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Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Performance of Employees and Organizational Commitment in Software Industry

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  • Vidyvardhaka College Of Engineering

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In every organization Employee performance of the employees is a very important part that to in a software industry employee’s success leads to the success of the organization; this can be achieved due to emotional intelligence. This study targets at measuring the emotional intelligence of employees and investigating the relationship between the 3 variables emotional intelligence (EI) Employee performance(EP) and Organizational Commitment of employees of Software Industry in Hyderabad region, To measure Employee Performance taken Conceptual and Task Performance. This study used questionnaire method to collect the data. The sample includes 100 middle level employees. This study also shows that there is average positive relationship between both the variables which has been proved by correlation tests. Through regression test it is proved that there is dependence of Employee performance on emotional intelligence. This study concludes that emotional intelligence is a major factor that affects Employee performance of employees. Key words: Emotional Intelligence, Contextual Performance, Task Performance and Organizational Commitment
Content may be subject to copyright.
2017 Radha, Bhavani Shree 17
© International Academic Research Journal of
Business and Management
Vol. No.6, Issue No 2, December 2017, Page no.17-28 ISSN Number: 2227-1287
Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Performance of
Employees and Organizational Commitment in
Software Industry
Dr.B.Radha
Professor
P.G.Dept of Commerce and Management Studies
VRS&YRN College Chirala
Email-bradha1959@gmail.com
A.Bhavani Shree
Associate Professor
Department of Business Administration
Vidyavardhaka College of Engineering, Mysore 02
Phone +91 7204004546. Email bhavanirahul@yahoo.com
Abstract
In every organization Employee performance of the employees is a very important part that
to in a software industry employee’s success leads to the success of the organization; this
can be achieved due to emotional intelligence. This study targets at measuring the
emotional intelligence of employees and investigating the relationship between the 3
variables emotional intelligence (EI) Employee performance(EP) and Organizational
Commitment of employees of Software Industry in Hyderabad region, To measure
Employee Performance taken Conceptual and Task Performance. This study used
questionnaire method to collect the data. The sample includes 100 middle level employees.
This study also shows that there is average positive relationship between both the variables
which has been proved by correlation tests. Through regression test it is proved that there
is dependence of Employee performance on emotional intelligence. This study concludes
that emotional intelligence is a major factor that affects Employee performance of
employees.
Key words: Emotional Intelligence, Contextual Performance, Task Performance and
Organizational Commitment
Received 21st October 2017
Accepted 24th October 2017
Published 2nd January 2018
INTRODUCTION
In any organization there could be
many factors that have an impact on
Employee performance of employees.
One of the major factor that is been
recognized in the recent years is
Emotional intelligence that is known as EI.
Emotional intelligence can be said as the
ability of an individual to identify,
understand, use and also effective
managing of emotions, so that it relieves
stress and communicate effectively with
everyone or peers, empathize with
everyone, overcome challenges that arise
in workplace and also family life, and also
defuse conflict with everyone. This would
help him/her to perform better in the
organization, be more productive, reduce
conflicts with others, build relationships
within the organization as well as
understand emotions of others which are
helps employee’s to perform better in
organization. Some positions in an
organization demand more of emotional
intelligence as they would be handling
more people, for example if we take post
of a supervisor who is also termed to be a
special group employee, this position is
very crucial as he/she acts as a mediator
between the employees at the bottom
level and employees at the top level. They
have to communicate the work effectively
and also have to get it done through
employees who are under them. For an
organization, if supervisors are performing
well in turn the whole organization leads to
a track of profits. Employee performance
of these employees would affect the whole
organization, and hence, if supervisors are
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International Academic Research Journal of Business and Management December
having high emotional intelligence they
would be performing their job well as they
can effectively handle their own emotions.
There are many parameters on
which Employee performance of
employees could be judged, for example:
Campbell has given many parameters on
which Employee performance of
employees could be judged, they are
declarative knowledge, procedural
knowledge and motivation. He has defined
Employee performance of employees in
these 3 broad areas, and also has told
that these are the determinants on which
Employee performance of any employee
could be judged or measured. On the
other hand, Goleman defined emotional
intelligence into 4 dimensions they are 1.
Self awareness, 2. Self-regulation
3.Social skill 4. Relationship Management
that is associated with emotions of any
individual.
The concept of EI can be traced
back to early 1900. The foundation of the
study of EI began in the early works of the
study of emotion and the study of
intelligence. The early 1900 psychologists
began to write and think about
intelligence, they focused on cognitive
aspects, such as memory and problem
solving. However, some researchers have
identified the importance of non - cognitive
aspects of intelligence. Wechsler (1958)
proposed that the non cognitive abilities
are essential for predicting one’s ability to
succeed in life (Cherniss, 2000). Robert
Torndike (1920) introduced the concept of
Social Intelligence. Howard Gardner in
1983 proposed the theory of Multiple
Intelligence. With his theory, he introduced
the concept of personal intelligence. He
explained that “Intrapersonal” and
“interpersonal” intelligences, the two
subtypes of personal intelligence are as
important as the type of intelligence
typically measured by IQ and related tests
(Cherniss, 2000). Intrapersonal
intelligence, according to the Gardner,
includes having the ability to understand
and differentiate among emotions and to
assess one’s own feeling. He defined
interpersonal intelligence as the ability to
assess other’s emotions or moods and act
on that information.
Two psychologists Peter Salovey
and John Mayer first introduced EI in
1990.They developed the ability model of
EI. They defined EI as “a form of
intelligence that involves the ability to
monitor one’s own and other’s thinking
and actions” (Carmeli, 2003). This
definition includes four distinct areas of
perceiving and expressing emotions,
assimilating emotion in one’s thinking,
understand and analyze emotions and
regulating emotion through reflection.
Later, they revised their definition of EI as
“the ability to perceive emotion, integrate
emotions to facilitating thoughts,
understanding emotions and regulate
emotions to promote personal growth”
(Salovey and Mayer, 1997).
Mayer, Salovey and Caruso in
2000, give a new conceptualization to EI.
They suggested that previous definitions
that they have proposed were not clear
enough to explain all the abilities
represented by EI. According to their
arguments, they defined EI as “the ability
to perceive, appraise and express
emotions accurately and adaptively; the
ability to understand emotions and
emotional knowledge; the ability to access
and generate feeling where they facilitate
cognitive activities and adaptive actions;
and the ability to regulate emotions in
oneself and others”(Mayer et al.,2004).
In 1995, Daniel Goleman opened
the eyes of the world about the concept of
EI. Goleman defined EI under the trait
perspectives or mixed model as “one’s
ability to motivate oneself and persist in
the face of frustration; to control impulses
2017 Radha, Bhavani Shree 19
and delay gratification; to regulate one’s
moods and keep distress from swamping
the ability to think; to empathize and to
hope. In 1997, Daniel Goleman redefined
EI as “about knowing what you are feeling
and being able to handle those feelings
without having them swamp you, being
able to motivate yourselves to get jobs
done, be creative and perform at your
peak and sensing what others are feeling
and handling relationship
effectively.(Dulewicz and Higgs,2000) in
other words “the capacity for recognizing
our own feelings and those of others for
motivating ourselves and for successfully
managing emotions in ourselves and in
our relationship with
others”(Goleman,1998).
Goleman’s model that he has
introduced in 1998 outlined five main EI
construct (Self Awareness, Self
Regulation, Motivation, Empathy and
Social Skills) and twenty-five
competencies. Goleman expanded his
work when he partnered with Richard
Boyatzis in 2000. They introduced four
dimensions of EI with twenty
competencies instead of five dimensions
of EI with twenty-five competencies
(Goleman, Boyatzis, and Rhee, 2000).
These dimensions have been identified
as; Self-Awareness, Self-Management,
Social Awareness and Relationship
Management.
Self-Awareness dimension
consists of knowing one’s internal states,
preferences, resources, and intuitions.
Self-Management dimension involves
controlling one’s emotions and impulses
and adapting to change circumstances.
Social Awareness includes the ability to
sense, understand and react to others’
emotions while comprehending social
networks. Relationship Management
dimension entails the ability to inspire,
influences, and develops others while
managing conflicts (Goleman, 1998).
In 1998, Reuven Bar on proposed
a non-cognitive model of EI. He defined EI
as an array of non cognitive capabilities
(Personal and emotional), competencies
and skills that influence one’s ability to
succeed in coping with environmental
demands and pressures (Gardner,
Stough, 2002). The five skill areas of
mood, stress management, intrapersonal
skills, interpersonal skills and adaptability
are included to his definition.
TASK PERFORMANCE AND
CONTEXTUAL PERFORMANCE
Borman and Motowidlo (1993,
1997) described a two-factor theory of job
performance in which most jobs consist of
task and CP. They defined TP as the
behavior that is directly linked with
completion of the job. When employees
use technical skills and knowledge to
produce goods or services through the
organization’s core technical processes,
or when they accomplished specialized
tasks that support these core functions,
they are engaging in TP. Task related
behaviors contribute to the technical core
of the organization. Behavior in the
domain of TP is usually recognized as a
formal requirement of an individuals’ job.
Job description often explicitly stipulates
that the job holders must perform these
activities.
Borman and Motowidlo (1993)
defined CP as an individual’s
performance, which maintain and
enhances an organization’s social network
and the psychological climate that
supports technical tasks. CP is comprised
of interpersonal behaviors or actions that
benefit the organization. Furthermore,
they explained that CP includes activities
that may not represent formal work tasks
although they still make an important
contribution to the effectiveness of an
organization. This type of performance is
often not written in a job description but it
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International Academic Research Journal of Business and Management December
is considered to be an important
component of Job Performance. CP is
behavior that contributes to the culture
and climate of the organization. It is the
context within which transformation and
maintenance activities are carried out. CP
consist the behavior of volunteering for
extra work, persisting with enthusiasm,
helping and cooperating with others,
following rules and procedures and
supporting or defending the organization
(Motowidlo and Schmit, 1999). Borman
(1983), define CP as behaviors that shape
the organizational, social and
psychological context that serve as
catalyst for task activities and processes.
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND
TASK PERFORMANCE
Goleman defined EI as “a learned
capability based on EI that result in
outstanding performance at work”. That
means, EI is an ability to recognize,
understand and use emotional information
about oneself or others that leads to or
causes effective or superior performance.
Goleman (2001) provided a wide array of
reasons for the positive link between EI
and individual work success. Schutte,
Schuettpelz, and Malouff (2001) found
differences among individuals who were
given moderate as well as very difficult
problems to solve. Individuals with high EI
were more successful than individuals
with low EI at solving more numerous
problems and in completing their cognitive
tasks.
Some studies suggest that EI and
Job Performance are positively related.
These studies found that EI predict the
performance of undergraduate students
on a single task (Lam and Kirby, 2002),
the class room performance of managers
and professional (Sue-Chan and Latham,
2004), sales performance (Wong, Law
and Wong, 2004) and supervisory rating
of Job Performance (Slaski and
Cartwright, 2002). Another study found
that the EI of teams of students predicts
the performance of these teams at the
initial stage of a project (Jordan et al.,
2002). In the job of medium complexity
(Sales, Clerk, Mechanics), a top performer
is 12 times more productive than those at
the bottom and 85% more productive than
an average performer. In the most
complex jobs (Insurance sales people,
accounts managers) a top performer is
127% more productive than an average
performer (Hunter, Schmidt and Judiesch,
1990). Competency research in over 200
companies and organizations worldwide
suggest that about one third of this
difference is due to technical skills and
cognitive ability while two third is due to
emotional competence (Goleman, 1998).
In top leadership positions, over four fifths
of the difference is due to emotional
competence.
At a financial services company
emotional self awareness proved crucial in
financial planners’ Job Performance
(Goleman,1998).Among several hundred
managers from twelve different
organizations, accurate self assessment
was the hallmark of superior performance
(Boyatzis,1982).The positive impact of the
self confidence competence on
performance has been shown in a variety
of studies. Among supervisors, managers,
and executives, have a high degree of self
confidence distinguish the best from the
average performers (Boyatzis, 1982). A
recent meta-analysis found that “EI
measures have an operational validity of
.24, .10, and .24 for predicting
performance in employment, academic,
and life setting,” respectively (Van Rooy &
Viswesvaran, 2004 in Carmali,2008).
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND
CONTEXTUAL PERFORMANCE
Research on the relationship
between EI and CP has received, thus far,
2017 Radha, Bhavani Shree 21
little attention. (Carmeli, 2006) The limited
researches that exist offer some support
for this relationship. Employees who
display genuine concern about their co-
workers problems should build stronger
relationship than employees whose
concern seems less genuine. Individuals
with high EI and low cognitive intelligence
may employ their abilities to manage
emotions and develop good social
relationship (Wong and Law, 2002). Good
social relationships may also compel
employees to engage in OCB, the form of
CP frequently to benefit close colleagues.
According to Licia (2003), EI was
positively correlated with CP. In a study of
134 adolescents in a military training
camp setting, Charbonneau and Nicol
(2002) found a positive correlation
between EI and both altruism and
compliance of the CP. Carmeli and
Colakoglu (2005) showed the moderating
effect of EI on the relationship between
affective commitment and altruism.
EI may enhance altruistic behavior
as it enables employees to recognize and
understand their coworkers’ feelings; they
subsequently respond more appropriately
than do employees with low EI, due to
their ability to shift easily from negative to
positive moods (Abraham, 1999).
Equipped with the abilities to understand,
regulate, and alter the affective reactions
of others (Salovey & Mayer, 1990),
Emotionally Intelligent individuals are
better prepared to perceive the need for
help (Abraham, 1999) and offer their
coworkers more empathic responses to
both personal and work-related
problems(Carmali,2006).
Objectives of the study
To measure the employees
emotional intelligence.
To analyze the relationship
between Emotional Intelligence(EI) and
Employee performance(JP).
To identify is there any influence
on Employee performance and
Organizational commitment due to
emotional intelligence.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research is a process of collecting
data and information regarding a topic and
finding solution to an intended problem.
There are 2 variables in our study they are
emotional intelligence that is EI which is
an independent variable and Employee
performance that is JP which is a
dependent variable. Type of Research is
using Descriptive research, Sampling
Technique/Method is used probability
sampling and the sampling method would
be convenience sampling based on our
convenience We would be targeting
samples from the middle management
level. Sample Size is 50 respondents.
Type of data to be used both primary and
secondary data. Questionnaires and
interviews are used to get information
directly from employees and we would
collect some more data from the research
papers and journals as a secondary data.
Statistical test to be used was correlation
and regression as a statistical tool. To
measure the relationship between the
variables we would be using correlation
test. And the strength of relationship
between variables could also be judged by
using regression.
Hypothesis
H1: There is a positive relationship
between Emotional Intelligence and
Contextual Performance.
H2: There is a positive relationship
between Emotional Intelligence and Task
Performance
H3: There is a positive relationship among
Emotional intelligence Organizational
Commitment of employees.
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International Academic Research Journal of Business and Management December
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
The data was collected form 100
respondents in software industry; it is
analyzed using SPSS version 20. The
correlation and Regression and
Descriptive statistics are calculated for the
study. By running reliability to the data,
Cronbach Alpha was 0.93 which show that
the instrument is having reliability which is
more than 70%. This study is made for
pilot study for my PhD work. The
questionnaire consists of 120 questions. It
consists of three variables i.e. Emotional
Intelligence, Employee Performance
(Contextual Performance and Task
Performance) and Organizational
Commitment. The scale was 5 likert scale
was taken for the study which include
Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree. The
participants were ranging from 25 years to
50years. And it is considered as a good
result hence we can rely on the data given
by respondents. we can continue with our
further tests.
The table indicates the mean
scores of EI is 2.070 which means the
team had normal level of EI The study
also states that managing of emotions
among respondents is also average. The
means scores of employees are not able
to manage and also control their
emotions effectively and efficiently at work
place. It also is been clear those
employees not very keen to open to
changes that mean they are not dynamic
in nature, which will not help them to
succeed in their careers. The Mean
scores of CP is 2.696. and then TP is with
(1.965). Therefore, it can be interpreted
that most of the participants prefer to
reflect their feelings out as they desire
without needing any intelligence is
managing their emotions and they prefer
to be natural, the lowest value belongs to
Employee performance (CP 2.696 and TP
1.965) in terms of the Employee
performance, while the values belong to
the Organizational commitment (OC
2.002). According to these results, the
participants tend to show the contextual
performance, which occurs in accordance
with the intentional and characteristic
behaviors of the individuals and supports
the task performance despite it is not
identified in the definition of the duties to
the extent of required.
It found the connections between
variables and determines the extent to
which values of two variables are
proportional to each other (Carver & Nash,
2006). There is positive (+) correlation
among both the variables that is
Emotional intelligence performance and
commitment. The correlation is 0.361 with
CP, with TP 0.736 and OC 0.726 which
shows more than average positive
correlation among the variables. Further to
prove this we would be taking the
significance level that is 0.000 in this case,
furthermore which indicates that we have
a very strong evidence to believe 𝐻1 and
hence accept the alternative hypothesis
and reject the null hypothesis.
This study also proves that there is
a positive correlation of emotional
intelligence (EI) Performance and
Commitment; we can also say that people
with high emotional intelligence have
higher performance with commitment. In
this case the software employees have
average emotional intelligence. If
emotional intelligence of employees can
be improved then they can give superior
performance to the organization and
would lead to the success of employee
and the organization also.
Model Summary reports a
statistics that measures 'goodness of fit'.
R is measuring the simple relation
between independent variables and
dependent variable. R2 measures the
variation of dependent variable by
independent variables. It can range from 0
2017 Radha, Bhavani Shree 23
to 1 and indicates the extent to which the
line fits the points. The regression results
in table indicate that there is a strong
significant relationship between the
components of emotional intelligent (EI)
and the contextual performance of
software professionals in Hyderabad
region, from the coefficient of multiple
regression (R value of 0.361). The results
indicate that the explanatory variables (
SA,SR,SS,SR) of the study explained
12.1% of the total variations in the
dependent variable, contextual working
performance of software professionals
during the period of the study, from the
coefficient of multiple determinations
(adjusted R square of 0.121). The table
also shows that the model of the study is
fit at 1% level of significance as indicated
by the F Statistic of 14.647 with the P-
value of 0.000. It also indicates strong
significant relationship between the
components of EI and Task Performance
also, form the R value 0.736, the
explanatory variable o of EI (
SA,SR,SS,SR) has 53% of total variations
on dependent variable and for
Organization commitment the R value is
0.726, the explanatory variables of EI has
52% of total variation in the dependent
variable (OC).
Therefore, based on the fitness of
the results, the hypothesis of the study is
tested in the following section.
In this section, the hypothesis
formulated is tested to draw conclusions
about the impact of the components of
emotional intelligent (EI) and the
contextual and Task performance and
their Commitment of software
professionals in Hyderabad region. Table
6 present the regression coefficient for the
analysis;
The results in table 5 shows that
the emotional intelligence has positive
impact on the contextual and task
performance of software professionals
from the coefficient of 0.173, with t-value
of 3.827 which is statistically significant at
all levels of significance (p value 0.000).
This implies that as emotional intelligence
increases, contextual performance of
software professionals’ likely increases
proportionately, shows that emotional
intelligence has significant statistical
positive impact on the task performance of
software professionals, from the
coefficient of 1.000, with t-value of 10.777,
which is statistically significant at 1% level
of significance (p-value 0.000). This
suggests that emotional intelligence has
significantly affect on task performance
and it has significant impact on
organizational commitment with coefficient
value 1.012 with t-value 10.453 which is
statically significance (p value 0.000) of
software professionals is positive
Based on this evidence, the study
rejects the null hypothesis which states
that emotional intelligent has no significant
impact on the contextual and task working
performance of software professionals.
The study therefore infers that emotional
intelligent (in terms of self-awareness,
self-management, social-skills, and
relationship management) has
significantly impacted on the contextual
and task performance of software
professionals during the period covered by
the study.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Results of this study have clearly
indicates that there is significant links
between these trait based components of
EI and contextual and task performance..
In summary this study provides evidence
to show support for significant relationship
between EI and contextual performance of
nursing professionals. Apart from that
even emotional intelligence helps to
increase the commitment levels of
employees which indirectly help in
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International Academic Research Journal of Business and Management December
increasing performance of employees.
The results shows positive impact but not
to that extent which is required for
standard level of performance.
SUGGESTIONS
The management of these
companies on how to invest in training of
these professionals on Emotional
Intelligence since it has been found to be
relevant for their work, especially in the
areas of Self Management, Self
Management, Empathy social skills, and
Relationship Management. This study has
given a direction on how management can
ensure that they coach their employees on
the impact that working as a group with
others without bickering. Since Emotional
Intelligence proves to be a key
contributing factor to successful
performance, organizations and managers
take steps to become more emotionally
intelligent to play their role in developing a
more emotionally urbanized workforce.
This can be done through introducing
emotional learning programs in the
organization on regular basis. This
Emotional Intelligence training will be
helpful to individual employees and
managers too. Similarly, by acquiring
emotional intelligence skill set, manager
may be able to communicate to
employees in a better way.
LIMITATIONS
This study was not without some
limitations. A limitation of the study was
the use of self report perceptual measures
in assessing the study. This increased
chances of biases of respondents. There
may have been likelihood of respondents
to tailor their responses towards what they
perceive to be the expected response
rather than state the obvious. The levels
of EI of the managers, the levels TP and
CP of the non - managerial employees
were measured according to the
respondents’ own attitudes. Finally, the
difficulty of exploring the psychological
factors like EI and CP through the
structured questionnaire was another
limitation of this study. An obvious
limitation of the study is the fact that the
population was limited to Hyderabad
region only, which suggests the results
may not be generalized in larger context
across the cultures of other countries and
business environments which may give a
different result on the relationship between
EI and contextual task performance and
commitment.
CONCLUSION
Based on empirical findings, this
study concludes that there is significant
relationship between Emotional
Intelligence and employee Contextual
Performance. Conclusion being drawn is
to the fact that EI competences are very
relevant to the service sector especially
nursing practice and that when imbibed
can in no small measure impact on the
contextual performance of nursing
professionals. It is also concluded that the
trait based model of EI is applicable to
nursing practice as has been confirmed by
this study impact on their individual work
performance The results of the current
study demonstrated that EI helps
understand one’s emotions effectively
while using and controlling emotions
would induce voluntary and positive
behaviors. In particular, EI in the use of
emotion and self-emotion appraisal was
more important in increasing OC;
moreover, use of emotion had a greater
influence on OC than self-emotion
appraisal had. This result confirms that, if
employees understand, control, and use
their emotions effectively, they will create
positive working environments and
significantly improve organizational
outcomes such as increased OC. In
addition, if employees of software industry
have high EI, they will be able to balance
work with organization demands in order
2017 Radha, Bhavani Shree 25
to minimize work conflicts. Therefore,
counseling and personnel psychologists
should be used by various organizations
where employee staff and the employees
have a significant role in offering service
and customer satisfaction. Because of
that, EI has a maximum role in providing
attractive and conductive working
environments, which would motivate the
employees and enhance their job
satisfaction to their career and
organizations. In addition, if employees of
software industry have a high EI, they will
have an output like high level of
innovation, productivity, employee
relation, empathy by customer and
financial performance in service industry
and employees with EI have a critical role
in enhancing EP on various departments
like marketing and accounting.
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Table 1: Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha
.934
Table 2: Descriptives
N
Mean
Statistic
Statistic
EI
100
2.070
CP
100
2.6962
TP
100
1.9650
OC
100
2.0021
Valid N (list wise)
100
Table 3: Correlations
Correlations
EI
CP
TP
OC
EI
1
CP
Pearson
Correlation
.361**
1
TP
Pearson
Correlation
.736**
.486**
1
OC
Pearson
Correlation
.726**
.348**
.678**
1
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 4.1: Regression
Regression Model Summary
Variables
R
R2
Adjust R2
F change
Sig
EI-CP
0.361
0.130
0.121
14.647
0.000
EI-TP
0.736
0.542
0.538
116.14
0.000
EI-OC
0.726
0.527
0.522
109.269
0.000
Table 4.2
Regression Co-efficient
Variables
Co-efficient
T value
P value
EI-CP
0.173
3.827
0.000
EI-TP
1.000
10.777
0.000
EI-OC
1.012
10.453
0.000
... Emotional intelligence is the ability of an individual to identify, understand and effectively manage emotions. According to Radha and Shree (2017) it helps to reduce stress in the workplace, involves effective communication with others, empathy, and overcoming challenges both at work and at family levels. Mastery of emotional intelligence helps employees to perform better, to be more productive, reduce conflict with others, and build cordial relationships that result to better organizational performance management. ...
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