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Adopting Effective Computer Maintenance and Troubleshooting Cultures for Sustainable Development of IT-Driven Sectors of the Third World Countries

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Abstract

A computer is an electronic device with mechanical components requiring adequate care and maintenance due to the system's fragile nature. Today, computers have become an integral part of global communications. Computers are built to be reliable and serve as professional machines; however, they are frequently disposed to develop problems such as malfunction and system failure in the process. The personal computer (PC) often displays error messages, hang up, and in the worse conditions, stop working completely. This article explicitly examines effective measures for PC maintenance, configuration, updating and troubleshooting to protect against system malfunction, recognizing that computer application program is the steering wheel of growth and development in most segments of our society. The paper highlights most reliable techniques to troubleshoot, fix bugs, and repair, and further recommends computer maintenance, effective utilization and development, especially in developing countries.
The Journal of Educational Research and Technology JERT in Partnership with Education, Research,
Technology and Cybersecurity (5)5, 35-42, Spring 2018, ISSN: 216730263
Adopting Effective Computer Maintenance and Troubleshooting Culture for Sustainable
Development of IT-Driven Sector of the Third World Countries
Dr. Bassey I. Ele
Department of Computer Science
University of Calabar, Calabar
Cross River State - Nigeria
Dr. Ofem A. Ajah
Department of Computer Science
University of Calabar, Calabar
Cross River State - Nigeria
P. T. Bukie
Department of Computer Science
University of Calabar, Calabar
Cross River State - Nigeria
Professor Joseph O. Esin
Jarvis Christian College
Computer Information System/Data Science
Hawkins, Texas U.S.A.
ABSTRACT
A computer is an electronic device with mechanical components requiring adequate care and
maintenance due to the system’s fragile nature. Today, computers have become an integral part of
global communications. Computers are built to be reliable and serve as professional machines;
however, they are frequently disposed to develop problems such as malfunction and system failure
in the process. The personal computer (PC) often display error message, hang up, and in the worse
conditions, stop working completely. This article explicitly examines effective measures for PC
maintenance, configuration, updating and troubleshooting to protect against system malfunction,
recognizing that computer application program is the steering wheel of growth and development in
most fix bugs, and repair, and further recommends computer maintenance, effective utilization and
development, especially in developing countries.
INTRODUCTION
A computer is an electronic devices that operates under the control of limited human intervention to
accept raw data, process the data according to specific instruction stored in the memory and generate
meaningful information for future operation. Notably, a computer is an electronic multipurpose
device that can be programmed to accept input, process data in many different forms and formats in
the central processing unit (CPU) which is popularly known as the brain of the computer. Fifty (50)
The Journal of Educational Research and Technology JERT in Partnership with Education, Research,
Technology and Cybersecurity (5)5, 35-42, Spring 2018, ISSN: 216730263
decades ago, computers were primarily used by the military, government agencies, researcher and
large corporations. Over the course of the past five decades computer has become an integral part of
our lives. The entire human society is popularly known as “computer information technology jam
generation” and each generation comes with total trust, reliance and confidence in computer
information technology for data and voice transmission, communication and integration into ever-
increasing number of devices that give most gadgets additional functionality to communicate with
other technology apparatus on an on-going and daily basis. Computer is classified into the following
six categories: based capacity, mobile devices person computers, mid range servers, mainframe and
supercomputers.
Situations affecting the growth of economics, social and technology advancement in most
nations are increasing at an alarming pace creating system malfunctions and poor maintenance
culture (Celestine, 2000). Admittedly, technologically advancement in medical, academic, social and
economic growth has become inextricably clenched to computer as reliable devices for daily
activities such as man-made gadgets that are prone to problems and breakdown and requiring
adequate maintenance, care and attention. Acquiring computers and associated devices is imperative,
but the ability to keep the system functional and in working condition is often ignored. As a result, it
is necessary to adopt effective computer maintenance and troubleshooting culture to keep the system
functional and in continuously good working condition. Computers have become invariably cardinal
to all types of development and lifesaving ventures; therefore proper computer maintenance and
troubleshooting is significant and will help increase the speed of the computer, prevent errors, save
money, secure and protect data information and save productive time (Mandell, 2012). Computer
problems are basically divided into two groupings according to hardware and software problems.
The computer hardware glitches are frequently related to the peripheral computers components such
The Journal of Educational Research and Technology JERT in Partnership with Education, Research,
Technology and Cybersecurity (5)5, 35-42, Spring 2018, ISSN: 216730263
as compact disk (CD) drive, internal hard disk storage, monitor, keyboard and more. The software
hitches are often more complicated than the hardware glitches and involves MODEM configuration,
applications software installation and updates. As Hooks (2010) posits, the first step to fix computer
problems is to diagnose, troubleshoot and understand what is causing the glitch and to follow the
standard procedure to solve system malfunction.
Computers are complicated pieces of equipment, susceptible to application software, vertical
and horizontal software programs malfunctions. Computer malfunction repeatedly involves attempts
to distinguish differences between software programs and physical computer hardware and
associated electronic devices. As Smith (2013) noted, system diagnosing often helps to identify
major system failures and malfunctions and tend to require through knowledge and understanding of
internal and external components of a functional system. The best way to repair a malfunction
system and prevent future occurrences is to implement preventive maintenance and install recovery
measures to protect an organization’s system (Oyefeka, 2009). Computers are very rugged and
dependable piece of equipment and basic maintenance procedures must be performed on them on a
regular basis to avoid premature system failure and malfunctions per Araki and Kojima (2011) and
Williams and Sawyer (2013) common troubleshooting techniques and strategies must involve the
ability to identify the following five rational stratagem.
1. To solve computer hardware related breakdown, malfunction, warm and cool booting
problems swap components of personal computer (PC), to isolate the problem on specific
parts by trial and error and swapping compatible components to see if the system works. One
can also try other components or peripherals on different machines and see if the problem
still occurs in the process. However, it is important and advisable to make one change at a
time.
The Journal of Educational Research and Technology JERT in Partnership with Education, Research,
Technology and Cybersecurity (5)5, 35-42, Spring 2018, ISSN: 216730263
2. Check the cables: 80% of all personal computers (PC) problems are often related to cabling
and connections. It is advisable and mandatory to ensure that all cables are connected firmly.
IDE and floppy ribbon cables and power cables can often get loose. Check if the computer
microprocessor, memory modules, videos adapters and sound card are inserted correctly or
properly and did not “pop-up” during delivery.
3. User are urged not get frustrated. Most computer users often summit to frustration due to lack
of immediate response from troubleshooting team relative to system malfunction.
Troubleshooting processes must be viewed as enhancement and learning endeavors.
However, should the situation turn complicated, contact colleagues and experts for
assistance. Per rule of thumb, users should spend limited time in troubleshooting of
malfunction systems.
4. Information Technology (IT) team are encourage to document troubleshooting processes and
error message for training purpose and such document will be valuable for all segments of
the organization. IT teams are also encouraged to pay closer attention to error message and
print out error message for research purposes.
5. Users are urged not to be afraid to open, inspect and clean internal components of the
computer. There is only 5V and 12DC voltage supplied to the components outside the power
supply. For safety reasons, computer users power down and unplug the power chord prior to
opening the computer.
Computer Maintenance Guidelines
Experts on computer maintenance frequently recommend the following guidelines to keep the
computer system functioning smoothly and effectively (Smith, 2013):
The Journal of Educational Research and Technology JERT in Partnership with Education, Research,
Technology and Cybersecurity (5)5, 35-42, Spring 2018, ISSN: 216730263
i. Do not turn your computer of with power switch until windows until windows
completely shutdown. An exception to this rule is when a computer locks up and the hard
drive is not running (the hard drive light is not blinking). In the process, turn the power
off without harmful effects to the hard drive. The abrupt shutting of the system often
result in the loss of data, information, folders and windows execution files. Execution of
the stated guidelines will prevent permanent hard drive malfunctions, caused by the hard
drive heads contacting the surface of the drive disc, and prevent host of system failure.
Recovery from system failure can be circumvented by holding the Ctrl key down and
pressing Alt keys simultaneously to reboot the computer.
ii. Uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is designed to protect the computer and for the
system to remain up when electricity goes off. UPS is entrenched with a built-in battery
to graciously bring the computer down to avoid the loss of data and information. It is
indeed stronger than a surge suppressor.
iii. Persistent backup of data. Data must be backed-up always to avoid the loss of vital
records at least on two separate physical drives. Data should be backed-up to external
hard drives, Zip disks, CD-RW and electronic backup systems.
iv. Run scandisk and Defragment at least once a month. This operation is design to keep
the hard drive active and to prevent the computer from crashing.
v. Unplugging of peripherals from the computer when it is powered up can lead to
untimely short down from the connector- socket and circuit boards.
vi. Allow at least 300 MBs of a local C drive free for use for Microsoft windows XP and
vista. 400-600 MBs Is appropriate with free space on a C: drive and the system will be
The Journal of Educational Research and Technology JERT in Partnership with Education, Research,
Technology and Cybersecurity (5)5, 35-42, Spring 2018, ISSN: 216730263
very slow without free space. Use the ADD & Delete tool in the windows’ control panel
to delete unneeded files drive.
vii. Minimize quantity of program loaded in the computer: computers use valuable
memory, windows resources and windows internal workspace and programs in operating
system tray in the lower left-hand area of the display screen on the computer to avoid
premature shut down and boot-up. However, pressing Ctrl+ Alt+ Delete simultaneously
can interrupt system operations.
viii. Effective method of system maintenance is necessary for continues monitoring and
upgrading of anti-virus program such as Norton antivirus, free online virus checkers
including house-call provided by trend micro. Firewall is a combination of hardware and
software program designed to keep protected the system against unauthorized access to
the system.
Troubleshooting Strategies
Troubleshooting is the process of finding and correcting faults on computer and associated electronic
equipment. Three effective strategies design to help IT team in the troubleshooting process includes
defining the situation to identify faulty components to repair and upgrade, research, checking and
evaluation.
CONCLUSION
In today’s fast-paced technology-driven world, people depend almost wholeheartedly on their
computers, even for the simplest of tasks. Businesses maintain maximum performance using the
most up-to-date technologies; school keeps better management of students using computers and even
The Journal of Educational Research and Technology JERT in Partnership with Education, Research,
Technology and Cybersecurity (5)5, 35-42, Spring 2018, ISSN: 216730263
the at-home mothers can run their household more efficiently using the home computer. However,
all this efficiency and knowledge will be lost if computer are not maintained. The important thing to
remember when doing any troubleshooting is that computers are logical devices and there is always
a logical reason why something is not working properly in the system. Computer are like any
instruction and often require constant attention and repair and upgrades for effective operation.
Hence, computer maintenance is crucial to guaranteeing optimal performance and avoiding system
malfunction and malfunction.
The Journal of Educational Research and Technology JERT in Partnership with Education, Research,
Technology and Cybersecurity (5)5, 35-42, Spring 2018, ISSN: 216730263
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
In this competitive open world environment, it has become a challenge for Pulp and paper Industry to sustain good performance. Adherence to the maintenance approach with best practices is one of the key to upkeep the Machinery health well in order to deliver a good quality of product at competitive cost to reach and retain the customers. It is necessary to have strong maintenance strategy to convertmaintenance function in to a profit centre with structured approach, techniques and continual improvements. ITC Ltd Paper Boards and Specialty Papers division - Unit Bhadrachalam isimplementingPlanned Maintenance programas a part of manufacturing excellence journey for the past 10 years. Continual learning cum implementation journey has resulted in productivity improvement, reduced unplanned stoppages and optimum maintenance cost. © 2017 Indian Pulp and Paper Technical Association. All rights reserved.
Purpose – The paper presents a mathematical model that measures the profitability of the maintenance system based on the traditional accounting definition of profitability. There is currently a dire need for an article presenting a scientific‐based framework for practitioners in maintenance to make optimal instead of sub‐optimal decisions on profitability. Design/methodology/approach – A case study is presented to reflect the actual application of the proposed model. Different situations were considered in modelling to obtain optimal results. Simulation experiments were conducted to demonstrate that maintenance profitability is a reality through the use of differential calculus. Findings – It was observed that the approach presented is a holistic viewpoint of maintenance profitability measurement. Research limitations/implications – An adequate understanding of the maintenance system is needed to properly implement the model. Practical implications – The practical application of the model is that the maintenance system will now be viewed as a value‐adding activity instead of “a necessary evil” or “a bottomless pit for expenses”. Originality/value – This paper fulfils an identified need and offers practical help to managers in taking guided decisions that are optimal.
Article
Purpose In today's industry, a machine breakdown is common for a machine running a long period of time without maintenance. To avoid a sudden breakdown, periodic maintenance is usually performed in the production system. This paper aims to find a set of efficient schedules that considers both jobs and maintenance simultaneously. Design/methodology/approach This paper addresses a real‐life scheduling problem in a plastic company. An algorithm based on the variable range technique is developed to solve the problem by providing a small set of efficient schedules. Findings Once maintenance is performed, the job being processed must be stopped. This will result in some jobs being late or tardy and a relatively larger flow time is generated. Therefore, how to minimize these two criteria in the production system becomes an important issue in the company. Computational results show that problems with larger maintenance intervals and smaller maintaining time can produce a smaller number of efficient schedules. Practical implications It is seen that scheduling maintenance will result in some jobs being tardy and a larger flow time is generated. A decision maker can easily select a preferred schedule from the small set of efficient schedules. The proposed algorithm is appropriate not only for the studied company but also for those companies where periodic maintenance is required. Originality/value Presents an algorithm to find a small set of efficient schedules.
KASE Project Towards Effective Diagnosis System Development
  • D Araki
  • S Kojima
Araki, D. And Kojima, S. (2011). "KASE Project Towards Effective Diagnosis System Development. "Proceedings of the Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-based Systems Workshop.
Design of Man-Computer Dialogue
  • J Brewton
Brewton, J. (2012). Design of Man-Computer Dialogue. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Building Maintenance: A Catalyst of Economic Development. An Article in the Estate Surveyors
  • V Celestine
Celestine, V. (2009). Building Maintenance: A Catalyst of Economic Development. An Article in the Estate Surveyors. Journal of the NIESV. 13 (1).
Development of A Layered Condition Random Field Based Network Intrusion Detection System
  • B I Ele
  • B C E Mbam
Ele, B.I. And Mbam, B.C.E. (2014). Development of A Layered Condition Random Field Based Network Intrusion Detection System. West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. 12(1), 3-20.