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Antibacterial and anticancer characteristics of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts

Authors:
  • Institute of Food science and Technology, Bzu, Multan, Pakistan
  • Director, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan
40
Original contributions
Introduction
Consumers are more diverting towards
the utilization of natural antioxidants
due to their signicant and prominent
role in the physiological system (Butt
and Sultan, 2009). These bioactive
moieties act as metal chelators, free
radical scavengers, free radical chain
reaction and oxidative enzyme inhibi-
tors. They exert antioxidative potential
in human disorders through neutrali-
zing hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals as
well as quenching singlet oxygen the-
reby inhibit lipid peroxidation (Singh
et al., 2009).
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) has high reco-
gnition and economic importance due
to presence of higher concentrations of
bioactive compounds (Leja et al., 2013).
It contains vitamins C and E in addition to
phenolic and anthocyanins compounds
which contributes signicantly to anti-
oxidant activity of D. carota (Alasalvar
et al., 2001; Singh et al., 2011). Antho-
cyanins are water-soluble compounds,
which occur in red fruits, vegetables
and cereals. These compounds possess
health promoting traits such as preventi-
on from coronary heart disease, lowered
risk of stroke, and improved cognitive
behavior (Netzel et al., 2007). Black car-
rot anthocyanins appeared to be protec-
tive against various types of cancer and
degenerative disorders due to the pre-
sence bioactive compounds. Anthocya-
nins pigments are mainly responsible for
imparting purple, red, and blue colors to
flowers, vegetables and fruits and have
been widely utilized as natural colo-
rants in the food and beverage industry
(Reed, 2002). They consist of ve major
anthocyanin derivatives: cyanidin-3-(2-
xylose-6-glucose-galactoside) (Cy3XGG),
cyanidin-3-(2-xylose-galactoside)
(Cy3XG), cyanidin-3-(2-xylose-6-
sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside) (Cy3XS-
GG), cyanidin-3-(2-xylose-6-feruloyl-
glucose-galactoside) (Cy3XFGG), and
cyanidin-3-(2xylose-6-(4-coumaroyl)
glucose-galactoside) (Cy3XCGG) (Van-
Breemen and Pajkovic, 2008).
The derived phytoalexins from carrots
act as secondary barriers that protect
individuals from the growth of L. mo-
nocytogenes, food borne pathogens
and spoilage-causing microorganisms
in foods (Beuchat et al., 1994). The
antilisterial eects of black carrot are
well-known (Noriega et al., 2010). Phy-
toalexins reduce the risk of human de-
generative disorders via scavenging free
radicals, modifying metabolic activation
and detoxication of carcinogens (Jing et
al., 2008). In view of the wide continued
interest in the biological activity of phy-
tochemcials present in black carrot, the
present study was undertaken to evalua-
te the antibacterial, antioxidant, and an-
ticancer activity of black carrot extracts.
Materials and methods
Sample preparation and
proximate composition
Black carrots were obtained from the
local vegetable market at Multan city
(Pakistan). Roots were washed with
water to remove soil and other dirt.
Aer washing, roots were sorted out
based on color uniformity, shape, and
physical damage. Dried roots were
subjected to crushing and the crus-
hed samples were sun dried then oven
dried at 40 °C overnight to obtain pow-
der. Samples were analyzed for mois-
ture, total lipids, total protein, crude
ber, and ash contents according to
AOAC (2006). Mineral (sodium, calci-
um, and potassium) composition was
determined according to AOAC (2006)
using a Flame Photometer-410 (Sher-
wood Scientic Ltd., Cambridge).
Preparation of extracts
Acetone (70:30, v/v) and ethanol
(70:30, v/v) were employed to assess
the extraction eciency of black carrot
samples (Rusak et al., 2008). Black car-
rot samples were placed in an orbital
shaker for 7 h followed by centrifugation
for 15 min at 7000 rpm. Extracts were l-
tered by means of vacuum ltration and
solvents were removed using a rotary
evaporator (EYELA, N-N series, Japan) at
40 °C. Extracts were evaluated for vari-
ous antioxidant assays including total
phenolic contents (TPC), anthocyanins
analysis, free radical scavenging activ-
Muhammad Qamar Saleema, Saeed Akhtara, Muhammad Imrana,b, Muhammad Riaza, Abdur Raufc*,
Mohammad S. Mubarakd, Sami Bawazeere, Saud S. Bawazeerf, Mohamed F. R. Hassanieng,h*
Antibacterial and anticancer characteristics
of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts
Abstract
The current research project is an attempt to investigate the antibacterial and anticancer traits
of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts. The proximate composition, mineral proling and
antioxidant indices of D. Carota ethanol and acetone extracts were determined. Results re-
vealed that the moisture content, total lipids, total ash, protein, an crude ber contents of
D. Carota (dry basis) were 16.4%, 0.94%, 12.4%, 1.14%, and 2.37%, respectively. Na, K and
Ca contents were 65.32, 421.2 and 60.45 mg/100 g, respectively. High phenolic contents of
black carrot were determined and accounted for 341.6 and 228.6 mg GAE/100 g FW for ethanol
and acetone extracts, respectively. DPPH· and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values
of ethanol and acetone extracts were 31.7% & 2068 mg/100g, and 32.2% & 2027 mg/100g,
respectively. Ethanol extract (1 g/mL) exhibited an inhibition zone of 6 and 8 mm against B.
cereus and S. aureus, respectively. Black carrot extracts were screened for their anticancer
activity against an MCF-7 (breast cancer) cell line by MTT assay. Using doxorubicin as positive
control, results revealed that acetone and ethanol extracts (50 µg/mL) displayed 8.13% and
30.6 % inhibition, respectively. These results showed that D. Carota extracts contain bioactive
compounds that are eective against microbes and breast cancer proliferation.
Keywords
MTT assay, phenolic compounds, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), antioxidant indi-
ces, antibacterial activity, anticancer activity.
Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
41
Original contributions
ity against DPPH· (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-
hydrazyl), and ferric reducing antioxi-
dant power (FRAP). In addition, extracts
were also were examined for their anti-
cancer and antibacterial activities.
Total phenolic contents (TPC)
TPC of extracts were estimated in terms
of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) spec-
trophotometrically according to Chew
et al. (2009). Approximately, 0.1 g of
black carrot extract was dissolved in di-
stilled water to make a 1000 ppm stock
solution. Aliquots were taken from this
stock solution and diluted to form 100,
200, and 300 ppm solutions. A number
of gallic acid standard solutions were
prepared to obtain a standard curve
against gallic acid concentrations and
absorbance for TPC determination.
Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent was
used immediately aer it was diluted
ten times. Briefly, a 0.3 mL sample ex-
tract was combined with 1.5 mL of Folin-
Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent (10 %, v/v)
and 1.2 mL of Na2CO3 (7.5 %, w/v). The
mixture was incubated in the dark for 30
min. The absorbance was measured at
765 nm and results were expressed as
mg GAE per 100 g dried material. The ca-
libration equation for gallic acid was y =
0.007x-0.058 (R2= 0.724), where x is the
gallic acid concentration in mg/L and y
is the absorbance reading at 765 nm.
Anthocyanins content
Monomeric anthocyanins contents
of both ethanol and acetone extracts
were estimated using the pH-dieren-
tial method according to Giusti and
Wrolstad (2001). The anthocyanin con-
tents were determined on the bases of
cyanidin-3-glucoside with a molecular
weight of 445.2 g/mol and an extinc-
tion coecient of 29.600 (Alasalvar
and Shadidi, 2005). Blank readings
were measured using distilled water
and results were expressed as mg/100
g FW (Giusti and Wrolstad, 2001).
DPPH· radical scavenging assay
Antiradical activity of black carrot’s ex-
tracts against DPPH· free radicals was
assayed according to Blois (1958) with
some modications wherein ascorbic
acid was used as a standard. A stock so-
lution was made by dissolving extracts
in ethanol. This stock solution was used
to prepare solutions of extracts various
concentrations (i.e., 25, 50,100 ppm). A
series of standard solutions of ascorbic
acid in ethanol was prepared as stan-
dards. DPPH· solution (0.1 mM) was
prepared in ethanol and 1 mL of this
solution was added to 3 mL of various
extract solutions with concentrations of
25, 50 and 100 ppm. Similarly, a refer-
ence solution was prepared. Aer an in-
cubation period of 30 min at room tem-
perature, the absorbance was read at
517 nm with the aid of a UV-Vis spectro-
photometer (CECIL CE7200). The inhibi-
tion of DPPH· free radicals in percent
(I %) was calculated from the equation,
I % = [(Ablank–Asample) x 100] / Ablank, where
Ablank is the absorbance of the control
reaction (containing all reagents except
the tested compound) and Asample is the
absorbance of the tested compound
(Zerargui et al., 2015).
FRAP assay
Total antioxidant activity (TAA) was
determined by FRAP assay outlined by
Benzie and Strain (1996). In this meth-
od, a black carrot extract (40 µL) was
mixed with 0.2 mL of distilled water
and 1.8 mL of FRAP reagent. The sam-
ple was incubated in a water bath at
37 °C for 10 min before the absorbance
was measured at 593 nm.
Antibacterial activity
Initially, pure ATCC strains were used
for the determination of antibacterial
activity of both black carrot extracts
then inoculation was done on nutri-
ent media plates by streaking with a
wire loop. The plates were incubated
at 37 °C for 24 h and stored in a refri-
gerator at 4 °C for a maximum 3 weeks.
The strains used for the detection of
antibiotic residues in broiler meat were
Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778), Escheri-
chia coli (ATCC25922), Pseudomonas
aeruginosa (ATCC27853), and Staphy-
lococcus aureus (ATCC33591). The test
strains were inoculated on the media
plates through swabbing by means of
sterilized cotton swabs. The density/
turbidity of broth cultures were set to
McFarland 0.5 standard before swab-
bing. This was achieved by diluting the
broth culture with sterile nutrient broth
until its turbidity matched the 0.5
McFarland standards. The adjustment
of turbidity to 0.5 McFarland’s stan-
dard provided a concentration of 1x108
cfu/mL in the resultant broth culture.
Aer swabbing, the lter paper disks
with absorbed extract were placed on
the plates with forceps and incubated
at 37 °C for 24 h (Karmi, 2014).
Anticancer activity (MTT assay)
MCF7 (breast cancer) cancer cell lines
were obtained from Hussain Ebrahim
Jamal Research Institute of Karachi
(Pakistan). These cells were cultured
in RPMI 1640/DMEM-Ham’s F12) and
supplied with (10 %) fetal bovine se-
rum, penicillin (100 U/mL), L-gluta-
mine, (2 mmol/L), and streptomycin
(100 g/mL). They were maintained
in a humidied atmosphere at 37 °C
with 5 % CO2. MTT assay was used to
determine the cytotoxic activities of
both doxorubicin, a positive control
at a dose level of 50 M and extracts
on MCF7 cancer cells (breast cancer).
6000 cell/wells were made by placing
the cells which are in phase of expo-
nential growth in 96-well plates. Sam-
ple solutions at doses ranging from
100 to 6.25 g/mL were added in each
well followed by 48 h incubation while
negative control was treated with
methanol at a concentration of 0.1 %.
Using a micro plate reader set at 570-
690 nm, the blue formazan product
quantities were measured (Versamax,
Tunable Micro plate Reader, USA). Cy-
totoxicity was expressed as percent
( %) cell viability (Gur et al., 2013).
Statistical analysis
Collected data were used to determine
the statistical analysis by a completely
randomized design (CRD) through a sta-
tistical soware Cohort version 6.1 (Co
Stat, 2003). Level of signicance was
determined by using one-way analysis
of variance (ANOVA) (Steel et al., 1997).
Results and Discussion
Chemical and mineral composition
Displayed in Table 1, are the mean
values for proximate composition of
black carrot. Results reveal that mois-
ture, total lipids, crude ber, total ash,
and total protein content were 86.4 %,
0.94 %, 2.37 %, 12.4 %, and 1.14 %, re-
spectively. Our results are in harmony
with Hanif et al. (2006) and Nicolle et
al. (2004) who found that black carrot
content of moisture, lipids, protein,
and ash were 81.5, 0.6, 0.2 and 0.8
Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
M Q Saleem | Antibacterial and anticancer characteristics of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts
Original contributions
42 Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
g/100 g on dry basis. Dierences in
values may be attributed to cultivar,
soil type, climate, and geographic con-
ditions. On the other hand, Tadesse et
al. (2015) reported that fresh carrots
content of lipids, ber, protein and
ash were 1.92, 2.33, 2.00, and 2.00 %,
respectively. Turksoy and Özkaya
(2011) mentioned that black carrot is a
prominent source of natural bioactive
substances such as phenolics, dietary
ber and antioxidants.
Results showed that black carrot con-
tent of sodium, potassium, and cal-
cium contents were 65.3, 421.2, and
60.4 mg/100g, respectively (Tab. 1).
These results are in agreement with
those reported by Nicolle et al. (2004)
who found that potassium was the
most copious mineral in 20 cultivars of
yellow, orange, purple, and white car-
rots with a mean value of 579 mg/100g
FW. In addition, they found that black
carrot contains Mg, Ca, Fe, K, Na, and
Zn in the range of 10.5, 44.9, 1.98, 521,
61, and 0.24 mg/100g, respectively.
These minerals play a signicant role
in human health by regulating body
functions such as acid base and wa-
ter balance. They are also helpful in
making the structure of the body and
the bones as well as acting as an elec-
tron carrier in the body (Nicolle et al.,
2004b). In another study, Hanif et al.
(2006) observed that carrot is a poten-
tial source of minerals where it con-
tains higher potassium content (102
mg/100g) than reddish (10 mg/100g)
and greater levels of phosphorous
(32 mg/100 g) than a bottle gourd (1.7
mg/100 g). The potassium, phospho-
rus, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and
iron values were 320, 35, 69, 33, 12,
and 0.3 mg/100 g (FW), respectively
(USDA, 2008).
TPC, anthocyanins contend and
antioxidant properties of black
carrot extracts
Results obtained from our study (Tab.
2) showed that the ethanol extract of
black carrot had higher phenolic con-
tent (341.6 mg GAE/100g FW) than the
acetone extract (228.6 mg GAE/100g
FW). The mean values for total antho-
cyanins contents in black carrot ex-
tracted with acetone and ethanol were
344.5 mg/100g and 270.3 mg/100g,
respectively. Antioxidant traits of ex-
tracts assayed by DPPH and FRAP test of
ethanol extract were 31.7 % and 2068.6
mg/100g while for acetone extract were
32.2 % and 2027.3 mg/100g, respective-
ly. These ndings are in line with results
obtained by other researchers. Mon-
tilla et al. (2011) evaluated TPC in four
varieties of black carrots such as Anto-
nina (75.3 mg/100g), deep purple (97.9
mg/100g), purple haze (17.9 mg/100g),
and beta sweet (28.5 mg/100g). Alasal-
var and coworkers (2001) showed that
the TPC of black carrot, white carrot and
yellow carrot were 341.6, 8.69, and 7.7
mg/100g FW, respectively. These num-
bers clearly demonstrate that black car-
rots have a much higher TPC than the
other two types. Algarra and colleagues
(2014) reported that the methanol ex-
tract of black and haze carrots had TPC
187.8 and 492 mg/100g, respectively.
On the other hand, Leja et al. (2013)
estimated TPC in 35 carrot cultivars and
reported that these cultivars have TPC
ranging from 19.8 to 342.2 mg/100g
(FW) in acetone and ethanol extracts.
Additionally, they demonstrated that
black carrot had nine times higher TPC
than other cultivars. Likewise, methanol
extracts of black carrots (Purple Haze
and Antonina) contain 492 and 187.8
mg/100g, respectively as compared to
ethanol and acetone extracts of black
carrot (i.e. 341.6 and 228.6 mg/100g).
Gajewski et al. (2007) found that black
or purple carrots are promising source
of anthocyanins, and its methanol ex-
tract has higher antioxidant capacity in
vitro than orange and yellow carrots.
This dierence is partly due to the
presence of anthocyanins that occur in
large amounts in black carrot extracts.
Indeed, the anthocyanins present in
black carrots were found to correspond
to 25 % and 50 % of the TPC for cultivar
Purple Haze and Antonina, respective-
ly (Algarra et al., 2014). These phenolic
contents are highly aected by dier-
ent factors such as season, cultivar,
and maturity stages (Nicolle et al.,
2004). Moreover, Koley et al. (2013b)
explicated that black carrot root is
the promising source of free pheno-
lics (31.95 to 290.0 mg GAE/100g FW)
followed by red (10.77 to 14.17 mg
GAE/100g FW) and orange cultivar
(6.41 to 10.58 mg GAE/100g FW).
Our ndings on anthocyanins contents
agree with values obtained by other
research groups. Leja and colleagues
(2013) determined the anthocyanin,
TPC, and radical scavenging activity in
35 dierent cultivars of carrots. They
found that anthocyanin contents were
64.9 mg /100g for purple carrots which
was higher than other carrot cultivars.
For the estimation of black carrot TPC
they found that the values varied con-
siderably from 19.8 to 342.2 mg/100 g
FW. In another study, Kemmerer et al.
(2004) found that the anthocyanin con-
tents varied from 208 to 243 mg/100g
in black carrots. Elham et al. (2006)
found the anthocyanin contents were
434.8 mg/kg. Others found that the
total monomeric anthocyanins in black
carrot cultivar varied from 7.38 to 83.40
mg C3G/100 g FW (Koley et al., 2013).
Kammerer et al. (2004) observed that
the acylated anthocyanins in dier-
ent black carrot cultivars varied from
55 % to 99 % of the total anthocyanin
content, whereas Montilla et al. (2011)
found that the monomeric anthocya-
nins contents ranged between 1.5 and
17.7 mg/100 g FW.
Our current ndings are in agreement
with results obtained by other investi-
gators. Koley et al. (2013) estimated that
Moisture (%) . ± .
Lipids (%) . ± .
Protein (%) . ± .
Fiber (%) . ± .
Ash (%) . ± .
Na (mg/100 g) . ± .
K (mg/100 g) . ± .
Ca (mg/100 g) . ± .
Tab. 1: Chemical and minerals composition
of black carrot
Tab. 2: TPC, anthocyanins content and antioxidant activities of black carrot extracts
TPC (GAE
mg/ g)
Anthocyanins con-
tent (mg/g)
DPPH· (%) FRAP
(mg/g)
Acetone extract . ± . . ± . . ± . . ± .
Ethanol extract . ± . . ± . . ± . . ± .
Original contributions
43
Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
acetone and ethanol extract showed
28.80 % and 38.54 %, DPPH· inhibition
activity, respectively. Similarly, a study
by Leja and coworkers (2013) concluded
that dierent carrot cultivars exhibited
dierent radical scavenging activity.
Dierent extracts of black carrot show
high antiradical activity (approximately
50 % of DPPH· scavenging) than purple
root extracts. Sun et al. (2009) reported
through DPPH· and ABTS assays that
purple-yellow and purple-orange car-
rots exhibited high antiradical activity.
A study carried out by Gajewski and col-
leagues showed that the antioxidant ca-
pacity of methanol extract of purple car-
rots was higher than that of orange and
yellow carrot extracts (Gajewski et al.,
2007). Leja et al. (2013b) established
that white, orange, and yellow roots
showed approximately 6 % antioxidant
capacity, whereas red roots exhibited
higher activity (9.3 %). Likewise, results
from an investigation by Algarra et al.
(2014) using DPPH· assay revealed that
free radical scavenging ability for the
black carrot cultivars, antonina, purple
haze varied from 17.6 to 240.0 mM
TE/100 g FW.
Results from our investigation are in
agreement with ndings obtained by
other researchers. Algarra et al. (2014)
found that that the black carrot cultivar
antonina, purple haze and orange car-
rot exhibited FRAP values of 86.4, 182,
and 1.3 mM TE/100 g FW, respectively.
Koley and coworkers (2013) determined
the antioxidant potential of ethanol and
acetone extracts of black carrot by the
FRAP and the cupric ion reducing anti-
oxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays. The
FRAP values in both extracts varied from
0.61 to 51.9 mol TE/g FW, whereas in
the CUPRAC assay, the values varied
from 2.20 to 77.8 mol TE/g FW.
Antibacterial activity
of black carrot extracts
Acetone and ethanol extracts of black
carrot exhibited antimicrobial activi-
ty against S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli,
and Pseudomonas. Both extracts were
eective against S. aureus and B. ce-
reus, however no activity was observed
against E. coli and Pseudomonas. At a
concentration of 0.5 g/mL, the ethanol
extract showed no inhibition against all
bacterial strains whereas, the acetone
extract was eective with a zone of inhi-
bition of 6 mm against B. cereus. On the
other hand, at a concentration of 1 g/
mL, the ethanol extract was active with
inhibition zones of 6 and 8 mm against
B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively,
however, no activity was observed
against E. coli and Pseudomonas. At the
same concentration of 1 mg/g, acetone
extract caused an inhibition zone of 10
and 12 mm against B. cereus and S. au-
reus, respectively, but no zone of inhi-
bition was detected against E. coli and
Pseudomonas. When the concentration
was raised to 2 g/mL, ethanol extract
caused an inhibition zone of 6 and 8.5
mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, re-
spectively which is similar to what has
been observed when a concentration of
1 mg/mL was employed. Similar results
were obtained for the acetone extract,
which, at a concentration of 2 g/mL,
caused an inhibition of 11 and 13.2 mm,
respectively, against B. cereus and S.
aureus.
Our antibacterial results are in agree-
ment with results obtained by others.
Harshada et al. (2012) observed that
kanji drink from black carrot was ef-
fective against S. aureus. Valero et al.
(2000) revealed that black carrot ex-
tracts were eective against Bacillus
cereus. This antibacterial activity was
investigated under dierent experimen-
tal conditions such as temperature and
pH as well as a combination of both.
Black carrot extracts was more eective
against B. cereus at 12 °C. Furthermo-
re, at pH 5.0, black carrot extract sup-
pressed the growth of B. cereus at 12 °C.
A group of researchers (Harshada et al.,
2012) reported that black carrot pheno-
lics have been eectively used against
S. aureus and B. cereus. Additionally,
black carrot juice exhibits antimicrobial
activity against S. aureus, and B. cereus
whereas both black carrots extracts
were slightly ineective against E. coli
and Pseudomonas.
Anticancer activity
of black carrot extracts
The results for inhibition prole in
MCF-7 (breast cancer) of black carrot
extracts at the concentration of 50 µg/
mL of acetone and ethanol extract were
8.13 % and 30.6 %, respectively using
doxorubicin as positive control (T0) by
MTT assay. Results are in agreement
with those obtained by other research-
ers (Gur et al., 2013), who studied the
cytotoxic activities of the black carrot
extracts with an MTT assay and by using
doxorubicin as positive control. Zaini
et al. (2012) determined the cytotoxic
eect of carrot extract against myeloid
and lymphoid leukemia cell lines via
induced apoptosis and inhibited pro-
gression through the cell cycle. Other
researchers found that black carrots
extracts exhibited inhibition against
MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent (Van-
Breemen and Pajkovic, 2008). The in-
hibitory eect of black carrot phenolics
against breast cancer cell line was also
conrmed by Longnecker et al. (1997),
who reported that acetone and ethanol
extracts of black carrot caused 44 % re-
duction in breast cancer cell lines.
Acknowledgments
This work was nancially supported by
Deanship of Scientic Research (Grant
Code: 15-MED-3-2-0001), Umm Al-Qura
University (Makkah, KSA) to Dr. Saud
Bawazeer.
Addresses of the authors
a Institute of Food Science and Nutri-
tion, Bahaudin Zakariya University,
Multan-Pakistan
b Department of Diet and Nutritional
Sciences, Imperial College of Business
Studies, Lahore
Concentration (g/mL) Acetone extract Ethanol extract
B. cereus S. aureus B. cereus S. aureus
. CDDD
.  B BCC
 A AC. C
Tab. 3: Antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition, mm) of black carrot extracts
Extract Inhibition (%)
T . ± .
Acetone extract . ± .
Ethanol extract . ± .
Tab. 4: Anticancer potential
of black carrot extracts
M Q Saleem | Antibacterial and anticancer characteristics of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts
44
Original contributions
Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
c Department of Chemistry, University
of Swabi, Anbar-23561, Khyber Pakh-
tunkhwa, Pakistan
d Department of Chemistry, The Univer-
sity of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan.
e Department of EMS Paramedic, Col-
lege of Public Health and Health In-
formatics, Umm Al-Qura University,
Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
f Department of Pharmaceutical Chem-
istry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-
Qura University, Makkah, P.O.Box 715,
Saudi Arabia.
g Biochemistry Department, Faculty of
Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zaga-
zig 44519, Zagazig, Egypt.
h Deanship of Scientic Research, Umm
Al-Qura University, Makkah, P.O.Box
715, Saudi Arabia.
*Corresponding author
Tel: +966-597303044
mhassanien@uqu.edu.sa
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... Acetone and ethanol extracts of black carrot exhibited antimicrobial activity against S aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and Pseudomonas spp. [61]. Not only do fruits or vegetables have high antimicrobial activity, cereals too have antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. ...
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