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Cladosporium omanense, a new endophytic species from Zygophyllum coccineum in Oman

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The genus Cladosporium is cosmopolitan in distribution and can be isolated from various sources including plants as endophytes. A strain of Cladosporium was isolated from living leaves of Zygophyllum coccineum in a desert habitat in Oman. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) and partial actin (ACT) sequence data shows that this is a novel species, which groups with Cladosporium sphaerospermum complex. The new species is introduced as Cladosporium omanense and is described, illustrated and compared with other known species in the genus. Cladosporium omanense differs from its phylogenetically related species C. endophyticum by its fast growing colonies, longer macronematous and micronematous conidiophores, thickened-walled conidia with conspicuously protuberant shrivelling surface ornamentations.
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... There is limited information about marine derived filamentous fungi in Oman, but we have been able to isolate Aspergillus terreus from mangrove areas [44]. Cladosporium omanense found in this study (Table 1) was previously isolated from living leaves of Zygophyllum coccineum in Oman [45]. The presence of C. omanense on all investigated substrates could be due to several reasons. ...
... Oman, but we have been able to isolate Aspergillus terreus from mangrove areas [44]. Cladosporium omanense found in this study (Table 1) was previously isolated from living leaves of Zygophyllum coccineum in Oman [45]. The presence of C. omanense on all investigated substrates could be due to several reasons. ...
... This is highly unlikely, as there were no fungi recovered from the control plates with autoclaved seawater. Cladosporium omanense found in this study (Table 1) was previously isolated from living leaves of Zygophyllum coccineum in Oman [45]. The presence of C. omanense on all investigated substrates could be due to several reasons. ...
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... The current study focuses on Cladosporium omanense, which is a new endophytic fungus isolated from Zygophyllum coccineum (Halo et al., 2019b). The objective of the study is to investigate its antagonistic ability against P. aphanidermatum, the causal agent of cucumber and radish damping-off. ...
... Source of Cladosporium omanense and Pythium aphanidermatum Pythium aphanidermatum (isolate SQUCC002) and Cladosporium omanense (31R) cultures were obtained from the preserved culture collections of Crop Science Department, Sultan Qaboos University. C. omanense is a recently described species obtained from healthy leaves of Zygophyllum coccineum in the desert habitat of Adam, in the region of Ad Dakhilyah, Sultanate of Oman (Halo et al., 2019b). It was reported as an endophytic fungus from Z. coccineum, producing no disease symptoms on the plant (Halo, 2019). ...
Article
Cladosporium omanense has been recently described as a novel endophytic fungus from Zygophyllum coccineum in the desert habitat of Oman. The ability of this fungus to suppress Pythium aphanidermatum, the cause of cucumber and radish damping-off disease, was investigated. In vitro results showed effective suppression of P. aphanidermatum by C. omanense, producing an inhibition zone of 3.67 mm in dual culture assay. Light microscope and scanning electron microscope examination showed abnormalities in Pythium hyphae at the inhibition zone. The culture filtrate from C. omanense induced cellular leakage from Pythium mycelium and inhibited oospore production. A bioassay test was further conducted to examine the ability of C. omanense in suppressing P. aphanidermatum-induced damping-off disease of cucumber. It showed that C. omanense significantly increased the percent surviving cucumber seedlings up to 58.9%. Similarly, the addition of C. omanense significantly increased the percent surviving radish seedlings up to 80.4%. The in vivo and in vitro suppression effects of C. omanense were mainly due to the production of cellulase, β-1,3-glucanases and siderophores in the culture filtrate of C. omanense. This is the first report describing the biocontrol efficacy of C. omanense, especially in suppressing P. aphanidermatum-induced damping-off of cucumber and radish.
... PCR for each gene was performed with 25 μl PCR mixture using PuRe-Taq™ Ready-To-Go™ PCR beads (GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK), 1 μl of each primer (0.4 mM), 1 μl DNA and 22 μl sterile distilled water. Amplifications were carried out in an Applied Biosystems ProFlex PCR System (Life Technologies, USA) with the profile detailed in previous studies Halo et al. 2019;Al-Jaradi et al. 2020). The PCR products were visualized on a 1% agarose electrophoresis gel stained with ethidium bromide. ...
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... Bensch et al. (2018) studied Cladosporium species from indoor environments and introduced 16 new species. Several new Cladosporium species including Cladosporium omanense (Halo et al. 2019), C. passiflorae and C. passifloricola (Rosado et al. 2019) have been introduced more recently. In this study, we reconstruct the phylogeny of Cladosporium based on ITS, tef1 and act sequenced data (Table 21; Fig. 34). ...
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Unlabelled: A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium dianellae (Sawada & Katsuki) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium lythri (Westend.) U. Braun & H.D. Shin, comb. nov., Zasmidium wikstroemiae (Petch) U. Braun, comb. nov.
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department of Mycology, W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish Academy of Sciences lubicz 46, Pl-31-512 kraków, a.chlebicki@botany.pl Chlebicki A.: Some endophytes of Juncus trifidus from Tatra Mts. in Poland. Acta Mycol. 44 (1): 11–17, 2009. This is a first part of work devoted highland rush endophytes: Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium oxysporum, Arthrinium state of Apiospora montagnei and Aureobasidium pullulans. The basidiomycete strain, possibly Lagarobasidium detriticum was also isolated.
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With the increasing availability of molecular data, maximum likelihood approaches have gained a new central role in phylogenetic reconstructions. Extremely fast tree-search algorithms have been developed to handle data sets of ample size in reasonable time. In the past few years, RAxML has achieved great relevance in this field and obtained wide distribution among evolutionary biologists and taxonomists because of its high computational performance and accuracy. However, there are certain drawbacks with regard to its usability, since the program is exclusively command-line based. To overcome this problem, we developed raxmlGUI, a graphical user interface that makes the use of RAxML easier and highly intuitive, enabling the user to perform phylogenetic analyses of varying complexity. The GUI includes all main options of RAxML, and a number of functions are automated or simplified. In addition, some features extend the standard use of RAxML, like assembling concatenated alignments with automatic partitioning. RaxmlGUI is an open source Python program, available in a cross-platform package that incorporates RAxML executables for the main operating systems. It can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/raxmlgui/. Keywords: Rapid bootstrap; Graphical user interface; Maximum likelihood; Phylogenetic analyses; Python; RAxML
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A strain LF70 endophytic fungus was isolated from the leaves of Huperzia serrata. The fungus was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides LF70 according to its morphological characteristics and nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequence analysis. The strain could produce Huperzine A (HupA) identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with authentic HupA. The amount of HupA produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified to be 56.84μg/L by HPLC, which was higher than that of other reported endophytic fungi, Acremonium sp., Blastomyces sp., and Botrytis sp. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of HupA produced by strain LF70 was also similar to authentic HupA in vitro. Isolation of such a fungus may provide a promising alternative approach to producing HupA, which is used in treating Alzheimer’s disease and preventing further memory degeneration. Keywords Huperzia serrata –Endophytic fungus–Huperzine A– Cladosporium cladosporioides –Acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity
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The present investigation was undertaken in order to select the surface-sterilization technique most efficient for eliminating epiphytes, to document the spectrum of endophytes of healthy leaves from three wheat cultivars in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) and to determine their infection frequencies at three growth stages. Surface-sterilization with undiluted commercial solution of sodium hypochlorite was reaffirmed as adequate for removing epiphytes on wheat leaves. From the 450 wheat leaf segments incubated, three bacterial isolates and 130 fungal isolates were obtained. From all the isolates, 19 fungal species were identified. Bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus sp. There were significant differences between microorganisms, stages of growth, and stages microorganisms interaction. Differences between cultivars, stages cultivars, microorganisms cultivars and for the triple interaction were not significant. Frequency of microorganisms isolated increased with crop age, but it was statistically similar for the three wheat cultivars tested (Klein Centauro, Klein Dragn and Buck Omb). Rhodotorula rubra, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum and Epicoccum nigrum were isolated in the highest frequency. The other microorganisms were present at intermediate or low values. The species isolated may be assigned to three groups: (a) well-known and economically important pathogens of wheat, (b) commonly abundant phylloplane fungi considered to be primary saprobic and minor pathogens and (c) species occasionally present in wheat.
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A phylogenetic study employing sequence data from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) and 5.8S gene, as well as the 18S rRNA gene of various Cladosporium-like hyphomycetes revealed Cladosporium s. lat. to be heterogeneous. The genus Cladosporium s. str. was shown to represent a sister clade to Mycosphaerella s. str., for which the teleomorph genus Davidiella is proposed. The morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of the cladosporioid fungi are discussed on the basis of this phylogeny, which consists of several clades representing Cladosporium-like genera. Cladosporium is confined to Davidiella (Mycosphaerellaceae) anamorphs with coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila. Pseudocladosporium is confined to anamorphs of Caproventuria (Venturiaceae). Cladosporium-like anamorphs of the Venturia (conidia catenate) are referred to Fusicladium. Human-pathogenic Cladosporium species belong in Cladophialophora (Capronia, Herpotrichiellaceae) and Cladosporium fulvum is representative of the Mycosphaerella/Passalora clade (Mycosphaerellaceae). Cladosporium malorum proved to provide the correct epithet for Pseudocladosporium kellermanianum (syn. Phaeoramularia kellermaniana, Cladophialophora kellermaniana) as well as Cladosporium porophorum. Based on differences in conidiogenesis and the structure of the conidiogenous loci, further supported by molecular data, C. malorum is allocated to Alternaria.
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Endophytic fungi are plant symbionts that produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and protection against herbivory and pathogens. Fourteen fungal samples were isolated from the roots of soybean cultivar Daemangkong and screened on waito-c rice for their plant growth-promoting capacity. Twelve of the fungal isolates promoted plant growth, while two inhibited it. The fungal isolate DK-1-1 induced maximum plant growth in both waito-c rice and soybean. The plant growth promotion capacity of DK-1-1 was higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi. Gibberellin (GA) analysis of culture filtrate of DK-1-1 showed the presence of higher amounts of bioactive GA3, GA4, and GA7 (6.62, 2.1 and 1.26ng/mL, respectively) along with physiologically inactive GA5, GA15, GA19, and GA24. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence identified the fungal isolate as a new strain of Cladosporium sphaerospermum. Gibberellin production and plant growth-promoting ability of genus Cladosporium are reported for the first time in the present study.
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A fungal isolate, Cladosporium cladosporioides was used for biosorption of gold from solutions. The fungal biomass was granulated by mixing it with a matrix derived from keratinous material of natural origin. The resulting biosorbent beads adsorbed 100 mg gold per gram from a solution of gold. Maximum biosorption of gold (80%) occurred under acidic pH conditions (pH 1–5). The contact time required for 80% biosorption of gold could be reduced to 20 min by pre-soaking the beads in deionized distilled water. Gold uptake by the beads was found to increase linearly as a function of metal concentration. The data could be fitted into Freundlich model of adsorption isotherms. A column packed with 3 g biosorbent beads was used for continuous adsorption of gold. The gold loading capacity obtained in the system was to the tune of 110 mg g−1. Gold was removed from an electroplating unit effluent with 55% efficiency in batch experiment and the loading capacity was 36 mg g−1. It was found that gold could be removed from solutions in the presence of carbonate and complexing agents like citrate, sulfite and thiosulfate albeit with less efficiency. The beads were found to biodegrade in soil in about 140 days. The process, thus, has the prospect of becoming an efficient and environmental friendly method to recover gold from aqueous solutions.
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The genus Cladosporium is one of the largest genera of dematiaceous hyphomycetes, and is characterised by a coronate scar structure, conidia in acropetal chains and Davidiella teleomorphs. Based on morphology and DNA phylogeny, the species complexes of C. herbarum and C. sphaerospermum have been resolved, resulting in the elucidation of numerous new taxa. In the present study, more than 200 isolates belonging to the C. cladosporioides complex were examined and phylogenetically analysed on the basis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences. For the saprobic, widely distributed species Cladosporium cladosporioides, both a neotype and epitype are designated in order to specify a well established circumscription and concept of this species. Cladosporium tenuissimum and C. oxysporum, two saprobes abundant in the tropics, are epitypified and shown to be allied to, but distinct from C. cladosporioides. Twenty-two species are newly described on the basis of phylogenetic characters and cryptic morphological differences. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species within the C. cladosporioides complex, which represents a monophyletic subclade within the genus, are shape, width, length, septation and surface ornamentation of conidia and conidiophores; length and branching patterns of conidial chains and hyphal shape, width and arrangement. Many of the treated species, e.g., C. acalyphae, C. angustisporum, C. australiense, C. basiinflatum, C. chalastosporoides, C. colocasiae, C. cucumerinum, C. exasperatum, C. exile, C. flabelliforme, C. gamsianum, and C. globisporum are currently known only from specific hosts, or have a restricted geographical distribution. A key to all species recognised within the C. cladosporioides complex is provided.
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Two new species of Cladosporium found on necrotic needles of Pinus ponderosa trees in Patagonia, Argentina, are described as C. chubutense and C. pini-ponderosae. An additional isolate from dead leaves of Cortaderia collected in Colombia, which is a sister taxon to the species occurring on Pinus, is described as Cladosporium colombiae. These species are phylogenetically closely related, but differ from each other and other known species by multilocus sequence data, phenetic characters and culture characteristics.
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The Cladosporium herbarum complex comprises five species for which Davidiella teleomorphs are known. Cladosporium herbarum s. str. (D. tassiana), C. macrocarpum (D. macrocarpa) and C. bruhnei (D. allicina) are distinguishable by having conidia of different width, and by teleomorph characters. Davidiella variabile is introduced as teleomorph of C. variabile, a homothallic species occurring on Spinacia, and D. macrospora is known to be the teleomorph of C. iridis on Iris spp. The C. herbarum complex combines low molecular distance with a high degree of clonal or inbreeding diversity. Entities differ from each other by multilocus sequence data and by phenetic differences, and thus can be interpreted to represent individual taxa. Isolates of the C. herbarum complex that were formerly associated with opportunistic human infections, cluster with C. bruhnei. Several species are newly described from hypersaline water, namely C. ramotenellum, C. tenellum, C. subinflatum, and C. herbaroides. Cladosporium pseudiridis collected from Iris sp. in New Zealand, is also a member of this species complex and shown to be distinct from C. iridis that occurs on this host elsewhere in the world. A further new species from New Zealand is C. sinuosum on Fuchsia excorticata. Cladosporium antarcticum is newly described from a lichen, Caloplaca regalis, collected in Antarctica, and C. subtilissimum from grape berries in the U.S.A., while the new combination C. ossifragi, the oldest valid name of the Cladosporium known from Narthecium in Europe, is proposed. Standard protocols and media are herewith proposed to facilitate future morphological examination of Cladosporium spp. in culture, and neotypes or epitypes are proposed for all species treated.
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Physiological profiles of type, authentic and some additional isolates of Cladosporium-Xylohypha species of purported herpotrichiellaceous relationship are established. This group comprises melanized catenate hyphomycetes which are prevalently found on the human host. The species are excluded from the genus Cladosporium and are classified in the genus Cladophialophora. Taeniolella boppii is also transferred to this genus. Cladosporium bantianum ( = Xylohypha emmonsii) and C. trichoides are considered conspecific and are now referred to as Cladophialophora bantiana. Meso-erythritol, l-arabinitol, ethanol and growth at 40 °C are found to be the most useful criteria for species distinction. The species Cladosporium carrionii is found to be heterogeneous. The anamorph of the saprophytic ascomycete Capronia pilosella is morphologically similar to an authentic strain of Cladosporium carrionii, but physiologically distinct. A diagnostic key for the recognized Cladophialophora species and to morphologically similar taxa is provided.
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The taxonomy of the asymmetric (predominantly terverticillate) penicillia is based on morphological differences that leave identification difficult. The application of physiological criteria facilitated the identification of the common asymmetric penicillia investigated. Changes in the placement of some strains of these penicillia made the connection to mycotoxin-producing ability clearer. The classical criterion of conidium color was deemphasized and replaced by the following criteria: (i) growth on nitrite-sucrose agar and (ii) growth and acid (and subsequent base) production on creatine-sucrose agar (containing bromocresol purple). Other criteria used or developed were: (iii) growth on sorbic acid plus benzoic acid agar (50 + 50 ppm, pH 3.8), (iv) growth on an agar containing 1,000 ppm propionic acid (pH 3.8), (v) growth on an agar containing 0.5% acetic acid, (vi) growth at 37 degrees C, (vii) growth rate on an agar containing 0.1% pentachloronitrobenzene, (viii) production of extracellular tricaproinase, and (ix) fasciculation on a medium containing 10 ppm botran (2,6-dichloro-4-nitroanilin). The pattern of extracellular metabolites after thin-layer chromatography was used as a chemotaxonomic criterion. The species investigated, the number of isolates investigated, and the toxins which some of these isolates produce were: Penicillium roqueforti (18) (patulin), P. citrinum (11) (citrinin), P. patulum (9) (patulin and griseofulvin), P. expansum (patulin and citrinin), P. hirsutum (13), P. brevicompactum (19), and P. chrysogenum (12). Widespread species of the P. cyclopium, P. viridicatum, and P. expansum series of Raper and Thom (A Manual of the Penicillia, 1949) were subdivided into four new groups: "P. crustosum pA" (29) (penitrem A), "P. melanochlorum" (29), "P. cyclopium p" (119) (penicillic acid and infrequently penitrem A), and "P. viridicatum o-c" (43) (ochratoxin A and citrinin). "P. viridicatum o-c" was separated from "P. cyclopium p" due to its ability to grow on nitrite as sole nitrogen source. The species and groups investigated were related to the new taxonomic classification of the genus Penicillium according to Pitt.
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Saprobic Cladosporium isolates morphologically similar to C. sphaerospermum are phylogenetically analysed on the basis of DNA sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rDNA (ITS) and the small subunit (SSU) rDNA as well as beta-tubulin and actin gene introns and exons. Most of the C. sphaerospermum-like species show halotolerance as a recurrent feature. Cladosporium sphaerospermum, which is characterised by almost globose conidia, is redefined on the basis of its ex-neotype culture. Cladosporium dominicanum, C. psychrotolerans, C. velox, C. spinulosum and C. halotolerans, all with globoid conidia, are newly described on the basis of phylogenetic analyses and cryptic morphological and physiological characters. Cladosporium halotolerans was isolated from hypersaline water and bathrooms and detected once on dolphin skin. Cladosporium dominicanum and C. velox were isolated from plant material and hypersaline water. Cladosporium psychrotolerans, which grows well at 4 degrees C but not at 30 degrees C, and C. spinulosum, having conspicuously ornamented conidia with long digitate projections, are currently only known from hypersaline water. We also newly describe C. salinae from hypersaline water and C. fusiforme from hypersaline water and animal feed. Both species have ovoid to ellipsoid conidia and are therefore reminiscent of C. herbarum. Cladosporium langeronii (= Hormodendrum langeronii) previously described as a pathogen on human skin, is halotolerant but has not yet been recorded from hypersaline environments.
Article
Bipolaris species are responsible for important cereal diseases, worldwide and are often isolated as endophytes as well as saprobes. We are investigating the fungi in Oman. In this paper, we report a novel taxon of Bipolaris, collected from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, during the survey. The taxon is shown to be novel based on morphological and sequence data and introduced here as Bipolaris omanensis sp. nov. Bipolaris omanensis forms a sister clade to B. cookei based on the combined sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and partial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) region, being distinct from the latter species in having shorter conidiophores, narrower conidia and having a higher number of septa.
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the Alternaria species associated with leaf spot of date palm and wheat in Oman. Out of 98 date palm leaf samples and 146 wheat leaf samples, Alternaria was isolated from 27 and 23% of the samples developing leaf spot symptoms, respectively. Identification of Alternaria isolates using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), translation elongation factor (TEF) and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2) genes, showed that the isolates belong to seven Alternaria species or species complexes. A. burnsii - A. tomato and A. arborescens species complexes (58 and 4%, respectively) and A. alternata (38%) were the species recovered from the symptomatic date palm leaves. A. alternata (67%), A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex (15%), A. jacinthicola (3%), A. ventricosa (3%), A. slovaca (6%) and Alternaria caespitosa (6%) were isolated from wheat. Pathogenicity test showed that tested isolates of A. alternata (DPM19, WDK12), A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex (DPM31), A. jacinthicola (WBR4) and A. slovaca (WDK9, WDK7) were pathogenic on date palm, while A. alternata (DPM19, WDK12), A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex (DPM31, WDK11) and A. slovaca (WDK9, WDK7) were pathogenic on wheat. This is the first report of date palm and wheat as new hosts for A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex and the first reports of A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex, A. caespitosa A. slovaca, and A. ventricosa in Oman. The study shows that several species of Alternaria are associated with leaf spot in date palm and wheat in Oman, with some isolates having the ability to cause infection in both hosts.
Article
Acrocordiella omanensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated from specimens on dead stem of Juniper sp. collected in Al Jabal al-Akhdar (Green Mountain), Sultanate of Oman. It strongly resembles Acrocordiella occulta, the type of the genus, in its similar asci and ascospore anatomy. It differs from A. occulta in having bell-shaped to cap-like clypeus around the ostiole and larger asci and ascospores. The combined large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences support the conclusions based on the morphological data.
Article
Mycologists and plant pathologists have long been documenting fungi in checklists or adding them to databases that list hosts and associated fungi. Most references to the fungi of Oman are scattered in journals, reports and university theses. A review of the fungal status of Oman is long overdue as soil-borne and plant pathogens have been studied to some extent. Although Waller & Bridge (1978) listed the fungal diseases on economically important crops in Oman, the present study is the first attempt to put together all hitherto recorded fungi from this part of the world. This paper presents a systematic checklist of 318 fungal species, in 173 genera, currently known to occur in Oman. A working checklist of accepted taxa in Oman is vital in progress of the systematics, agriculture, quarantine and many other applied scientific fields in the country.
Article
Ecological studies that examine species-environment relationships are often limited to several meteorological parameters, i.e. mean air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, vapour pressure deficit and solar radiation. The impact of local wind, its speed and direction are less commonly investigated in aerobiological surveys mainly due to difficulties related to the employment of specific analytical tools and interpretation of their outputs. Identification of inoculum sources of economically important plant pathogens, as well as highly allergenic bioaerosols like Cladosporium species, has not been yet explored with remote sensing data and atmospheric models such as Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT). We, therefore, performed an analysis of 24 h intra-diurnal cycle of Cladosporium spp. spores from an urban site in connection with both the local wind direction and overall air mass direction computed by HYSPLIT. The observational method was a volumetric air sampler of the Hirst design with 1 h time resolution and corresponding optical detection of fungal spores with light microscopy. The atmospheric modelling was done using the on-line data set from GDAS with 1� resolution and circular statistical methods. Our results showed stronger, statistically significant correlation (p � 0.05) between high Cladosporium spp. spore concentration and air mass direction compared to the local wind direction. This suggested that a large fraction of the investigated fungal spores had a regional origin and must be located more than a few kilometers away from the sampling point.
Chapter
From the basic description in Chapter 4, the SEM image formation process can be summarized as a geometric mapping of information collected when the beam is sequentially addressed to an x–y pattern of specific locations on the specimen. When we are interested in studying the fine-scale details of a specimen, we must understand the factors that influence SEM image resolution. We can define the limit of resolution as the minimum spacing at which two features of the specimen can be recognized as distinct and separate. Such a definition may seem straightforward, but actually applying it to a real situation becomes complicated because we must consider issues beyond the obvious problem of adjusting the beam diameter to the scale of the features of interest. The visibility of a feature must be established before we can consider any issues concerning the spatial scale. For a feature to be visible above the surrounding general background we must first satisfy the conditions contained within the threshold equation (4.26). For a specified beam current, pixel dwell time, and detector efficiency, the threshold equation defines the threshold contrast, the minimum level of contrast (C = ΔS/S max) that the feature must produce relative to the background to be visible in an image presented to the viewer with appropriate image processing.
Article
Bealmijang is a short-term aged paste made from meju, which is a brick of fermented soybeans and other ingredients. Different types of bealmijang are available depending on the geographic region or ingredients used. However, no study has clarified the microbial diversity of these types. We identified 17 and 14 fungal species from black soybean meju (BSM) and buckwheat meju (BWM), respectively, on the basis of morphology, culture characteristics, and internal transcribed spacer and β-tubulin gene sequencing. In both meju, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicillium polonicum, P. steckii, Cladosporium tenuissimum, C. cladosporioides, C. uredinicola, and yeast species Pichia burtonii were commonly found. Moreover, A. flavus, A. niger, P. crustosum, P. citrinum, Eurotium niveoglaucum, Absidia corymbifera, Setomelanomma holmii, Cladosporium spp. and unclassified species were identified from BSM. A. clavatus, Mucor circinelloides, M. racemosus, P. brevicompactum, Davidiella tassiana, and Cladosporium spp. were isolated from BWM. Fast growing Zygomycetous fungi is considered important for the early stage of meju fermentation, and A. oryae and A. niger might play a pivotal role in meju fermentation owing to their excellent enzyme productive activities. It is supposed that Penicillium sp. and Pichia burtonii could contribute to the flavor of the final food products. Identification of this fungal diversity will be useful for understanding the microbiota that participate in meju fermentation, and these fungal isolates can be utilized in the fermented foods and biotechnology industries.
Article
Eighty-one distinct fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 traditionally used medicinal plants from New Brunswick, Canada. This is the first report of endophytes from 8 of the 12 host plants. One hundred and sixty-two crude extracts derived from the mycelia and spent fermentation broths of liquid cultures of each endophyte were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. Twenty-two extracts were active against Staphylococcus aureus while 30 were active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Twelve crude extracts were found to be active against Candida albicans.
Article
The tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Fabricius), is a polyphagous pest which has developed physiological resistance against a number of known insecticides. In order to reduce the load of synthetic insecticides, ecofriendly alternative strategies are needed. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium uredinicola isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) on S. litura. Development of S. litura was significantly prolonged when larvae were fed on diet amended with ethyl acetate extract of C. uredinicola at concentrations of 1.25–2.00 μl g−1. The negative effects of fungal toxin on development of S. litura further resulted in a significant reduction in adult emergence, longevity and reproductive potential at higher concentrations. A significantly higher number of adults showed morphological deformities when larvae were fed on diet amended with 2.00 μl g−1 concentration. The inhibitory effects on growth and development of S. litura indicate toxicity of ethyl acetate extract of C. uredinicola, which is further evidenced by reduced food utilization by larvae. The antifeedant and toxic effects of ethyl acetate extract of C. uredinicola observed in the present studies can be attributed to a bioactive compound produced by the fungus, so this study provides evidence that C. uredinicola isolated from T. cordifolia possesses anti-insect properties and may play an important role in protecting plants against insect pests.
Article
"Stellingen": 2 p. inserted. Proefschrift--Utrecht. Bibliography: p. [117]-121.
Handbook of Microbiological Media
  • R M Atlas
Atlas, R.M. (2004) Handbook of Microbiological Media. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420039726