Conference Paper

Detecting Network Intrusion beyond 1999: Applying Machine Learning Techniques to a Partially Labeled Cybersecurity Dataset

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In this paper, we attack the anomaly detection problem by directly modeling the data distribution with deep architectures. We propose deep structured energy based models (DSEBMs), where the energy function is the output of a deterministic deep neural network with structure. We develop novel model architectures to integrate EBMs with different types of data such as static data, sequential data, and spatial data, and apply appropriate model architectures to adapt to the data structure. Our training algorithm is built upon the recent development of score matching \cite{sm}, which connects an EBM with a regularized autoencoder, eliminating the need for complicated sampling method. Statistically sound decision criterion can be derived for anomaly detection purpose from the perspective of the energy landscape of the data distribution. We investigate two decision criteria for performing anomaly detection: the energy score and the reconstruction error. Extensive empirical studies on benchmark tasks demonstrate that our proposed model consistently matches or outperforms all the competing methods.
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In this paper a modified decision tree algorithm for anomaly detection is presented. During the tree building process, densities for the outlier class are used directly in the split point determination algorithm. No artificial counter-examples have to be sampled from the unknown class, which yields to more precise decision boundaries and a deterministic classification result. Furthermore, the prior of the outlier class can be used to adjust the sensitivity of the anomaly detector. The proposed method combines the advantages of classification trees with the benefit of a more accurate representation of the outliers. For evaluation, we compare our approach with other state-of-the-art anomaly detection algorithms on four standard data sets including the KDD-Cup 99. The results show that the proposed method performs as well as more complex approaches and is even superior on three out of four data sets.
Conference Paper
In network intrusion detection research, one popular strategy for finding attacks is monitoring a network's activity for anomalies: deviations from profiles of normality previously learned from benign traffic, typically identified using tools borrowed from the machine learning community. However, despite extensive academic research one finds a striking gap in terms of actual deployments of such systems: compared with other intrusion detection approaches, machine learning is rarely employed in operational "real world" settings. We examine the differences between the network intrusion detection problem and other areas where machine learning regularly finds much more success. Our main claim is that the task of finding attacks is fundamentally different from these other applications, making it significantly harder for the intrusion detection community to employ machine learning effectively. We support this claim by identifying challenges particular to network intrusion detection, and provide a set of guidelines meant to strengthen future research on anomaly detection.
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