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Zingiber officinale Rosc. essential oil, a review on its composition and bioactivity

  • Tabib Daru Pharmaceutical Co.

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Abstract Zingiber officinale Rosc. is widely used as spice and medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicines. The aim of this study was to review the chemical composition and biological activities of Z. officinale (ginger) essential oil. Ginger oil is extracted from Z. officinale rhizomes, which its chemical composition influences from geographical region, extraction methods, freshness or dryness of rhizomes. The antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, immunomodulatory, relaxant, and warming effects of ginger oil have been confirmed in experimental and preclinical studies. The safety issues of ginger oils are well documented and are generally regarded as safe. Due to wide pharmacological effects of ginger oil, attention to ginger oil as an ingredient of natural formulations in management of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases is valuable.
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R E V I E W Open Access
Zingiber officinale Rosc. essential oil, a
review on its composition and bioactivity
Mohaddese Mahboubi
Zingiber officinale Rosc. is widely used as spice and medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicines. The aim of this
study was to review the chemical composition and biological activities of Z. officinale (ginger) essential oil. Ginger oil is
extracted from Z. officinale rhizomes, which its chemical composition influences from geographical region, extraction
methods, freshness or dryness of rhizomes. The antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer,
immunomodulatory, relaxant, and warming effects of ginger oil have been confirmed in experimental and
preclinical studies. The safety issues of ginger oils are well documented and are generally regarded as safe. Due
to wide pharmacological effects of ginger oil, attention to ginger oil as an ingredient of natural formulations in
management of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases is valuable.
Keywords: Essential oil, Pharmacological effects, Zingiber officinale,Ginger
Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), as the member of Zin-
giberaceae family is widely used as spice or medicinal
plant in folk and traditional medicines. The medicinal
part of ginger is rhizomes, which are used in traditional
medicine for treatment of wide range of ailments. In
Ayurveda system, ginger and milk or water in the form
of paste are used externally for treatment of infantile colic.
The combination of ginger with honey is used for asth-
matic bronchitis, cough, hiccups, and respiratory colds. In
traditional Chinese system, fresh ginger is believed to have
mild warm temper, while dried and roasted ones are
regarded as warm and hot, respectively [1]. It is used for
digestive ailments, and appetite disorders [2]. Ginger is
used for digestive problems in western medicine. Henry
VIII recommended the use of ginger for preventing the
plague. The prepared bread with ginger by Greeks is con-
sumed after meal as digestive aid [3]. Blood purifying,
aphrodisiac, sex stimulants, appetizing, anti-flatulent, anti-
spasmodic, anti-hemorrhoid, anti-vomiting, and anti-nau-
sea effects of ginger are other traditional prospects [4].
Ginger rhizomes are containing fatty oils (3-6%), proteins
(9%), carbohydrates (60-70%), crude fiber (3-8%), ash
(8%), water (9-12%), and volatile oil (2-3%). Nowadays,
ginger hydro-ethanol extracts are extensively used as anal-
gesic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetic, hepato-
protective, nephron-protective, and antioxidant agents [5],
which has been the subject of many review articles [68].
The aim of this review article was to investigate the chem-
ical composition of ginger essential oil and its pharmaco-
logical effects according to published literatures up to
December 2017. The information was extracted from
accessible international electronic databases (PubMed,
Springer, Science Direct, Wiley and Google), and books
(Persian or English), by key word of Zingiber officinalis
essential oil or ginger.
Chemical composition of ginger essential oil
Ginger oil's yield is varying from 1.0 to 3%, depending
upon the source of rhizomes [9]. In addition to the es-
sential oil's yields, the chemical compositions of ginger
oils are affected from the source of rhizome, freshness
or dryness and extraction methods. Due to importance
of essential oil's yields and chemical compositions, these
subjects were reviewed in this section (Table 1).
Investigation in research articles showed that Nigerian
fresh ginger oil (1.02% w/v) was found to have
β-zingiberene (12.2%), 1,8-cineole+limonene+β-phellan-
drene (10.5%), geraniol (15%), neral (8.9), β-bisabolene
(5.6%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (6.5%), while its oil
from dried rhizomes (1.84% w/v) had β-zingiberene
Medicinal Plants Research Department, Research and Development,
TabibDaru Pharmaceutical Company, Kashan, Iran
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(28.1%), 1,8-cineole+limonene+β-phellandrene (4.5%), ge-
raniol (9.0%), neral (5.3%), β-bisabolene (8.4%) and
β-sesquiphellandrene (10.6%) as the main components
[10]. The other ginger essential oil from Nigeria, extracted
by hydro-distillation method (2.4% w/w) was containing
zingiberene (29.5%), sesquiphellandrene (18.4%), farnesene
(6.46%), germacrene D (3.6%), neral (2.5%), geranial
(3.56%), neryl acetate (1.2%), and (E,E)α-farnesene (1.9%)
[11]. According to the results of above studies, the ginger
dried rhizome had higher essential oil and β-zingiberene
contents than that of fresh ones.
Furthermore, the drying method had been high effects
on essential oil's yield and the chemical composition of
ginger rhizomes. It has been confirmed that drying the
rhizomes in temperature lower than 70
C increased the
yield of ginger oil, without any effect on transformation
of 6-gingerol to 6-shogaol, while temperature higher than
C promoted transformation of 6-gingerol to 6-shogaol
[12]. The essential oil from mature freeze-dried ginger
rhizome (Hsinchu, Taiwan), which extracted by hydro-
distillation method and low temperature extraction
using liquid CO
method, resulted in degradation of
non-volatile gingerol contents [13]. Furthermore, zin-
giberene (27.8%), β-phellandrene (12.9%), sesquiphel-
landrene (10.4%), geranial (6.6%), α-curcumene (5.8%),
and β-bisabolene (5.7%) were as the main components
of fresh ginger oil, while drying at 80
C for 1 h was
resulted in zingiberene (26.4%), sesquiphellandrene
(10.2%), β-phellandrene (10.0%), camphene (7.6%), ge-
ranial (6.6%), ar-curcumene (6.0%), and β-bisabolene
(5.4%) as its main components. Drying these rhizomes
by microwave at 700 W for 2 min resulted in zingiber-
ene (37.1%), β-sesquiphellandrene (12.8%), β-bisabolene
(12.8%), ar-curcumene (8.5%), and β-phellandrene
(7.4%) as the main compounds. Essential oil of silica gel
dried rhizome had been zingiberene (30.2%), sesqui-
phellandrene (12.2%), geranial (8.1%), β-phellandrene
(7.7%), ar-curcumene (6.3%), and β-bisabolene (6.2%)
[12]. Drying the fresh ginger by convection drying, and
microwave drying methods at PL 100 resulted in 2.9 and
3% v/w yield oil versus 3.2% for ginger oil from fresh
rhizome. Zingiberene (23.5%), α-farnesene (12.0%), β-ses-
quiphellandrene (10.3%) and ar-curcumene (5.5%) were
the main components of fresh ginger oil. The concentration
Table 1 The chemical composition of Zingiber officinale essential oil from different geographical region
Yield Rhizomes Components Location Ref
β-zingiberene (12.2%), geraniol (15.0%), neral (8.9%), β-bisabolene
(5.6%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (6.4%)
β-zingiberene (28.1%), geraniol (9.0%), neral (5.3%), β-bisabolene
(8.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (10.6%)
Nigeria [10]
- Fresh Zingiberene + zingiberol (38.9%), ar-curcumene (17.7%),
β-sesquiphellandrene+β-bisabolene (11%), β-phellandrene
(4.9%), linalool+α-terpiniol (3.8%)
Bangalore Market [16]
1.2% Dried Zingiberene (32%), β-sesquiphellandrene (15.6%), β-bisabolene
(9.3%), ar-curcumene (15.9%)
market Iran [17]
- fresh α-zingiberene (23.9%), citral (21.7%) Brazil [18]
- - Zingiberene (20-28%), ar-Curcumene (6-10%),
β-Sesquiphellandrene (7-11%), β-Bisabolene (5-9%)
Australia [19]
-- α-zingiberene (29-40%), β-Sesquiphellandrene (10-14%),
ar-Curcumene (5-11%), camphene (4.5-10%), β-bisabolene
α-zingiberene (35-40%), β-sesquiphellandrene
(11.5-13.5%), ar-curcumene (6.5-9%), camphene (5-8%),
β-bisabolene (2.5-5.5%)
α-zingiberene (23-45%), β-sesquiphellandrene (8-17%),
ar-curcumene (3-11%), camphene (0.2-12%), β-bisabolene (3-7%)
west Africa
ISO 16928:2014
2.22%-4.17%. unpeeled rhizomes cultivars Camphene (8.49%), neral (4.95%), geranial (12.36%), zingiberene
(20.98%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (7.96%)
North-East India [20]
- Zingiberene(10.5-16.6%), ar-Curcumene (2.9-9.8%),
β-Sesquiphellandrene (5.8-7.2%), e-citral (7.4-10.5%), z-citral
(5.3-7%), o-cymene (0.9-6.5%), camphene (0.9-7.6%),
limonene (1.3-6.4%)
India [21]
2.4% w/w - Zingiberene (29.5%), sesquiphellandrene (18.4%), farnesene
(6.46%), germacrene D (3.58%), neral (2.5%), geranial (3.46%),
Nigeria [11]
2.1% - ar-cucumene (11.7-12.6%), β-bisabolene (4.1-8.1%)
α-zingiberene (10.3 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (7.4 %)
Vietnam [22]
- - citral (30.8%), zingiberene (17.1%), β-bisabolene, geranyl acetate (6.7%),
β-Sesquiphellandrene (5.9%), 1,8-cineol (6.1%) and geraniol (6.1%)
Alergia [23]
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of zingiberene decreased in essential oils from rhizome
dried by convection drying or microwave PLS higher than
100. The extracted essential oil from dried ginger rhizome
by microwave PL100 had higher gingerol content (about
7%)duetoreductionindryingtime[14]. Therefore, the
drying method, freshness or dryness and time exposure of
rhizome to heat [14] can influence on chemical compos-
ition and yield of essential oils. The number of phytochem-
ical compounds in ginger oil from dried rhizomes had
higher than the oils from fresh ones (115 vs. 63) [15].
Zingiberene + zingiberol (38.9%), ar-curcumene (17.7%),
β-sesquiphellandrene+β-bisabolene (11%), β-phellandrene
(4.9%) were the main components of simultaneous distil-
lation extracted ginger oil from fresh rhizome (Bangalore
market) [16]. Zingiberene (32%), β-sesquiphellandrene
(15.6%), β-bisabolene (9.3%), and ar-curcumene (15.9%)
were the main components of ginger oil (Iran market)
from dried rhizome, which is extracted by hydro-distilla-
tion method (1.2% w/w) [17]. α-zingiberene (23.9%) and
citral (21.7%) were the main components of essential oil
from fresh ginger rhizome, which is extracted by
hydro-distillation method [18]. Zingiberene (20-28%),
ar-curcumene (6-10%), β-sesquiphellandrene (7-11%), and
β-bisabolene (5-9%) were the main components of
Australian ginger essential oil [19].
According to ISO 16928:2014, the pale yellow to amber
ginger oil from China should be containing α-zingiberene
(29-40%), β-sesquiphellandrene (10-14%), ar-curcumene
(5-11%), camphene (4.5-10%), and β-bisabolene (2.5-9%),
while yellow ginger oil from India should be containing
α-zingiberene (35-40%), β-sesquiphellandrene (11.5-13.5%),
ar-curcumene (6.5-9%), camphene (5-8%), and β-bisabolene
(2.5-5.5%). The pale yellow essential oil from West Africa
had α-zingiberene (23-45%), β-sesquiphellandrene (8-17%),
ar-curcumene (3-11%), camphene (0.2-12%), and β-bisabo-
lene (3-7%). The essential oil from unpeeled rhizomes culti-
vars from North-East India (2.22-4.17% w/w) had
camphene (8.49%), neral (4.95%), geranial (12.36%), zingi-
berene (20.98%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (7.96%) [20].
The chemical compositions of ginger oils are affected from
geographical condition. Ginger oils, extracted by
hydro-distillation method from three different geograph-
ical locations of India (Mizoram, Chennai and two
varieties from Sikkim) had zingiberene (10.5-16.6%),
ar-curcumene (2.9-9.8%), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.8-7.2%),
e-citral (7.4-10.5%), z-citral (5.3-7%), o-cymene (0.9-6.5%),
camphene (0.9-7.6%), and limonene (1.3-6.4%) [21]. Gin-
ger rhizome essential oil from Vietnam was extracted by
water or steam distillation method (yields 2.1% and 2.05%,
respectively). ar-curcumene (11.7%) and β-bisabolene
(4.1%) were the main components of essential oil, ex-
tracted by steam distillation, while ar-curcumene (12.6%),
α-zingiberene (10.3%), β-bisabolene (8.1%) and β-ses-
quiphellandrene (7.4%) were present in essential oil
extracted by steam distillation [22]. The ginger essential
oil from Algeria had citral (30.8%), zingiberene (17.07%),
β-bisabolene, geranyl acetate (6.7%), β-sesquiphellandrene
(5.9%), 1,8-cineol (6.1%) and geraniol (6.1%) [23].
The other effective factor on chemical composition of
oil is the method, which is used for extraction of ginger oil.
The essential oil from Brazilian ginger rhizomes, which
were extracted by hydro-distillation method and supercrit-
ical fluid extraction using CO
had lower extraction's yield
in hydro-distillation method than that of supercritical fluid
extraction method. α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene,
ar-curcumene, α-farnesene, β-bisabolene and geranial were
the main components of ginger oil extracted by supercrit-
ical critical extraction using CO
(at 25 MPa, temperature
333.15 K). ar-curcumene, geranial and camphene were the
main components of hydro-distilled ginger essential oil.
The content of α-zingiberene was lower in hydro-distilled
ginger essential oil [24]. Furthermore, the highest yield for
essential oil (3.1%) and 6-gingerol content (20.7%) were
achieved by supercritical fluid extraction at 15 MPa, 35
and 15 g/min. The essential oil yield for scale up of this
method was 3.83% with 18% of 6-gingerol. The essential
oil's yield was 1.9% with 6-gingerol content of 14.8% for
high pressure Soxhlet with CO
. Extraction of essential oils
with other methods such as Soxhlet with n-hexane or etha-
nol percolation had disadvantages of residual solvent and
low content of 6-gingerol (4.59-6.26%) [25]. Proteolytic en-
zyme (Zingibain), oleoresin, vitamins, minerals, gingerols,
shogaols, paradols and zingeronewerefoundingingeres-
sential oil [26] and has been confirmed that γ-irradiation of
rhizome (60 Gy) had no detectable effects on qualitative
and quantitative of components of extracted essential oil
[16]. The citral content of ginger essential oil from dried
rhizome was lower than the oil from fresh ginger. The un-
peeled or coated rhizomes had the better yield of essential
oil [27]. The structure of main components in ginger essen-
tial oil is presented in Fig. 1.Therefore, defining a protocol
for gathering, drying and extraction method help to prepare
a standard on chemical profile of ginger essential oil by
international organizations in order to overcome the diver-
sity of chemical composition of essential oil.
Pharmacological effects of ginger essential oil
Although, the chemical compositions of ginger essential
oil are affected from many factors, but different pharma-
cological and biological activities are reported for ginger
essential oil in different literatures.
Antimicrobial activity of ginger essential oil
Brazilian ginger rhizomes essential oil with main
components of α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene,
ar-curcumene, α-farnesene, β-bisabolene and geranial
had the higher inhibition zone diameters for Staphylococ-
cus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, followed by
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Salmonella typhimurium,Shi-
gella flexneri and Escherichia coli were resistant to ginger
essential oil [24]. The higher sensitivity of S. aureus than
that of E. coli to ginger essential oil were confirmed in
other study [28]. Ginger essential oil exhibited the MIC
values of 8.69, 86.92, 173.84 and 869.2 mg/ml for S. aur-
eus,Bacillus subtilis,E. coli and Penicillium spp. [29]. The
antibacterial evaluation of ginger essential oil against
Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli ATCC 25922,
Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, Pseudomonas aer-
uginosa ATCC 27853, and 30 multidrug-resistant (MDR)
A. baumannii isolates showed the inhibition zone diame-
ters of 11.5, 6, 6, 10 mm. The MIC
and MIC
values of
ginger essential oil were 2 and 4 mg/ml against MDR-A.
baumannii. The corresponding MBC were 4 mg/ml. Tea
tree oil was used as positive control in this study with
MIC and MBC values of 2 and 4 mg/ml, respectively [30].
The antifungal activity of Vietnamese ginger essential oil
with ar-cucumene, β-bisabolene, α-zingiberene and
β-sesquiphellandrene against Botrytis cinerea,Penicillium
sp., Aspergillus niger, followed by Rhizopus nigricans,Sac-
charomyces cerevisiae,andCandida albicans,werecon-
firmed. Bacillus subtilis,Staphylococcus epidermidis,
Salmonella abony,Escherichia coli,andBacillus pumilus
showed less sensitivity to Vietnamese ginger essential oil.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to ginger essential
oil [22]. Ginger essential oil had less activity against
Streptococcus pneumoniae R36A [31]. The ginger es-
sential oil had antibacterial effects against Campylo-
bacter jejuni,E. coli O
,L. monocytogenes,and
Fig. 1 Main components of ginger oil
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Salmonella enterica [32]. The ginger essential oil with
citral (30.8%) and zingiberene (17.07 %), β-bisabolene,
geranyl acetate (6.7%), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.9%),
1,8-cineol (6.1%) and geraniol (6.1%) showed anti-
microbial activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923,
Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, B. subtilis ATCC
6633, Salmonella typhi ATCC 23564, A. niger ATCC
9029, and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853.E.coliATCC
25922, Citrobacter koseri ATCC 27028 and Proteus
mirabilis ATCC 29906 exhibited less sensitivity to
ginger essential oil [23]. It seems that ginger essential
oil showed the best antibacterial activity against Gram
positive bacteria than that of Gram negative ones.
Also, the results of antibacterial effects of ginger es-
sential oil showed that this activities influence from
the chemical composition of ginger essential oil. Fur-
thermore, the antifungal activities of ginger essential
oils had been the subjects of other research studies.
Ginger essential oil showed anti-dermatophyte effects
against Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum gyp-
seum. Also, a synergistic effects between Curcuma longa
and ginger essential oils were confirmed against T.
rubrum, and M. gypseum [33]. Ginger essential oil with
zingiberene (37.65 %), δ-amorphene (19.8%), α-curcumin
(11.3%), and α-bisabolene (10.4%) had significant effects
on A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B
and B
[34]. The fresh ginger rhizome essential oil containing
α-zingiberene (23.9%) and citral (21.7%) inhibited Fusar-
ium verticillioides with MIC value of 2.5 mg/ml. An os-
cillation in ergosterol production was caused after
exposure to 0.5-3 mg/ml ginger essential oil and ergos-
terol production was inhibited in higher concentrations
of ginger essential oil (57-100%). Ginger essential oil
inhibited the production of fumonisin B
, and B
. Cor-
relation between the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis
and fumonisin production is associated with reduction
in fungal biomass. Ginger essential oil decreased cyto-
plasmic content of fungi and interrupted membrane in-
tegrity [18]. The results of antimicrobial evaluations of
ginger essential oil propose it as broad spectrum anti-
microbial agents (Table 2) in pharmaceutical industry or
as natural preservative in food or cosmetic industries.
Antioxidant activity of ginger essential oil
Production of free radicals in the body and its relation
with different human diseases, investigation on natural
antioxidants has increased among the scientists.
The antioxidant evaluation of Chinese ginger essential
oil had EC
(mg/ml) of 63.23, 11.68 and 0.118 in redu-
cing power, DPPH scavenging and H
scavenging as-
says. The corresponding EC
for ascorbic acid were
0,.025, 0.005, 0.478, respectively and for quercetin were
0.017, 0.002, 0.078 [35]. Ginger essential oil also showed
antioxidant activity in ABST assay. 0.87 to 869.2 mg/mL
essential oil showed 12.1-80.53% radical scavenging ac-
tivity versus 7.5-69.3% for 0.08-0.6 mg/ml ascorbic acid.
of ABST (mg/ml) were 1.82±0.034 for ginger essen-
tial oil [29]. Intra-peritoneal injection of ginger essential
oil scavenged the superoxide, hydroxide radicals and
inhibited tissue lipid peroxidation. 250 mg/kg ginger es-
sential oil suppressed (18.25%) phorbol 12-myristate
13-acetate (PMA) induced superoxide radicals in macro-
phages. Oral administration of 100 or 200 mg/kg ginger
essential oil for 30 days in mice increased the antioxi-
dant enzymes such as catalase, super oxide dismutase,
glutathione, glutathione reductase in blood compared
with control group (paraffin oil). Ginger essential oil in-
creased the level of superoxide dismutase, glutathione
peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase in liver [27].
The results of studies showed the role of ginger essential
oil in protecting the cells from extracellular deleterious
radicals, by increasing the serum and liver antioxidant
Bronchodilator effects of ginger oil
The bronchodilator effects of ginger essential oil were
confirmed on airway system. Ginger essential oil with
citral, eucalyptol and camphor had relaxing effect on
rat's airway and inhibited the carbachol induced rat tra-
cheal contraction. The bronchodilator effect of ginger
essential oil is related to citral, eucalyptol. The broncho-
dilator effects of ginger essential oil reversed by propran-
olol, while L-NAME and indomethacin had no effect on
bronchodilator effects of ginger essential oil and citral.
Propranolol is β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, while
indomethacin and L- NAME were CO
inhibitor and
NOS inhibitor. Therefore, β-adrenergic receptors were
involved in bronchodilator effects of ginger essential oil
[36]. The bronchodilator effects of ginger essential oil
are according to traditional uses of ginger syrup for re-
spiratory problems. The bronchodilator effects of ginger
essential oil in modern medicine confirm its traditional
uses for management of cough.
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ginger
essential oil
Inflammation plays important role in the body. The
anti-inflammatory effects of ginger essential oil were
evaluated in streptococcal cell wall-induced rheumatoid
arthritis model in female Lewis arthritis. Daily Intra-
peritoneal injection of 28 mg/kg ginger essential oil
inhibited the chronic joint inflammation without any ef-
fects in initial acute phase of joint inflammation or
granuloma formation at the site of streptococcal cell wall
deposition in liver. Ginger essential oil acts as phyto-
estrogen without any in vivo effect on estrogen target
organ [37]. The anti-edema effects of ginger essential oil
(100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) in carrageenan induced paw
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Table 2 The antimicrobial activity of ginger essential oils
Essential oil Main components Method Control Results Reference
Brazilian ginger oil α-zingiberene
Disc diffusion - Sensitive Microorganisms
Staphylococcus aureus
Listeria monocytogenes,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Salmonella typhimurium
Resistant Microorganisms
Shigella flexneri
Escherichia coli
Ginger oil - Microcalorimetry - The higher sensitivity of S. aureus
than E. coli
Chinese ginger oil - Microbroth dilution assay (mg/ml) - S. aureus (8.69)
B. subtilis (86.92)
E. coli (173.84)
Pencillium spp. (869.2)
A. niger (inactive)
Ginger oil - Agar diffusion
Microbroth Dilution assay
Tea tree oil Acinetobacter baumannii (6 mm)
MDR-A. baumannii (10 mm)
MDR-A. baumannii (MIC
and MIC
2, 4 mg/ml)
Vietnam ginger oil ar-cucumene
Agar Diffusion Cup Method (mm) - S. epidermidis (12-12.5)
S. aureus (11.5)
B. pumilus (10.0-10.6)
B. subtilis (12.2-13.0)
E. coli (12)
P. aeruginosa (inactive)
Salmonella abony (11.0)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (16.0-17.0)
C. albicans (13-14.1)
A. niger (32.3)
Rhizopus nigricans (17-17.4)
Penicillium sp. (38-39.5)
Botrytis cinerea (30.0)
Ginger oil - Disk diffusion assay
Broth dilution assay
- Weak inhibitor against
S. pneumoniae R36A
Algerian ginger oil citral (30.8%)
zingiberene (17.1%)
Geranyl acetate (6.7%)
1,8-cineol (6.1%)
β-Sesquiphellandrene (5.9%)
Disk diffusion assay (mm) sulfamethoxazole, penicillin G,
ampicillin and gentamicin
S. aureus (9)
B. subtilis( 13)
S. pyogenes (11)
P. aeruginosa (9)
Candida koseri (inactive)
A. niger (inactive)
S. typhi (10)
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Table 2 The antimicrobial activity of ginger essential oils (Continued)
Essential oil Main components Method Control Results Reference
Indian ginger oil - disc diffusion method
Microdilution assay
Clotrimazole, Ketoconazole T. rubrum (72 mm, <0.06 μl/ml)
M. gypseum (69 mm, 0.06 μl/ml)
Ginger oil zingiberene (37.65 %)
δ-amorphene (19.8%)
α-curcumin (11.3%)
α-bisabolene (10.4%)
Antifungal activity
Antiaflatoxigenic activity
- significant effects on A. flavus and
aflatoxin B
and B
Ginger oil zingiberene (37.65 %)
δ-amorphene (19.8%)
α-curcumin (11.3%)
α-bisabolene (10.4%)
Microbroth dilution assay - Fusarium verticillioides (MIC 2.5 mg/ml) [18]
Mahboubi Clinical Phytoscience (2019) 5:6 Page 7 of 12
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
edema of mice were 27.8, 44.4 and 61.1% in a dose
dependent manner vs. 55.6% for 10 mg/kg diclofenac.
Ginger essential oil showed inhibitory effects against
dextran induced inflammation. Ginger essential oil sup-
pressed the chronic inflammation induced by formalin.
100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg ginger essential oil showed in-
hibitory effects on formalin induced inflammation about
54.17, 62.5 and 70.8%, respectively vs. 54.8% for 10 mg/
kg diclofenac. In carrageenan induced inflammation, the
anti-inflammatory mediators such as histamine, bradyki-
nins and prostaglandins were involved. Due to the
anti-inflammatory effects of ginger essential oil in kinin,
carrageenan induced paw edema and chronic edema, it
seems that the anti-inflammatory effects of ginger essen-
tial oil is related to inhibition of prostaglandin release
[27]. The analgesic effects of ginger essential oil in acetic
acid writhing model showed that 100, 500 and 1000 mg/
kg ginger essential oil inhibited the writhing reflux by
13.1%, 70.64% and 92.15%. The analgesic effects of 500
mg/kg ginger essential oil was comparable with 10 mg/kg
aspirin. The antinociceptive effects of ginger essential oil
is strong and is related to inhibition of arachidonic acid
metabolite synthesis by cyclooxygenase inhibition [27].
Evaluating the anti-inflammatory/analgesic effects of
ginger essential oil (2%) in Male Sprague rats by Randall
Selitto assay exhibited that ginger essential oil signifi-
cantly increased the threshold of hind paw for 1 h.
Counting the c-Fos positive spinal neuron in rat's spinal
cords showed ginger essential oil completely suppressed
the pressure induced in the dorsal horn of spinal cord,
which implicating that the inhibitory effects of ginger es-
sential oil on pain transmission in primary sensory neu-
rons of the dorsal root ganglia or at the spinal cord
level. The suppressor effects of ginger essential oil on
Complete Freund's Adjuvants-induced-paw edema im-
plicated on its anti-inflammatory effects [38]. The anal-
gesic effects of ginger essential oil were investigated
again in mice using hot plate and acetic acid test. 0.25-1
g/kg ginger essential oil had significant analgesic effects
in hot plate and acetic acid test. 1 g/kg ginger essential
oil reduced the writhes about 64.3% compared to 81.3%
for indomethacin (0.01 g/kg). 1 g/kg ginger essential oil
caused prolong ratio of 243.1% in hot plate test com-
pared to 274.5% for indomethacin. 0.25-1 mg/kg ginger
essential oil reduced inflammation in carrageenan in-
duced rat paw edema, adjuvant arthritis and inhibited
inflammatory mediators, which induced vascular perme-
ability. Ginger essential oil at concentration of 1 g/kg re-
duced the hind paw edema about 66.5% in carrageenan
test, while the corresponding value was 80.5% for 0.5 g/
kg aspirin. 1 g/kg ginger essential oil reduced 35.6%
edema in Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats vs.
51.9% for 0.0025 g/kg dexamethasone. 0.5 g/kg ginger
essential oil inhibited the inflammatory mediators of
bradykinins, histamine and arachidonic acid, comparable
to 0.01 g/kg indomethacin [39].
The effect of ginger essential oil on leukocyte chemo-
taxis in vitro condition showed that treatment with
ginger essential oil decreased the leukocyte migration to-
ward casein stimuli. Pretreatment with dexamethasone
suppressed casein induced leukocyte migration. After
oral pretreatment of carrageenan injected mice with 200
or 500 mg/kg ginger essential oil, a reduction in number
of rolling, adherent cells and migrated leukocytes were
observed and this effects were comparable with 5 mg/kg
indomethacin [40].
The results of preclinical studies on analgesic and
anti-inflammatory effects of ginger essential oil were
evaluated in clinical studies.
In randomized controlled trial, the effects of Swedish
massage with ginger essential oil (2% in jojoba oil) were
compared to Thai massage on 140 older adult patients
with chronic low back pain and disability. The patients
were randomly divided in two groups and treated with
Swedish massage with ginger essential oil or Thai mas-
sage 30 min, twice a week for five weeks. The effective-
ness of treatment was evaluated by Visual Analogue
Scale (VAS) after each massage, McGill Pain Question-
naire after 6 (short term) and 15 weeks (long term) and
Owestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ). At the base-
line, there was no significant difference between two
groups, in regard of demographic and back pain charac-
teristic. A significant reduction in pain intensity was ob-
served in both groups immediately after massage
compared to baseline, but this difference between two
groups was not significant immediately after the mas-
sages. Evaluation the McGill Pain scores exhibited a
greater reduction in back pain intensity in Swedish mas-
sage with ginger essential oil than the Thai massage.
Two types of massages reduced back pain intensity.
Evaluation the effects of treatment on disability showed
a significant difference between two groups after treat-
ment. More reduction in ODQ was observed in Swedish
massage with ginger essential oil than that of Thai mas-
sage. The disability rating improved across the period of
treatment in both groups, but this improvement was
higher in Swedish massage with ginger essential oil
group. The results of this clinical study showed the im-
mediate, short and long effectiveness of treatments with
ginger essential oil [41]. In other double blind placebo
controlled experimental study, the effectiveness of mas-
sage with 1% ginger essential oil plus 0.5% orange essen-
tial oil in olive oil was evaluated on fifty nine older
patients with moderate to severe knee pain. The patients
massaged twice a weeks for 3-weeks period. The patients
were evaluated at the baseline, post 1-week and post
4-weeks after therapy by evaluation of knee pain inten-
sity, stiffness level and physical functioning and quality
Mahboubi Clinical Phytoscience (2019) 5:6 Page 8 of 12
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
of life. 19, 17 and 17 patients completed the study in
intervention, placebo and control groups, respectively.
The patients in intervention group received an aromatic
oil massage with essential oils, the placebo group re-
ceived olive oil massage, and control group received no
massage, but had conventional treatments. There was no
significant difference between groups in regard of
socio-demographic characteristic and outcome mea-
sures, the use of oral analgesic and NSAIDs. Greater
pain and poorer in fulfilling physical roles was observed
in patients of control group than that of placebo and
intervention groups. Reduction in knee pain and stiff-
ness relief were similar among three groups at post 1
and 4-week of treatments, but within groups, the reduc-
tion in knee pain rating and stiffness relief outcomes
were significant in intervention group (p=0.02, p=0.03),
while in placebo group and control group, no significant
reduction was observed. Within group, physical func-
tions showed more improvement in intervention group
than the placebo or control group. No significant differ-
ence was observed in life quality between baselines and
post 4-week for all groups. No major adverse effects
were reported during the study for all groups, only one
patient in placebo group reported more pain after mas-
sage therapy [42]. Massage therapy with ginger essential
oil relieved moderate to severe knee joint pain, daily func-
tion and stiffness in short term without adverse effects
and effects on quality of life. The anti-inflammatory and
analgesic effects of ginger essential oil confirm the trad-
itional uses of ginger root in treatment of inflammatory
diseases of gastrointestinal tracts. Therefore, it could be a
good natural treatment for Irritable Bowel syndrome
(IBS), colic or musculoskeletal pain.
Anticancer effects of ginger essential oil
Anticancer effects of ginger essential oil were the other
subject of investigation. The IC
values for 46.2-172 μg/
ml α-zingiberene as one main component of ginger es-
sential oil was reported 60.6, 46.2, 172 and 80.3 μg/ml for
HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL-60 cell lines. α-zingiberene
caused nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, increased the
percentage of sub-diploid cells, apoptosis, activated the
caspases in SiHa cells. The IC
values of ginger essential
oil with α-zingiberene (35.0%), ar-curcumene (15.3%),
β-sesquiphellandrene (12.3%) were in the ranges of
38.6-82 μg/ml against cell lines. The lowest IC
for ginger
oil was related to SiHa (38.6 μg/ml). The IC
values of
cisplatin as control group were 28.2, 56.2, 31.2 and 31.1
for HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL60, respectively [43].
The neutral red (NR) and tetrazolium MTT assays
confirmed the cytotoxic effects of ginger essential oil
(camphene, 1,8-cineole, β-phellandrene, neral, and gera-
nial) against HepG2 and HeLa cells. The MTT-IC
values of ginger essential oil were 635.1 and 141.4 for
HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively. The corresponding
was 635.1 and 129.9 μl/ml, respectively. The
anti-proliferative effects of ginger essential oil against
HeLa cervical cancer cells are created by cell membrane
protrusions, blebbing and chromatin condensation. In-
creasing the concentration of ginger essential oil to 1928
μl/ml caused the amorphous cells, blebbing and chroma-
tin condensation, which finally caused cell death by apop-
tosis, similar to those of camptothecin [44]. In other
preclinical study, 10 μl/day ginger essential oil for 14 days
on acid soluble sulfhydryl levels and hepatic carcinogen
metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, aryl hydrocar-
bon hydroxylase and glutathione-S-transferase) in Swiss
albino mice showed that ginger essential oil signifi-
cantly increased aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and
glutathione-S-transferase [45].
Anti-ulcer effects of ginger essential oil
Ginger essential oil can be used as anti-ulcer agent for
treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. The gastric protect-
ive effects of 0.5, 1 g/kg ginger essential oil (5 days) in
aspirin-pylorus ligation induced ulcer model in Wistar
rats by evaluating the ulcer index, serum γ-GTP levels,
gastric wall mucus thickness and total acidity of gastric
juice showed no significant changes on volume of gastric
juice, but a reduction in serum γ-GTP levels and in-
crease in the means of gastric wall mucus thickness were
observed. Oral omeprazole treatment (10 mg/kg) signifi-
cantly reduced the serum γ-GTP levels, ulcer index, and
total acidity with increase in gastric wall mucus thick-
ness. Omeprazole had no effects on volume of gastric
juice compared to control group. In control group, a sig-
nificant increase in serum γ-GTP levels, ulcer index and
reduction in gastric wall mucus thickness was observed
[46]. Furthermore, oral ginger essential oil (zingiberene
(28.1%), ar-curcumene (14.1%), β-bisabolene (13.2%),
α-sesquiphellandrene (12.9%), sabinene (9.3%) and cam-
phene (4.1%) had protective effects against ulcerative
colitis induced by acetic acid. The colon weight/length
ratio reduced after treatment with different concentra-
tions of ginger essential oil (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for
5 days. Ulcer severity, ulcer area and ulcer index reduced
after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg ginger essential
oil. 400 mg/kg ginger essential oil reduced the inflamma-
tion extent and severity. In this animal study, the ulcer
score, ulcer area, ulcer index for 400 mg/kg ginger essential
oil was comparable to 4 mg/kg prednisolone [47]. Ginger
essential oil had good potency for treatment of ulcerative
colitis or gastric ulcers in animal studies, therefore, its po-
tency can be evaluated in large human clinical studies.
Immuno-modulatory effects of ginger essential oil
Ginger essential oil is known as immunomodulator agent.
The effect of ginger essential oil on cellular immune
Mahboubi Clinical Phytoscience (2019) 5:6 Page 9 of 12
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
response was the subject of different investigations.
0.001-10 ng/ml ginger essential oil had significant inhibi-
tory effects on T lymphocyte proliferation. Also, the
number of total T lymphocytes and T helper cells de-
creased in a dose dependent. The percentage of T sup-
pressor cells to the total T lymphocyte increased in
mice after treatment with ginger essential oil. IL-1αse-
cretion by mice peritoneal macrophages, which impli-
cated on its anti-inflammatory effects, was inhibited by
ginger essential oil. In animal model, reduction in de-
layed type of hypersensitivity response to 2, 4-dinitro-
1-fluorobenzene was observed in sensitized mice after oral
administration of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg ginger essential
oil. Oral administration of ginger essential oil had signifi-
cant effects on reduction of thymus and spleen index [48].
The results of this study confirmed the effects of ginger
essential oil on cell mediated immune response and non-
specific proliferation of T lymphocyte.
Other pharmacological effects of ginger essential
The use of ginger essential oil in reducing of high risk of
post-operative nausea and vomiting was the subject of
clinical study. A solution of ginger essential oil (5% in
grape seed oil) was applied naso-cutaneously in manage-
ment of nausea in general anesthesia of patients with
high risk of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Ginger
oil solution was applied on both wrists and inserted to
anesthesia medication. The results of study showed the
lower incidence of nausea and vomiting in ginger essen-
tial oil treated patients in post anesthesia recovery unit
about 20%. In ginger essential oil group, the high risk
patients with post-operative nausea and vomiting re-
ceived only one single intravenous supplemental medica-
tion to control nausea. The patients in control group
experienced post-operative nausea and vomiting about
50/50. Ginger essential oil was tolerated by patients and is
regarded as safe treatment [49]. Ginger rhizomes as an ef-
fective and safe treatment and adjuvant treatment for
nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and chemotherapy-in-
duced nausea were confirmed in various preclinical and
clinical studies [50].
The anti-emetic effect of ginger essential oil is related
to shogaols and 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols [51]. The warming
effect of ginger essential oil is mediated by decreasing the
body serotonin [52]. 6-shogaol inhibits the release of sub-
stance P and shows capsaicin like effect [53]. The anxio-
lytic effect of ginger essential oil was confirmed [54].
The pesticide effect of ginger essential oil was con-
firmed against adults and larva of Dermestes maculatus
De Geer (adult and larva). 1.33 μl/ml essential oil expos-
ure of adult pesticide for 6 h caused 36.2% mortality.
The larva was more sensitive than that of adults. The
percentage of mortality increased with time exposure of
pest with essential oil. The LD
of ginger essential oil
were 12.92, 5.14 and 3.06 after 6, 12 and 18 h exposure
of D. maculatus larva. The corresponding LD
6.52, 4.64 and 4.64 on adults of D. maculatus [55].
Ginger has liver metabolism, therefore it rapidly elimi-
nates from the blood after oral ingestion. According to
monographs on fragrance raw materials (Research insti-
tute on Fragrance materials, 1972), the usual acceptance
concentrations of ginger essential oil in soap, detergent,
creams-lotion and perfumes are 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 and
0.08, respectively, while higher than 0.1, 0.01, 0.03 and
0.4% are not permitted in food. Ginger essential oil is
approved by FEMA and FDA as GRAS for food uses.
The LD
of ginger essential oil was reported 3.197 g/kg
in mice [39].
The acute oral LD
in rats and the acute dermal LD
in rabbits were higher than 5 g/kg. The applied pure gin-
ger essential oil on the backs of hairless mice had no ir-
ritating reaction. Pure essential oil on intact or abraded
rabbit skin for 24 h under occlusion caused moderate ir-
ritating. 4% ginger essential oil in petrolatum caused no
irritation and no sensitization after 48 h closed patch
test in human subjects, but the dermal products contain-
ing ginger essential oil may produce dermatitis in hyper-
sensitive individuals [56].
Oral administration of ginger essential oil (0.3, 0.6 and
1.2 g/kg) for 180 days in dogs reduced the thymus and
spleen index, furthermore, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg ginger
essential oil to rats for 180 days had no effects in thymus
and spleen index. Histopathological examinations of
thymus and spleen samples showed reduction in the
number of T lymphocytes in thymus and mild degener-
ation in adrenal gland cortex in both animals. Discon-
tinuing the treatment for 30 days recovered the animals
to the normal level [57]. Oral daily administration of
rats with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg for 13 weeks caused
on changes in hematological parameters, serum electro-
lyte, renal functions or histopathology of vital organs
[58]. Ginger one dose dependently inhibited the spon-
taneous contractile movements in the isolated colonic
segments and colonic motility in rats without any effect
on blood pressure and heart rate via direct effect on
smooth muscle [59].
3-4 cups of Tea (1 tablespoon grated raw root per cup
with boiling water), 1-2 g powder, and 1.5-3 ml of tinc-
ture (three times), are recommended daily. The pregnant
women do not use the ginger higher than 1 g, and
should not exceed 4 g per day in general population.
Due to the effect of ginger to increase the risk of bleed-
ing, the use of ginger should discontinue 1-2 weeks be-
fore surgical procedures [60].
Mahboubi Clinical Phytoscience (2019) 5:6 Page 10 of 12
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
Although, Ginger rhizome is known as spice in different
cultures, and the majority of studies have been focused
on anti-emetic, anti-vomiting and analgesic effects of
ginger extracts, attention to ginger essential oil in man-
agement of gastrointestinal tract's diseases with ulcer
and pain, respiratory system with infection should be
considered. Ginger essential oil is extracted from ginger
rhizomes, which the chemical composition of ginger oils
influences from geographical region, extraction methods,
freshness or dryness of rhizomes. Due to the chemical
composition of ginger oil is affected from many different
factors such as geographical condition, freshness or dry-
ness of rhizome, methods of drying or extraction, stand-
ardizing the ginger essential oil according to main
component and other main biological compounds is
valuable, because the biological activity of ginger essential
oil is depended on chemical components. The antibacter-
ial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, im-
munomodulatory, relaxant, warming effects of ginger
essential oil were confirmed in experimental and preclin-
ical studies. The safety issue of ginger essential oil is well
documented and is generally regarded as safe.
Due to the high yield of ginger essential oil and wide
biological effects of ginger essential oil, its use in herbal
formulations should be considered in many different
basis rather than aromatherapy.
MDR: Multidrug-resistant; ODQ: Owestry disability questionnaire;
PMA: Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; VAS: Visual analogue scale
The author is thankful from TabibDaru Pharmaceutical Company for its support.
The study was supported by TabibDaru Pharmaceutical Company, Kashan, Iran.
Availability of data and materials
Not applicable
Authors' contributions
MM is the sole author of this manuscript, who prepared, read and submitted
the manuscript. The author read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Not applicable
Consent for publication
Not applicable
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in
published maps and institutional affiliations.
Received: 16 October 2018 Accepted: 20 December 2018
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... It may be obtained from fresh ginger rhizome, dried rhizomes or ginger peel, with oil from the fresh ginger reported to be of better fragrance than that from dried ginger [4,5]. As it is known with spices, ginger oil is generally regarded as safe [GRAS] [6,7]. It is known as the oil of empowerment because it gives the user a feeling of self-assurance and courage [3]. ...
... Essential oil of ginger from Brazil, for instance, was found to be more effective against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria compared with ginger essential oil from Veitnam. This has been attributed to variation in quantity of ar-curcumene, α-zingiberene, geranial, α-farnesene, βbisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene in both cultivars ( Table 1) [7]. ...
... This might also affect acceptability and hence its commercial use. The colour variation has been attributed to alterations in the chemical composition of the oil from one region to another (Table 1) [7,48]. ...
Full-text available
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a spice used in many parts of the world for culinary and medicinal purposes. It is a good source of essential oil with both the rhizome and its essential oil becoming increasingly acceptable for traditional, medicinal and commercial uses. Essential oils may be referred to as ethereal oils or volatile oils due to their volatile nature at room temperature. This review is intended to highlight the uses of ginger essential oil as well as summarise the effect of site, duration and geographical location of cultivation on the oil. In view, there are vast and abundant uses of ginger essential oil and different cultivars of ginger would be observed to differ in weight yield and composition, with China ginger oil (4.07% yield) having 43 compounds and Indian ginger oil (1.26% yeild) having 60 compounds, hence differing in quality and bioactivity. It may be concluded in this review that various aspects of cultivation as earlier mentioned affect the composition, bioactivity, potency, colour, aroma and weight yield of ginger essential oil which essentially affect its use from one culture to another.
... Kontribusi utama terhadap bau atau rasa yang khas dari jahe adalah adanya komponen volatile (2 -3 % dari jahe segar) dan komponen non-volatile seperti zingerone, shogaol, dan gingerol (Indiarto & Subroto, 2021;Srinivasan, 2017). Selain memberikan rasa yang khas pada jahe, empat senyawa utama dari jahe dari hasil penelitian juga mempunyai bioaktivitas sebagai antioksidan (Indiarto & Subroto, 2021;Mahboubi, 2019;Murthy et al., 2015), antiinflamasi (Mahboubi, 2019), antikanker (Srinivasan, 2017;Zhao et al., 2020) dan antikoagulan (Wang et al., 2020). ...
... Kontribusi utama terhadap bau atau rasa yang khas dari jahe adalah adanya komponen volatile (2 -3 % dari jahe segar) dan komponen non-volatile seperti zingerone, shogaol, dan gingerol (Indiarto & Subroto, 2021;Srinivasan, 2017). Selain memberikan rasa yang khas pada jahe, empat senyawa utama dari jahe dari hasil penelitian juga mempunyai bioaktivitas sebagai antioksidan (Indiarto & Subroto, 2021;Mahboubi, 2019;Murthy et al., 2015), antiinflamasi (Mahboubi, 2019), antikanker (Srinivasan, 2017;Zhao et al., 2020) dan antikoagulan (Wang et al., 2020). ...
Full-text available
Zingiber officinale (Ginger) was widely known as one of the most herbal medicines containing many bioactive compounds claimed to be useful as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-coagulant. Gingerol, shogaol, and paradol are some of the most bioactive compounds found in ginger. Several studies have been conducted to isolate the bioactive compounds. However, a study about simultaneous isolation with a fast and effective methodology has yet to be found in Indonesia. Therefore, this study aimed to simultaneously isolate the bioactive compounds such as 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 6-paradol in ginger using Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC). Etil acetate (EA) fraction from the ginger crude extract was treated with VLC using a mix of hexane-EA as a mobile phase to gain the isolates, and then it was purified using HPLC semi-prep. 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were found in the fraction of VLC 80% hexane. Meanwhile, 6-paradol was found in the fraction VLC 90% hexane. Further isolation of each compound was conducted using semi-prep HPLC. LC-MS was used to confirm the molecular weight of each isolate compared to the literature. This study obtained isolate 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 6-paradol with a purity of 99%, 94%, and 92%, respectively.Keywords: Isolation; Zingiber officinale; 6-gingerol; 6-shogaol; 6-paradol; VLCABSTRAKIsolasi 6-Gingerol, 6-Shogaol, dan 6-Paradol dari Tanaman Zingiber officinale (Jahe) secara Simultan dengan Menggunakan Metode Vaccum Liquid Chromatography (VLC)Zingiber officinale (jahe) merupakan salah satu dari jenis tanaman obat yang memiliki banyak kandungan senyawa aktif yang bermanfaat sebagai antioksidan, antiinflamasi, antikanker, dan antikoagulan. Gingerol, shogaol, dan paradol adalah beberapa jenis senyawa aktif yang umumnya dapat ditemukan pada tanaman ini. Sejumlah penelitian telah dilakukan untuk proses isolasi senyawa tersebut. Akan tetapi, di Indonesia, isolasi senyawa tersebut belum dilakukan secara simultan dan efektif. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan isolasi senyawa aktif 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, dan 6-paradol secara simultan menggunakan metode Vaccum Liquid Chromatography (VLC). Fraksi etil asetat dari ekstrak jahe di VLC dengan campuran perlarut heksan-etil asetat (EA) untuk memperoleh isolat senyawa dan kemudian dimurnikan dengan menggunakan HPLC semi-prep. Pada hasil VLC 80 % heksana didapatkan senyawa 6-gingerol dan 6-shogaol. Sementara senyawa 6-paradol didapatkan pada VLC 90 % heksana. Selanjutnya, konfirmasi berat molekul senyawa dilakukan menggunakan LC-MS untuk mecocokkan dengan literatur yang sudah ada. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan isolat senyawa aktif jahe berupa 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, dan 6-paradol, masing-masing dengan kemurnian 99 %, 94 %, dan 92 %.Kata kunci : Isolasi, Zingiber officinale, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-paradol, VLC
... Α-zingiberene (15.45%) and camphene (14.72%) were the most abundant compounds among sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, respectively. The chemical composition of Z. officinale EO from Amazonian Ecuador reflects interesting and important differences from analogous EOs from Z. officinale plants of different geographical origins, reporting ar-curcumene or citral or αand β-zingiberene as the major constituents [17]. The emerging qualitative and quantitative differences stress the particularity of the Amazonian area where the plants were grown, whose environmental characteristics significantly affect the phytochemistry of the specie. ...
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) and their vapour phase of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Ocimum campechianum (Lamiaceae), and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) of cultivated plants grown in an Amazonian Ecuador area were chemically characterised by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID), Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Head Space–Gas Chromatograph-Flame Ionization Detector–Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC-FID-MS).figure The EOs analyses led to the identification of 25 compounds for C. longa (99.46% of the total; ar-turmerone: 23.35%), 18 compounds for C. citratus (99.59% of the total; geraniol: 39.43%), 19 compounds for O. campechianum (96.24% of the total; eugenol: 50.97%), and 28 for Z. officinale (98.04% of the total; α-Zingiberene: 15.45%). The Head Space fractions (HS) revealed C. longa mainly characterised by limonene and 1,8-cineole (37.35%) and α-phellandrene (32.33%); Z. officinale and C. citratus showed camphene (50.39%) and cis-Isocitral (15.27%) as the most abundant compounds, respectively. O. campechianum EO revealed a higher amount of sesquiterpenes (10.08%), mainly characterised by E-caryophyllene (4.95%), but monoterpene fraction remained the most abundant (89.94%). The EOs were tested for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and mutagen-protective properties and compared to the Thymus vulgaris EO as a positive reference. O. campechianum EO was the most effective in all the bioactivities checked. Similar results emerged from assaying the bioactivity of the vapour phase of O. campechianum EO. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity evaluation of O. campechianum EO were repeated through HP-TLC bioautography assay, pointing out eugenol as the lead compound for bioactivity. The mutagen-protective evaluation checked through Ames’s test properly modified evidenced a better capacity of O. campechianum EO compared with the other EOs, reducing the induced mutagenicity at 0.1 mg/plate. However, even with differences in efficacy, the overall results suggest important perspectives for the functional use of the four studied EOs.
... It is also used in treatment of cancer, skin diseases, heart palpitation, swelling, urinary problems, stomach problems, abdomen problems, dyspepsia, and loss of appetite [27]. Chemically, ginger is rich in flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds such as gingerols, shagols, zingerone, paradol, terphineol, terpenes, borneol, geraniol, limonene, linalool, and alpha-zingiberene [28]. ...
Full-text available
In this paper, antibacterial activities of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized through green method using garlic bulb (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts, and their mixture are reported. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet visible (UV–vis), photoluminescence (PL), spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The crystalline sizes of ZnO NPs synthesized using garlic bulb (Allium sativum) extract, ginger (Zingiber officinale) root extract, and their mixture were 19.8, 21.94, and 23.86 nm, respectively. Similarly, the corresponding peak absorbances were 369.5, 377.5, and 374 nm, respectively. The antibacterial activities of synthesized ZnO NPs were tested against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) and gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes). The ZnO NPs synthesized using the mixture of garlic bulb (Allium sativum) and ginger (Z. officinale) root extract have shown maximum inhibition zone against gram-negative bacteria (P. putida: 28.67 ± 0.82 mm) and gram-positive bacteria (S. pyogenes: 10.67 ± 0.47 mm) as compared to ZnO NPs synthesized using the two extracts separately. On the other hand, ZnO NPs obtained from garlic bulb and Z. officinale root extracts exhibited maximum inhibition zone against E. coli (19 ± 0.82 mm) and S. aureus (16.4 ± 0.47 mm), respectively.
... Ginger oil is further used as a safe and effective medicine for the prevention and treatment of the complications of nausea and vomiting associated with general anaesthesia (Geiger, 2005). Further ginger oil shows anti-microbial, bronchodilator, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anti-ulcer, immuno-modulatory effects (Mahboubi M (2019). Sandalwood Santalum album L. ...
Full-text available
Chapter 7: Role of Aroma Therapy in relieving pain Chapter 8: Aromatherapy for relieving mental stress
... Ginger has anti-bacterial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, androgenic properties and anti-oxidant effects that may either decrease or inhibit free radicals formation (5). Preclinical studies of ginger oil have shown that it has antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties (28). Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a valuable medicinal plant, which is mostly used as a medicinal or in human nutrition, either fresh or powdered (19). ...
Full-text available
Completely randomized design were used as the quails were distributed to four feed treatments randomly (45 birds/ treatment) with three replications (15 birds/ replicate). Treatments were: basal diet without additives (control), basal diet with 5g/kg of ginger powder, basal diet with 5g/kg of turmeric powder and equal mixture of 10g/kg ginger and turmeric powder. Results showed all treatment additives significantly increased (p≤0.05) in live body weight with body weight gain. Feed intake until 21 days of age significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in turmeric treatment but as a whole study until 42 days of age, there were no considerable variations (p≤0.05) between treatments. Significant decrease (p≤0.05) of feed conversion ratio was occurred in turmeric treatment. Addition of ginger and turmeric significantly increased (p≤0.05) male and female eviscerated dressing percentage, breast percentage and back percentage. Inclusions ginger and turmeric powder significantly decreased (p≤0.05) blood cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL in both of males and females but HDL in males did not changed significantly (p≤0.05) while in females significantly reduced (p≤0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 5g/kg of ginger and 5g/kg turmeric powder either alone or as a mixture as an effective supplement could be used to enhance growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood lipids.
... halabala in Thailand, Thailandese Z. kerrii Craib and Z. barbatum Wall in Myanmar [81][82][83]. These differences between species may be due to the fact that the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition is subject to the origin, location, extraction methods, and degree of dryness of rhizomes [83,84]. As a consequence, the presence of zerumbone in Z. zerumbet rhizome oil constitutes a distinctive feature that allows the identification and differentiation from other ginger oils as well as different parts of the plant [38]. ...
Full-text available
Zerumbone is a multifunctional compound with antimicrobial, antitumor, hyperalgesic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory applications, and constitutes a point molecule for the future synthesis of derivatives with improved efficiency. This monocyclic sesquiterpenoid is found in high content in wild ginger (Zingiber zerumbet Smith), a perennial herb with economic importance as an ornamental as well as a medicinal plant. The presence of zerumbone is a distinctive feature that allows identification and differentiation from other species, not only in Zingiber, but also in Curcuma, Alpinia, Boesenbergia, Ethlingera and Ammomum spp., as well as related families (Costaceaee). To successfully use zerumbone in areas such as medicine, food and agriculture, further research on improving its low solubility and bioavailability, as well as its preservation, is a major current priority. In addition, despite its promising pharmacological activities, preclinical and clinical studies are required to demonstrate and evaluate the in vivo efficacy of zerumbone.
... 1 It is used for various purposes in food products and packaging, pharmaceutical formulations, and aromatherapy since ginger oil has been awarded safe by Food and Drug Administration. [2][3][4][5][6][7] These EOs was sold on many online shopping platforms without a proper label. Hence, the customers have easily obtained these EOs at lower prices. ...
Full-text available
The ginger oil traded worldwide could come from various sources. Standard quality is the most critical aspect of ensuring customer safety. This study aims to develop an analytical method for red ginger oil (RGO) authentication. Chemical compositions of red ginger oil were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with multivariate analysis (discriminant analysis (DA), partial least square (PLS), and principal component regression (PCR) were used to identify and quantify the adulterant. The total terpenoid compounds were 55.72%, with the percentage of monoterpenes at 34.29% and sesquiterpenes at 21.43%. E-Citral (19.01%), Z-Citral (14.82%), Geranyl Acetate (11.90%), Geraniol (9.56%), 1,8-Cineole (5.84%), and camphene (4.92%) were identified as the main constituents. The best PLS model for quantifying the level of palm oil in RGO was at the wavenumber 3100–2700 cm–1, while the region of 3100 – 2700 and 1850 – 650 cm–1 was suitable for detection of soybean adulterants. FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics produced accurate and fast authentication of red ginger oil without the used solvent. Then, the GC-MS technique could identify the chemical constituents present in the red ginger oil.
... )]-(Zingiberene) shown antiulcer, anti-cancer and antioxidant(Mahboubi, 2019;Ugbabe et al., 2019); 1-Nonadecene provides cancer-fighting properties(Silva et al., 2016); Linalyl acetate induces anti-inflammatory properties(Peana et al., 2002); Squalene has been reported to have antilipidemic, antitumor, anticancer(Gunes, 2013); ...
Full-text available
The current study investigates the effect of Microwave (MW), Ohmic heating (OH), and Ultrasound (US) pre-treatments on the extraction of bioactive compounds and the drying kinetics of ginger using a Vacuum assisted conductive drying system. The US pre-treatment produced acoustic cavitation, and microstreaming in ginger slices which enhanced the total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (i.e., 14.83±0.03 a mg GAE/ml and 57.37±0.00 a %) in obtained aqueous ginger extract (AGE). Similarly, OH pre-treatment improved the total flavonoids content (i.e., 8.99±0.01 a mg QE/ml) of the acquired AGE. The pre-treatments modified the surface of ginger which eventually led to better moisture diffusivity ratio of 2.58E-08 and 2.01E-08. Furthermore, the GCMS analysis of OH pre-treated AGE reported more bioactive compounds compared to MW, US, and control. The major bioactive compounds reported were linalool, neral, geraniol, endo-borneol, and 2,4 di-tert – butyl-phenol which possess several therapeutic benefits. Thus, the US and OH pre-treatments effectively enhanced the drying and extraction of bioactive compounds from ginger. Further studies are warranted on the obtained extract to understand its maximum potential for application in food and pharmaceutical industry.
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Chronic pain has a high prevalence and a profound impact on patients and society, and its treatment is a real challenge in clinical practice. Ginger is emerging as a promising analgesic—effective against various types of pain and well-tolerated by patients. However, we are just beginning to understand its complex mechanism of action. A good understanding of its mechanism would allow us to fully utilize the therapeutical potential of this herbal medicine as well as to identify a better strategy for treating chronic pain. To provide this information, we searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science for in vitro studies or animal experiments investigating the analgesic effect of ginger extract or its components. The analysis of data was carried out in the form of a narrative review. Our research indicates that ginger extract, through its various active ingredients, suppresses the transmission of nociceptive signals while activating the descendent inhibitory pathways of pain.
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In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine.
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Aim The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Materials and Methods Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. Results The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro , using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC 50 obtained was 36.6 μ g/mL for CEO and 129.9 μ g/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μ g/mL of CEO and 32.12 μ g/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.
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The pesticidal effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) essential oil (GEO) against two developmental stages (adult and larva) of Dermestes maculatus De Geer, a key pest of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was evaluated under laboratory condition (32 ± 2 °C temperature and 70 ± 3% relative humidity). At 6 h after exposure (HAE), 25.80 and 36.23% mortality in 0.99 and 1.33 μl/ml air respectively was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than 9.2% mortality observed in 0.33 μl/ml air. Percentage mortality observed in 0.99–1.33 μl/ml air at 12 and 18 HAE was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than mortality observed in other lower doses of GEO. The results of the larval bioassay follow the same trend as observed in adult bioassay except that higher percentage mortality was observed in larva than in adult. At 6–18 HAE, 28.25–90.00% larval mortality at application doses of 0.33–1.33 μl/ml air was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than 4.60% mortality observed in the control. The LD50 of GEO against larva at 6 HAE {2.74 (2.17–3.81) μl/ml air} was different from 1.69 (1.32–2.03) μl/ml air and 1.36 (1.05–1.63) μl/ml air LD50 for 12 and 18 HAE respectively. For adult bioassay, 2.80 (2.50–3.19) μl/ml air was significantly higher than 1.85 (1.49–2.21) μl/ml air being LD50 for 12 and 18 HAE. The study reveals that D. maculatus larva was more susceptible to GEO than adult.
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Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study aims to re-examine the therapeutic potential of co-administration of natural products and cancer chemotherapeutics. Candidate material for this project, α-zingiberene, was extracted from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and α-zingiberene makes up 35.02 ± 0.30% of its total essential oil. α-Zingiberene showed low IC50 values, 60.6 ± 3.6, 46.2 ± 0.6, 172.0 ± 6.6, 80.3 ± 6.6 (μg/mL) in HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL-60 cells each. These values are a little bit higher than IC50 values of general essential oil in those cells. The treatment of α-zingiberene produced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in SiHa cells, and the percentage of sub-diploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner in SiHa cells, hallmark features of apoptosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c activation and an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanies the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene, which mediates cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm. It is considered that anti-proliferative effect of α-zingiberene is a result of apoptotic effects, and α-zingiberene is worth furthermore study to develop it as cancer chemotherapeutics.
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Ginger and its extracts have been used traditionally as anti-inflammatory remedies, with a particular focus on the medicinal properties of its phenolic secondary metabolites, the gingerols. Consistent with these uses, potent anti-arthritic effects of gingerol-containing extracts were previously demonstrated by our laboratory using an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of ginger’s other secondary metabolites, the essential oils (GEO), which contain terpenes with reported phytoestrogenic activity, were assessed in female Lewis rats with SCW-induced arthritis. GEO (28 mg/kg/d ip) prevented chronic joint inflammation, but altered neither the initial acute phase of joint swelling nor granuloma formation at sites of SCW deposition in liver. Pharmacologic doses of 17-β estradiol (200 or 600 μg/kg/d sc) elicited the same pattern of anti-inflammatory activity, suggesting that GEO could be acting as a phytoestrogen. However, contrary to this hypothesis, GEO had no in vivo effect on classic estrogen target organs, such as uterus or bone. En toto, these results suggest that ginger’s anti-inflammatory properties are not limited to the frequently studied phenolics, but may be attributable to the combined effects of both secondary metabolites, the pungent-tasting gingerols and as well as its aromatic essential oils.
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The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites.
Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. All of the relevant human and animal studies and also in vitro studies were included. Review articles, abstract in congress, and also other varieties of ginger were excluded. Eligibility of included articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers, which also extracted data. Articles were critically assessed individually for possible risk of bias. Twenty-seven articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies) were reviewed. Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of ginger extract or powder in obese animal models, whereas the results of the available limited clinical studies showed no changes or slight changes of anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with obesity. Ginger could modulate obesity through various potential mechanisms including increasing thermogenesis, increasing lipolysis, suppression of lipogenesis, inhibition of intestinal fat absorption, and controlling appetite. This review article provides some convincing evidence to support the efficacy of ginger in obesity management and demonstrates the importance of future clinical trials.
Zingiber officinale, commonly known as ginger, is a spice consumed worldwide for culinary and medicinal purposes. The plant has a number of chemicals responsible for its medicinal properties, such as antiarthritis, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, etc. The present chapter compiled scientific data retrieved from websites, such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web-of-Knowledge, Google Scholar, and others related to the phytochemistry and pharmacology of ginger. A synopsis of the world production of the plant as well as some patents related to Z. officinale are also provided.
Optimization process for supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) of ginger oil was performed on a laboratory scale apparatus (2 × 1 L extraction vessel) using Taguchi’s orthogonal array method. Effects of extraction pressure, extraction temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate on extraction yield and 6-gingerol content in ginger oil were investigated at levels ranging between 10–15 MPa, 35–45 °C and 10–20 g/min, respectively. The results were compared to those obtained by high pressure Soxhlet extraction with liquid CO2, Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane, and percolation with ethanol (96%). The optimum conditions for the highest oil yield (3.10%) and highest content of 6-gingerol in ginger oil extract (20.69%) were obtained using SCFE at 15 MPa, 35 °C and 15 g/min. The experimental oil yield and 6-gingerol content at optimum conditions were in accordance to the values predicted by computational process. Based on optimization process results, scaling-up process to a commercial scale apparatus (2 × 50 L extraction vessel) were performed by constantly maintaining solvent-to-feed (SF) ratio. At the optimum conditions, SCFE of ginger oil was successfully scaled-up by fifty-folds with higher oil yield (3.83%) and lower 6-gingerol content (18.00%).