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Abstract

University rankings have proliferated in recent years and have been diverse, with a variety of profiles. This paper deals with the task of obtaining one single summarized ranking based on a selection of the most widely known rankings, in short, a meta-ranking. Five of the best-known rankings were selected and a database compiled with the major world universities that appear in at least four of the five rankings chosen. A meta-ranking was constructed, which differentiates between two dimensions, identifying the positions of universities in each and checking bias. The positioning of the universities is shown and seven clusters of world universities are identified, differences examined according to size, quality of scientific production, level of internationalization, features of the economic context and institutional attributes (staff-to-student ratio and percentage of female students). These results are useful for benchmarking by universities and national university systems, with a view to planning decisions.

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... While there are many questions concerning the validity of the methodology employed, these ratings have become an important aspect of external and internal marketing for universities (Kauppi, 2018;Pusser & Marginson, 2013). Rightly or wrongly, they are interpreted as aggregate criteria reflecting how well a university is functioning to deliver its overall value proposition to students and academics as consumers (Luque-Martínez & Faraoni, 2020). Necessarily, this encounter involves an exchange between the institution's value proposition and the student's personal values (Arambewela & Hall, 2013;Kopanidis & Shaw, 2014). ...
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People deserve credible information from responsible government units and authentic news from various sources, including online, social media and other networks, to learn and prepare for any epidemic and pandemic. Social media and online news portals are the main sources for the public to explore news on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This research aims to investigate the relationship between news and social media, awareness about, attitude and the action of the youths towards the spread of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. This research followed a structured survey method to investigate responses towards COVID-19 of Bangladeshi tertiary-level students of different disciplines. The study analysed students’ access to information through electronic and paper versions of Facebook and newspapers. Factor analysis was conducted for a sample of 705. A five-factor solution has been proposed. Access to information is critical in developing a diverse and effective strategy for combating COVID-19. Besides, awareness about the disease, Facebook access, attitude and reliance on local media were identified as key factors.
... This finding implies that the current measure of international faculty favors major English-speaking systems while other systems are disadvantaged. The current internationalization indicators are particularly favorable to the English-speaking systems influenced by the British educational system (Luque-Martinez & Faraoni, 2020). This finding suggests a possible bias of international outlook scores and global rankings. ...
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This study analyzed how the ranking status has changed at various higher education system levels by applying different definitions of international faculty. Among the four measures (birthplace, current citizenship, and the country of bachelor and doctoral education), this study found that international faculty measured by the country of doctoral studies produced significantly different international outlook scores and thus ranking status from that based on birthplace or citizenship. Specifically, major English-speaking systems such as the UK, Canada, and Australia hire a large number of faculty who are foreign citizens while non-English speaking systems (Italy, Portugal, China, Korea, and Brazil) hire more local academics who have earned their doctoral degree abroad. This suggests that these non-English speaking countries are systematically under-rated in their international outlook scores by the adoption of the birthplace-based or citizenship-based international faculty measures. As an alternative, this study proposes to update the international faculty measure using a combination of citizenship of employment and doctoral training to minimize this systemic bias.
... They draw their inspiration from traditional methodologies such as multicriteria sorting, rank fusion, Pareto frontier and the related Data Envelopment Analysis [10] (see Section 2.1 for definitions of Pareto frontier and DEA). For instance, recent academic efforts on the topic include a goal programming model [9], application of the Pareto frontier [16], application of the Data Envelopment Analysis [6,25], clustering [14,20], and merging (fusing) several ranked lists [12]. ...
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The quality of the education provided and the research impact produced by universities is continuously evaluated at national and international level. This phenomenon is not new. However, nowadays education is not only considered as a social value and right/privilege, but also as a big economic sector, which addresses to large portions of population worldwide. In this ecosystem, university rankings play a crucial role since they provide filtered information which is reproduced in surveys, newspapers, social media etc. All university rankings are based on a set of ad hoc evaluation criteria. Moreover, the final score is based on a set of arbitrary weights summing up to 1. Thus, at the end, these university rankings differ significantly producing ambiguities and doubts. In this paper, we propose a novel university ranking method based on the Skyline operator, which is used on multi-dimensional objects to extract the non-dominated (i.e., “prevailing”) ones. Our method is characterized by several advantages, such as: it is transparent, reproducible, without any arbitrarily selected parameters, based on the research output of universities only and not on publicly not traceable or questionnaires. Our method does not provide absolute rankings, but rather it ranks universities categorized in equivalence classes. Thus, we develop a generic framework which can be used for ranking universities and departments, and even individual persons. For the proof of concept we apply the framework in our Greek academic space, providing a case study on ranking persons and departments on computer science and engineering using data extracted from Microsoft Academic.
... More and more institutions evaluate and rank universities in recent years; the ranking content and methodology gradually become diversified. However, in the current world university rankings, some university rankings such as ARWU, NTU, and URAP, their ranking indicators, and methods show high similarity [22], so many people are trying to improve and synthesize the existing rankings using their own methodology, such as the introduction of entrepreneurial orientation [23], metaranking [24], and ranking aggregation [25]. In the process of specific ranking, the method of weighting and maximal normalization are extensively used to calculate the scores of each institution. ...
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From the perspective of the complex system, university ranking is a complex system that involves multiagent actors, which evolve over time. Yet, current major university rankings fail to reflect the system dynamics of the university innovation system. In this paper, we apply the complex system model in the field of the university innovation system in the context of university ranking in the countries along the Belt and Road, which is a long-term overlooked field. We introduce a new method of university ranking based on the “winning and losing” relationship to measure the relative competitiveness between universities. This paper contributes to complex system research, the Belt and Road research, and the university ranking arena.
... Therefore, WURs generally incorporate two indicators of research recognition: publications in indexed and high-impact journals, and citations (i.e., numbers of citations and highly cited researchers). The demands from WURs for the calculation of various indices and the compilation of data have had extensive effects on higher education [27][28][29][30]. WURs expose universities and academics to competition at the global scale, influencing the publication and citation behaviors of academics in this competitive academic market. ...
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Academics may actively respond to the expectations of the academic status market, which have largely been shaped by the World University Rankings (WURs). This study empirically examines how academics’ citation patterns have changed in response to the rise of an “evaluation environment” in academia. We regard the WURs to be a macro-level trigger for cementing a bibliometric-based evaluation environment in academia. Our analyses of citation patterns in papers published in two higher education journals explicitly considered three distinct periods: the pre-WURs (1990–2003), the period of WURs implementation (2004–2010), and the period of adaption to WURs (2011–2017). We applied the nonparametric Kaplan–Meier method to compare first-citation speeds of papers published across the three periods. We found that not only has first-citation speed become faster, but first-citation probability has also increased following the emergence of the WURs. Applying Cox proportional hazard models to first-citation probabilities, we identified journal impact factors and third-party funding as factors influencing first-citation probability, while other author- and paper-related factors showed limited effects. We also found that the general effects of different factors on first-citation speeds have changed with the emergence of the WURs. The findings expand our understanding of the citation patterns of academics in the rise of WURs and provide practical grounds for research policy as well as higher education policy.
... The different ranking systems were made to assess the performance of universities over the world (Anowar et al., 2015;Gnolek et al., 2014). The widely recognized ranking systems-once accepted-are influential to a variety of people, specifically: international students for seeking a right institution for their higher studies; new researchers to carry on scholarly activities and achieve funding facilities; institutions themselves to develop a constructive competition; and also employers to choose appropriate workforce for their business development (Luque-Martínez & Faraoni, 2019;Souto-Otero & Enders, 2017). A review by Anowar et al. (2015) indicated the top four widely accepted ranking systems including THE, ARWU, QS and Webometrics Ranking. ...
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This research focuses on a sample of European and Chinese elite universities for the period 2011-2015. We adopt a meta-frontier methodology to decompose their overall productivity in three main determinants: (i) technical efficiency compared with contemporaneous technology, (ii) change in technical efficiency and (iii) technology relative superiority of the two groups of universities. The results reveal different patterns of evolution: Chinese institutions’ productivity grows faster than that of their European counterparts (+7.15%/year vs 4.51%/year), however the latter maintain a higher level of technology in efficient production as a group.
... For example, the sports rankings, such as the FIFA rankings [1]; social rankings such as that of the richest people in the world [2]. Currently, in organizations such as universities, rankings are fundamental for their prestige at an international level, the most prominent are the Times Higher Education, Academic Ranking World Universities Shanghai and QS World Ranking from which the universities of the United States and Europe are better rated [3]. A ranking is composed of a set of indicators, which are collapsed into a single measure that generates a sorted list. ...
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Rankings compare the performance of organizations. In many cases, rankings provide a good assessment of successful or-ganizations. However, rankings often generate controversy and debate since they support the making decisions. A ranking is a weighted linear combination of indicators, and the weights assigned to each of the indicators can lead to different rank orders. In most cases, rankings are used as a tool to support making decisions, such as resource allocation; therefore, these decisions can be affected by the assignment of such weights. In this article, we analyze the behavior of a ranking and the weights; simulations are used to calculate the change in the order of the equally weighted ranking and of the randomly weighted ranking. In this regard, we present a discussion and ranking design alternatives.
... University rankings depend on the objectives determined by the institution conducting the rating (Olkay and Bulu, 2017), varying in the type of information they collect, which may be from public sources (publications, patents, web, quotes), information required from universities (linked to faculty, students, organization, budget, etc.), and surveys of reputation to academics, students or stakeholders (Vernon et al., 2018;Luque Martinez and Faraoni, 2020). Rankings can also be global, regional, or national in scope and evaluate the entire University or specific undergraduate or graduate academic programs. ...
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Purpose - This study evaluates the correlations between the universities' type of property (public, private associative and private corporate), institutional seniority (<20, 20-45 and> 45 years), and the presence and position in national and international university rankings. Design/methodology/approach - It considers 90 Peruvian universities certified by SUNEDU (public agency for the accreditation of universities in Peru), according to their presence in 20 university rankings (yes/no) and the position (tertiles) in two world rankings: Webometrics and SIR Iberoamericano. Four universities participated in 10 or more rankings and only 16 (18%) in 6 or more. Findings - The private corporate universities were the least old (p <0.01). No association was found with the type of property both in the presence in rankings and in the positioning (p> 0.05), except in one where there was less participation of public institutions. Long-lived universities had higher participation and better positioning in rankings than those with less seniority (p <0.01). The presence and better positioning in university rankings depend on institutional seniority and not on the type of ownership in Peruvian licensed universities. Originality - This research highlights the lack of equity in several international rankings for the evaluation of the quality of universities, in the respect that most of them give priority to aspects related to institutional seniority and size. At the same time, the results of younger and smaller institutions are not put into perspective. Keywords University ranking, university quality, institutional seniority, property type, university education, higher education, THE, ARWU, Webometrics, QS. Article classification Research Paper
... University rankings can further promote reasonable competition among universities, maximize the utilization efficiency of educational resources, and achieve transparent public supervision of the higher education system. University rankings have appeared diversified and growth-up in recent years [2]. There are some famous university rankings such as U.S. News & World Report Best Global Universities Rankings (U.S. News), Times Higher Education World University Ranking (THE), QS World University Rankings (QS), and Shanghai Ranking's Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU). ...
... Since every ranking is biased, future research in this area should therefore use other global rankings and verify the prevalence of some diversity indicators in the top higher education institutions that we have found in the study reported here. Regional, national rankings and, even more interesting, meta-rankings as the one recently made by Luque-Martínez y Faraoni [67], should also be used to check the presence of diversity indicators in different ranges or in different clusters of universities. Multi-source evidence could provide a clearer picture about the relation of market-with social-based indicators, helping to interpret discrepant results when using different systems.Regarding the qualitative dimension of the study, in general terms, higher education institutions stipulate in their institutional statements and the goals of their strategic diversity outreach plans that one of the main aims is to increase the features of diversity in the demographic composition of the institution. ...
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The participation of diverse demographics in higher education has risen over the last half-century; meanwhile, different political and social tiers have been assigning a more active role to institutions in terms of equality and social justice. This change in circumstances has led to the roll out of processes to institutionalise diversity outreach. This study was conducted for the clear purpose of assessing the current institutionalisation status of diversity outreach in 127 key universities from the Academic Ranking of World Universities based on the opinions of diversity outreach managers and the information published on institutional websites, in turn measuring compliance with various indicators. A qualitative analysis of the institutional statements, the goals sought through strategic plans and the definitions of diversity itself was also conducted. The evidence reveals the early stage of the institutionalisation process in universities on account of the low percentage obtained for the proposed indicators. Furthermore, the study failed to exhibit significant differences in this process in terms of the institutional ownership or position held in the ranking; however, more prominent progress was noted in the North-American region when geographical differences were taken into account, likely as a result of the historical background in the advocacy for equal opportunities. Lastly, a change of approach to the conceptualisation of diversity is suggested in favour of equality and social justice.
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Covid-19 has put much stress on the higher education sector. As universities recover, new ways to improve their marketing should be examined. It is suggested that an expanded social power theory in conjunction with the extended marketing mix can be used to create a hierarchy of four value propositions that apply to prospective and current students and internal and external academics. These value propositions can be considered an aggregate that expresses a university’s position in the marketplace. It is suggested that transactional marketing approaches are appropriate for prospective and current students, while relational marketing approaches are more suitable for internal and external academics. It emerges that the social power theory is more paradoxical in its application. Temporal differences also can be seen to add complexity to this model. Understanding these factors makes it possible for the four key value propositions to be improved (via alignment and intentionality) so that value delivery happens. It is argued that this model can be used with university rankings to enhance a university’s market position.
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Este estudio propone la elaboración de un meta-ranking con las 14 universidades españolas que aparecen en al menos cuatro de los cinco rankings globales considerados, que son de reconocida notoriedad internacional. Se puede diferenciar entre rankings de investigación con datos bibliométricos y rankings que tienen en cuenta otros aspectos y otras formas de recabar datos basadas en encuestas. Las universidades españolas alcanzan mejores posiciones en los primeros que en los segundos. Se pone de relieve una debilidad mayor en la internacionalización, la reputación o el ratio estudiante-profesor que en los indicadores de investigación. Son excepción las universidades que destacan en las dos dimensiones. A la vista de estas conclusiones resulta evidente la necesidad de profundizar en una mayor internacionalización, en mejorar la reputación y mejorar la visibilidad internacional de la universidad española.
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In this article, we discuss how ‘managerialist’ and ‘leaderist’ discourses (O’Reilly and Reed Public Administration 88:960–978, 2010; Organization Studies 32:1079–1101, 2011) are drawn upon in the context of the deregulation of Swedish higher education. As of 2011, there has been new legislation that frames Swedish universities as ‘autonomous’ and transfers most of the regulative responsibilities from the government level to university vice-chancellors. The aim of this article is to inquire into how tensions within and between managerialist and leaderist discourse are handled in the promotion of New Public Management reforms and the consequences thereof in terms of how leadership in the higher education sector is constructed. We analyse how these discourses are employed in the core documents leading up to the 2010 Riksdag decision to enact most of the proposed deregulations, and the subsequent evaluation undertaken by the social democratic government that took over in 2014. Based in this analysis, we suggest that the texts indeed draw upon notions of leadership and leaders as necessary for Swedish universities to survive and thrive in the future, but that the envisaged practise of this ‘strong leadership’ can either be characterised as a discursive void or described in terms of de-personalised, instrumental managerial surveillance and control.
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Neo-liberal reforms in higher education have resulted in corporate managerial practices in universities and a drive for efficiency and productivity in teaching and research. As a result, there has been an intensification of academic work, increased stress for academics and an emphasis on accountability and performativity in universities. The paper proposes that while managerialism in modern universities is now the norm, corporate approaches have disempowered academics in their institutions and reduced productivity because they ignore the nature of academic work. Using Foucault’s conception of power relations in institutions, policies that directly affect academic work such as workload allocation and performance management are identified as key ways in which power is exercised in universities. The paper reports on a case study in one university which explored the relationship between the academic workload allocation and performance management policies and concludes that a more balanced power relationship is needed in which academics can have more influence over these key processes which control their work so they preserve the self-managed aspects of academic work and the intrinsic motivations driving their careers.
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This article combines Bourdieu’s concepts of field, habitus and cultural capital with Lyotard’s account of performativity to construct a three-tiered framework in order to explore how managerialism has affected the academic habitus. Specifically, this article examines the adoption of group assignments as a means of developing teamwork skills in one Australian case study organisation. On a macrolevel, by viewing the employability imperative as one manifestation of managerialism in the higher education field, we argue that managerialism has created a performative culture in the case study organisation evidenced by an increasing emphasis on performance indicators. On a mesolevel, by examining how academics use group assessments to respond to demands made by governments and employers for ‘employable graduates’, we highlight the continuity of academic habitus. Finally, on a microlevel by drawing on alumni reflections regarding their experiences of group assessments at university, we are able to shed some light on their evaluation of this pedagogical tool.
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RESUMEN Pretende este breve ensayo pasar revista a los males que aquejan a la universidad española de hoy. Tras negar que el principal problema de nuestra universidad sea no contar con una institución entre las 150 o 200 primeras universidades del mundo según el Ranking Shanghái, se apuntan y glosan cuáles son esas dolencias. La primera y principal es de naturaleza política: la ausencia de un pacto por la educación. Y a partir de ahí otras, como el incier-to e ineficaz modelo de gobierno, la burbuja universitaria, la burocratización, el envejecimiento y anquilosamiento del profesorado, el fracaso escolar, la deficiente planificación docente, la falta de movilidad de estudiantes y profesores, el efecto de la CNEAI y el defecto de la ANECA en la evaluación del rendimiento del profesorado. Se concluye intentando dilucidar si existe un problema de insuficiencia de recursos o de uso ineficiente de estos y proponiendo medidas concretas que mejoren nuestro sistema universitario. The Spanish university on the therapist’s couch The aim of this brief essay is to examine the evils that currently affect the Spanish university system. After refusing to agree that the main problem of our universities is that none of them are among the first 150 or 200 universi¬ties according to the Shanghai Ranking, the actual maladies are addressed and discussed. The first and foremost reason is of a political nature: the ab¬sence of a pact for education. The other reasons include: an ineffective gov¬ernment model, the university bubble, an increasing bureaucratization, the ageing and stagnation of the faculty staff, academic failure, deficient educa¬tional planning, lack of student and teacher mobility, and the effect of the CNEAI and ANECA in the assessment of academic performance. The essay concludes with an attempt at elucidating whether these problems have aris¬en because of insufficient resources, or rather because the resources are be¬ing spent inefficiently, and it proposes a number of specific measures to im-prove our university system Palabras clave: Universidades españolas, Educación superior, Docencia, Investigación, Gobierno, Organización institucional, Financiación, Rendimiento académico, Rendimiento docente, Fracaso escolar, Profesores, Estudiantes Key words: Spanish Universities, Higher Education, Teaching, Research, University Governance, Management, College Funding, Academic Perfor¬mance, Academic Achievement, School Failure, Professor, University Students
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The role of geographically mediated knowledge externalities in regional innovation systems has become a major issue in research policy. Although the process of innovation is a crucial aspect of economic growth, the problem of measuring innovation has not yet been completely resolved. A central problem involved in such analysis is the measurement of economically useful new knowledge. In the US information on this has been limited to an innovation count data base. Determining the extent to which the innovation data can be substituted by other measures is essential for a deeper understanding of the dynamics involved. We provide an exploratory and a regression-based comparison of the innovation count data and data on patent counts at the lowest possible levels of geographical aggregation.
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The Leiden Ranking 2011/2012 is a ranking of universities based on bibliometric indicators of publication output, citation impact, and scientific collaboration. The ranking includes 500 major universities from 41 different countries. This paper provides an extensive discussion of the Leiden Ranking 2011/2012. The ranking is compared with other global university rankings, in particular the Academic Ranking of World Universities (commonly known as the Shanghai Ranking) and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Also, a detailed description is offered of the data collection methodology of the Leiden Ranking 2011/2012 and of the indicators used in the ranking. Various innovations in the Leiden Ranking 2011/2012 are presented. These innovations include (1) an indicator based on counting a university's highly cited publications, (2) indicators based on fractional rather than full counting of collaborative publications, (3) the possibility of excluding non-English language publications, and (4) the use of stability intervals. Finally, some comments are made on the interpretation of the ranking, and a number of limitations of the ranking are pointed out.
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In a previous article (Degli Esposti and Geraci. Bulletin of Italian Politics, 2011), we presented an historical survey of the university reform laws that took place in Italy in the last 30 years. On that occasion, we stressed how important is merit evaluation for academics and their institutions, especially in view of the much debated but not yet implemented ‘Gelmini’ reform with its long awaited new regulation for accessing academic positions (concorsi) and for determining individual weight in financial resource allocation among universities. Here, we present and compare several rankings used to evaluate the prestige and merit of Italian universities. We also consider alternative approaches to academic rankings that highlight peculiar aspects of the universities in Italy which cannot be reasonably accounted for by other international rankings. Finally, we propose a new approach that combines both national and international standing of Italian universities. It is hoped that this study will provide practical guidance to policy makers for establishing the criteria upon which merit should be assessed.
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Incl. bibl., abstract We look at some of the theoretical and methodological issues underlying international university ranking systems and, in particular, their conceptual connection with the idea of excellence. We then turn to a critical examination of the two best-known international university ranking systems - the Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) World University Rankings and the Shanghai Jiao Tong Academic Ranking of World Universities. We assess the various criteria used by the two systems and argue that the Jiao Tong system, although far from perfect, is a better indicator of university excellence. Based on our assessments of these two systems, we suggest how an ideal international university ranking system might look, concluding with some comments on the uses of ranking systems.
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An analytic criterion for rotation is defined. The scientific advantage of analytic criteria over subjective (graphical) rotational procedures is discussed. Carroll's criterion and the quartimax criterion are briefly reviewed; the varimax criterion is outlined in detail and contrasted both logically and numerically with the quartimax criterion. It is shown that thenormal varimax solution probably coincides closely to the application of the principle of simple structure. However, it is proposed that the ultimate criterion of a rotational procedure is factorial invariance, not simple structure—although the two notions appear to be highly related. The normal varimax criterion is shown to be a two-dimensional generalization of the classic Spearman case, i.e., it shows perfect factorial invariance for two pure clusters. An example is given of the invariance of a normal varimax solution for more than two factors. The oblique normal varimax criterion is stated. A computational outline for the orthogonal normal varimax is appended.
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Although there are exceptions, most European universities and institutions of higher education find it difficult to compete with the best universities in the Anglo-Saxon world. Despite the Bologna Agreement and the ambitions of the Lisbon Agenda, European universities are in need of fundamental reforms. We look at structural reforms of higher education and propose more effective use of public subsidies, more efficient modes of financing institutions of higher education, more diversity, competition, and transparency, larger private contributions and more equity. In the process we discuss the nature and governance of an institution of higher education, selection, hierarchy in higher education, grade-inflation, fair competition, private and social returns to education, income-contingent loans, equity, and transparency. We sum up with seven recommendations for reform of higher education in Europe. — Bas Jacobs and Frederick van der Ploeg
Actividad Investigadora y Contexto Económico. El Caso de las Universidades Públicas Españolas [Research Activity and Economic Context: The Case of Spanish Public Universities
  • T Luque-Martínez
Luque-Martínez, T. 2015. "Actividad Investigadora y Contexto Económico. El Caso de las Universidades Públicas Españolas [Research Activity and Economic Context: The Case of Spanish Public Universities]." Revista Española de Documentación Científica 38 (1): 1-16. doi:10.3989/redc.2015.1.1135.