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Abstract

After the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan in May 1998, experts, particularly the former US president Bill Clinton, described the region as becoming a dangerous region in the world. This description of South Asia is to be viewed in the context of the uneasy relations between India and Pakistan since their independence. The geopolitical disputes among South Asian countries have remained an area of unresolved and dangerous conflict involving external powers, arms proliferation and ethnic and religious hatred that go back to the evolution of India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka - the countries that form South Asia. Due to its strategic location and natural wealth, the region has acquired a very important position from a geostrategic point of view. External powers such as China and the US are increasing their economic stakes in South Asian countries. This paper has attempted to study and analyze the geostrategic importance of South Asia and the role of China and India as two major powers that have interests in the region.
Corresponding Author: Md. Rezwanul Kabir . MSS (Public Administration), MSS (Development studies). Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh.
Email: rez_zimi@yahoo.com
Donnish Journal of Political Science and International Relations
Vol 3(1) pp. 001-005 November, 2018.
http://www.donnishjournals.org/djpsir
ISSN: 2984-8555
Copyright © 2018 Donnish Journals
Original Research Article
Geological Importance of Bangladesh in Geopolitics
Md. Rezwanul Kabir*, S.M. Rabiul Islam, Md. Milon Molla and Shoara Akter
Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh.
Accepted 28th October, 2018.
After the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan in May 1998, experts, particularly the former US president Bill Clinton,
described the region as becoming a dangerous region in the world. This description of South Asia is to be viewed in the context of the
uneasy relations between India and Pakistan since their independence. The geopolitical disputes among South Asian countries have
remained an area of unresolved and dangerous conflict involving external powers, arms proliferation and ethnic and religious hatred
that go back to the evolution of India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka - the countries that form
South Asia. Due to its strategic location and natural wealth, the region has acquired a very important position from a geostrategic
point of view. External powers such as China and the US are increasing their economic stakes in South Asian countries. This paper has
attempted to study and analyze the geostrategic importance of South Asia and the role of China and India as two major powers that
have interests in the region.
Keywords: Nationality, Neighborhood, Politics, Geopolitics, Relationship, Bangladesh.
INTRODUCTION
Bangladesh was always a part of India until four decades ago.
It is almost similar to West Bengal in language, customs,
lifestyle and even the ideology. Their national anthem is
penned by Rabindranath Tagore, an Indian. The Ganges, the
holiest river for Hindus ultimately meets the sea through
Sunderbans in Bangladesh. South Asia was, prior to 1947,
referred to as British Indian Empire with a diverse mix of
British, Indian and a range of kingdoms with varying degrees of
subservience and allegiance to the colonial power. Most
geographers refer to it as the Indian subcontinent because of
its separation from the rest of the Asian landmass by a
continuous barrier of mountains in the north.
Foreign powers began to arrive in South Asia to conduct
trade from the 16th century onward. In the 16th century, the
British East India Company was chartered to trade with India.
Observing the situation and wishing to benefit by exploiting the
conditions prevailing at that time, the East India Company
started establishing colonies in the subcontinent. Till the mid of
the 20th century, Britain controlled South Asia either through
the East India Company or the British Crown. After the end of
the Second World War, Britain was not in a position to keep
control over the subcontinent, and in the mid-20th century, it
left the subcontinent after partitioning it into India and Pakistan.
With the partition of the subcontinent, many conflicts and
controversies related to boundaries came into existence. The
partition grew into a tragic civil war, as Hindus and Muslims
migrated to their country of choice. South Asia is a sub-region
of Asian continent comprising the modern states of
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal,
Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. It covers about 4,480,000 square km
or 10% of the continent and is also known as the Indian
subcontinent. In 1971, Bangladesh achieved independence
from Pakistan and India began to control geopolitics in this
region. Now Bangladesh is important geo-politically to China
as a new great power.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
To analyze the phenomenon of geopolitics.
To investigate neighbor countries relationship.
To examine geopolitical strength and its impact.
HYPOTHESES
"Geological importance of Bangladesh with neighbor countries
and their relationship."
Methodology
The research report is conducted through Historical,
Descriptive and Analytical methods of research. Data has been
collected through Secondary resources including books,
articles, journals, magazines, and newspapers etc.
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GEOPOLITICAL IMPORTANCE OF BANGLADESH
Being located in between the Indian mainland and its reveling
seven sister states, Bangladesh's strategic importance to
Indian has been very crucial to communicate by less spending.
Besides being almost inside India and having a small mouth to
the Bay of Bengal, it has also become an attraction for USA
and China sometimes to deter India to maintain a regional
strategy. The geographical location of Bangladesh is a
preponderant fact that influences the decision makers in
making foreign policy.
Because of the various elements in the formulation of
foreign of a country, geographic location occupies a significant
position. Geopolitics examines the political and strategic
significance of geography in this context geography is defined
in terms of the location, size and resources of the places.
Geopolitical location of Bangladesh gives it both strength and
weakness from different perspectives. As it is by location
landlocked by India it keeps Bangladesh in a disadvantage but
a little land boundary with Myanmar and its entrance in sea
give an advantage to its external orientation. India's need of
corridor through Bangladesh and enhancing global importance
of the south Asian region comes as a hope to Bangladesh to
keep its foreign policy in an advantageous position.
LOCATION OF BANGLADESH
Bangladesh is with an area of 147,570 square km. The country
is bordered by India on the east, west, and north and by the
Bay of Bengal on the south. There is also a small strip of
frontier with Burma on the southeastern edge. The land is a
deltaic plain with a network of numerous rivers and canals.
Through Myanmar, Bangladesh is associated with the entire
Southeast Asian region. China is not very far off.
Geographically The People's Republic of China is a very
close neighbor of Bangladesh with only 100 km of Indian
territory between their borders. Though Bangladesh does not
have a common border with Nepal and Bhutan, both are very
close neighbors separated from the northern border of
Bangladesh by 22 km and 30 km of Indian Territory respective-
ly. Though in the south she has her own outlet to sea, the
funnel-like shape of the Bay of Bengal puts her in conflict with
both India and Myanmar in determining the sea border.
NEIGHBORS OF BANGLADESH
India and Myanmar are the immediate neighbors of
Bangladesh with common borders. The land border with
Myanmar is about 243 kilometers while that of India extended
over 4,025 kilometers. Thus, in terms of peace along the
extensive border and overall national security, the quality of
relations with India is of crucial importance to Bangladesh. The
near neighbors of Bangladesh are though, without common
borders, the nearest are Nepal (22km), Bhutan (distance
22km), and China (distance 100km). Among the neighbors of
Bangladesh, there are three countries with nuclear power.
GEOPOLITICAL WEAKNESS AND ITS IMPACTS
Truly, Bangladesh is clearly locked by India both in land and
water except a little border with Myanmar. Geopolitics may be
a disadvantage when a country is landlocked or shares
common border mostly with one country. Also, the security
consideration of a country is greatly dictated by geographical
location. Bangladesh nearness of border with India may
appear as a weakness in her defense against any future
military conflict with India. Common sharing of rivers also
appears as a weakness for Bangladesh because the flow of
water which depends on the source of the rivers. Due to its
almost flat topography, Bangladesh also has the natural
strategic defense that can be a barrier for the external
attackers. The flow of 54 common rivers from India into
Bangladesh territory creates yet another weakness to
Bangladesh.
Construction of Farakka barrage and the possibility of
constructing more other barrages also appeared as a
weakness given by the nature of Bangladesh which we are
considering as a geopolitical disadvantage to Bangladesh.
Shiligori corridor between Bangladesh and both Nepal, Bhutan
which also appears as a weakness to Bangladesh, as it could
have brought a more advantageous position if it were
Bangladesh part. This small land separates Bangladesh from
linking Nepal and Bhutan. If Bangladesh had linkage with
Nepal or Bhutan, it could have made easier linkage to China
which could have been strengths in bargaining to formulate
Bangladesh's foreign policy.
Since independence, Bangladesh is being used as a transit
route by rail and inland waterways between India's two parts. It
gives India benefits in terms of quick movements of goods and
less freight cost. For what we see, India's great interest is to
take corridor facilities through land roads and using Chittagong
port. For the foreign policy decision makers of Bangladesh, this
transit facilities more correctly corridor as India proposed has
been an important factor to bargain and to mitigate other
problems like water dispute, border dispute, sea border dispute
with India.
GEOPOLITICAL STRENGTH AND ITS IMPACTS
Though Bangladesh is a small country and almost locked by
India, its geopolitical location gives it some strength in this
interdependent world which is prone to be multipolar.
Bangladesh is being significant geopolitically where we can
categorize some of the important causes.
Asian Highway
For the fulfillment of Asian highway, Bangladesh plays a
significant part as it links India with southeastern countries
through the easier low-cost way. Though Bangladesh yet
hasn't linked with the Asian high way because of disagreement
with India one another's proposal still Bangladesh remains as
not to be avoided.
Transit Way
First of all geopolitical location of Bangladesh appeared for
itself in some cases has been disadvantages as so it has been
very disadvantageous to India also. To communicate with the
northwestern part India has the only and small corridor which is
still gory between Bangladesh and India. In case of any dispute
or war with China, India's northwestern part becomes very
much vulnerable to be separated. What we observed in the
Sino-India war of 1962 on border dispute.
Since independence, Bangladesh is being used as a transit
route by rail and inland waterways between India's two parts. It
gives India benefits in terms of quick movements of goods and
less freight cost. For what we see, India's great interest to take
corridor facilities through land roads and using Chittagong port.
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For the foreign policy decision makers of Bangladesh, this
transit facilities more correctly corridor as India proposed has
been an important factor to bargain and to mitigate other
problems like water dispute, border dispute, sea border dispute
with India.
Geopolitical Importance of Bangladesh for other Countries
Not only India has interest over the geopolitical location of
Bangladesh. Also, countries like Nepal, Bhutan, China, and
USA and even countries like Japan and Australia are showing
their interest in considering the geopolitical importance of
Bangladesh. Nepal and Bhutan being landlocked and not
having sea access, they are very much interested in using
Bangladesh’s seaports to foster their trade. Since China has a
competing relationship with India, it always seeks opportunities
to contain India geo-strategically where Bangladesh becomes
one of the perfect positions to her intention.
Though the USA has its biggest naval base in Andaman
and Nicobar islands, it intends to use Chittagong Sea ports to
strengthen its strategic position in the south Asia considering
the importance of the region in World politics. More clearly in
terms of any dispute with India and China, Chittagong port is
the better place to contain two nuclear power and which are
growing as a superpower in international system. Japan and
Australia also for their national interest maintain good relations
with Bangladesh and where Australia has different project and
aid in a great deal in Chittagong Hill Tracks.
The geopolitics of Bangladesh-China Relations
It is quite appreciable that the Government of Bangladesh has
adopted a balanced foreign policy. It is applying the ‘friendship
to all, animosity to none’ principle of our constitution quite
effectively, serving the legitimate and just national interest of
Bangladesh, while contributing to the maintenance of the right
regional and continental balance of power.
In this process, the visit of Chinese president Xi Jinping is
one of the most significant events in the diplomatic and
geopolitical history of Bangladesh. For the last couple of
decades, the position of the President has become the most
significant in China, ahead of the General Secretary of the
Communist Party. However, the Chinese have devised a way
where both positions are normally held by the same person,
who in turn becomes the most powerful political figure in the
Chinese system.
This visit is, hence, the first of its kind in reality, despite the
visit of a Chinese President in 1986 and a Premier in the early
years of this decade. The visit of such a high profile global
figure from China to Bangladesh signifies the kind of
importance China nowadays attaches to Bangladesh.
The current Prime Minister, quite intelligently, undertook
the initiative of ice-breaking between the Awami League and
the Chinese leadership while she was the leader of the
opposition, and the Chinese reciprocated wholeheartedly. It
was in the context of a perceived coldness emanating from
1971 and the seventies. It was a fitting and timely initiative
given the reality of economic miracles being achieved by China
and the secular and, still to a great extent, pro-commoners
nature of the Chinese state. Perhaps, China can’t anymore be
termed as a communist republic in the classical sense, in light
of its spectacular economic rise driven by Special Economic
Zones initially in the early eighties and domestic private
entrepreneurships later. Now both the governments share the
same global anti-terror platform too.
It hardly requires to mention that China is almost a global
superpower now. In economic terms, it already is; militarily,
perhaps a superpower in waiting. But already China is very
much a continental power in all senses. However, coping
rightly with China’s largely peaceful rise to the stature of a
major power is a delicate job in the geopolitical sphere of Asia,
especially in the Indian Ocean maritime domain, where there
are other established and aspiring powers. The US is still the
dominant military force globally and in the Indian Ocean.
We have no dispute with China and hence Bangladesh-
China relations can grow almost unrestricted. However, the
reality is Bangladesh is surrounded by India from three sides.
We need Chinese friendship to counteract such potential
threats. China, on the other hand, needs alternate access to
the Indian Ocean for trade and energy supply purposes. In
fact, India itself is part of BCIM initiative which is very much in
line with China’s ‘one belt one road’ economic connectivity
agenda. China also wants to dish out the labor-intensive
manufacturing of its private entrepreneurs to countries with
cheaper labor e.g. Bangladesh, as it has already reached mid-
income status and looking to climb up the value chain. All
these make a case for some genuine alliance between
Bangladesh and China. China has a stable vision for Asia and
we perfectly fit into it. We shall surely not discard India or the
US, neither should we get tied in their disputes.
Bangladesh between Sino-Indian confliction in this region
We must address this economic issue with delicate diplomacy.
Recently, China has committed $24 billion for infrastructural
development in Bangladesh. On the other hand, India has
promised something to the tune of $2 billion and a coal-based
power plant in the environmentally critical area of Sundarban,
UNESCO declared site for nature conservation. Bangladesh's
land area is surrounded by the Indian border, where Indian
border guards kill 150-200 Bengalis annually, and we are still
friendly neighbors. Like many other places in the world, India
and Bangladesh have critical disputes. Some of them are
solved diplomatically and some of them are under tireless
negotiations.
For example, in September 2011, the two countries signed
a major accord on border demarcation to end the 4-decade old
disputes over boundaries. Still now, Bangladesh is not
getting a fair, rational and necessary share of the Ganges
water. Bangladesh observes that during the dry season India
releases very little amount of water and it gets flooded when
India releases excess waters in monsoon season when we
don't need water. Another achievement of Bangladesh's
diplomacy is the Bay of Bengal sea water settlement with India.
Teesta is now a dried and dead river for Indian policy. And
river water sharing is another big issue between India and
Bangladesh. For decades, it has been exerting huge economic
and environmental impact since the Bangladeshi population
lives on agriculture by natural irrigation. We don't have any
history of hostilities with the Chinese.
China is also very close to Bangladesh, but the Himalayas
create enormous natural barriers. Since China is becoming a
global player and has put forth the grand design of the One
Belt One Road Initiative and Maritime Silk Route, this puts
Bangladesh as a necessary strategic hub for connecting South
Asia with South East Asia. India appears disturbed and worried
by such a Chinese step towards Bangladesh because, in that
way, China can put geopolitical pressure on India from
Pakistan, China's old friend and from the would-be friend
Bangladesh. Since the US is siding with India, the South Asian
geopolitical game will soon take new shapes and forms.
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Already, the Afgan-Pak region, Kashmir, Arunachal, the
Dalailama, terrorism and many issues are coming up as
disputes between US-led India and China.
Bangladesh will not be a safe place if the crisis between
India and China escalates. The flame of unconventional
warfare will also severely damage Bangladesh if the country is
not prepared for inevitable scenarios. Economically,
Bangladesh must curb down its trade deficit by facilitating and
attracting local production. Since the country has enormous
manpower, she should buy the technology, not the products. In
such a manner, 50% of the trade deficit should be curtailed to
promote heavy and small industries. We also find more space
in bilateral relations.
Militarily, Bangladesh must increase her defense spending.
Recently, Bangladesh has bought two submarines for its navy
from China. Though primarily they are being used for training
and sea security purposes for Bangladesh Navy, India has
expressed concern. India must remember that Bangladesh
doesn't consider India an enemy state. Bangladesh should
outsource hi-tech weaponry from countries like Russia, Turkey,
Germany, and Belgium to diversify her defense mechanisms.
For example, Bangladesh can buy five sets of S-400 surface to
air missile system to thwart any aerial threat including nuclear
missiles.
Geopolitically, the country must walk on the balance beam
when she deals with both simultaneously. She should clearly
understand the state ideologies of regional powers but take a
stance of distinctive pragmatism. Bangladesh knows very well
that Indian regional policy towards her is very influential. India
has a certain cultural-political-economic base from the very
birth of Bangladesh since India politically and militarily backed
the liberation war of Bangladesh. On the contrary, China didn't
give Bangladesh recognition as a new country until 1975, after
four years of Bangladesh's independence. Also, Bangladesh
should be very careful about Indian red lines. For example,
Bangladesh should not give any space to any country to
destabilize the Indian seven sisters. She must deter such
existential threats.
China and India’s geopolitical tug of war for Bangladesh
A battle for influence in Bangladesh is on between Asia’s
giants, China and India. The Indian government sees
Bangladesh as an important neighbor for political, national
security and religious reasons. Bangladesh is a transport
corridor to India’s northeastern states and a vital alternative
route to the vulnerable Siliguri corridor that in the past has
been threatened by China’s military, isolating all of northeast
India. India also fears that Islamic fundamentalism and
jihadism in Bangladesh may spill over the border.
China’s broader program of developing influence
throughout Asia through trade, finance, military cooperation
and soft power includes Bangladesh. Bangladesh is the world’s
seventh most populous country and the only one bordering
India (except Bhutan) where Chinese influence is not
dominant. Both countries’ main influence over Bangladesh is in
the area of trade both run huge current account surpluses
with Bangladesh.
China exported US$1617 billion worth of goods to
Bangladesh (once official data is adjusted for massive under-
invoicing) and imported only US$750 million in 201617.
China’s foreign assistance to Bangladesh amounts to about
US$1 billion a year and a large US$24 billion lending program,
promised by China’s President Xi Jinping during his visit in
October 2016, is only just getting underway.
Bangladesh’s current account deficit with India is at least
US$12 billion. India exports about US$8 billion worth of goods
to Bangladesh (once adjusted for under-invoicing) and imports
just US$260 million. Informal trade is in India’s by US$23
billion, with remittances by Indians working in Bangladesh
estimated to be around US$2–4 billion. India’s annual
disbursed foreign assistance to Bangladesh amounts to
US$150 million.
India and China are offering large sums of money for
infrastructure projects in Bangladesh. Both are promoting large
railway projects (low return investments that will do little for
Bangladesh) and both are keen to get involved in building a
deep-sea port in Bangladesh. But none of these projects are
making much headway and efforts to build big coal-fired power
plants have thrown up significant operational and
environmental risks. So far the rivalry in infrastructure
investment has produced limited tangible outcomes, with
Bangladesh the loser. And India’s and China’s manufacturing
and energy investments in Bangladesh remain extremely low
despite promising intentions.
China has long been the main supplier of military
equipment to the Bangladesh armed forces. India is trying to
catch up, but the Bangladesh military procurement office
remains sceptical about the quality of Indian military hardware.
In the realm of culture, Indian influence in Bangladesh is
overwhelming. The two countries share a common language
and Bengali culture is still centred in Kolkata. At least 100,000
Bangladeshis attend school in India and universities in the two
countries entertain close links. For its part, China has
established Confucius Institutes in Bangladesh that teach
Chinese language and scholarships are available for
Bangladeshis to study in China. Chinese commercial influence
and general presence in Dhaka and Chittagong (a major port
city) are rising steadily.
India’s memory of the rule of the pro-Islamic and pro-
Pakistan Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) from 200106
shapes its thinking on Bangladeshi politics. Under the BNP
Islamic militancy thrived and insurgencies in India’s northeast
received Bangladeshi support. India would be appalled if any
party other than Sheikh Hasina’s Awami League were to rule
Bangladesh.
The view from Delhi is very short term: the strategy is to
keep the Awami League in power while trying to block growing
Chinese influence. China, on the other hand, is playing a long
game in Bangladesh and it balances its relations with the ruling
Awami League and the anti-Indian, pro-army BNP.
Bangladesh is not a passive victim of this geopolitical
competition in the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is using its
strategic position to encourage it. There is a clear awareness
in Dhaka that both India and China take more than they give
and that their infrastructure and manufacturing projects are of
low quality (compared to those of Japan and South Korea).
The Rohingya refugee crisis has also made clear that
China and Bangladesh are only fair-weather friends. China is
blocking the UN Security Council action to move against the
genocide or ethnic cleansing by the Myanmar government,
which Bangladesh sees as an unfriendly act. India, ostensibly
Bangladesh’s closest ally, is no better: in the Rohingya refugee
crisis, it squarely backs Myanmar.
China and India will do their best to edge each other out in
their battle for influence in the Bay of Bengal and will try to
exploit an economically weak Bangladesh. But they are likely
to fail as Bangladesh continues to play hard to get and plays
them off against each other. Going forward, changes in trade
policy might have the biggest impact on the giants’ respective
influences in Bangladesh. For now, India is doing all it can to
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block exports from Bangladesh, while China shows no signs of
letting Bangladesh exports enter Chinese markets. Both
countries allow massive under-invoicing of their exports to
Bangladesh violating WTO rules and withhold far more
funds from Bangladesh’s exchequer than they offer as loans.
But China, which is far richer than India and whose economy
dwarfs India’s, has an advantage on trade. If it were to open its
economy to billions of dollars of imports from Bangladesh, the
balance of power in Bangladesh would shift decisively in
China’s favour.
CONCLUSION
The above analysis over the geopolitical reality and its impacts
on foreign policy formulation gives us the understanding that
Bangladesh hardly can avoid India as a factor to its foreign
policy also in this changing world its being vice versa. Now
Bangladesh is going to make a new strong relationship with
emerging world power China instead of India. Geopolitical
realities dictation over foreign policy provides both
disadvantages and disadvantages which also makes the
countries interdependent in this world system.
REFERENCES
1. Akmal Husain, "Geopolitics and Bangladesh foreign policy".
2. Mohammad Shamsul Hoque, 'Bangladesh in International
politics: the dilemmas of weak states 1993.
3. Ibid, page-159
4. Akmal Husain, Ibid.
5. Yasnin Jahan, Ibid
6. "Geopolitics of South Asia and the threat of war"(Paper
presented at the Conference on Glob-al Conflict and Threat of
War at the University of Windsor, Canada on October 2, 1999.
K. Subramanian, Bangladesh and India's security, alit and Dutt,
Dehra Dun, 1972, page-.109.
7. Sarwar Jahan Chowdhury. BDNews 24, October 14, 2016.
8. www.mofa.bd. (Bangladesh ministry of foreign affairs)
... Bangladesh stretches latitudinally between 20 • 34 ′ to 26 • 38 ′ north and longitudinally 88 • 01 ′ to 92 • 41 ′ east (Rashid, 2019). It is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal on the south and by India on the east, west and north (Kabir et al., 2018) and divided into eight (8) divisions according to the administrative geography under which there are 64 districts in total. The divisions are Dhaka (having 13 districts), Barisal (having 6 districts), Chittagong (having 11 districts), Khulna (having 10 districts), Rajshahi (having 8 districts), Rangpur (having 8 districts), Sylhet (having 4 districts) and Mymensingh (having 4 districts) where Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh (Fig. 1). ...
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Chapter
Full-text available
Eastern India is a historically significant centre of India, the birthplace of numerous religions and a locus of influence that has shaped the history of the entire region of Asia. It is unique in its identity due to the multiplicity of faiths and ethos which have been interacting and creating different cultural realms within a single landmass. This region, due to its connectivity with west and east along with its natural and intellectual wealth, has continually witnessed colonization, trade-based development and diverse political climate.
Geopolitics and Bangladesh foreign policy
  • Akmal Husain
Akmal Husain, "Geopolitics and Bangladesh foreign policy".
the Conference on Glob-al Conflict and Threat of War at the University of Windsor, Canada on October 2, 1999. K. Subramanian, Bangladesh and India's security, alit and Dutt
  • Yasnin Jahan
Yasnin Jahan, Ibid 6. "Geopolitics of South Asia and the threat of war"(Paper presented at the Conference on Glob-al Conflict and Threat of War at the University of Windsor, Canada on October 2, 1999. K. Subramanian, Bangladesh and India's security, alit and Dutt, Dehra Dun, 1972, page-.109.