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Formulation and evaluation of effervescent tablets: a review

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Oral dosage forms are the most popular way of taking medication, despite having some disadvantages compared with other methods like risk of slow absorption of the medicament, which can be overcome by administering the drug in liquid form, therefore, possibly allowing the use of a lower dosage. However, instability of many drugs in liquid dosage form limits its use. Effervescent technique can be used as alternate to develop a dosage form which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of new pharmaceutical technique, effervescent tablet are more and more extensively to adjust the behaviour of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets. Keywords: Effervescent Tablet, Sustained release, Floating Delivery System
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Patel et al Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2018; 8(6):296-303
ISSN: 2250-1177 [296] CODEN (USA): JDDTAO
Available online on 15.11.2018 at http://jddtonline.info
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Open Access to Pharmaceutical and Medical Research
© 2011-18, publisher and licensee JDDT, This is an Open Access article which permits
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Open Access Review Article
Formulation and evaluation of effervescent tablets: a review
Patel Salim G1*, Siddaiah M2
1 Department of Pharmacy, Bhagwant University, Sikar Road, Ajmer, Rajasthan. India
2 Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University ' Anantpuram, A.P., India
ABSTRACT
Oral dosage forms are the most popular way of taking medication, despite having some disadvantages compared with other
methods like risk of slow absorption of the medicament, which can be overcome by administering the drug in liquid form, therefore,
possibly allowing the use of a lower dosage. However, instability of many drugs in liquid dosage form limits its use. Effervescent
technique can be used as alternate to develop a dosage form which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually
applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of new pharmaceutical technique, effervescent tablet are more
and more extensively to adjust the behaviour of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile
drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets.
Keywords: Effervescent Tablet, Sustained release, Floating Delivery System
Article Info: Received 28 Sep, 2018; Review Completed 27 Oct 2018; Accepted 29 Oct 2018; Available online
15 Nov 2018
Cite this article as:
Patel SG, Siddaiah M, Formulation and evaluation of effervescent tablets: a review, Journal of Drug Delivery and
Therapeutics. 2018; 8(6): 296-303 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v8i6.2021
*Address for Correspondence:
Patel Salim G, Department of Pharmacy, Bhagwant University, Sikar Road, Ajmer, Rajasthan. India
INTRODUCTION
Oral drug delivery has been known for decades as the most
widely utilized route of administered among all the routes
that have been employed for the systemic delivery of drug
via various pharmaceutical products of different dosage
forms. The reasons that the oral route achieved such
popularity may be in part attributed to its ease of
administration.1-2 Oral sustained drug delivery system is
complicated by limited gastric residence times (GRTs).
Rapid GI transit can prevent complete drug release in the
absorption zone and reduce the efficacy of the
administered dose.3-4
Effervescent tablets are becoming increasingly popular in a
variety of sectors including supplements and
pharmaceutical use due to the ease in which they can be
consumed. Effervescent tablets are designed to break in
contact with liquid such as water or juice, often causing
the tablet to dissolve into a solution. 5
These buoyant delivery systems utilize matrices prepared
with swellable polymers such as Methocel or poly
saccharides, e.g., chitosan, and effervescent components,
e.g., sodium bicarbonate and citric or tartaric acid6 or
matrices containing chambers of liquid that gasify at body
temperature7-8. Flotation of a drug delivery system in the
stomach can be achieved by incorporating a floating
chamber filled with vacuum, air or an inert gas9.Gas can be
introduced into the floating chamber by the volatilization
of an organic solvent (e.g. Ether or cyclopentane) or by the
CO2 produced as a result of an effervescent reaction
between organic acids and carbonatebicarbonate salts10.
The matrices are fabricated so that upon arrival in the
stomach, carbon dioxide is liberated by the acidity of the
gastric contents and is entrapped in the jellified
hydrocolloid. This produces an upward motion of the
dosage form and maintains its buoyancy. A decrease in
specific gravity causes the dosage form to float on the
chyme11-12. Recently a multiple-unit type of floating pill,
which generates carbon dioxide gas, has been developed.
The system consisted of sustained- release pills as seeds
surrounded by double layers. The inner layer was an
effervescent layer containing both sodium bicarbonate and
tartaric acid. The outer layer was a swellable membrane
layer containing mainly polyvinyl acetate and purified
shellac. Moreover, the effervescent layer was divided into
two sub layers to avoid direct contact between sodium
bicarbonate and tartaric acid. Sodium bicarbonate was
contained in the inner sublayer and tartaric acid was in the
outer layer. When the system was immersed in a buffer
solution at 37°C, it sank at once in the solution and formed
swollen pills, like balloons, with a density much lower than
1 g/ ml. The reaction was due to carbon dioxide generated
Patel et al Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2018; 8(6):296-303
ISSN: 2250-1177 [297] CODEN (USA): JDDTAO
by neutralization in the inner effervescent layers with the
diffusion of water through the outer swellable membrane
layers. The system was found to float completely within 10
min and approximately 80%remained floating over a
period of 5 hr irrespective of pH and viscosity of the test
medium. While the system was floating, a drug (p-amino
benzoic acid) was released. A variant of this approach
utilizing citric acid (anhydrous) and sodium bicarbonate as
effervescing agents and HPC-H grade as a release
controlling agent has also been reported. In vitro results
indicated a linear decrease in the FT of the tablets with an
increase in the amount of effervescing agents in the range
of 1020%. Attempts have also been made to develop SR
floating tablets using a mixture of sodium bicarbonate,
citric acid and chitosan.13
Figure 1: An effervescent tablet in a glass of water
Effervescent or carbon tablets are tablets which are
designed to dissolve in water, and release carbon
dioxide.14-16 They are products of compression of
component ingredients in the form of powders into a dense
mass, which is packaged in blister pack, or with
a hermetically sealed package with
incorporated desiccant in the cap. To use them, they are
dropped into water to make a solution. The powdered
ingredients are also packaged and sold as effervescent
powders or may be granulated and sold as effervescent
granules. Generally powdered ingredients are first
granulized before being made into tablets17-18
Effervescent tablets are becoming increasingly popular in a
variety of sectors including supplements and
pharmaceutical use due to the ease in which they can be
consumed.
Effervescent tablets are designed to break in contact with
liquid such as water or juice, often causing the tablet to
dissolve into a solution. This makes effervescent tablets the
preferred choice of many, including people who are taking
tablets medicinally as well as a dietary supplement.19
Here we look at 5 benefits of effervescent tablets
over regular tablets. 20
Pleasant Taste Compared to Regular Tablets
Effervescent tablets are so popular due to the fact they can
be dissolved in a liquid such as water or fruit juice,
meaning that they often taste better than regular tablets.
Conventional tablets dissolve slowly which can result in
reduced absorption rates, effervescent tablets, in contrast,
dissolve quickly and completely, meaning you get the full
benefit from the ingredients.
Distributed More Evenly
Conventional tablets dissolve gradually in the stomach
once ingested and can sometimes only partially dissolve
which can lead to irritation in some cases. The benefit of
effervescent tablets is that they dissolve completely and
evenly meaning that localised concentrations of the
ingredients cannot occur. This means not only a better
taste but also less chance of irritation and a more efficient
means of ingesting the ingredients.
Increased Liquid Intake
Effervescent tablets provide the nutritional benefits
intended, but in addition to this they also increase liquid
intake. This can be especially beneficial if you are
dehydrated or ill and not ingesting as much fluid as
usual. Effervescent tablets can be a fantastic way of
rehydrating as well as reaping the benefits you are taking
the tablets for whether this is a dietary supplement,
herbally or medicinally.
Easy Alternative to Regular Tablets
They can be a great alternative for those who may have
trouble swallowing either due to illness or age. Older
individuals may have difficulty swallowing but need to take
medication or supplements on a regular basis and in this
respect, effervescent tablets can be a lot easier than having
to swallow a tablet. In addition to this, they can be a great
way of ingesting medicine for individuals with sore throats
or medical issues that make swallowing difficult and so are
a viable alternative to regular tablets.
Simple and Easy to Measure
Effervescent tablets are easily dissolved into water or a
liquid of your choice and then after a while are consistent,
well mixed and ready to drink. Traditional tablets or
powders, however, need to be measured and stirred in
repeatedly to avoid an inconsistent drink with lumpy bits.
Even with stirring and measuring it is common to have an
inconsistent drink with lumpy bits and an odd taste and
this is where effervescent tablets are more efficient. Simply
drop them in and they dissolve fully and evenly ensuring
you get all the benefits of the tablet, as well as being able to
comfortably drink it.
To Sum Up
Effervescent tablets are becoming increasingly popular and
it is easy to see why. They provide a much more efficient
way of taking supplements or medication due to being
distributed evenly and much more quickly than regular
tablets. In addition to this, they taste better as can be
added to water or a liquid drink of your choice as well as
being easier to take for people who may find it difficult to
swallow.
All these factors combine to make effervescent tablets a
very popular choice for those taking tablets for either
dietary supplementation or medicinal reasons.
As per revised definition proposed to US FDA, Effervescent
tablet is a tablet intended to be dissolved or dispersed in
water before administration. Effervescent tablets are
uncoated tablets that generally contain acid or acid salts
(Citric, tartaric, Malic acid or any other suitable acid or acid
anhydride) and carbonates or bicarbonates (Sodium,
potassium or any other suitable alkali metal carbonate or
hydrogen carbonate), which react rapidly in the presence
Patel et al Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2018; 8(6):296-303
ISSN: 2250-1177 [298] CODEN (USA): JDDTAO
of water by releasing carbon dioxide. Due to liberation in
CO2 gas, the dissolution of API in water as well as taste
masking effect is enhanced. 16-20
The reaction between Citric acid and Sodium bicarbonate
& Tartaric acid and Sodium bicarbonate, which results in
liberation of carbon dioxide shown as follows:
C6H8O7.H2O+3NaHCO3 (aq) → Na3C6H5O7 + 4H2O + 3CO2 (g) ↑
Citric acid + Sodium bicarbonate → Sodium citrate + Water
+ Carbon dioxide
C4H6O6 + 2 NaHCO3Na2C4H4O6 + 2H2O + 2CO2 (g) ↑
Tartaric acid + Sodium bicarbonate → Sodium tartrate +
Water + Carbon dioxide
Figure 2: Mechanism of Effervescence
FUNDAMENTALS OF EFFERVESCENTS: 20-21
Effervescence consists of a soluble organic acid and an
alkali metal carbonate salt, one of which is often the API.
Carbon dioxide is formed if this mixture comes into contact
with water. Typical examples of the acids and alkalis used
include:
Citric acid
Tartaric acid
Malic acid
Fumaric acid
Adipic acid
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium carbonate
Sodium sesquicarbonate
Potassium bicarbonate
Potassium carbonate
ADVANTAGES OF EFFERVESCENT TABLETS: 22-23
Fast onset of action.
No need to swallow tablet.
Good stomach and intestinal tolerance.
More portability.
Improved palatability.
Superior stability.
More consistent response.
Incorporation of large amounts of active ingredients.
Accurate Dosing.
Improved Therapeutic Effect.
In remote areas, especially where parenteral forms
are not available due to prohibitive cost, lack of
qualified medical staff, effervescent tablets could
become an alternative.
DISADVANTAGES OF EFFERVESCENT TABLETS: 22-23
Unpleasant taste of some active ingredients.
Larger tablets requiring special packaging materials.
Relatively expensive to produce due to large amount
of more or less expensive excipients and special
production facilities.
Clear solution is preferred for administration,
although a fine dispersion is now universally
acceptable.
FORMULATION METHODOLOGIES: 24-36
Wet Granulation:
The most widely used process of agglomeration in
pharmaceutical industry is wet granulation. Wet
granulation process simply involves wet massing of the
powder blend with a granulating liquid, wet sizing and
drying.24-36
Important steps involved in the wet granulation
Mixing of the drug(s) and excipients.
Preparation of binder solution.
Mixing of binder solution with powder mixture to
form wet mass
Drying of moist granules.
Mixing of screened granules with disintegrant, glidant,
and lubricant.
Advantages
Permits mechanical handling of powders without loss
of mix quality.
Improves the flow of powders by increasing particle
size and sphericity.
Increases and improves the uniformity of powder
density.
Limitation of wet granulation
The greatest disadvantage of wet granulation is its
cost. It is an expensive process because of labor, time,
equipment, energy and space requirements.
Loss of material during various stages of processing.
Dry Granulation:
In dry granulation process the powder mixture is
compressed without the use of heat and solvent. It is the
least desirable of all methods of granulation. The two basic
procedures are to form a compact of material by
compression and then to mill the compact to obtain a
granules. Two methods are used for dry granulation. The
more widely used method is slugging, where the powder is
recompressed and the resulting tablet or slug are milled to
yield the granules. The other method is to recompress the
Patel et al Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2018; 8(6):296-303
ISSN: 2250-1177 [299] CODEN (USA): JDDTAO
powder with pressure rolls using a machine such as
Chilosonator.33-40
Rollar Compaction:
The compaction of powder by means of pressure roll can
also be accomplished by a machine called chilsonator.
Unlike tablet machine, the chilsonator turns out a
compacted mass in a steady continuous flow. The powder
is fed down between the rollers from the hopper which
contains a spiral auger to feed the powder into the
compaction zone. Like slugs, the aggregates are screened
or milled for production into granules.40-43
Use: Use in the production of directly compressible
excipients, the compaction of drugs and drug formulations,
the granulation of inorganic materials, the granulation of
dry herbal material and the production of
immediate/sustained release formulations.
Advancement in Granulations
Steam Granulation
It is modification of wet granulation. Here steam is used as
a binder instead of water. Its several benefits includes
higher distribution uniformity, higher diffusion rate into
powders, more favorable thermal balance] during drying
step, steam granules are more spherical, have large surface
area hence increased dissolution rate of the drug from
granules, processing time is shorter therefore more
number of tablets are produced per batch, compared to the
use of organic solvent water vapour is environmentally
friendly, no health hazards to operators, no restriction by
ICH on traces left in the granules, freshly distilled steam is
sterile and therefore the total count can be kept under
control, lowers dissolution rate so can be used for
preparation of taste masked granules without modifying
availability of the drug.44-45
Melt Granulation / Thermoplastic Granulation
Here granulation is achieved by the addition of moldable
binder. That is binder is in solid state at room temperature
but melts in the temperature range of 50 80˚C. Melted
binder then acts like a binding liquid. There is no need of
drying phase since dried granules are obtained by cooling
it to room temperature.46-48
EVALUATION OF EFFERVESCENT TABLET
Pre-compression parameters:
1. Angle of repose (θ):
Angle of repose is defined as the maximum angle possible
between the surface of a pile of the powder and horizontal
plane. The frictional force in a loose powder or granules
can be measured by angle of repose. It is an indicative of
the flow properties of the powder.49-50
tan θ = H / R
θ = tan-1 (H/R)
Where, θ is the angle of repose
H is height of pile
R is radius of the base of pile
The powder mixture was allowed to flow through the
funnel fixed to a stand at definite height (H). The angle of
repose was then calculated by measuring the height &
radius of the heap of powder formed. Care was taken to see
that the powder particles slip & roll over each other
through the sides of the funnel. Relationship between angle
of repose and powder flow property.
Table 1: Angle of repose as an indication of powder flow
properties
Angle of repose (degrees)
Type of flow
< 20
Excellent
20-30
Good
30-34
Passable
> 40
Very poor
2. Flow Rate:
Flow rate of a powder has been defined as the rate at
which the particular mass emerges through the office of
funnel of a suitable diameter. The flow rate for granules of
each formulation was determined by pouring accurately
weighed quantities of granules in funnel with an orifice of
8 mm diameter. The time required for the complete
granule mass to emerge out of the orifice was recorded
using a stopwatch. The flow rate was calculated from
following equation: 49
  

3. Bulk Density:
The bulk density was obtained by dividing the mass of a
powder by the bulk volume in cm3. The sample of about 50
cm3 of powder, previously been passed through a standard
sieve no. 20, was carefully introduced into a 100 ml
graduated cylinder. The cylinder was dropped at 2-second
intervals onto a hard wood surface three times from a
height of 1 inch. The bulk density of each formulation was
then obtained by dividing the weight of sample in grams by
the final volume in cm3 of the sample contained in the
cylinder. It was calculated by using equation below:49
Df = M/Vp
Where
Df = bulk density
M = weight of samples in grams
Vp = final volumes of granules in cm3
4. Tapped density:
The tapped density was obtained by dividing the mass of a
powder by the tapped volume in cm3. The sample of about
50 cm3 of powder previously been passed through a
standard sieve no. 20, is carefully introduced into a 100 ml
graduated cylinder. The cylinder was dropped at 2-second
intervals onto a hard wood surface 100 times from a height
of 1 inch. The tapped density of each formulation was then
obtained by dividing the weight of sample in grams by the
final tapped volume in cm3 of the sample contained in the
cylinder. It was calculated by using equation given below:
Do= M/Vp
Where
Do= bulk density
M = weight of samples in grams
Vp = final volumes of granules in cm3
5. Carr’s Index:
An indirect method of measuring powder flow from bulk
densities was developed by Carr. The percentage
Patel et al Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2018; 8(6):296-303
ISSN: 2250-1177 [300] CODEN (USA): JDDTAO
compressibility of a powder was a direct measure of the
potential powder arch or bridge strength and stability.
Carr’s index of each formulation was calculated according
to equation given below:
   
 
Where,
Df = Fluff or Poured bulk or bulk density.
Do = Tapped or Consolidated bulk density.
Table 2: Carr’s Index as an indication of powder flow
Carr’s index (%)
Type of flow
5-15
Excellent
12-16
Good
18-21
Fair to passable
23-35
Poor
33-38
Very poor
>40
Extremely poor
Evaluation of Effervescent tablets
Weight variation: Weight variation was determined to
know whether different batches of tablets have uniformity.
Weighed 20 tablets individually, calculated the average
weight and compared the individual tablet weights to the
average. The tablets meet the test if not more than two
tablets are outside the % limit and none of the tablet differ
by more than two times the % limit. Weight variation
specification as per I.P. is shown in table no.6.18.
Table: 3: Weight variation specification.
IP/BP
Limit
80 mg or less
10%
More than 80mg or
Less than 250mg
7.5%
250mg or more
5%
Tablet Thickness and Diameter:
Thickness and diameter of tablets were important for
uniformity of tablet size. Thickness and diameter were
measured using Vernier Calipers.
Tablet Hardness:
The resistance of tablets to shipping or breakage under
conditions of storage, transportation and handling before
usage depends on its hardness. The hardness of tablet of
each formulation was measured by Monsanto Hardness
Tester. The hardness was measured in items of kg/cm2.
Hardness or tablet crushing strength is the force required
to break a tablet in a diametric compression. The force is
measured in kg and the hardness of about 3-5 kg/cm2 is
considered to be satisfactory for uncoated tablets.
Friability (F):
Friability of the tablet determined using Roche friabilator.
This device subjects the tablet to the combined effect of
abrasion and shock in a plastic chamber revolving at 25
rpm and dropping a tablet at a height of 6 inches in each
revolution. Pre weighted sample of tablets was placed in
the friabilator and were subjected to the 100 revolutions.
Tablets were dusted using a soft muslin cloth and
reweighed. USP limit is 0.5 to 1%. The friability (F) is given
by the formula
   
 
Measurement of effervescence time
A single tablet is placed in a beaker containing 200 ml of
purified water at 20 °C ± 1 °C. Whenever a clear solution
without particles is obtained effervescence time has
finished.
The mean of three measurements of each formulation is to
be reported.
Determination of effervescent solution pH
pH of solution is determined with one tablet in 200 ml of
purified water at 20 ± 1 °C by using pH meter, immediately
after completing the dissolution time. Repeat experiment
3times for each formulation.
Measurement of CO2 content
One effervescent tablet solved in 100 ml of 1N sulphuric
acid solution and weight changes were determined after
dissolution end. The obtained weight difference is shown
the amount (mg) of CO2 per tablet. Reports the averages of
3determinations.
Evaluation of the water content
10 tablets of each formulation are dried in a desiccators
containing of activated silica gel for 4 hours. Water content
of 0.5% or less is acceptable.
Uniformity of Content:
10 tablets were selected randomly. Each tablet was
transferred into a 50mL volumetric flask, dissolved and
diluted to 50 mL with phosphate buffer pH 6.8. One ml of
this solution was diluted to 100 ml with phosphate buffer
pH 6.8. The amount of drug present in each tablet was
determined by UV spectroscopy at 246 nm. Standard limit
for uniformity of content is
IP: - Active less than 10mg or 10%,
BP:- Active less than 2 mg or 2%,
USP:- Active less than 25mg or 25%.
10 tabs limit NMT 1 tab deviate 85 115% & none
outside 75 125% of the Avg value/IP/BP/USP
(Relative Standard Deviation less than or equal to
6%),
If 2 or 3 individual values are outside the limits 85
115% of the Avg value, & none outside 75 125%
repeat for 20 tablets.
Determination of the equilibrium moisture content
Three desiccators are prepared containing saturated salt
solutions of potassium nitrate (for creation 90% RH, at 18
°C), sodium chloride (for creation 71% RH, at 18 °C) and
sodium nitrite (for creation 60% RH, at 18 °C). Three
tablets of each formulation are placed in desiccators. Then,
the equilibrium moisture content is determined by Karl
Fischer method and the autotitrator device in the first day
and after 7day.
In-vitro disintegration time
The process of breakdown of a tablet into smaller particles
is called as disintegration. The in-vitro disintegration time
of a tablet was determined using disintegration test
apparatus as per I.P. specifications.
I.P. Specifications: Place one tablet in each of the 6 tubes of
the basket. Add a disc to each tube and run the apparatus
using phosphate buffer (pH-6.8) maintained at37°±2°C as
Patel et al Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2018; 8(6):296-303
ISSN: 2250-1177 [301] CODEN (USA): JDDTAO
the immersion liquid. The assembly should be raised and
lowered between 30 cycles per minute in the phosphate
buffer (pH-6.8) maintained at 37°±2°C. The time in seconds
taken for complete disintegration of the tablet with no
palpable mass remaining in the apparatus was measured
and recorded. Standard limit for disintegration time is
within 3 min in water at 250C ± 10C (IP) and 15 250C
(BP). The results are given in table no.6.27.
Dissolution Studies
The release rate of Atorvastatin from mouth dissolving
tablets was determined using USP Dissolution Testing
Apparatus II (Paddle type). The dissolution medium used
was 900 ml of phosphate buffer pH 6.8 which was
maintained at 37±0.50C. The paddle speed was kept at 50
rpm throughout the study. Five ml of samples was
withdrawn at every 5 minutes interval and diluted to 10ml
then 5ml of fresh dissolution media maintained at the same
temperature was replaniced. The samples were analysed
spectrophotometrically at 246nm using phosphate buffer
pH 6.8 as blank. The raw dissolution data was analyzed for
calculating the amount of drug released and percentage
cumulative drug released at different time intervals.
Release Kinetic Modeling: 22, 23, 25, 41, 49, 50
In recent years, drug release from pharmaceutical dosage
forms has been the subject of intense and profitable
scientific developments. Whenever a new dosage form is
developed form is developed, it is it is necessary to ensure
that drug release occurs in an appropriate manner. The
quantitative analysis of the values obtained in release tests
is easier when mathematical formulas that express the
release results as a function of some of the dosage forms
characteristics are used. In some cases, these mathematic
models are derived from the theoretical analysis of the
occurring process. Drug dissolution from dosage forms has
been described by kinetic models in which the dissolved
amount of drug (Q) is a function of the test time, t or Q=f
(t). Some analytical definitions of the Q (t) function are
commonly used, such as zero order, first order, Higuchi
and KorsmeyerPapas.
In-vitro dissolution has been recognized as an important
pharmaceutical dosage form can influence the release
element in drug development. Under certain conditions it
kinetic be used as a surrogate for the assessment of
bioequivalence. Several theories / kinetics models describe
drug dissolution from immediate and modified release
dosage forms. There are several models to represent the
drug dissolution profiles where ft is a function of t (time)
related to the amount of drug dissolved from the
pharmaceutical dosage system. In most cases, with tablets,
capsules, coated forms or prolonged release forms that
theoretical fundament does not exist and sometimes a
more adequate empirical equations used. A water-soluble
drug incorporated in a matrix is mainly released by
diffusion, while for a low water-soluble drug the self-
erosion of the matrix will be the principal release
mechanism. To accomplish these studies the cumulative
profiles of the dissolved drug are t more commonly used in
opposition to their differential profiles. To compare
dissolution profiles between two drug products model
dependent (curve fitting), statistical analysis and model
independent methods can be used.
Zero order kinetics:
Drug dissolution from dosage forms that do not
disaggregate and release the drug slowly can be
represented by the following equation
Wo-Wt= Kt
Where,
Wo is the initial amount of drug in the dosage
form.
Wt is the initial amount of drug in the dosage
form at time( t)
K is the proportionality constant.
Dividing this equation by and simplify
Ft=Kot
Where ft= 1-(Wt-Wo) and ft represents the fraction of drug
dissolved in time t and Ko the zero order of release
constant.
This relation can be used to describe the modified release
dosage form; the following relation can, in simple way to
express this model
Qt = Qo + Kot
Where,
Qt is the amount of drug dissolved in time t.
Qo is the amount of drug in the solution.
First order kinetics:
Gibaldi and Feldman first proposed the application of this
model to drug dissolution studies in 1967 and later by
Wagner in 1969. The dissolution phenomena of solid
particles in a liquid media implies a surface action, as can
be seen by the Noyes- Whitney equation.
DC/dt= K (Cs-C)
Where,
C is the concentration of the solute in time t
Cs is the solubility in the equilibrium at
expression temperature
K is the first order proportionality
Higuchi model:
Higuchi developed several theoretical models to study the
release of water soluble and low soluble drops
incorporated in the matrixes. The drug particles dispersed
in a uniform matrix behaving as the diffusion media, the
relation obtained was the following:
ft = Q=D(2C-Cs) Cst
Where,
Q is the amount of drug released in time t, per
unit area,
C is the drug initial concentration,
Cs is the drug solubility in the matrix media.
D is the diffusivity of the drug molecules
(diffusion constant in matrix).
dQ = Cdh ½ (Csdh)
but, in accordance to the first law (dq/dt = DC/h)
Higuchi in 1962 proposed the following equation, for the
case in which the drug is dissolution.
In general way it is possible to resume the Highuchi model
to the following expression (generally known as the
simplified Higuchi model).
Patel et al Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2018; 8(6):296-303
ISSN: 2250-1177 [302] CODEN (USA): JDDTAO
Ft = KHt1/2.
Where KH is the Highuchi dissolution constant treated
sometimes in a different manner by different authors and
theories. Higuchi describes drug release as a diffusion
process based on Fick’s law, square root time dependent.
Korsmeyer Peppas model:
Korsmeyer et al., in 1983 was developed a simple, semi
empirical model, relating exponentially the drug release to
the elapsed time (t).
ft = atn
a is a constant incorporating structural and geometric
characteristics of the drug dosage from, n is the release
exponent, indicate of the drug release mechanisms and the
functions of t is Mt/M (Fractional release of drug). If drug
release occurs under perfect sink condition, the following
initial and boundary conditions, the following initial and
boundary conditions can be assumed.
t=0-d/2<x<d/z C =C0
t>0. x= d/z C =C1
C0-is the initial drug concentration in the device.
C1 -is the concentration of drug at the polymer water
interface.
In the diffusion is the main drug release mechanism, a
graphic representation the drug amount released, in the
referred conditions, versus the square root of time should
originate a straight line.
Table 4: Mathematical models used to describe drug
release mechanism.
S. No.
Mathematical model
Equation
1.
Zero order
Qt = Qo + Kot
2.
First order
ln Q = ln Qo + K1t
3.
Higuchi
Qt=KH√t
4.
Korsmeyer- Peppas
Qt /Q∞ =Kktn
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... The results of the weight uniformity test are shown in Table 3. It can be observed that there is not a single tablet whose weight deviates more than 5% and 10% of their respective mean weights so that it qualifies as an effervescent tablet that is fit for consumption (Kholidah and Khumaidi, 2014;Patel and Siddaiah, 2018). Fine granule flow properties also influence good weight diversity results. ...
... The brittleness of the tablet describes the strength of the tablet surface against abrasion on the tablet surface. The good friability value is less than 1% which means the tablet is mechanically stable (Kartikasari et al., 2015;Patel and Siddaiah, 2018). In this study, ten tablets were taken for each formulation and carried out three times for brittleness testing, then weighed. ...
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... The dissolution reaction of effervescent tablets is a reaction between the acid source and carbonate which produces gas in the form of carbon dioxide which occurs spontaneously when the tablet is immersed in water (Figure 1). The mechanism of effervescent tablets is dissolving in water so that they become effervescent drinks caused by the occurrence of acid and alkaline reactions (Patel & Siddaiah, 2018). The reaction is as follows: ...
... → Na3C6H5O7 + 4H2O + 3 CO2 Citric acid Na-bicarbonate Na-citrate water Carbondioxide H2C4H4O6 + 2NaHCO3 → Na2C4H4O6 + 2H2O + 2CO2 Tartic acid Na-bicarbonate Na-tartic water Carbondioxide Figure 1. Mechanism of dissolution of effervescent tablets (Patel & Siddaiah, 2018) The type and concentration of acid and base will have an impact on the effervescent flow rate. The use of citric acid can accelerate the flowability of effervescent granules because citric acid can release water crystals during melting. ...
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... The Hausner ratio is measured to determine the compressibility and free flow of the powders. The importance of Hausner index is more related to the properties of handling and transport than the static state of the powder [48]. ...
... The resistance of the tablet to breakage in storage, transport, and transfer conditions before use depends on its hardness. The tablet hardness is one of the effective and important factors in the process of its disintegration, and it can be considered as a reflection of the density of the tablet ingredients [48]. The hardness of barberry effervescent tablets was 45-39 N ( Table 4). ...
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