The coastal regions in the US East Coast and the Gulf of Mexico are under the risk of storm surge and precipitation-driven flooding. The adverse impacts of climate change including sea level rise (SLR), potential increase in intensity and frequency of extreme storms, and increase in precipitation intensity increases the vulnerability of coastal communities to flooding. The common practice for flood hazard assessment in urban coastal areas can result in some errors as the effect of storm surge and overland flow are not considered simultaneously. In this study, we combine the results of two hydrodynamic models, one for overland flow and the other for storm surge inundation, to develop an improved approach for flood hazard assessment.
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The goal of this project is to assess the vulnerability of the critical spots in the transportation network in the Hampton Roads Region, located in Southeast Virginia, U.S. to storm surge flooding
in the current and future sea level condition. The work is primarily hydrodynamic modeling. ... [more] View project
A framework will be developed to estimate flooding in the transportation infrastructure due to combined effects of storm surge and precipitation. The inundation estimates will be used to assess imp
acts on access to a level I trauma center located in a flood-prone neighborhood. ... [more] View project
The aim of this project is to quantify the effect of nature-based measures in reducing wave energy. The methods include field measurements and numerical modeling.
The overarching objective of this Critical Resilient Interdependent Infrastructure Systems and Processes (CRISP) research project is to create a novel decision support system denoted dMIST (Data-dr
iven Management for Interdependent Stormwater and Transportation Systems) to improve management of interdependent transportation and stormwater infrastructure systems. dMIST is designed specifically to address the critical problem of recurrent flooding caused by sea level rise and more frequent intense storms. The City of Norfolk, Virginia, a national leader in addressing the sea level rise challenge, will collaborate with the research team and serve as the project testbed. With sea level rise and more frequent intense storms, streets in many cities now flood multiple times per year. Flooding of roadways has cascading impacts to other infrastructure systems that depend on the road network including emergency services. Solving the problem of flooded roadways requires new tools capable of analyzing stormwater, transportation, and other infrastructure as interdependent systems. dMIST will be a recommendation system for assisting municipal decision makers and stakeholders in day-to-day operations to mitigate the short-term impacts of road flooding occurrences. It will also offer decision makers novel ways of testing “what if” scenarios that stretch across interdependent infrastructure systems in order to guide how large investments are used to adapt infrastructure systems to a more resilient future state. The core intellectual merit of this research is the advancement of a novel modeling and control framework called Data Predictive Control (DPC) for assisting decision makers in understanding and managing interdependent critical infrastructure systems (ICIs). ... [more] View project Technical Report Full-text available May 2019
Sea-level rise increases the frequency and severity of storm surges and coastal flooding, causing serious damage to critical infrastructure and leading to the displacement of coastal communities around the world. Globally, more than 100 million people live in coastal regions vulnerable to sea-level rise, and many of the world's largest cities are situated less than 10 metres above current sea
... [Show full abstract] level. In the UK, current annual damages from coastal flooding are estimated at over £500 million per year, and costs of damage are likely to increase under projections of future sea-level rise. As such, sea-level rise presents one of the biggest adaptation challenges to climate change. View full-text Article Full-text available September 2019 · Journal of Hydrology
Low-lying coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding under the combined impact of storm tide and heavy rainfall. While storm tide or heavy rainfall alone is able to directly cause widespread flooding in coastal areas, often heavy rainfall and storm tide happen concurrently, and the severity of flooding is greatly exacerbated. Current methods for understanding flood risk and mapping floodplains
... [Show full abstract] normally does not clearly communicate either the individual or combined impact of these two flooding mechanisms. Flood mitigation strategies typically target either rainfall-driven flooding (e.g., stormwater controls) or tidally-driven flooding (e.g., flood walls and tide gates). Thus, better understanding and communicating the individual and combined flood risk resulting from these two mechanisms can be important to improving flood resilience. To address this need, this study presents tools and methods for floodplain mapping in coastal urban environments were rainfall and storm tide driven flooding can be better understood and communicated. The approaches are demonstrated for a watershed in Norfolk, VA, USA as a case study system using a 1D pipe/2D overland flow hydrodynamic model built for the watershed. Storm tide and heavy rainfall events with return periods varying from 1 to 100-year were designed based on historical observations and combined into a series of compound storm scenarios. Then these compound storm scenarios were simulated using the hydrodynamic model for simulating flow through both the land surface and underground pipe network systems. Results show how the capacity of the drainage system, and therefore flood risk reduction, is sensitive to storm tide levels, even for less extreme events with a 1-year return period. The model also provides new insights into the role of stormwater infrastructure in exacerbating flooding risk within communities during high sea level conditions. Results demonstrate how dividing the floodplain into different regions based on the dominant flooding mechanism (rainfall vs. storm tide) makes it possible to better target mitigation strategies to improve flood resilience. To this end, a transition zone index (TZI) is presented to help decision makers identify the change from rainfall-driven to tide-driven flooding for locations within a watershed. Finally, we demonstrate how different flood mitigation strategies can be tested using this modeling approach to better understand their impact on increasing flood resilience within the system for portions of the floodplain impacted by rainfall-driven and tidal-driven flooding. View full-text May 2022 · Geosciences (Switzerland)
Low-lying coastal cities across the world are vulnerable to the combined impact of rainfall and storm tide. However, existing approaches lack the ability to model the combined effect of these flood mechanisms, especially under climate change and sea level rise (SLR). Thus, to increase flood resilience of coastal cities, modeling techniques to improve the understanding and prediction of the
... [Show full abstract] combined effect of these flood hazards are critical. To address this need, this study presents a modeling system for assessing the combined flood impact on coastal cities under selected future climate scenarios that leverages ocean modeling with land surface modeling capable of resolving urban drainage infrastructure within the city. The modeling approach is demonstrated in quantifying the impact of possible future climate scenarios on transportation infrastructure within Norfolk, Virginia, USA. A series of combined storm events are modeled for current (2020) and projected future (2070) climate scenarios. The results show that pluvial flooding causes a larger interruption to the transportation network compared to tidal flooding under current climate conditions. By 2070, however, tidal flooding will be the dominant flooding mechanism with even nuisance flooding expected to happen daily due to SLR. In 2070, nuisance flooding is expected to cause a 4.6% total link close time (TLC), which is more than two times that of a 50-year storm surge (1.8% TLC) in 2020. The coupled flood model was compared with a widely used but physically simplistic bathtub method to assess the difference resulting from the more complex modeling presented in this study. The results show that the bathtub method overestimated the flooded area near the shoreline by 9.5% and 3.1% for a 10-year storm surge event in 2020 and 2070, respectively, but underestimated the flooded area in the inland region by 9.0% and 4.0% for the same events. The findings demonstrate the benefit of sophisticated modeling methods compared to more simplistic bathtub approaches, in climate adaptive planning and policy in coastal communities. Read more Preprint Full-text available August 2021
Low-lying coastal cities across the world are vulnerable to the combined impact of rainfall and storm tide. However, existing approaches lack the ability to model the combined effect of these flood mechanisms. Thus, to increase flood resilience, modeling techniques to improve understanding and prediction of the combined effect of these flood hazards are critical. To address this need, this study
... [Show full abstract] presents a modeling system for assessing the combined flood risk to coastal cities under changing climate conditions that leverages ocean modeling with land surface modeling capable of resolving urban drainage infrastructure within the city. The modeling approach is demonstrated in quantifying the future impact on transportation infrastructure within Norfolk, Virginia USA. A series of combined storms events are modeled for current (2020) and projected future (2070) climate conditions. Results show that pluvial flooding causes a larger interruption to the transportation network compared to tidal flooding under current climate conditions. By 2070, however, tidal flooding will be the dominant flooding mechanism with even nuisance flooding expected to happen daily due to SLR. In 2070, nuisance flooding is expected to cause a 4.6% total link close time (TLC), which is more than two times that of a 50-year storm surge (1.8% TLC) in 2020. The coupled model was compared with a widely used but physically simplistic bathtub method to assess the difference resulting from the more complex modeling presented. Results show that the bathtub method overestimated the flooded area near the shoreline by 9.5% and 3.1% for a 10-year storm surge event in 2020 and 2070, respectively, but underestimated flooded area in the inland region by 9.0% and 4.0% for the same events. The findings demonstrate the benefit of sophisticated modeling methods in climate adaptive planning and policy in coastal communities. View full-text Last Updated: 05 Jul 2022
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