Este artigo objetiva abordar os processos de produção de potência de agir e saúde ético-política ocorridos durante ocupações estudantis paulistas nos anos de 2015 e 2016. O corpus de pesquisa foi construído por meio de entrevistas, grupos focais e observações participantes com estudantes de quatro cidades: São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Catanduva e Barretos. A partir da análise do material, evidencia-se que apesar de os participantes terem sido submetidos a processos de diminuição de potência de agir e a sofrimento ético-político durante os movimentos, lutaram em prol de ideais coletivos, partilha de identidades sociais, humor, espaços lúdicos etc.
... The present study was motivated by the social reasoning developmental (SRD) model, which proposes that considerations of equality and fairness need to be understood in the context of group identity (Killen & Rutland, 2011). SRD draws on social identity theory (SIT) (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) and developmental theories of SIT (Nesdale, 2004;Nesdale & Lawson, 2011) that show that children develop group preferences for individuals that share their social identities (such as race, gender, or ethnicity). Yet these ingroup biases often decrease from 6 to 10 years of age (McGlothlin & Killen, 2006;Nesdale & Lawson, 2011), likely due to both an increase in fairness judgments as well as self-presentation awareness. ...
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In response to some resource inequalities, children give priority to moral concerns. Yet, in others, children show ingroup preferences in their evaluations and resource allocations. The present study built upon this knowledge by investigating children's and young adults’ (N = 144; 5–6-year-olds, Mage = 5.83, SDage = .97; 9–11-year-olds, Mage = 10.74, SDage = .68; and young adults, Mage = 19.92, SDage = 1.10) evaluations and allocation decisions in a science inequality context. Participants viewed vignettes in which male and female groups received unequal amounts of science supplies, then evaluated the acceptability of the resource inequalities, allocated new boxes of science supplies between the groups, and provided justifications for their choices. Results revealed both children and young adults evaluated inequalities of science resources less negatively when girls were disadvantaged than when boys were disadvantaged. Further, 5- to 6-year-old participants and male participants rectified science resource inequalities to a greater extent when the inequality disadvantaged boys compared to when it disadvantaged girls. Generally, participants who used moral reasoning to justify their responses negatively evaluated and rectified the resource inequalities, whereas participants who used group-focused reasoning positively evaluated and perpetuated the inequalities, though some age and participant gender findings emerged. Together, these findings reveal subtle gender biases that may contribute to perpetuating gender-based science inequalities both in childhood and adulthood.
Chapter
In this chapter, we will provide a review on the emerging psychological literature on collective mental time travel (MTT). Our review will focus on the cognitive aspects of remembering the collective past and imagining the collective future. We will explore factors such as specificity, phenomenal characteristics, content, and valence. We will also include brief overviews of cultural and social psychological research that is relevant to the topic of collective MTT. In these overviews, we will examine the research on narratives, collective continuity, collective angst, and human action. Three main themes will emerge from these discussions: the connection between collective past and future thinking, the differences between collective past and future thinking, and the role of goals, perceived agency, and collective action. We will integrate the findings of cognitive, cultural, and social psychological work through these three themes and offer ways to move collective MTT research forward.
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Public comments criticizing the honesty and trustworthiness of Professionals in Finance (PIFs) are commonly seen as a way to motivate them towards engaging in more socially responsible business practices. However, the link between public views of this professional group, the self‐views of individual group members, and their motivation to engage in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities has not been empirically examined. In this research, we draw on Social Identity Theory (SIT) and the Behavioral Regulation Model for social evaluation (BRM) to examine how the self‐views of individual group members relate to perceived characteristics of their professional group, indicating Competence and Morality. In two studies (N = 123, 191) we examined whether the self‐views of high‐profile and general PIFs are affected by other people's perceptions of the honesty and trustworthiness of this professional group. The results offer support for our reasoning derived from SIT and the BRM. In both studies, we first demonstrate that public concerns about the group's lack of honesty and trustworthiness impact on the moral self‐views of financial professionals. Subsequently, we employ an experimental design to reveal that reinforcing moral criticism leveled at the group only reduces the motivation of individual group members to engage in CSR activities, while group‐level moral affirmation enhances this motivation. The results of both studies converge to demonstrate how public critique on the moral behavior of their professional group relates to the self‐views and behavioral motives of PIFs. We consider the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Article
Weight bias is prevalent in many healthcare disciplines and negatively impacts the quality of care for patients with obesity. This warrants interventions to reduce weight bias shown by providers to improve care for individuals with obesity. However, past reviews have identified only marginal success in improving the attitudes and beliefs of healthcare providers about individuals with obesity. This systematic review and meta‐analysis identifies and synthesizes recent peer‐reviewed intervention studies aimed at reducing weight bias in healthcare students and professionals. The databases Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsychINFO, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for peer‐reviewed studies published between 2016 and August 2021. Search terms included a combination of surrogate terms for the concepts of weight bias, intervention and healthcare students or professionals. The search yielded 1136 articles, and 14 articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Nineteen effect sizes from nine studies were included in the meta‐analysis. Overall, the interventions in the included studies result in a 0.38 SD reduction (Hedge's g) in obesity‐bias with 95% confidence intervals from −0.52 to −0.24, indicating a small to moderate effect size in the reduction of weight bias. Most studies included students and focused on evoking empathy or educating on the causality/controllability of obesity. Measurement tools, intervention type, limitations of the studies and recommendations for future research are discussed.
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This study explored the process of identity adjustment following adolescent brain injury, within the systemic context of the parent-adolescent dyad. Six young people with an ABI (mean age 16.5 years, range 15-18 years; TBI: n = 3) were individually interviewed, and six respective mothers (mean age 45 years, range 37-50 years). A novel relational qualitative grounded theory approach was used, with analyses of dyads linked in an attempt to capture the shared process of adaptation post-injury for young people and their parents. Shared themes emerged for adolescents and mothers regarding "continuity and change" and "acknowledging or rejecting" experiences of change post injury. Adolescents experienced change as an, at times, distressing sense of being "not normal". While mothers turned towards their child, working hard to try to "fix everything", adolescents sought continuity of identity in the context of peer relationships, withdrawing socially to avoid feeling abnormal, reframing or finding new relationships. Some mothers sought to fill social losses through family or disability-specific activity. This study provides a relational understanding of the process of identity adjustment post adolescent BI. Future research and clinical practice should recognize the significant work of mothers, and significance of social relationships to adolescents' emerging post-injury identity.
Article
The present paper discusses the ethnic bilingual practice in Kazakhstan. The focus is on code-switching or, in other term, code-mixing in the Kazakh-Russian and RussianKazakh bilingualism. The bi- and multilingualism is characteristic for Kazakhstan and is caused by multiethnicity of the republic. Within this paper we are interested in identities of persons with more than one cultural background. The idea of the present investigation is a response to the sociolinguistics ‘third wave’, discourse analysis, linguistic anthropology. In this theoretical framework the research focus is on exploring linguistic variation as a medium used by individuals or social groups to evoke the social practice. It is crucial how semiotic ties are set between a linguistic sign and social context, how persistent social attribution is created through linguistic choices. Data collection for this study: we analyzed 300 contexts that show the Kazakh-Russian code-mixing in everyday and internet communication, and in modern Kazakh films reflecting the typical code-mixing practice. The data were gathered by doing observation, documentation, the analysis proceeded in a context-based interpretative way. In the framework suggested we show the code-switching/code-mixing not in terms of interference mistakes as heavily influenced by Russian language and culture, not as “linguistic errors” cases presupposed by low language competence of the speakers, but rather as a dynamic resource to shape the understanding in the communication. There are considerable nuances and complexity in the language mixed practice, that is not to be framed in pejorative terms.
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Рассматривается билингвальная практика в современном Казахстане. Анализируется переключение или смешение кода в ситуации казахско-русского и русско-казахского этнического билингвизма. Для практики гибридизации кода характерны два основных типа смешения кода, линейное сочетание слов из казахского и русского языков внутри высказывания и сочетаемость корня слова из казахского языка и аффикса из русского. Теоретико-методологический контекст анализа задан разработками в социолингвистике ‘третьей волны’, в дискурсивном анализе, лингвистической антропологии. Новый подход связан с изучением языковой вариативности как выражения социальной и этноязыковой идентичности в проекции интеракцинальности и агентивности человека, использующего язык. Материалом для анализа стали контексты, демонстрирующие смешение казахского и русского языков в повседневной практике общения в Казахстане, а также извлеченные из социальных сетей и современных казахстанских фильмов. Анализ демонстрирует, что практика смешения кода особым образом фокусирует поликультурную и полиязыковую личность в ситуации этнического двуязычия в Казахстане. Смешение казахского и русского языков объясняется не с позиции языковой инференции, речевых ошибок вследствие не- достаточной коммуникативной практики или ограниченного словарного запаса билингва, но как особый семиотический ресурс, используемый для выражения взаимопонимания и гармонизации коммуникации. Это особое использование языка, выдвигающее в центр внимания активность использующего язык человека, способного выбрать лингвистическое средство, адекватное в конкретной ситуации.
Chapter
Haben Sie sich schon einmal so einen typischen amerikanischen Teenagerfilm angeschaut in dem Cheerleader*innen, Footballspieler, Mathefreaks, Musiker*innen usw. vorkamen? Sie haben wahrscheinlich bereits jetzt bei all diesen Personengruppen ein Bild vor Augen, wie die Mitglieder dieser Gruppe aussehen, wie sie sich verhalten, welche Ideale sie verfolgen und mit welchen Leuten sie sich abgeben.
Chapter
To better understand how humor is used in today's multicultural virtual environment, this study investigates the humor styles of Hispanic Americans in a virtual community. Based on the four humor styles, the current study builds a theoretical framework to explain why cultural norms, gender role, acculturation, and education influence the humor styles of Hispanic Americans in computer-mediated communication. Two research questions and five hypotheses are developed in the research framework. The statistical analysis is based on content analysis of 400 Hispanic Facebook users, 93 of whom use humor in most recent News Feed. The results provide preliminary evidence of the influences of cultural norms, gender role, acculturation, and education on Hispanic humor styles.
Article
Each of the predominate approaches to negotiation and conflict resolution—interest‐based bargaining, basic human needs approaches, and narrative approaches—is grounded in a particular worldview with embedded assumptions about why and how parties experience conflict, the building blocks available to construct a solution to their conflict, and the proper design goals and methods for assembling those building blocks. When an approach to negotiation and conflict resolution is misaligned with the worldview(s) inhabited by one or more of the conflict parties, this mismatch may partially explain why a conflict resists resolution. Scholars and practitioners in our field should develop greater fluency in and capacity to work within and across disparate worldviews, so we and those we seek to assist are able to negotiate across worldviews more effectively.
Article
Social group identity plays a central role in political polarization and inter-party conflict. Here, we use ambiguously valenced faces to measure bias in the processing of political ingroup and outgroup faces, while also accounting for inter-party differences in judgments of emotion at baseline. Participants identifying as Democrats and Republicans judged happy, angry, and surprised faces as positive or negative. Whereas happy and angry faces convey positive and negative valence respectively, surprised faces are ambiguous in that they readily convey positive and negative valence. Thus, surprise is a useful tool for characterizing valence bias (i.e., the tendency to judge ambiguous stimuli as negative). Face stimuli were assigned to the participants' political ingroup or outgroup, or a third group with an unspecified affiliation (baseline). We found a significant interaction of facial expression and group membership, such that outgroup faces were judged more negatively than ingroup and baseline, but only for surprise. There was also an interaction of facial expression and political affiliation, with Republicans judging surprise more negatively than Democrats across all group conditions. However, we did not find evidence for party differences in outgroup negativity. Our findings demonstrate the utility of judgments of surprised faces as a measure of intergroup bias, and reinforce the importance of outgroup negativity (relative to ingroup positivity) for explaining inter-party biases.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact mechanism of green human resource management (GHRM) on employee organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (OCBE). The authors maintain that anticipated environmental pride and guilt serve as dual mediators on the relationship between GHRM and OCBE, while environmental value discrepancy between employees and coworkers of the employees serve as the moderator on this relationship. Design/methodology/approach For this study, 226 valid questionnaires were obtained from various industries (food, machinery, electronics, etc.) in China and a hierarchical regression analysis was performed. Findings The results revealed that GHRM exerts a direct influence on OCBE, as well as indirect effects through anticipated environmental emotions. Environmental value discrepancy moderates the relationship between GHRM and anticipated environmental emotions. Originality/value The contribution of this study is not only to investigate the emotional impact mechanism between GHRM and employee OCBE, but also to identify the boundary conditions for the effect of GHRM on employees’ anticipated environmental emotions. The authors' findings offer a new theoretical framework for future research on GHRM, as well as practical implications for researchers and managers in organizational environmental management.
Article
U.S. professional athletes increasingly have engaged in athlete activism. Such actions have elicited a wide range of responses from sport fans, calling into question whether an athlete’s activism can impact their brand image. This research explored whether attitudes toward athlete activism, activism message, activism communication style, or fan identification level affect an activist athlete’s brand image. This research utilized a 2 × 2 experimental design of activism type (safe vs. risky) and activism effort (high vs. low). A focus group determined both activism effort and activism type. Activism type did not significantly affect fans’ perception of athlete brand image, but perceived athlete attractiveness decreased when the athlete engaged in risky activism. Individuals’ attitudes toward athlete activism significantly influenced their perception of an activist athlete’s brand image. This paper fulfills an identified need to understand the effects of athlete activism on the athlete’s own brand.
Article
Research assessing the persuasiveness of guilt has generally focused on appeals made to larger groups (collective guilt) or to individuals (personal guilt). However, a direct comparison of the two messaging strategies is crucial to discerning effective methods of behavior change in the context of risks to wellbeing where issue responsibility lies with the community at large and the burden of action to create measurable change is also shared. Furthermore, although efficacy messaging has been widely used to improve individuals' beliefs about their ability to engage in desired tasks and achieve goals, limited empirical evidence exists on the use of guilt and efficacy in concert to promote strategic communication outcomes. Informed by prior studies on guilt, efficacy, and collective emotions, the present research used a message‐based intervention to experimentally manipulate the responsibility level of guilt (collective vs. personal) and the target level of efficacy (collective vs. self) in the context of an environmental health risk (Study 1, N = 211) and a socioeconomic risk (Study 2, N = 264). Across both studies, results indicated that pairing collective guilt appeals with self‐efficacy messaging most effectively elicits risk‐mitigating attitudes and intentions for shared problems. Beyond the theoretical implications for the literature on discrete emotions and persuasion, the findings highlight the need to consider both the type of guilt and efficacy appeals when designing campaigns that address collective concerns.
Technical Report
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Als Teil des durch das BMBF und das BMI geförderten Forschungsverbundes MOTRA (Monitoring und Transferplattform Radikalisierung) führt die Universität Hamburg wiederholte repräsentative Untersuchungen zur Verbreitung religiös- und politisch motivierter, extremismusaffiner Einstellungen sowie zum Umfang der Akzeptanz politischer Gewalt in der Bevölkerung durch. Ein Ziel dieser Untersuchungen besteht darin, diesbezügliche Risikopotentiale einzuschätzen und deren Veränderungen im Zeitverlauf abzubilden. Daneben werden auch subjektive Wahrnehmungen und Bewertungen politischer Extremismen im eigenen Lebensumfeld der Befragten sowie die Beobachtung gesellschaftlicher Entwicklungen einbezogen, die die Ausbildung von religiösen und politischen Extremismen begünstigen können. Weiter sollen mittels dieser Befragungen Informationen darüber erhoben werden, inwieweit die Wahrnehmung gesellschaftlicher Veränderungen und Konflikte durch die Befragten einen möglichen Nährboden für die Entwicklung extremistischer Einstellungen bzw. die Akzeptanz politischer Gewalt haben können. Zur Umsetzung dieses Forschungsvorhabens werden in jährlichem Abstand – beginnend im Jahr 2021 – national-repräsentative Befragungen der erwachsenen Bevölkerung (ab 18 Jahre) durchgeführt. Ergänzt werden diese Erhebungen durch ebenfalls national-repräsentative Online-Befragungen junger Menschen (zwischen 16 und 21 Jahren), die alle zwei Jahre, erstmals im Jahr 2022, durchgeführt werden. Der hier vorliegende Forschungsbericht beschreibt Entwicklung, Inhalt und Aufbau des Erhebungsinstruments, das in der ersten Welle der national-repräsentativen Befragungen der erwachsenen Bevölkerung eingesetzt wurde. Diese Erhebung trägt den Titel „Menschen in Deutschland 2021“ (MiD 2021). Die in der Einleitung bereits kurz skizzierten Zielsetzungen, insbesondere die Erhebung auch religiös-motivierter extremismusaffiner Einstellungen, hat nicht nur Auswirkungen auf die inhaltliche Gestaltung des Fragebogens, sondern auch auf die Stichprobenplanung. So unterteilt sich die für diese Befragung geplante Stichprobe von n=4 000 Befragten in eine repräsentative Teilstichprobe der Gesamtbevölkerung, der etwa n=2 000 Personen aus der Allgemeinbevölkerung ab 18 Jahre angehören. Diese wird ergänzt um ein Oversampling von ca. n=1 000 in Deutschland lebenden Personen mit Migrationshintergrund sowie um ein weiteres Oversampling von etwa n=1 000 in Deutschland lebenden Personen mit muslimischer Religionszugehörigkeit, beide ebenfalls jeweils im Alter ab 18 Jahren. Zur Realisierung dieses Stichprobendesigns und zur Umsetzung der mit der Untersuchung verbundenen Ziele wurden die Befragten auch nach ihrer Religionszugehörigkeit gefragt. Diejenigen Befragten die angaben, einer christlichen oder islamischen Religion anzugehören - oder sich einer solchen zugehörig zu fühlen – wurden gebeten weitere, teilweise auch religionsspezifisch formulierte Fragen zu beantworten. Insoweit besteht das Erhebungsinstrument aus einem Modul, das alle Befragten bearbeiten, sowie je einem Modul mit zusätzlichen Fragen für Christen und Muslime. Die Befragung wird im Mixed-Mode-Design (PAPI/CAWI) durchgeführt. Den Befragten steht es frei, entweder die Papier-Fassung oder die Online-Fassung des Fragebogens zu verwenden bzw. den Befragungsmodus auch während der Befragung zu wechseln. Im Online-Modus steht das Erhebungsinstrument in insgesamt sieben Sprachen zur Verfügung (Deutsch, Englisch, Französisch, Polnisch, Türkisch, Farsi, Arabisch). Das Erhebungsinstrument wurde in enger Kooperation mit dem BKA, dem WZB, der LMU München sowie dem mit der Durchführung beauftragten Feldforschungsinstitut Kantar GmbH entwickelt. Soweit möglich wurde auf in der Forschung bereits bewährte Instrumente zurückgegriffen, teilweise mussten Skalen neu entwickelt werden. Zur Prüfung, Anpassung und Reduzierung des Umfangs des Erhebungsinstruments sowie zur Untersuchung der Praktikabilität des Fragebogens im Online-Format, wurden durch die UHH drei Pretests mit insgesamt 1 367 Teilnehmern, darunter 267 Muslimen durchgeführt. Ein weiterer Pretest wurde durch das Feldforschungsinstitut Kantar durchgeführt und Ende Dezember 2020 abgeschlossen. Diese Daten wurden im ersten Quartal 2021 analysiert und zur weiteren Anpassung des Erhebungsinstrumentes verwendet.
Article
It is commonly assumed that algorithmic curation of search results creates filter bubbles, where users’ beliefs are continually reinforced and opposing views are suppressed. However, empirical evidence has failed to support this hypothesis. Instead, it has been suggested that filter bubbles may result from individuals engaging selectively with information in search engine results pages. However, this “self-imposed filter bubble hypothesis” has remained empirically untested. In this study, we find support for the hypothesis using eye-tracking technology and link selection data. We presented partisan participants (n = 48) with sets of simulated Google Search results, controlling for the ideological leaning of each link. Participants spent more time viewing own-side links than other links (p = .037). In our sample, participants who identified as right-wing exhibited a greater such bias than those that identified as left wing (p < .001). In addition, we found that both liberals and conservatives tended to select own-side links (p < .001). Finally, there was a significant effect of trust, such that links associated with less trusted sources were attended less and selected less often by liberals and conservatives alike (p < .001). Our study challenges the efficacy of policies that aim at combatting filter bubbles by presenting users with an ideologically diverse set of search results.
Thesis
As information technology (IT) has become an indispensable part of people’s everyday lives (Yoo, 2010), being human is more than ever influenced by IT. Thereby, a growing psychological – often subconscious - intertwinement between human beings’ social roles and relationships and their interactions with IT can be observed (Carter and Grover, 2015). For example, human beings use IT to understand, expand, or represent their self (c.f., Carter and Grover, 2015), determine online who they are, and evaluate their self-worth (e.g., Wenninger et al., 2019; Yang et al., 2018), strive in online environments for belonging and meaningful existence (Baumeister and Leary, 1995; Bernstein, 2016), and internalize IT as part of their identity (Carter et al., 2020a; Carter et al., 2020b). As human beings are essentially social beings (Riva and Eck, 2016), those social processes are essential for individuals to cope with a complex social world. Moreover, they relate to an individual’s psychological and physiological well-being. Information systems (IS) research that examine the intertwinement between human beings’ socio-psychological nature and IT use behavior indicates a reciprocal relationship between so-called digital users and IT. For example, socio-psychological concepts like emotional attachment, relatedness, and dependency (i.e., IT identity) determine IT use behavior (Carter and Grover, 2015), expanding traditional technology acceptance research and offering a new lens to understand individuals’ IT use behavior (Venkatesh et al., 2003; Venkatesh et al., 2012; Ven-katesh et al., 2016). Moreover, IS research suggests that due to growing opportunities to interact with others and enabled by IT’s functionalities, IT use triggers physiological and psychological reactions, ranging from severe consequences (e.g., depression, anxiety, bipolar mania) to individuals who report higher life satisfaction due to the ability for social participation in online environments (e.g., Verduyn et al., 2017; Krasnova et al., 2015). Building on first investigations and in light of the increasing integration of IT into human beings’ everyday life, IS research calls for (1) the integration of socio-psychological perspectives in IS research to understand better and predict individuals IT use behavior and (2) insights on new outcomes of technology use like subsequent thoughts, physiological, and emotional reactions within socio-technical contexts (Carter and Grover, 2015; Venkatesh et al., 2016). Accordingly, this thesis replies to this calls by following the overarching research objective to enhance the understanding of the reciprocal relationship of how IT use influences one as a hu-man being and how being human influences IT use. This thesis takes on a Service-Dominant-Logic (SDL) perspective by understanding that a digital user’s value perception of IT goes beyond the mere fulfillment of tasks and reflects deeper basic human needs and values in everyday life (Vargo and Lusch, 2004, 2008, 2016; Yoo, 2010). Moreover, this thesis integrates socio-psychological perspectives (e.g., Social Comparison Theory, Social Identity Theory, Temporal Need Threat Model) and established theories from IS research (e.g., Uni-fied Theory on Acceptance and Use of Technology) to explain individuals’ use behavior, social processes when using IT, and self-concept related consequences of IT use. Overall, the thesis encompasses seven research articles. Three research articles enhance the context-dependent understanding of technology acceptance from the perspective of a digital user by providing theoretical explanations for use intentions and actual use of IT regarding new types of IT used in new contexts, new forms of use behavior, and new antecedents that (indirectly) predict IT use behavior. Furthermore, three research articles enhance the understanding of why and how IT use influences self-concept-related aspects of a digital user by providing empirical evidence that digital users utilize IT to determine their self-concept in digital environments. Thereby, digital users make digitally mediated experiences through its functionalities (e.g., paralingual digital affordances, editability, asynchronicity). Which enable and trigger socio-psychological processes and relate to users’ self. Moreover, one article enhances the understanding of IT identity’s role in integrating technology acceptance and a digital user. In this regard, this thesis provides empirical evidence that individuals perceive IT as part of their self. Furthermore, the results indicate that users’ IT identity significantly mediates use behavior. Overall, this thesis contributes to IS research by thoroughly investigating the human-IT relationship. By putting the individual in the center of interest, the thesis proposes further research on digital users’ intentions and actual use of IT, investi-gations of why and how social-psychological processes extend into the online world, and the mediating role of one’s self on context-dependent technology acceptance factors and use behavior.
Article
The looming threat of climate change on the environment has called for sustainable consumption and business practices. This study aims to address the paradox of green consumption, i. e. customers’ intention-behavior gap, by examining the role of green certification. Via three sub-studies that involve primary data collected through experimental studies (n = 1060 customers) and secondary time series data obtained from a hotel analytics firm (n = 1238 hotels), it’s revealed that (1) customers’ visit intention is significantly influenced by hotels’ green certification status via their green perceptions (Study 1); (2) compared to their non-green counterparts, green-certified hotels do not exhibit better financial performance, highlighting an intention-behavior gap (Study 2); and (3) furnishing information such as hotel green certification and comparable pricing helps to bridge the intention-behavior gap (Study 3). This study makes profound theoretical contributions to the literature by filling several research gaps and providing considerable practical benefits to the hotel industry.
Article
In the aftermath of the Euro debt crisis, negative stereotypes about Southern Europeans were (re)activated across Northern European countries. Because these stereotypes make explicit reference to productivity-relevant traits, they have the potential to influence employers’ hiring decisions. We draw on a sub-sample of the Growth, Equal Opportunities, Migration and Markets discrimination study (GEMM) to investigate the responses of over 3500 firms based in Germany, the Netherlands and Norway to identical (fictitious) young applicants born to Greek, Spanish, Italian and native-born parents. Using French descendants as a placebo treatment and sub-Saharan African descendants as a benchmark treatment, we find severe levels of hiring discrimination against Southern European descendants in both Norway and the Netherlands, but not in Germany. Discrimination in Norway seems largely driven by employers’ preferences for applicants of native descent, while in the Netherlands discrimination seems specifically targeted against Greek and Spanish descendants. Dutch employers’ propensity to penalize these two groups seems driven by information deficits.
Article
Extant literature examines the role of alumni in supporting higher education institutions (HEIs) through donation behavior. However, scant empirical studies examine the influence of alumni in the context of extra-role brand building behaviour in HEIs. This study examines university identification and university social community identification in influencing university brand evangelism when mediated with a sense of belonging. The study collected data from 606 alumni of 15 HEIs in Tanzania and analyzed it using structural equation modelling. The findings reveal that most alumni engage in university brand evangelism when they are highly identified with their university and its entire social community. Furthermore, the findings confirm that a higher level of identification is inadequate to predict and explain university brand evangelism, unless a sense of belonging is included as a mediator. Therefore, HEIs’ management should build social and personal identification to stimulate a sense of belonging, which fuels alumni intent to engage in university brand evangelism.
Article
South Asian women living in Western cultures may experience skin colour dissatisfaction, as fair skin is an important South Asian appearance ideal, whilst visible ethnic differences in their skin colour may lead to appearance-related ethnic teasing from members from the mainstream culture. This study investigates whether appearance-related ethnic teasing is indirectly associated with body dissatisfaction via skin colour dissatisfaction and explores the relationship between appearance-related ethnic teasing, cultural identification and skin colour dissatisfaction amongst first-generation South Asian women living in the United Kingdom. South Asian women (N = 98; 18–55 years, M = 24.60) completed an online questionnaire that measured appearance-related ethnic teasing, skin colour dissatisfaction, cultural identification, and body dissatisfaction. Appearance-related ethnic teasing was indirectly linked with greater body dissatisfaction via greater skin colour dissatisfaction. Appearance-related ethnic teasing was linked with stronger British identification, a greater sense of having an integrated identity and greater skin colour dissatisfaction. South Asian identification was associated with greater skin colour dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that skin colour dissatisfaction is an important link between appearance-related ethnic teasing and acculturating South Asian women’s body image.
Article
The then West and East Germany originated from one nation, but there was big difference between their cultures before and immediately after the reunification in 1989. The difference is embodied in many aspects of the society, affecting deeply the individual life and national situation. Their formation has multiple causes, and various measures need to be made to bridge these gaps to reach the balance, so that Germany after the fall of Berlin wall can go ahead prosperously, and brings benefits to all its people.