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Antibacterial and anticancer characteristics of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts

  • Institute of Food science and Technology, Bzu, Multan, Pakistan
  • Director, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan Pakistan
Original contributions
Consumers are more diverting towards
the utilization of natural antioxidants
due to their signicant and prominent
role in the physiological system (Butt
and Sultan, 2009). These bioactive
moieties act as metal chelators, free
radical scavengers, free radical chain
reaction and oxidative enzyme inhibi-
tors. They exert antioxidative potential
in human disorders through neutrali-
zing hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals as
well as quenching singlet oxygen the-
reby inhibit lipid peroxidation (Singh
et al., 2009).
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) has high reco-
gnition and economic importance due
to presence of higher concentrations of
bioactive compounds (Leja et al., 2013).
It contains vitamins C and E in addition to
phenolic and anthocyanins compounds
which contributes signicantly to anti-
oxidant activity of D. carota (Alasalvar
et al., 2001; Singh et al., 2011). Antho-
cyanins are water-soluble compounds,
which occur in red fruits, vegetables
and cereals. These compounds possess
health promoting traits such as preventi-
on from coronary heart disease, lowered
risk of stroke, and improved cognitive
behavior (Netzel et al., 2007). Black car-
rot anthocyanins appeared to be protec-
tive against various types of cancer and
degenerative disorders due to the pre-
sence bioactive compounds. Anthocya-
nins pigments are mainly responsible for
imparting purple, red, and blue colors to
flowers, vegetables and fruits and have
been widely utilized as natural colo-
rants in the food and beverage industry
(Reed, 2002). They consist of ve major
anthocyanin derivatives: cyanidin-3-(2-
xylose-6-glucose-galactoside) (Cy3XGG),
(Cy3XG), cyanidin-3-(2-xylose-6-
sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside) (Cy3XS-
GG), cyanidin-3-(2-xylose-6-feruloyl-
glucose-galactoside) (Cy3XFGG), and
glucose-galactoside) (Cy3XCGG) (Van-
Breemen and Pajkovic, 2008).
The derived phytoalexins from carrots
act as secondary barriers that protect
individuals from the growth of L. mo-
nocytogenes, food borne pathogens
and spoilage-causing microorganisms
in foods (Beuchat et al., 1994). The
antilisterial eects of black carrot are
well-known (Noriega et al., 2010). Phy-
toalexins reduce the risk of human de-
generative disorders via scavenging free
radicals, modifying metabolic activation
and detoxication of carcinogens (Jing et
al., 2008). In view of the wide continued
interest in the biological activity of phy-
tochemcials present in black carrot, the
present study was undertaken to evalua-
te the antibacterial, antioxidant, and an-
ticancer activity of black carrot extracts.
Materials and methods
Sample preparation and
proximate composition
Black carrots were obtained from the
local vegetable market at Multan city
(Pakistan). Roots were washed with
water to remove soil and other dirt.
Aer washing, roots were sorted out
based on color uniformity, shape, and
physical damage. Dried roots were
subjected to crushing and the crus-
hed samples were sun dried then oven
dried at 40 °C overnight to obtain pow-
der. Samples were analyzed for mois-
ture, total lipids, total protein, crude
ber, and ash contents according to
AOAC (2006). Mineral (sodium, calci-
um, and potassium) composition was
determined according to AOAC (2006)
using a Flame Photometer-410 (Sher-
wood Scientic Ltd., Cambridge).
Preparation of extracts
Acetone (70:30, v/v) and ethanol
(70:30, v/v) were employed to assess
the extraction eciency of black carrot
samples (Rusak et al., 2008). Black car-
rot samples were placed in an orbital
shaker for 7 h followed by centrifugation
for 15 min at 7000 rpm. Extracts were l-
tered by means of vacuum ltration and
solvents were removed using a rotary
evaporator (EYELA, N-N series, Japan) at
40 °C. Extracts were evaluated for vari-
ous antioxidant assays including total
phenolic contents (TPC), anthocyanins
analysis, free radical scavenging activ-
Muhammad Qamar Saleema, Saeed Akhtara, Muhammad Imrana,b, Muhammad Riaza, Abdur Raufc*,
Mohammad S. Mubarakd, Sami Bawazeere, Saud S. Bawazeerf, Mohamed F. R. Hassanieng,h*
Antibacterial and anticancer characteristics
of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts
The current research project is an attempt to investigate the antibacterial and anticancer traits
of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts. The proximate composition, mineral proling and
antioxidant indices of D. Carota ethanol and acetone extracts were determined. Results re-
vealed that the moisture content, total lipids, total ash, protein, an crude ber contents of
D. Carota (dry basis) were 16.4%, 0.94%, 12.4%, 1.14%, and 2.37%, respectively. Na, K and
Ca contents were 65.32, 421.2 and 60.45 mg/100 g, respectively. High phenolic contents of
black carrot were determined and accounted for 341.6 and 228.6 mg GAE/100 g FW for ethanol
and acetone extracts, respectively. DPPH· and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values
of ethanol and acetone extracts were 31.7% & 2068 mg/100g, and 32.2% & 2027 mg/100g,
respectively. Ethanol extract (1 g/mL) exhibited an inhibition zone of 6 and 8 mm against B.
cereus and S. aureus, respectively. Black carrot extracts were screened for their anticancer
activity against an MCF-7 (breast cancer) cell line by MTT assay. Using doxorubicin as positive
control, results revealed that acetone and ethanol extracts (50 µg/mL) displayed 8.13% and
30.6 % inhibition, respectively. These results showed that D. Carota extracts contain bioactive
compounds that are eective against microbes and breast cancer proliferation.
MTT assay, phenolic compounds, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), antioxidant indi-
ces, antibacterial activity, anticancer activity.
Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
Original contributions
ity against DPPH· (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-
hydrazyl), and ferric reducing antioxi-
dant power (FRAP). In addition, extracts
were also were examined for their anti-
cancer and antibacterial activities.
Total phenolic contents (TPC)
TPC of extracts were estimated in terms
of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) spec-
trophotometrically according to Chew
et al. (2009). Approximately, 0.1 g of
black carrot extract was dissolved in di-
stilled water to make a 1000 ppm stock
solution. Aliquots were taken from this
stock solution and diluted to form 100,
200, and 300 ppm solutions. A number
of gallic acid standard solutions were
prepared to obtain a standard curve
against gallic acid concentrations and
absorbance for TPC determination.
Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent was
used immediately aer it was diluted
ten times. Briefly, a 0.3 mL sample ex-
tract was combined with 1.5 mL of Folin-
Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent (10 %, v/v)
and 1.2 mL of Na2CO3 (7.5 %, w/v). The
mixture was incubated in the dark for 30
min. The absorbance was measured at
765 nm and results were expressed as
mg GAE per 100 g dried material. The ca-
libration equation for gallic acid was y =
0.007x-0.058 (R2= 0.724), where x is the
gallic acid concentration in mg/L and y
is the absorbance reading at 765 nm.
Anthocyanins content
Monomeric anthocyanins contents
of both ethanol and acetone extracts
were estimated using the pH-dieren-
tial method according to Giusti and
Wrolstad (2001). The anthocyanin con-
tents were determined on the bases of
cyanidin-3-glucoside with a molecular
weight of 445.2 g/mol and an extinc-
tion coecient of 29.600 (Alasalvar
and Shadidi, 2005). Blank readings
were measured using distilled water
and results were expressed as mg/100
g FW (Giusti and Wrolstad, 2001).
DPPH· radical scavenging assay
Antiradical activity of black carrot’s ex-
tracts against DPPH· free radicals was
assayed according to Blois (1958) with
some modications wherein ascorbic
acid was used as a standard. A stock so-
lution was made by dissolving extracts
in ethanol. This stock solution was used
to prepare solutions of extracts various
concentrations (i.e., 25, 50,100 ppm). A
series of standard solutions of ascorbic
acid in ethanol was prepared as stan-
dards. DPPH· solution (0.1 mM) was
prepared in ethanol and 1 mL of this
solution was added to 3 mL of various
extract solutions with concentrations of
25, 50 and 100 ppm. Similarly, a refer-
ence solution was prepared. Aer an in-
cubation period of 30 min at room tem-
perature, the absorbance was read at
517 nm with the aid of a UV-Vis spectro-
photometer (CECIL CE7200). The inhibi-
tion of DPPH· free radicals in percent
(I %) was calculated from the equation,
I % = [(Ablank–Asample) x 100] / Ablank, where
Ablank is the absorbance of the control
reaction (containing all reagents except
the tested compound) and Asample is the
absorbance of the tested compound
(Zerargui et al., 2015).
FRAP assay
Total antioxidant activity (TAA) was
determined by FRAP assay outlined by
Benzie and Strain (1996). In this meth-
od, a black carrot extract (40 µL) was
mixed with 0.2 mL of distilled water
and 1.8 mL of FRAP reagent. The sam-
ple was incubated in a water bath at
37 °C for 10 min before the absorbance
was measured at 593 nm.
Antibacterial activity
Initially, pure ATCC strains were used
for the determination of antibacterial
activity of both black carrot extracts
then inoculation was done on nutri-
ent media plates by streaking with a
wire loop. The plates were incubated
at 37 °C for 24 h and stored in a refri-
gerator at 4 °C for a maximum 3 weeks.
The strains used for the detection of
antibiotic residues in broiler meat were
Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778), Escheri-
chia coli (ATCC25922), Pseudomonas
aeruginosa (ATCC27853), and Staphy-
lococcus aureus (ATCC33591). The test
strains were inoculated on the media
plates through swabbing by means of
sterilized cotton swabs. The density/
turbidity of broth cultures were set to
McFarland 0.5 standard before swab-
bing. This was achieved by diluting the
broth culture with sterile nutrient broth
until its turbidity matched the 0.5
McFarland standards. The adjustment
of turbidity to 0.5 McFarland’s stan-
dard provided a concentration of 1x108
cfu/mL in the resultant broth culture.
Aer swabbing, the lter paper disks
with absorbed extract were placed on
the plates with forceps and incubated
at 37 °C for 24 h (Karmi, 2014).
Anticancer activity (MTT assay)
MCF7 (breast cancer) cancer cell lines
were obtained from Hussain Ebrahim
Jamal Research Institute of Karachi
(Pakistan). These cells were cultured
in RPMI 1640/DMEM-Ham’s F12) and
supplied with (10 %) fetal bovine se-
rum, penicillin (100 U/mL), L-gluta-
mine, (2 mmol/L), and streptomycin
(100 g/mL). They were maintained
in a humidied atmosphere at 37 °C
with 5 % CO2. MTT assay was used to
determine the cytotoxic activities of
both doxorubicin, a positive control
at a dose level of 50 M and extracts
on MCF7 cancer cells (breast cancer).
6000 cell/wells were made by placing
the cells which are in phase of expo-
nential growth in 96-well plates. Sam-
ple solutions at doses ranging from
100 to 6.25 g/mL were added in each
well followed by 48 h incubation while
negative control was treated with
methanol at a concentration of 0.1 %.
Using a micro plate reader set at 570-
690 nm, the blue formazan product
quantities were measured (Versamax,
Tunable Micro plate Reader, USA). Cy-
totoxicity was expressed as percent
( %) cell viability (Gur et al., 2013).
Statistical analysis
Collected data were used to determine
the statistical analysis by a completely
randomized design (CRD) through a sta-
tistical soware Cohort version 6.1 (Co
Stat, 2003). Level of signicance was
determined by using one-way analysis
of variance (ANOVA) (Steel et al., 1997).
Results and Discussion
Chemical and mineral composition
Displayed in Table 1, are the mean
values for proximate composition of
black carrot. Results reveal that mois-
ture, total lipids, crude ber, total ash,
and total protein content were 86.4 %,
0.94 %, 2.37 %, 12.4 %, and 1.14 %, re-
spectively. Our results are in harmony
with Hanif et al. (2006) and Nicolle et
al. (2004) who found that black carrot
content of moisture, lipids, protein,
and ash were 81.5, 0.6, 0.2 and 0.8
Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
M Q Saleem | Antibacterial and anticancer characteristics of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts
Original contributions
42 Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
g/100 g on dry basis. Dierences in
values may be attributed to cultivar,
soil type, climate, and geographic con-
ditions. On the other hand, Tadesse et
al. (2015) reported that fresh carrots
content of lipids, ber, protein and
ash were 1.92, 2.33, 2.00, and 2.00 %,
respectively. Turksoy and Özkaya
(2011) mentioned that black carrot is a
prominent source of natural bioactive
substances such as phenolics, dietary
ber and antioxidants.
Results showed that black carrot con-
tent of sodium, potassium, and cal-
cium contents were 65.3, 421.2, and
60.4 mg/100g, respectively (Tab. 1).
These results are in agreement with
those reported by Nicolle et al. (2004)
who found that potassium was the
most copious mineral in 20 cultivars of
yellow, orange, purple, and white car-
rots with a mean value of 579 mg/100g
FW. In addition, they found that black
carrot contains Mg, Ca, Fe, K, Na, and
Zn in the range of 10.5, 44.9, 1.98, 521,
61, and 0.24 mg/100g, respectively.
These minerals play a signicant role
in human health by regulating body
functions such as acid base and wa-
ter balance. They are also helpful in
making the structure of the body and
the bones as well as acting as an elec-
tron carrier in the body (Nicolle et al.,
2004b). In another study, Hanif et al.
(2006) observed that carrot is a poten-
tial source of minerals where it con-
tains higher potassium content (102
mg/100g) than reddish (10 mg/100g)
and greater levels of phosphorous
(32 mg/100 g) than a bottle gourd (1.7
mg/100 g). The potassium, phospho-
rus, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and
iron values were 320, 35, 69, 33, 12,
and 0.3 mg/100 g (FW), respectively
(USDA, 2008).
TPC, anthocyanins contend and
antioxidant properties of black
carrot extracts
Results obtained from our study (Tab.
2) showed that the ethanol extract of
black carrot had higher phenolic con-
tent (341.6 mg GAE/100g FW) than the
acetone extract (228.6 mg GAE/100g
FW). The mean values for total antho-
cyanins contents in black carrot ex-
tracted with acetone and ethanol were
344.5 mg/100g and 270.3 mg/100g,
respectively. Antioxidant traits of ex-
tracts assayed by DPPH and FRAP test of
ethanol extract were 31.7 % and 2068.6
mg/100g while for acetone extract were
32.2 % and 2027.3 mg/100g, respective-
ly. These ndings are in line with results
obtained by other researchers. Mon-
tilla et al. (2011) evaluated TPC in four
varieties of black carrots such as Anto-
nina (75.3 mg/100g), deep purple (97.9
mg/100g), purple haze (17.9 mg/100g),
and beta sweet (28.5 mg/100g). Alasal-
var and coworkers (2001) showed that
the TPC of black carrot, white carrot and
yellow carrot were 341.6, 8.69, and 7.7
mg/100g FW, respectively. These num-
bers clearly demonstrate that black car-
rots have a much higher TPC than the
other two types. Algarra and colleagues
(2014) reported that the methanol ex-
tract of black and haze carrots had TPC
187.8 and 492 mg/100g, respectively.
On the other hand, Leja et al. (2013)
estimated TPC in 35 carrot cultivars and
reported that these cultivars have TPC
ranging from 19.8 to 342.2 mg/100g
(FW) in acetone and ethanol extracts.
Additionally, they demonstrated that
black carrot had nine times higher TPC
than other cultivars. Likewise, methanol
extracts of black carrots (Purple Haze
and Antonina) contain 492 and 187.8
mg/100g, respectively as compared to
ethanol and acetone extracts of black
carrot (i.e. 341.6 and 228.6 mg/100g).
Gajewski et al. (2007) found that black
or purple carrots are promising source
of anthocyanins, and its methanol ex-
tract has higher antioxidant capacity in
vitro than orange and yellow carrots.
This dierence is partly due to the
presence of anthocyanins that occur in
large amounts in black carrot extracts.
Indeed, the anthocyanins present in
black carrots were found to correspond
to 25 % and 50 % of the TPC for cultivar
Purple Haze and Antonina, respective-
ly (Algarra et al., 2014). These phenolic
contents are highly aected by dier-
ent factors such as season, cultivar,
and maturity stages (Nicolle et al.,
2004). Moreover, Koley et al. (2013b)
explicated that black carrot root is
the promising source of free pheno-
lics (31.95 to 290.0 mg GAE/100g FW)
followed by red (10.77 to 14.17 mg
GAE/100g FW) and orange cultivar
(6.41 to 10.58 mg GAE/100g FW).
Our ndings on anthocyanins contents
agree with values obtained by other
research groups. Leja and colleagues
(2013) determined the anthocyanin,
TPC, and radical scavenging activity in
35 dierent cultivars of carrots. They
found that anthocyanin contents were
64.9 mg /100g for purple carrots which
was higher than other carrot cultivars.
For the estimation of black carrot TPC
they found that the values varied con-
siderably from 19.8 to 342.2 mg/100 g
FW. In another study, Kemmerer et al.
(2004) found that the anthocyanin con-
tents varied from 208 to 243 mg/100g
in black carrots. Elham et al. (2006)
found the anthocyanin contents were
434.8 mg/kg. Others found that the
total monomeric anthocyanins in black
carrot cultivar varied from 7.38 to 83.40
mg C3G/100 g FW (Koley et al., 2013).
Kammerer et al. (2004) observed that
the acylated anthocyanins in dier-
ent black carrot cultivars varied from
55 % to 99 % of the total anthocyanin
content, whereas Montilla et al. (2011)
found that the monomeric anthocya-
nins contents ranged between 1.5 and
17.7 mg/100 g FW.
Our current ndings are in agreement
with results obtained by other investi-
gators. Koley et al. (2013) estimated that
Moisture (%) . ± .
Lipids (%) . ± .
Protein (%) . ± .
Fiber (%) . ± .
Ash (%) . ± .
Na (mg/100 g) . ± .
K (mg/100 g) . ± .
Ca (mg/100 g) . ± .
Tab. 1: Chemical and minerals composition
of black carrot
Tab. 2: TPC, anthocyanins content and antioxidant activities of black carrot extracts
mg/ g)
Anthocyanins con-
tent (mg/g)
Acetone extract . ± . . ± . . ± . . ± .
Ethanol extract . ± . . ± . . ± . . ± .
Original contributions
Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
acetone and ethanol extract showed
28.80 % and 38.54 %, DPPH· inhibition
activity, respectively. Similarly, a study
by Leja and coworkers (2013) concluded
that dierent carrot cultivars exhibited
dierent radical scavenging activity.
Dierent extracts of black carrot show
high antiradical activity (approximately
50 % of DPPH· scavenging) than purple
root extracts. Sun et al. (2009) reported
through DPPH· and ABTS assays that
purple-yellow and purple-orange car-
rots exhibited high antiradical activity.
A study carried out by Gajewski and col-
leagues showed that the antioxidant ca-
pacity of methanol extract of purple car-
rots was higher than that of orange and
yellow carrot extracts (Gajewski et al.,
2007). Leja et al. (2013b) established
that white, orange, and yellow roots
showed approximately 6 % antioxidant
capacity, whereas red roots exhibited
higher activity (9.3 %). Likewise, results
from an investigation by Algarra et al.
(2014) using DPPH· assay revealed that
free radical scavenging ability for the
black carrot cultivars, antonina, purple
haze varied from 17.6 to 240.0 mM
TE/100 g FW.
Results from our investigation are in
agreement with ndings obtained by
other researchers. Algarra et al. (2014)
found that that the black carrot cultivar
antonina, purple haze and orange car-
rot exhibited FRAP values of 86.4, 182,
and 1.3 mM TE/100 g FW, respectively.
Koley and coworkers (2013) determined
the antioxidant potential of ethanol and
acetone extracts of black carrot by the
FRAP and the cupric ion reducing anti-
oxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays. The
FRAP values in both extracts varied from
0.61 to 51.9 mol TE/g FW, whereas in
the CUPRAC assay, the values varied
from 2.20 to 77.8 mol TE/g FW.
Antibacterial activity
of black carrot extracts
Acetone and ethanol extracts of black
carrot exhibited antimicrobial activi-
ty against S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli,
and Pseudomonas. Both extracts were
eective against S. aureus and B. ce-
reus, however no activity was observed
against E. coli and Pseudomonas. At a
concentration of 0.5 g/mL, the ethanol
extract showed no inhibition against all
bacterial strains whereas, the acetone
extract was eective with a zone of inhi-
bition of 6 mm against B. cereus. On the
other hand, at a concentration of 1 g/
mL, the ethanol extract was active with
inhibition zones of 6 and 8 mm against
B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively,
however, no activity was observed
against E. coli and Pseudomonas. At the
same concentration of 1 mg/g, acetone
extract caused an inhibition zone of 10
and 12 mm against B. cereus and S. au-
reus, respectively, but no zone of inhi-
bition was detected against E. coli and
Pseudomonas. When the concentration
was raised to 2 g/mL, ethanol extract
caused an inhibition zone of 6 and 8.5
mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, re-
spectively which is similar to what has
been observed when a concentration of
1 mg/mL was employed. Similar results
were obtained for the acetone extract,
which, at a concentration of 2 g/mL,
caused an inhibition of 11 and 13.2 mm,
respectively, against B. cereus and S.
Our antibacterial results are in agree-
ment with results obtained by others.
Harshada et al. (2012) observed that
kanji drink from black carrot was ef-
fective against S. aureus. Valero et al.
(2000) revealed that black carrot ex-
tracts were eective against Bacillus
cereus. This antibacterial activity was
investigated under dierent experimen-
tal conditions such as temperature and
pH as well as a combination of both.
Black carrot extracts was more eective
against B. cereus at 12 °C. Furthermo-
re, at pH 5.0, black carrot extract sup-
pressed the growth of B. cereus at 12 °C.
A group of researchers (Harshada et al.,
2012) reported that black carrot pheno-
lics have been eectively used against
S. aureus and B. cereus. Additionally,
black carrot juice exhibits antimicrobial
activity against S. aureus, and B. cereus
whereas both black carrots extracts
were slightly ineective against E. coli
and Pseudomonas.
Anticancer activity
of black carrot extracts
The results for inhibition prole in
MCF-7 (breast cancer) of black carrot
extracts at the concentration of 50 µg/
mL of acetone and ethanol extract were
8.13 % and 30.6 %, respectively using
doxorubicin as positive control (T0) by
MTT assay. Results are in agreement
with those obtained by other research-
ers (Gur et al., 2013), who studied the
cytotoxic activities of the black carrot
extracts with an MTT assay and by using
doxorubicin as positive control. Zaini
et al. (2012) determined the cytotoxic
eect of carrot extract against myeloid
and lymphoid leukemia cell lines via
induced apoptosis and inhibited pro-
gression through the cell cycle. Other
researchers found that black carrots
extracts exhibited inhibition against
MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent (Van-
Breemen and Pajkovic, 2008). The in-
hibitory eect of black carrot phenolics
against breast cancer cell line was also
conrmed by Longnecker et al. (1997),
who reported that acetone and ethanol
extracts of black carrot caused 44 % re-
duction in breast cancer cell lines.
This work was nancially supported by
Deanship of Scientic Research (Grant
Code: 15-MED-3-2-0001), Umm Al-Qura
University (Makkah, KSA) to Dr. Saud
Addresses of the authors
a Institute of Food Science and Nutri-
tion, Bahaudin Zakariya University,
b Department of Diet and Nutritional
Sciences, Imperial College of Business
Studies, Lahore
Concentration (g/mL) Acetone extract Ethanol extract
B. cereus S. aureus B. cereus S. aureus
. CDDD
.  B BCC
 A AC. C
Tab. 3: Antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition, mm) of black carrot extracts
Extract Inhibition (%)
T . ± .
Acetone extract . ± .
Ethanol extract . ± .
Tab. 4: Anticancer potential
of black carrot extracts
M Q Saleem | Antibacterial and anticancer characteristics of black carrot (Daucus Carota) extracts
Original contributions
Z Arznei- Gewurzpa | 22 (1): 40–44 | ERLING Verlag GmbH & Co. KG | 2018
c Department of Chemistry, University
of Swabi, Anbar-23561, Khyber Pakh-
tunkhwa, Pakistan
d Department of Chemistry, The Univer-
sity of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan.
e Department of EMS Paramedic, Col-
lege of Public Health and Health In-
formatics, Umm Al-Qura University,
Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
f Department of Pharmaceutical Chem-
istry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-
Qura University, Makkah, P.O.Box 715,
Saudi Arabia.
g Biochemistry Department, Faculty of
Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zaga-
zig 44519, Zagazig, Egypt.
h Deanship of Scientic Research, Umm
Al-Qura University, Makkah, P.O.Box
715, Saudi Arabia.
*Corresponding author
Tel: +966-597303044
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... Acetone and ethanol extracts of black carrot exhibited antimicrobial activity against S aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and Pseudomonas spp. [61]. Not only do fruits or vegetables have high antimicrobial activity, cereals too have antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. ...
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The present study aimed to analyze the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of anthocyanins extracted from colored wheat flour and wheat-grass juice against human pathogens. The total anthocyanin content and antioxidant potential in colored wheat flour and wheat-grass juice extracts were significantly higher than white flour and wheat-grass juice extracts. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography showed the maximum number of anthocyanin peaks in black wheat, with delphinidin-3-o-galactoside chloride, delphinidin-3-o-glucoside chloride, and cyanindin-3-o-glucoside chloride as the major contributors. Among flour extracts, maximum zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 1934), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1434), Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans (MTCC 227) were produced by black flour extract, having the highest anthocyanin content. It exhibited a minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) of 200 mg/mL against E. coli and C. albicans; and 100 and 150 mg/mL against S aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Black and purple flour extracts exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 mg/mL against S aureus and P. aeruginosa. White flour extracts did not show mmC against E. coli and C. albicans. Among wheat-grass juice extracts, black wheat-grass was most effective and showed an MIC of 100-150 mg/mL against all pathogens. It exhibited an mmC of 200 mg/mL against S aureus and P. aeruginosa. Hence, anthocyanin-rich colored wheat could be of nutraceutical importance.
We investigated the effect of aqueous liquid extract from black carrots (ALEBC) infusion on the different attributes of potato chips. The potato slices were infused with ALEBC in the ratio of 1:1 for different time duration (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes). The increase in infusion duration significantly (p<0.05) increased its bioactive composition. The anthocyanin increased from 21.98 to 39.73 mg/kg for ALEBC infused potato chips for 15 to 120 min. Further, different color attributes particularly lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) improved considerably from 18.03 to 52.88, 3.27 to 7.96, ‐0.48 to 25.31, respectively. The biochemical composition of microwave‐cooked ALEBC infused potato chips was non‐significant; however, it was adversely affected after oil cooking. The microbial load was satisfactory in all treated samples. Conversely, the only control samples showed the presence of pathogens. Briefly, the ALEBC can improve the functional attributes and microbial safety of the product.
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Chemicals and industrial gases endanger both human health and the environment. The inhalation of colourless ammonia gas (NH3) can cause organ damage or even death in humans. Colourimetric materials are becoming more popular in the search for smart textiles for both fashion and specific occupational applications. Colourimetric textile sensors based on indicator dyes could be very useful for detecting strong gaseous conditions and monitoring gas leaks. In this study, black carrot extract (BCE) as a natural indicator dye and polyurethane (PU) polymer were used to develop a colourimetric sensor by electrospinning. The properties of the BCE/PU nanofibrous mats were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The BCE caused a change in the morphology of the PU nanofibrous mat. To evaluate the colour shift due to NH3 vapour, the BCE/PU nanofibrous mats were photographed by a camera, and software was used to obtain the quantitative colour data (CIE L*a*b). The BCE/PU nanofibrous exhibited a remarkable colour change from pink–red to green–blue under NH3 vapour conditions with a fast response time (≤30 s). These findings showed that colourimetric nanofibrous textile sensors could be a promising in situ material in protective clothing that changes colour when exposed to harmful gases.
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Consumers have already tended to choose natural plant crops over processed plant produces, like carrot (Daucus corota L.) which is one the very nitrous horticultural crops enjoyed by all ages. Although carrot is rich in fiber and minerals, it is primarily cherished for high beta-carotene content. Moreover, the root contains some other bioactive compounds including other forms of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, vitamin C and polyactylenes. Carotenoid especially beta-carotenes is known for supplying vitamin A and a strong antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds present in carrots such as chloregenic acids have also antioxidant activities as well. Carrots contain considerable quantity of ascorbic acid which possesses an antioxidant activity and also takes a part some in biological processes. Carrot roots have polyacetylenes, once viewed as toxicants due to being potent skin sensitizers and irritants, which are neurotoxic at high concentrations, more recently they have been considered bioactive compounds. The phytochemical compounds present in carrots may be used as complementary medicine for the prevention and treatment of a number of diseases and disorders. This review explores some major phytochemicals and their pharmacological features present in carrot roots.
Anthocyanins occur naturally in many blue-, purple- and red-colored fruits and vegetables, and are commonly found in the human diet as natural colorants with proven health benefits. This work aimed to find the most efficient solvents for the anthocyanins extraction from natural matrices (chokeberries and black carrots), able to preserve their antioxidant activity. Four different acidified solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, and water) were tested and the extracts were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry. The anthocyanins profile of each extract has been identified. Five monoglycosylated anthocyanins were found in chokeberries and ten anthocyanins (four acylated and four diglycosylated) in black carrots. The antioxidant activities of all extracts (using ABTS, CUPRAC and FRAP assays) were determined concomitantly and ranked. The most efficient extraction was obtained using ethanol and methanol, such extracts showing the highest antioxidant activity for both matrices (black carrots and chokeberry).
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This study was conducted to investigate effects of varying levels of pretreatments on nutrient retention and sensory acceptance of solar-dried carrot slices. The carrot samples were blanched at 55, 65 and 75℃ for 45 minutes, soaked in 5%, 10% and 15% salt solutions for 5 hours and dried using an indirectly heated passive type solar dryer. The best nutrient retentions (5.25% protein db, 2.49% fat db, 2.17% fiber db and 71.94 ppm β-carotene) were recorded for samples treated at 55℃ whereas the 5% salt solution resulted in 2.88% fat, 2.46% fiber and 73.89 ppm β-carotene. The highest crude protein (5.68% db) and crude fiber (2.99% db) were recorded for the combination of 55℃ with 15%, and the highest crude fat (3.20% db) and β-carotene (74.97 ppm) were obtained from the samples subjected to 55℃ and 5%. High total ash contents were associated to high levels of osmotic concentrations irrespective of the blanching temperatures. Concerning the sensory acceptance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptance of samples blanched at 55℃ and soaked in 10% solution were most liked. In most cases, the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory acceptance of the samples treated with 55℃ blanching temperature and 5% salt concentration and combination of the two was observed to be superior to other treatment levels.
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In this investigation, the screening of two furanocoumarins; 5,8- dimethoxypsoralen (1) and heraclinin (2), isolated from the methanol root-extracts of Tamus communis L for their antioxidant activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect was carried out, using different assays such as DPPH free radical scavenging effect, β-carotene / linoleic acid, xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition and in addition to blood total antioxidant capacity. Results revealed that the two compounds have significant DPPH radical scavenging activity and effective inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a dose-dependent manner; 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen exhibited the highest activity with an I% = 72.69 ± 1.88 %. These results indicate that the isolated compounds inhibit xanthine oxidase activity and scavenge superoxide radicals with heraclinin (2) as the more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor, and 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (1) as the more effective on cytochrome c reduction, the two tested compounds can effectively protect erythrocytes against hemolytic injury induced by AAPH. These results are promising for further studies of the biological and pathological effects of these natural products.
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NK cells rapidly kill tumor cells, virus infected cells and even self cells. This is mediated via killer receptors, among which NKp46 (NCR1 in mice) is prominent. We have recently demonstrated that in type 1 diabetes (T1D) NK cells accumulate in the diseased pancreas and that they manifest a hyporesponsive phenotype. In addition, we found that NKp46 recognizes an unknown ligand expressed by beta cells derived from humans and mice and that blocking of NKp46 activity prevented diabetes development. Here we investigated the properties of the unknown NKp46 ligand. We show that the NKp46 ligand is mainly located in insulin granules and that it is constitutively secreted. Following glucose stimulation the NKp46 ligand translocates to the cell membrane and its secretion decreases. We further demonstrate by using several modalities that the unknown NKp46 ligand is not insulin. Finally, we studied the expression of the NKp46 ligand in type 2 diabetes (T2D) using 3 different in vivo models and 2 species; mice and gerbils. We demonstrate that the expression of the NKp46 ligand is decreased in all models of T2D studied, suggesting that NKp46 is not involved in T2D.
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is ranked among vegetables as the most consumed and the best provitamin A provider. Moreover, carrot also contains vitamins, phenolic compounds, and other antioxidant micronutrients. The influence of carrot genetic background on the content of several micronutrients was investigated. Carotenoids and vitamins (C and E) were analyzed by HPLC in 20 varieties of carrot, and antioxidant activity of carrots was investigated with colorimetric methods (ORAC and Folin-Ciocalteu). There were large differences among cultivars in carotenoid content (0.32 to 17 mg/100 g of fresh weight). In yellow and purple carrots, lutein represents nearly half of the total carotenoids. By contrast, in orange carrots, β-carotene represents the major carotenoid (65%). The concentration of vitamin E ranged from 191 to 703 μg/100 g of fresh weight, whereas the concentration in ascorbic acid ranged from 1.4 to 5.8 mg/100 g. For all these components, dark-orange carrots exhibited the highest values. Significant differences among these 20 varieties were also recorded for mineral and total phenolic compound concentrations. Purple and dark-orange carrots could be preferred to usual carrot varieties to benefit from their specific micronutrients (anthocyanins, carotenoids, or vitamin E). ORAC is a complex reflection of phytomicronutrients but is not tightly linked to vitamin C levels, as shown for white carrots, which are rich in this vitamin.
In the present study, it was aimed to enrich standard cookie recipe by addition of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschat Duch. ex. Poir.) pomace powder (PPP) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) pomace powder (CPP). Two different soft wheat flour (Gerek-79 and Guadalupe) were substituted by 4 levels of PPP and CPP (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) and the effects of increased levels of PPP and CPP on the farinogram properties of wheat flour dough and chemical composition, physical, textural and organoleptic properties of cookies were investigated. Addition of PPP and CPP increased water absorption (approximately 1.5 times), stability and development time as measured by farinograph. Cookies supplemented with PPP and CPP became darker with increasing levels of fiber and the creamy-yellow color of the control samples turned into orange-yellow. Addition of PPP and CPP decreased the spread ratio but increased breaking strength of cookies. Enriched cookies exhibited 1.5-2 times strength than control. In consideration of the results of sensory evaluation, it can be concluded that overall acceptability values decreased depending on increasing levels of PPP and CPP. Highly acceptable cookies could be obtained by incorporating PPP and CPP in both flour samples.
The present work deals with the study of the anthocyanin profile of two different black carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars, associated with Antonina and Purple Haze varieties, from Cuevas Bajas (Málaga, Spain) and some of their antioxidant features. The main anthocyanins detected by LC-–MS were found to correspond to five cyanidin-based anthocyanins: cyanidin 3- xylosylglucosylgalactoside, cyanidin 3-xylosylgalactoside and the sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids derivative of cyanidin 3-xylosylglucosylgalactoside. The anthocyanins present in the black carrots were essentially acylated and their levels were found to correspond to 25% and 50% of the total phenolic content for the Purple Haze and Antonina varieties, respectively. Moreover, the reducing capacity of the two black carrots extracts (86.4 ± 8.0 and 182.0 ± 27 μM TE/100 g fw) and the radical scavenging ability (17.6 ± 9.0 and 240.0 ± 54.0 μM TE/100 g fw) expressed in Trolox equivalents units were determined. The antioxidant features of the black carrot extracts were shown to be significantly higher than those of orange carrots used herein for comparison. Overall, this work highlights the Cuevas Bajas black carrots as rich sources of anthocyanins with significant antioxidant capacities and good nutritional value.
Vegetables included in daily schedule of diet viz. Sweet Pepper, Cauliflower, Carrot, Cabbage, Lettuce, Spinach, Tomato, Potato, Reddish, and Bottle Gourd were analyzed for their proximate composition, vitamin and mineral contents to evaluate their importance in human nutrition. The results showed that almost all vegetables contain appreciable amount of essential nutrients. Moisture content was high ranging from 77% in potato to 94.5% in bottle gourd followed by carbohydrate in all selected vegetables. Crude protein, Crude fiber and ash were in range from 0.9 to 2.1%, 0.3 to 1.2% and 0.5% to 1.1% respectively. Sweet pepper was found to be highest in crude fiber content. Vegetables intake is beneficial for obese, as they furnish fat to a lesser extent. Minerals in dry weight basis were found in different concentration in all vegetables. K was the most abundant mineral followed by P and Ca. Some vegetables constitute appreciable amount of Na. Potato contained 240 mg/100gm K, but Calcium (8 mg/100gm) was deficient in it. Na was found high (63.9 mg/100gm) in reddish. P and Ca concentration was found 84mg/100gm and 76 mg/100gm respectively in Spinach, which is also an efficient source of Fe 6mg/100gm. comparatively, tomato contained less amount of P (27 mg/100g). Cabbage was found deficient in Fe (0.51 mg/100gm). All the vegetables analyzed, are poor source of Cr. Vitamin analysis confirmed that selected vitamins were found high in spinach followed by cauliflower and tomato. Carrot contains minimum amount of water soluble vitamin among various vegetables. Thiamine was relatively in higher amount than niacin and riboflavin.