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This paper analyzes whether there is a correlation between student motivation and perceived social support. The determination of the effects of the perceived social support provided by the students’ families, friends, and other important people on the students’ motivations will contribute to an explanation of the motivation to learn. This study was conducted with a total of 716 student teachers. The “Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support” was used to determine social support perceived by the student teachers and the “Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire” was used to determine motivation. Results indicate that there was a correlation between the elements of social support and the levels of use of motivational strategies by the student teachers. The study showed that there was a positive correlation amongst the levels of external motivation, internal motivation, and motivation for subject value of the individuals who received sufficient social support from their environment.
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© Kamla-Raj 2015 Anthropologist, 22(2): 284-292 (2015)
A Study on Social Support and Motivation
Erdogan Tezci1, Fahri Sezer2, Ugur Gurgan3 and Sumer Aktan4
Balikesir University, Necatibey Education Faculty, Educational Sciences Department
1E-mail: erdogan.tezci@hotmail.com, Phone: +90 505 6890512,
2E-mail: fahrisezer23@hotmail.com, Phone: +90 505 2112306,
3E-mail: ugurgan@hotmail.com, Phone: +90 266 241 2762,
4E-mail: saktanus@yahoo.com, Phone: +90 505 6719306
KEYWORDS Social Support. Motivation. Motivational Strategies. Teacher Education
ABSTRACT This paper analyzes whether there is a correlation between student motivation and perceived social
support. The determination of the effects of the perceived social support provided by the students’ families,
friends, and other important people on the students’ motivations will contribute to an explanation of the motivation
to learn. This study was conducted with a total of 716 student teachers. The “Multidimensional Scale of Perceived
Social Support” was used to determine social support perceived by the student teachers and the “Motivated
Strategies for Learning Questionnaire” was used to determine motivation. Results indicate that there was a
correlation between the elements of social support and the levels of use of motivational strategies by the student
teachers. The study showed that there was a positive correlation amongst the levels of external motivation,
internal motivation, and motivation for subject value of the individuals who received sufficient social support from
their environment.
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Fahri Sezer
Assistant Professor
Balikesir University, Necatibey Faculty of Education,
Guidance and Counseling Department,
10100 Balikesir, Turkey
Telephone: (+90) 2662412762.
Fax: (+90) 2662495005
E-mail: fahrisezer23@hotmail.com
INTRODUCTION
Motivation is defined as a process that is
instrumental in the introduction and continua-
tion of activities intended for a specific purpose
(Randhawa and Gupta 2000; Pintrich et al. 2008;
Wigfield et al. 2015). Academically, motivation
describes a student’s desire, need, aspiration and
obligation to participate in the learning process
and become successful (Bomia et al. 1997: 1).
Academic achievement is influenced by the ob-
jectives of the students or their reasons for go-
ing to school. On the other hand, motivation pro-
vides a basis for the objectives of the students.
Attending school regularly plays a significant
role in determining whether students perform
certain tasks, become active learners, and impacts
academic achievement, interests, and objectives
of students (Mega et al. 2014; Levy and Camp-
bell 2008; Wentzel 1998). Studies indicate that
motivation is a key factor in initiating and main-
taining the learning process of the students in
education (Randhawa and Gupta 2000; Wigfield,
2015).
Although different variables (Deci et al. 1991;
High and Scharp 2015; Kressler 2003) have an
impact on the motivation of each individual, cer-
tain factors are known to be influential in the
desire to increase an individual’s performance.
According to both content-oriented and process-
oriented motivational theories, an individual’s
behavior is determined by the stimuli that moti-
vate the individual (Deci et al. 1991; Pintrich et
al. 2008), which may be internal or external in
origin (Deci 1971). Internal motivation can be
defined as the participation of an individual in
an activity because of individual enjoyment or
interest in the activity without expecting an ex-
ternal reward. In other words, it is not based on
an external stimulus (Deci and Ryan 1994; Deci
et al. 1991). Internal motivation is about an ac-
tion taken by an individual by an internal natural
interest without an external driving force. On the
other hand, external motivation is associated with
an individual’s participation in an activity to re-
ceive a reward (Atnafu 2012; Pintrich et al. 1991;
Ryan and Deci 2000). External motivation can be
explained by such reasons as receiving a reward,
acquiring status, being favored by others, or
avoiding punishment. The incentive for the learn-
ing process is also external. This incentive is not
artificial. It should be built upon the current nat-
ural reactions or tendencies. This indicates that
A STUDY ON SOCIAL SUPPORT AND MOTIVATION 285
a favorable objective organization, reward appli-
cation, and a supportive social network are im-
portant to achieve external motivation (Chen 2015;
Bomia et al. 1997; Ryan and Deci 2000). Deci and
Ryan (1994) stated that both internal and exter-
nal motivations were determined by social fac-
tors. Factors like families, teachers, friends, and
peers with whom an individual interacts are sig-
nificant promoters of the integration of external
and internal motivations (Deci and Ryan 1994;
Muller and Palekcic 2005; Weiner 1985). Although
the social support provided for individuals is
associated with external motivation, it also has
potential for internalization (Anderman and An-
derman 1999; Deci and Ryan 1994; Ryan and Deci
2000).
Weiner (1985) emphasized that the perceived
social support promotes the motivation required
to achieve success. Whether the support re-
ceived from other people with whom individuals
interact is positive or negative affects their moti-
vation (Ersoy-Kart and Guldu 2008; Garavandi
et al. 2015). Individuals often require support from
others in order to overcome challenges encoun-
tered during their education and social life and
to continue their lives so as to maintain a suc-
cessful life. These support elements are referred
to as social support elements in the literature
(Atnafu 2012; Zimet et al. 1988). These elements
can be the individuals’ families, friends, or a spe-
cial person in their lives. Sarason et al. (1990:
110) defined this perceived social support as “a
set of emotions that an individual likes, appreci-
ates, and unconditionally accepts.” Social sup-
port can also be defined as an individual feeling
a sense of belonging to a certain group. The sup-
port received by the individual in that group al-
lows the individual to suffer less due to stressful
circumstances and to encounter less threaten-
ing life events (Boyle et al. 1991). Social support
includes emotional, mental, and physical securi-
ty received from families, friends, and people
special to the individual (Forehand et al. 1998;
Garavandi et al. 2015; Mega et al. 2014; Sarason
et al. 1995). Mutual respect among the members
of a group allows for the support of individuals
who have relatively less skill or competence in a
certain area and helps them feel worthy. Social
support provided by the teacher in class, the
family at home, or by peers or friends in the envi-
ronment empowers success-oriented and risk-
taking behavior among students (Birch and Ladd
1998; Deci and Ryan 1994). Mutual respect among
all members of a group accounts for social sup-
port in class, family, and other social circles.
When teachers and families understand that
both internal motivation and elements of exter-
nal motivation support learning (Ryan and Deci
2000), they can be better positioned to offer effi-
cient guidance. In addition, which elements of
external support account for a source of motiva-
tion may also form a basis for efficient guidance.
Both perceived and actual social support behav-
iors contribute to the students’ wellbeing, opti-
mistic outlook (Vieno et al. 2007), and positive
images of self-respect (Hoffman et al. 1988). This
is significant because it contributes to the inter-
nalization of social support elements. Social sup-
port has the potential to affect the motivation of
the students’ learning process. In this context,
the objective of this study was to determine the
correlation between the motivation of university
students and the social support they received.
The effects of the perceived social support re-
ceived by the students from their families,
friends, and people who are special to them on
their motivations will contribute to the explana-
tion of the nature of the motivation to learn.
Moreover, the results of the study may also con-
tribute to the efforts of the families and teachers
for the design of a learning environment for stu-
dents during the learning process. It may also
help teachers and administrators develop effi-
cient design strategies to overcome the prob-
lems encountered during the learning process.
In this respect, the following hypotheses have
been analyzed with an aim to determine which
elements of social support perceived by the stu-
dents are the variables to affect motivation.
H1: There Will Be a Significant Positive
Correlation between the Motivations of the
Students and the Family Support
Perceived by the Students
This would occur provided that the students
have a strong relationship with their families, the
families support the learning process of the stu-
dents and thus contribute to the students’ deci-
sions to prioritize learning (Chen 2015; Crone and
MacKay 2007). Family support includes finan-
cial support to maintain the individual’s educa-
tional life, psychological support, opportunities,
and other help in overcoming problems. It has
been suggested that the support, appreciation,
and praise received by the students from their
286 ERDOGAN TEZCI, FAHRI SEZER, UGUR GURGAN
parents and their inner circle may increase the
levels of motivation and academic achievement
(Atnafu 2012; High and Scharp 2015; Unger et
al. 2000; Forehand et al. 1998). In this framework,
it was stated that the social support received by
the individual had a significant effect on dealing
with stressful events and suffering from less harm
(Boyle et al. 1991; Holahan et al. 1995). On the
other hand, it has been emphasized that lack of
this support would lead to such behaviors as
being unable to deal with the requirements of a
task and thus giving up on the task, which is sim-
ilar to burnout (Demerouti et al. 2001; Garavandi
et al. 2015). Weiner (1985) stated that family sup-
port, as an element of social support, promoted
motivation for success among students. Based
on these findings, there is a significant positive
correlation between the family support perceived
by students and their level of motivation.
H2: There Will Be a Significant Positive
Correlation between the Motivations of the
Students and the Friend Support Perceived
by the Students
Another source of social support in the indi-
viduals’ lives is their circle of friends, which is
sometimes even more effective than family. Pre-
vious research has indicated that support from
friends had a significant role in academic achieve-
ment and motivation, and that the support from
friends and friendships were closely associated
with academic achievement, socialization, social
objectives, self-image, and emotional conditions
as motivational outcomes (Eldeleklioglu 2008;
Jiang et al. 2015; Uzman 2004; Wentzel 1998; Yildi-
rim 2007). This information shows that a circle of
friends can have a significant role in an individ-
ual’s academic life. The students’ positive and
supportive relations with their friends contrib-
ute to their motivation and engagement in school
(Pierce et al. 1991; Randhawa and Gupta 2000).
In addition, the support from friends, included
within the elements of social support, is more
prominent during certain developmental periods
like adolescence, when the support from friends
tends to be more important than that of many
others.
The study indicated that as long as mothers
receive social support from their friends while
raising a child, they would treat their children
more responsibly and develop a more positive
attitude towards them. Also, such mothers sup-
port their children more and tend to display con-
trolling behaviors towards their children less of-
ten (Jennings et al. 1991). Considering that the
friend support received by students has a sig-
nificant role in being favored and appreciated,
this support may have an effect on an individual
to show a good performance in an activity.
H3: There Will Be a Significant Positive
Correlation between the Motivations of the
Students and the Support from a Person
Perceived as Special by Them
In addition to relatives like parents and sib-
lings, other special people like boyfriends or girl-
friends, teachers, coaches, and other role mod-
els have a significant place in a student’s life.
These special people may be found in the circle
of friends of the individual and may also be found
in various other groups. Whereas a teacher may
sometimes become a special person for a stu-
dent, a close neighbor may also play this role in
a student’s life from time to time (Brophy 2004;
Greene et al. 2004). The support received from
such special people during the course of life may
have an effect on the individuals’ perspectives
and their decision-making. It has been found that
this intimate support has a protective aspect
against suicidal tendencies displayed by indi-
viduals (Cole et al. 1992; Forehand et al. 1998;
Unger et al. 2000). Students’ perceptions about
the support from a teacher are associated with
having stronger emotions about social support
and a sense of belonging to school. Showing
strong emotions about a sense of belonging to
school is a factor that promotes academic con-
centration and motivation. Social support pro-
vided by the teacher enables the students to
develop high expectations in class. These high
expectations strengthen students’ risk-taking
behaviors to complete academic studies. Results
from previous research have indicated that the
support provided by the teacher is effective in
predicting academic achievement and motivation
in school (Birch and Ladd 1998; Deci et al. 1999;
Juvonen and Wentzel 1996; Malecki and Dema-
ray 2006; Mata et al. 2012; Wentzel 1998). In this
context, the social support provided by special
people is associated with the motivation levels
of the individuals. The support provided by the
teachers can be said to increase the motivation
levels of the students (Brophy 2004; Greene et
al. 2004). Furthermore, a review of the literature
revealed that the support provided by a teacher
to prevent burnout among students was more
effective than that provided by families or friends
(Kutsal and Bilge 2012). The support received
A STUDY ON SOCIAL SUPPORT AND MOTIVATION 287
from a special person may also serve as a model
to display a certain behavior. From this point of
view, a significant positive correlation exists be-
tween the support from a special person and the
motivation of students.
H4: The Social Support (Provided By Families,
Friends and Special People) Perceived by the
Students will be Used to Predict Their
Motivations
Different variables may have an effect on the
motivation levels of students. Research has in-
dicated that the support provided by families and
teachers had a significant effect, particularly on
the external motivation of students (Brophy
2004; Greene et al. 2004). In addition, other re-
search has found that social support was a sig-
nificant variable in predicting the academic
achievement and motivation of the students (At-
nafu 2012; Garavandi et al. 2015; Gottfried et al.
1994; Kim 2002; Paul et al. 2015; Holahan et al.
1995; Wentzel 1998). Furthermore, social support
was included among the sources that prevent
stress and burnout (Bakker et al. 2003), while
teacher and family support perceived by the stu-
dents played an important role in coping with
anger in the school environment. Mata et al. (2012)
indicated that the support provided by teachers
and friends had a significant positive effect on
the motivation of the students. Similarly, Juvonen
and Wentzel (1996) revealed that social support
and other types of support provided by families,
teachers, and friends were effective in increas-
ing the motivations of primary and secondary
school students. Weiner (1985) and Atnafu (2012)
stated that social support perceived by the stu-
dents generally promoted the motivations of the
students in terms of academic achievement.
Based on the idea that these variables have an
important effect on motivation, the elements of
social support perceived by the students can
have a significant positive effect on the motiva-
tions of the students.
METHODOLOGY
Participants
The study group was composed of 716 stu-
dent teachers from the Faculty of Education at
Balikesir University in the 2013-2014 academic
year. The sample group consisted of 482 female
(67.3%) and 234 male (32.7%) student teachers
between the ages of 20 and 35 years, and it con-
sisted of 66 (9.2%) married, 643 (89.8%) single
and 2 (0.3%) divorced individuals. A simple ran-
dom sampling method was used in the study.
During the process of the study, 800 student
teachers present in the classrooms and included
in the study based on voluntary participation
were provided a scale to complete. Some partic-
ipants completed the data collection tools incom-
pletely or incorrectly, so the statistical analysis
was performed on the data obtained from 716
student teachers.
Instruments
The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived So-
cial Support (SS) and the Motivational Strategies
Scale, as part of the Motivated Strategies for
Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) scale, were used
as data collection tools. The Multidimensional
Scale of Perceived Social Support is a likert scale
developed by Zimet et al. (1988), and adapted to
Turkish by Eker and Arkar (1995), consisting of 12
items that can be scored from 1 to 7. The minimum
score that can be obtained from the scale is 12
and the maximum score is 84. High scores reflect
that the perceived social support is high. Cron-
bach’s alpha value calculated for the scale used
in this study was found to be 0.72.
The MSLQ scale developed by Pintrich et al.
(1991) is composed of two main sections, of
which the “Motivational Strategies Scale (MSS)”
section was used in this study. MSS is a likert
scale adapted to Turkish by Altun (2005), con-
sisting of 31 items that can be scored from 1 to 7.
The scores that can be obtained from the scale
vary between 31 and 217. High scores indicate
that the motivation for learning is high. Cron-
bach’s alpha value calculated for the scale used
in this study was found to be 0.92.
Data Analysis
Within the scope of data analysis, correla-
tion analysis was carried out to determine the
correlations among the perceived social support
from families, friends, and special people and the
motivation levels of the students, and a multiple
linear regression analysis was carried out by
using the stepwise method to determine which
elements of the social support predicted motiva-
tion in addition to the application of descriptive
288 ERDOGAN TEZCI, FAHRI SEZER, UGUR GURGAN
statistics such as mean values and standard
deviations.
RESULTS
The opinions of the participants about moti-
vation and social support were calculated based
on 7-point likert scale. The descriptive analysis
results of the data obtained from the scale are
provided in Table 1.
The results of the analyses indicated that the
motivation levels of the students (M=5.49) were
high. The highest scores among the elements of
the perceived social support were obtained from
family support (M=5.67), followed by support
from friends (M=5.31), and the perceived social
support from a special person (M= 5.10).
Correlation Analysis
Correlation analysis was carried out to deter-
mine whether the motivation levels of the stu-
dents were associated with the support from fam-
ilies, special people, or friends, contained within
the elements of the perceived social support. The
results of the analysis are provided in Table 2.
The results of correlation analysis indicated
that the highest positive correlation with moti-
vation was family support (r= .45), followed by
support from friends (r=.42), and support from
special people (r=.38). These results were con-
sistent with the hypotheses stated as H1, H2
and H3. There was a significant positive correla-
tion among the dimensions of the perceived so-
cial support. The highest level of positive corre-
lation was between family support and friend
support (r=0.46). It was also found that autocor-
relation did not exist among the independent
variables and that all independent variables were
associated with the dependent variable.
Results of Regression Analysis
A forced order hierarchical regression analy-
sis and stepwise method were applied to deter-
mine which variables served as predictors for
the motivation of students. In this analysis, mo-
tivation was the dependent variable. The predic-
tor variables included in the equation were as
follows: the first block consisted of demograph-
ic variables followed by gender and marital sta-
tus as dummy variables, and the second block
consisted of the support from families, friends,
and special people. The results are presented in
Table 3.
The results of the analysis indicated that
demographic variables account for approximate-
ly three percent variance of motivation. The per-
ceived family support contributes to demograph-
ic variables by eighteen percent, whereas the
contribution of the perceived support from a
special person was found to be seven percent.
Finally, the support from friends contributes to
demographic variables and other perceived so-
cial support by four percent. The model as a whole
accounts for thirty-two percent variance of
motivation.
A stepwise regression analysis was conduct-
ed to determine the best predictor variable for
motivation. The results showed that the best
Table 1: Descriptive statistics results
Variables N Mean Std. deviation Skewness Kurtosis
Motivation 716 5.49 .79 -.517 .890
Social support family 716 5.67 1.22 -.996 .858
Social support special person 716 5.10 1.69 -.742 -.202
Social support friend 716 5.31 1.19 -.678 .496
Table 2: Correlation results
Motivation SS family SS special people SS friend
SS family .446**
SS special people .383** .261**
SS friend .419** .458** .272**
Gender -.125** -.143** -.070 .011
Study Field (Social –Science) .077*-.062 .008 -.072
*p<.05; **p<.01
A STUDY ON SOCIAL SUPPORT AND MOTIVATION 289
predictor variable was Family Support (ß=0.27,
p<0.01) followed by Support from a Special Per-
son (ß=0.25, p<0.01), and Friend Support
(ß=0.23, p<0.01), respectively. It was also found
that marital status contained in the demographic
variables significantly contributed to the vari-
ance (ß=-0.08, p<0.01), whereas gender did not
have a significant contribution (ß=0.05, p>0.05).
DISCUSSION
The main objective of the study was to un-
derstand the role of the perceived social support
(from families, friends, and special people) in the
motivations of the students for learning. The find-
ings of the study indicated that the motivation
levels of the students for learning as well as the
values for the dimensions of the perceived so-
cial support were significantly high. The family
support was found as the highest perceived so-
cial support. This finding was not unexpected,
especially for university students. Financial and
psychological support (that is, providing moral
support) and opportunities provided by the stu-
dents’ families play an important role in the ad-
mission of the students to a university after a
series of examinations, thus allowing them to
continue their education.
The results of the correlation analysis
showed that there was a positive interrelation at
moderate levels between motivation and the sup-
port provided by families, friends, and special
people as the sub-dimensions of the perceived
social support. In other words, it can be said that
there was a significant positive correlation be-
tween the social support provided by the fami-
lies or social circles and the motivation levels of
students. The results obtained from this study
are also in line with other research (Akinsanya et
al. 2014; Atnafu 2012; Gottfried et al. 1994; Kim
2002). The support, appreciation, and compli-
ments received from parents and the inner circle,
in particular, increase the motivation and aca-
demic achievement levels of students. The per-
ceived social support from families, friends, spe-
cial people, and teachers received by the stu-
dents is associated with and contributes to such
motivational outcomes as expanding the stu-
dents’ social behaviors, sharing responsibilities,
developing values in educational activities and
developing objectives for the self (Chen 2015;
Mata et al. 2012; Wenzel 1998).
Table 3: Regression analysis results
Step 1 Variables B Std. error  t p
Constant 5.349 .051 104.224 .000*
Gender .462 .041 .125 11.249 .001*
R=.125 R2 =.016 ÄR2=.016 F (1, 714) =11.278*
Step 2 Constant 5.588 .101 55.507 .000*
Gender .213 .062 .126 3.413 .001*
Marital status -.267 .097 -.102 -2.754 .006*
R=.161 R2 =.026 ÄR2=.010 F 2, 713) =7.584*
Step 3 Constant 4.024 .152 26.485 .000*
Gender .108 .057 .064 1.899 .058***
Marital status -.215 .008 -.082 -2.454 .014*
SS family .280 .022 .433 12.836 .000*
R=.457 R2 =.209 ÄR2=.183 F (3, 712) =164.761*
Step 4 Constant 3.602 .153 104.224*.000*
Gender .092 .054 .054 1.693** .091***
Marital status -.190 .084 -.072 -2.268*.024**
SS family .234 .021 .361 10.876*.000*
SS special person .132 .015 .282 8.569*.000*
R=.532 R2 =.283 ÄR2=.074 F (4, 711) =73.425
Step 5 Constant 3.260 .158 20.633 .000*
Gender .086 .053 .051 1.638 .102***
Marital status -.213 .081 -.081 -2.613 .009*
SS family .173 .023 .267 7.526 .000*
SS special person .115 .015 .245 7.522 .000*
SS friend .151 .023 .227 6.421 .000*
R=.568 R2 =.322 ÄR2=.039 F (5, 710) =41.233*
*p<.01; **p<.05; ***p>.05; Dependent variable: Motivation
290 ERDOGAN TEZCI, FAHRI SEZER, UGUR GURGAN
Considering that the motivational elements
that depend on an external stimulus have poten-
tial for internalization (Deci 1971; Deci and Ryan
1994), this perceived social support also has the
potential to be internalized. At least social sup-
port does not decrease the internal motivation
as material elements (Deci 1999). The social sup-
port from friends as well as teachers and friends
perceived by the students may encourage the
students to take responsibilities on assignments
and activities in school and to achieve success
with such assignments.
Based on the results of the regression analy-
sis, the family support, as an element of social
support, was found to be the variable with the
highest contribution to motivation, followed by
the support from a special person, and friend
support, respectively. The findings suggest that
the social support provided by the family holds
a significant place in the motivation of students
for learning in education. Results also suggest
that the effect of family is quite a significant pre-
dictor of the motivation of the students even
during graduate education. The finding is sup-
ported by previous work by Atnafu (2012) and
Gottfried et al. (1994), who found that student
perception of family support was associated with
motivation. These findings highlight the need
for family support in learning activities. Consid-
ering that the motivation of students is a vari-
able that is very closely associated with the learn-
ing process (Delgado et al. 2014; High and
Scharp 2015; Randhawa and Gupta 2000), rais-
ing awareness of families about their responsi-
bilities to increase the motivation of students
can be beneficial.
The results of this study, which analyzed the
role of the perceived teacher support on the
motivations of students, and others in the litera-
ture (Brophy 2004; Delgado 2014; Greene et al.
2004; Perry et al. 2015) indicated that teacher
support had a positive effect on increasing moti-
vation. These findings show that the external
social support to be provided to students con-
tributes by increasing their eagerness to learn
(Akinsanya et al. 2014; Atnafu 2012; High and
Scharp 2015). It should also be noted that the
support from friends, classified as one of the el-
ements of the external social support, plays a
significant role. Friendships and support from
friends are closely associated with the academic
achievement, socialization, and emotional state
of students. The perceived support from a friend
has a significant effect on students to overcome
a number of negative circumstances such as sui-
cide (Cole et al. 1992; Greene et al. 2004; Jiang et
al. 2015).
As a matter of fact, contemporary education
requires the family, social circle, and school man-
agement to promote learning and academic
achievement, since the teacher may not be a suf-
ficient substitute for all such components in this
regard. The results of the study crucially indi-
cate the significance of these elements of social
support to ensure that students maintain a suc-
cessful educational life.
CONCLUSION
The present study investigated the relation-
ship between perceived social support and mo-
tivation levels of the students during the learn-
ing process. Results indicate that the motivation
levels of the students for learning and the val-
ues for the dimensions of the perceived social
support were significantly high. The results of
the correlation analysis showed that there was a
positive moderate relationship between motiva-
tion and the support provided by families, friends,
and special people as sub-dimensions of the
perceived social support. Based on the results
of the regression analysis, family support was
found to be the variable with the highest contri-
bution to motivation, followed by support from
a special person, and support from friends, re-
spectively. As a result, the support from families
and special people for the motivation of the stu-
dents during the learning and teaching process
in schools contributes to increasing the motiva-
tion for learning in class and increasing academ-
ic achievement. The results support hypothesis
stated as H1, H2 and H3 and partially support
hypothesis H4. Perceived support from both,
teachers and parents is an important buffer
against the general declines in motivation.
RECOMMENDATIONS
This study was conducted on students in
the faculty of education. Carrying out a similar
study in elementary and secondary schools
would contribute to the generalization of these
results. Determining whether social support
gives rise to similar results at different levels of
education would clarify whether this support is
based on the need for a sense of belonging as
A STUDY ON SOCIAL SUPPORT AND MOTIVATION 291
referenced in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The
study indicated that family support was a signif-
icant source of motivation, even at the graduate
level in Turkish culture. This finding necessi-
tates the determination of whether this family
support is a result of the family structure in Turk-
ish culture or if a similar condition also exists in
other cultures. Consequently, a cross-cultural
comparison would be beneficial. In addition, only
the effects of the elements of social support on
motivation were examined in the study. In terms
of motivation and achievement, positive social
support from classmates, teacher and family is
one of the most important factors. Therefore, it
would be useful to inform stakeholders, espe-
cially teachers and a student’s family, about the
benefits of this social support.
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... Acceptance of parental support makes university students feel given attention and appreciation, which will have an impact on increasing students' motivation to learn (Malwa, 2018). The findings of previous studies by Tezci et al (2015) and Emeralda and Kristiana (2017) showed a positive correlation between these two variables, with correlation values of 0.44 and 0.694, respectively. ...
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... On the other hand, the results of this study are also in line with the study conducted in India (Y. Shukla et al., 2015) and Turkey (Tezci et al., 2015). Similar results with previous research confirm that efficacy is related and plays an important role in learning motivation in students. ...
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At the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic nearly 1.6 billion learners (94% of the world’s student population) were affected by the closure of educational institutions. The imposed lockdowns forced schools and universities to digitise conventional teaching in a very short time and to convert teaching and learning formats partially or completely to Distance Learning. The changes in everyday teaching brought by Distance Learning were felt worldwide. With 28 double blind peer-reviewed articles of researchers reporting on 17 different countries, the editors of this book want to shed light on the effects of Distance Learning in different regions of the world. This will allow for a value-free comparison of how the COVID-19 pandemic has been addressed in education in different parts of the world and what impacts – positive and/or negative – it has had, is having or may have in the future.
... If the other two basic psychological needs for autonomy and competence are sufficiently satisfied, students may still be 'well aligned with their inner selves' (Martinek et al., 2021) and the need for relatedness may play a subordinate role. Another reason could be that the need for relatedness is not predominantly satisfied in the work context, but in the context of family or among friends and acquaintances (Tezci et al., 2015). These explanations are tentative, and future investigations should examine the role of relatedness for motivation over longer periods of (enforced) distance learning, not only in music education. ...
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Full-text available
At the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic nearly 1.6 billion learners (94% of the world’s student population) were affected by the closure of educational institutions. The imposed lockdowns forced schools and universities to digitise conventional teaching in a very short time and to convert teaching and learning formats partially or completely to Distance Learning. The changes in everyday teaching brought by Distance Learning were felt worldwide. With 28 double blind peer-reviewed articles of researchers reporting on 17 different countries, the editors of this book want to shed light on the effects of Distance Learning in different regions of the world. This will allow for a value-free comparison of how the COVID-19 pandemic has been addressed in education in different parts of the world and what impacts – positive and/or negative – it has had, is having or may have in the future.
... If the other two basic psychological needs for autonomy and competence are sufficiently satisfied, students may still be 'well aligned with their inner selves' (Martinek et al., 2021) and the need for relatedness may play a subordinate role. Another reason could be that the need for relatedness is not predominantly satisfied in the work context, but in the context of family or among friends and acquaintances (Tezci et al., 2015). These explanations are tentative, and future investigations should examine the role of relatedness for motivation over longer periods of (enforced) distance learning, not only in music education. ...
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How are children's social lives at school related to their motivation to achieve and how do motivational and social processes interact to explain children's adjustment at school? This volume, first published in 1990, features work by leading researchers in educational and developmental psychology and provides perspectives on how and why children tend to thrive or fail at school. The individual chapters examine the unique roles of peers and teachers in communicating and reinforcing school-related attitudes, expectations, and definitions of self. Relations of children's school adjustment to school motivation, interpersonal functioning, and social skillfulness are also explored. The developmental and social perspectives on motivation and achievement presented in this volume provide new insights into the complex processes contributing to school success.
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Written specifically for teachers, this book offers a wealth of research-based principles for motivating students to learn within the realities of a classroom learning community. Its focus on motivational principles rather than motivational theorists or theories leads naturally into discussions of specific classroom strategies. Throughout the book the author focuses on and expertly synthesizes that portion of the motivational literature that is most relevant to teachers. Key features of this expanded new edition include: * Focus on School and Classroom Realities --The selection and treatment of motivational principles and strategies is constantly tied to the realities of schools (e.g., curriculum goals) and classrooms (e.g., student differences, classroom dynamics). * Integrates Intrinsic and Extrinsic Principles --The author employs an eclectic approach to motivation that shows how to effectively integrate the use of intrinsic and extrinsic strategies. * Covers Expectancy and Value-Related Topics --Full coverage is given to both the expectancy aspects of motivation (attributions, efficacy perceptions, expectations, confidence, etc) and to value-related topics (relevance, meaningfulness, application potential) and to their associated teacher-student dynamics. * New Chapters --Two theories that have spurred much education-related motivational research in recent years (self-determination theory and achievement-goal theory) have been given their own chapters. * Focus on Individual Differences and Problem Learners --Guidelines are provided for adapting motivational principles to group and individual student differences and for doing 'repair work' with students who have become discouraged or disaffected learners. * Expanded Topical Coverage --Expanded coverage has been given to several emerging topics, including self-identity concepts, cross-cultural comparisons, situational interest, stereotype threat, and the rediscovery of John Dewey's motivational ideas. * Improved Pedagogy --Chapter and section introductions and summaries provide an unusual degree of continuity across the book, and its second person writing style is more reader friendly than most textbooks. New to this edition are reflection questions at the end of each chapter. This book is appropriate for any course in the undergraduate or graduate teacher education curriculum that is devoted wholly or partly to the study of student motivation. © 2004 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Written specifically for teachers, this book offers a wealth of research-based principles for motivating students to learn. Its focus on motivational principles rather than motivation theorists or theories leads naturally into discussion of specific classroom strategies. Throughout the book these principles and strategies are tied to the realities of contemporary schools (e.g., curriculum goals) and classrooms (e.g., student differences, classroom dynamics). The author employs an eclectic approach to motivation that shows how to effectively integrate the use of extrinsic and intrinsic strategies. Guidelines are provided for adapting motivational principles to group and individual differences and for doing 'repair work' with students who have become discouraged or disaffected learners. © 1997 Th e McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. © 2004 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.