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Post-Harvest challenge accounts for 40-50% of losses in tomato value-chain in Nigeria and other parts of the world. This study evaluated the effects of wood ash treatment on the sensory, physicochemical, nutritional and mineral compositions of green tomato stored under ambient conditions (28.3ºC, 67%). Green tomato (kerewa var.) was harvested from University of Ilorin, Nigeria and brought to the Chemistry/Biochemistry laboratory of Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, Ilorin, Nigeria, cooled by aeration, weighed and divided into 3 lots (A0=control; A1=1: 1, tomato: wood ash; A2=1: 2, tomato: wood ash). These were kept in uniformly sized paper carton (170 mm×120 mm×140 mm) on the shelf for 28 days. Sensory attributes were assessed on 5-point hedonic scale after storage, moisture and mineral analyses were conducted using [11], pH, acidity, soluble solids and carotenoids were estimated using [13] methods while vitamin C content was evaluated with [14] method. No significant (p>0.05) difference was observed between A1 and A2 in their sensory scores whereas both were significantly (p<0.05) higher than control (A0). Weight loss (%) and decay incidence (%) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in control (29.39% and 16.42% respectively) compared to A1 (4.61% and 4.65% respectively) and A2 (8.22% and 4.76% respectively). Moisture content of control (90.48%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than A1 (85.78%) and A2 (87.99%). Similarly, the pH, brix-acid ratio and vitamin C of control were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of A1 and A2, the acidity of control was significantly (p<0.05) lower than A1 and A2 while there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the soluble solid contents of control, A1 and A2. The study showed that wood ash could be used in the post-harvest handling of matured green tomato as the results indicated that groups treated with wood ash demonstrated good indices of storability at ambient conditions for 28 days.
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*Corresponding author: E-mail: titifashanu@gmail.com;
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International
29(4): 1-11, 2019; Article no.JEAI.46042
ISSN: 2457-0591
(Past name:
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture,
Past ISSN: 2231-0606)
Effect of Wood Ash Treatment on Quality
Parameters of Matured Green Tomato Fruit
(Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Storage
Titilope Abosede Fashanu
1*
, Samuel Adesayo Akande
1
,
Israel Oluwasanmi Lawal
1
, Ifedapo Solomon Ayanda
1
,
Odunayo Benedicta Adebayo
1
, Adeola Saheed Ibrahim
1
,
Kennedy Chika Achime
1
and Tobi Deborah Olasope
1
1
Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, Km 3, Asa-Dam Road, P.M.B. 1489, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. All authors read and approved the final
manuscript.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/46042
Editor(s):
(1)
Dr. Mohammad Reza Naroui Rad, Department of Horticulture Crops Research, Sistan Agricultural and Natural Resources
Research and Education Center, Iran.
Reviewers:
(1)
Takeshi Nagai, Graduate School of Yamagata University, Japan.
(2)
Shipra Jha AIB, Amity University, India.
(3)
B. Rajasekhar Reddy, Icar-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, India.
Complete Peer review History:
http://www.sdiarticle3.com/review-history/46042
Received 05 October 2018
Accepted 16 December 2018
Published 11 January 2019
ABSTRACT
Post-Harvest challenge accounts for 40-50% of losses in tomato value-chain in Nigeria and other
parts of the world. This study evaluated the effects of wood ash treatment on the sensory,
physicochemical, nutritional and mineral compositions of green tomato stored under ambient
conditions (28.3ºC, 67%). Green tomato (kerewa var.) was harvested from University of Ilorin,
Nigeria and brought to the Chemistry/Biochemistry laboratory of Nigerian Stored Products Research
Institute, Ilorin, Nigeria, cooled by aeration, weighed and divided into 3 lots (A0=control; A1=1: 1,
tomato: wood ash; A2=1: 2, tomato: wood ash). These were kept in uniformly sized paper carton
(170 mm×120 mm×140 mm) on the shelf for 28 days. Sensory attributes were assessed on 5-point
hedonic scale after storage, moisture and mineral analyses were conducted using [11], pH, acidity,
soluble solids and carotenoids were estimated using [13] methods while vitamin C content was
evaluated with [14] method. No significant (p>0.05) difference was observed between A1 and A2 in
Original Research Article
Fashanu et al.; JEAI, 29(4): 1-11, 2019; Article no.JEAI.46042
2
their sensory scores whereas both were significantly (p<0.05) higher than control (A0). Weight loss
(%) and decay incidence (%) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in control (29.39% and 16.42%
respectively) compared to A1 (4.61% and 4.65% respectively) and A2 (8.22% and 4.76%
respectively). Moisture content of control (90.48%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than A1
(85.78%) and A2 (87.99%). Similarly, the pH, brix-acid ratio and vitamin C of control were
significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of A1 and A2, the acidity of control was significantly (p<0.05)
lower than A1 and A2 while there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the soluble solid contents
of control, A1 and A2. The study showed that wood ash could be used in the post-harvest handling
of matured green tomato as the results indicated that groups treated with wood ash demonstrated
good indices of storability at ambient conditions for 28 days.
Keywords: Post-harvest; storage; green-tomato; carotenoids; Nigeria.
1. INTRODUCTION
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a major
horticultural crop with an estimated global
production of 120 million metric tons [1]. Nigeria
is the sixteenth largest producer out of 144
countries producing tomato in the world with her
estimated production for the year 2013 being
1,738,128.35 tonnes [2] of which 40-50% were
lost between the farm and the table [3].
Depending on the market and production areas,
tomatoes are harvested at stages of maturity
ranging from physiological maturity (mature-
green stage) through full-ripe. Tomatoes
harvested at the mature-green stage (M-3 or M-
4) will ripen to high quality if handled properly [4].
Tomatoes harvested at the immature green (M-2)
stage will ripen to moderate quality, while those
harvested at M-1 stage will not ripen to
acceptable levels of quality. When harvested at
matured green stage, the fruits may later ripen
spontaneously or after treatment with ethylene
before shipment to retailers [5].
Major challenges along tomato value chain in
Nigeria had been identified to include deficiency
in critical inputs such as lack of improved
technology, low yield and productivity, high post-
harvest losses, lack of processing and marketing
infrastructure [3]. The most serious of these
challenges is high post-harvest losses. To this
end, consumers and farmers are in constant
demand for safe and eco-friendly method of
extending shelf life thereby reducing post-harvest
losses of tomatoes.
Wood ash is a non-hazardous agricultural waste
which is generated as a result of oxidation
process during combustion of wood [6,7] It
results from burning or gasifying wood and
consists mainly of minerals that the trees have
absorbed over their lifetime except for carbon,
hydrogen and nitrogen which evaporate during
the firing of wood [6,8]. Serafimova et al. [6]
confirmed in their studies the presence of several
major crystalline phases with the predominant
one being calcite-CaCO
3
, with smaller quantities
of quartz-SiO
2
, K and fairdice-K
2
Ca (CO
3
) and it
has been used to neutralize acidic soils due to its
ability to form alkaline extracts when dissolved in
water. The study further stated that the content
and mobility of toxic elements in the wood ash is
in full compliance with the regulatory
requirements to protect soil quality and
agricultural productions [6]. Wood ash is highly
basic with a pH around 12 [8]. In most cases, ash
from the combustion of plant wastes does not
contain heavy metals and other toxic elements in
concentration that could lead to secondary
contamination of soil and agricultural products for
recycling as a soil improver [6].
Following a recent discovery regarding the
storage of tomatoes in wood ash in Burundi [9]
there is need for scientific trial in order to support
the claim. Hence this study was designed to
investigate the storability, physicochemical
properties, sensory attributes and mineral
contents of matured green tomato using wood
ash.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Reagents and Test Samples
All the reagents used were of analytical grade
from SIGMA-ALDRICH, Germany and BDH,
England products. Green tomato (local name;
kerewa) was harvested from a farm within
University of Ilorin campus and brought to the
Chemistry/Biochemistry Laboratory of Nigerian
Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI),
Ilorin, Nigeria. The sample was allowed to cool
down by aeration and then sorted to get
wholesome matured green tomato. The tomato
was weighed and sub-divided into three equal
parts and stored in wood ash as follow:
Fashanu et al.; JEAI, 29(4): 1-11, 2019; Article no.JEAI.46042
3
A0=control, stored without wood ash
A1=1:1; tomato: wood ash (500 g of matured
green tomato stored with 500 g of wood ash)
A2=1:2; tomato: wood ash (500 g of matured
green tomato stored with 1000 g of wood ash)
All the treatments and control set-up were kept in
170 mm×120 mm×140 mm paper carton and
placed on the laboratory shelf for 28 days under
ambient condition (28.3
0
C, 67.7%).
2.2 Sensory Evaluation
Evaluation of the sensory attributes was carried
out on stored tomatoes after 28 days. Samples
were presented to 20-member untrained
panelists who are conversant with buying
tomatoes to evaluate colour, appearance, odour,
firmness and general acceptability using a five-
point hedonic scale as described by Larmond
[10].
2.3 Determination of Moisture Contents
The moisture content was determined with [11]
methods. A weighed portion (5 g) of
homogenized tomato sample was dried to a
constant weight first at 80ºC (for 4 h) and
subsequently at 105ºC for 2 h.
2.4 Estimation of Weight Loss (%) and
Decay Incidence (%)
Weight or moisture loss (%) was determined by
weighing the samples on a digital balance
(SNOWREX ELECTRONIC SCALE 56503238,
LONDON) and was reported as percentage loss
in weight/moisture based on the original mass
[12] as follows;
Weightormoistureloss(%) = 1 − 2
2 × 100
Where; W
1
= previous weight
W
2
= current weight
Decay incidence (%) was evaluated by recording
the number of decayed fruits at 28
th
day of the
storage for all the treatments and dividing by the
total number of fruits initially packaged according
to the formulae below;
(%)
=
 × 100
2.5 Measurement of pH, Titratable Acidity
(%) and Soluble Solid
The pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solid
was determined using the method described by
Sharoba [13] with little modification as follows; 10
g of sample was homogenized and centrifuged
(5000 g, for 20 min), at 4°C. The supernatant
was recovered for pH, titratable acidity, and
soluble solids measurements. The pH was
measured at 20°C with a pH meter
(SEARCHTECH PHS-3C). Titratable acidity was
determined by titration with 0.1 N NaOH until pH
8.1 was reached (rose pink colour) and reported
as gram citric acid/100 g fresh weight. Soluble
solids content was determined at 20°C with a
refractometer (ABBE MARK II 10481; Cambridge
Instrument Inc. NY) and reported as °Brix [13].
2.6 Determination of Vitamin C Content
(mg/100 g)
The 2, 6-dichlorophenol indophenol titration
method described by Ndawula et al. [14] was
adopted for the determination of ascorbic acid
content. This method was slightly modified and
used as follow; 2 g of sample was homogenized
in a mortar containing 10 ml of 0.5% oxalic acid
(extraction solution) and the content transferred
into 100 ml volumetric flask. More extraction
solution was added up to the mark. The content
being mixed thoroughly, filtered immediately
(Whatman No. 4) and aliquots (10 ml) of extract
were titrated against standardized 2, 6-
dichlorophenol indophenol solution. An
equivalent amount of the extraction solution was
titrated against standard 2, 6-dichlorophenol
indophenol solution as blank at the same time.
2.7 Carotenoids Determination
The tomato samples were homogenized using a
mortar and pestle in the presence of water bath
containing squash ice [13]. Exactly 16ml of
acetone-hexane (4:6) solvent were added to 1.0
g of homogenized sample and mixed in a test-
tube to extract the carotenoids, an aliquot was
taken from the upper solution from the two
phases formed and its optical density (OD) was
measured at 663, 645, 505, and 453 nm in a UV-
VIS spectrophotometer (SEARCHTECH
INSTRUMENTS; UV1902PC, ENGLAND).
Lycopene and β-carotene contents were
calculated according to the Nagata and
Yamashita [15] equations below as reported by
Sharoba [13].
Fashanu et al.; JEAI, 29(4): 1-11, 2019; Article no.JEAI.46042
4
(100) = −0.0458 ×
OD663 + 0.204 × OD645 + 0.372 × OD505 −
0.0806 × OD453
(100) = 0.216 ×
OD663 − 1.22 × OD645 − 0.304 × OD505 +
0.452 × OD453
Where OD=optical density
2.8 Mineral Analysis
Dry digestion methods described by Oshodi and
Fagbemi [16] were adopted in the present study.
One gram (1 g dry matter) of homogenized
sample was weighed into a crucible and placed
in a muffle furnace at 600
0
C for 5 h to ash and
then transferred into desiccators to cool to room
temperature. The ash was dissolved in 10%
hydrochloric acid (10 ml), filtered and diluted to
100 ml volume with distilled water. From the
digest, various elements were determined; Na
and K were measured by the use of Jenway
digital flame photometer as described by Bonire
et al. [17]. Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were
measured using atomic absorption
spectrophotometer (AAS 969 Bulk Scientific VGP
210) in accordance with [11] and compared with
absorption of standards of the elements. Heavy
metal; Cr, Pb, and Cd were measured according
to AOAC [11].
2.9 Statistical Analysis
The experiments were arranged in completely
randomized design (CRD) with three replicates,
each consisting of fruit of relative weight for each
observation. Data was subjected to analysis of
variance (ANOVA) and tested for significance
difference among treatments by New Duncan’s
Multiple Range F-Test (DMRT) at (p<0.05) using
SPSS software package version 20.0.0 (IBM
Statistics).
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Sensory Attributes
The effect of wood ash treatment on the sensory
attributes of green tomato (Solanum
lycopersicum L.) after 28 days storage was as
presented in Table 1. A1 and A2 were rated
higher than the control (A0) in colour,
appearance, firmness, odour and general
acceptability and the difference was significant
(p<0.05).
Table 1. Effect of wood ash treatment on the sensory attributes of green tomato (Solanum
lycopersicum L.) after storage (28 days)
Sample Colour Appearance Firmness Odour General acceptability
A0 2.25
b
2.40
b
2.45
b
3.30
b
2.55
b
A1 3.25
a
3.25
a
3.30
a
4.20
a
3.40
a
A2 3.75
a
3.45
a
3.60
a
4.10
a
3.45
a
LSD 0.561 0.61 0.567 0.583 0.560
Readings show mean of 20 panelist members on 5-pont hedonic scale where 5 indicates like extremely and 1
indicates dislike extremely. A0=control, A1=ratio 1:1 (tomato: wood ash), ratio 1: 2 (tomato: wood ash)
A
A0
A1 A2
Plate 1: A, Matured green (Day 0); A0, Control (Day 28); A1, 1:1 tomato: wood ash (Day 28);
A2, 1:2 tomato: wood ash (Day 28)
Fashanu et al.; JEAI, 29(4): 1-11, 2019; Article no.JEAI.46042
5
3.2 Weight (Moisture) Loss (%) and Decay
Incidence (%)
The weight or moisture loss (%) of stored green
tomato is as shown (Fig. 1). The control (A0)
sample lost from 11.39–29.37% of its initial
weight within the storage period (28 days).
Treatment A1 (1:1; tomato: wood ash) and A2 (1:
2; tomato: wood ash) lost 0.72–11.61% and
0.40–8.22% of their initial weight during the
storage period respectively. The results showed
that the weight loss (%) was higher in control
than the treated samples. Also, the longer
storage time, the wider the weight loss for both
control and the treated samples. [12] also
recorded similar results when avocado was
treated with pectin-base coating. These authors
opined that; weight or moisture loss could occur
as result of transfer of water vapour from the
sample to the air. Weight or moisture loss could
also be due to change in the carbohydrate
composition of the fruit as the density of starch is
much higher than that of sugar [18].
Similarly, the results of decay incidence follow
the same trend as was recorded for weight or
moisture loss. The result indicated that decay
incidence (Fig. 1) recorded for A0 (16.42%) in
the study was higher than both treatment A1
(4.65%) and in A2 (4.76%).
3.3 Moisture Content
The moisture contents (MC) of control and
treated samples ranged from 85.78–92.06% in
the current study under review (Fig. 2). The MC
of A0 reduced significantly (p<0.05) from day 0 to
day 7 of the storage period. Henceforth, there
was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the MC
of the control from day 14 to 28 of the study
period. Change in the MC of control might be due
to change in the atmospheric conditions during
the storage period. At day 28, the MC of control
was significantly (p<0.05) higher than both
treatments A1 and A2, also the MC of A1 was
significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of A2. This
is an indication that wood ash reduced the MC of
green tomato significantly (p<0.05) during 28
days storage. In addition, reduction in moisture
was higher in treatment A1 than treatment A2.
Reduction in moisture content of tomato in the
current study could be due to high sorption
capacity of wood ash causing a moisture drift [6].
3.4 Total Soluble Solid
The Total Soluble Solid (TSS) of treated tomato
samples (Fig. 2) ranged from 5.77–8.40
0
Brix for
the control and test group. There was no
significant (p>0.05) difference in the TSS of both
control and treated samples (A1 and A2) at day 0
and day 28, showing that storage with wood ash
had no significant influence on the total soluble
solid of green tomato during 28 days storage.
The increase in soluble solid in both the treated
and the control group might be due to change in
carbohydrate composition from starch to sugar
as well as complete change in color of the fruit,
this may be due to the fact that harvested fruit
that is stored at elevated temperature hastens
the respiratory loss of carbohydrates along with
the acceleration of ripening [19].
Fig. 1. Effect of wood ash treatment on weight or moisture loss (%) and decay incidence (%) of
stored green tomato. A0= control, A1=1:1 (wood: tomato), A2= 2:1(wood ash: tomato)
Fashanu et al.; JEAI, 29(4): 1-11, 2019; Article no.JEAI.46042
6
Fig. 2. Effect of wood ash treatment on moisture content (MC) and total soluble solid (TSS); A0
is control; A1is 1:1(wood ash to tomato); A2 is 2:1(wood ash to tomato). Each bar represents
mean of triplicate readings (n=3). Bars with unshared alphabet are significantly different
(p<0.05). Error bars represent standard error (SE) of the mean
3.5 The pH and Titratable Acidity
The effect of wood ash treatment on the pH and
titratable acidity (TTA) of green tomato is as
shown (Fig. 3). The pH value recorded for the
storage period ranged from 4.67–5.20. There
was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the pH
values of both control and treated samples at day
0 while significant (p<0.05) increase was
observed in the pH of control at day 28. This
indicates that wood ash reduced the pH of fresh
matured green tomato during 28 days storage.
The pH of a ripe tomato typically ranges from
4.1–4.8 [19].
On the other hand, the TTA value recorded
within the storage period ranged from 0.89
4.39%. There was no significant (p>0.05)
difference in the TTA of control and treated
samples at day 0, this was expected because
they were all from the same source. Conversely,
a significant (p<0.05) increase was recorded at
day 28 between control, treatments A1 and A2.
Similarly, it showed that wood ash treatment
increased the acidity of matured green tomato
fruits during 28 days storage. The results of pH
and acidity are in agreement because, increase
in fruit acidity correspond to decrease in pH. The
results in the present study agreed with the view
of [20] who stated that; the acid content of
tomato was found to be lower when the fruit is
under mature then increases to the peak at the
point when color appeared with a rapid decrease
as the fruit ripened at ambient condition. This
was what happens between day 0 and 7 in the
current study when pH reduced significantly
(p<0.05). In addition, citric acid is the major
constituent of total acid in tomato and malic acid
may occur in small quantity [20].
3.6 Brix-acid Ratio
The effect of wood ash treatment on the sugar
(Brix)-acid ratio is as shown (Fig. 4). The brix-
acid ratio of the control and treated green
tomatoes ranged from 1.90–7.99. There was no
significant (p>0.05) difference recorded in the
brix-acid ratio of control and treated samples at
day 0 whereas the brix-acid ratio recorded for
control was significantly higher (p<0.05) than
both treatments A1 and A2 at day 28 of the
storage. This was an indication that wood ash
affected the brix-acid ratio of matured green
tomato during the 28 days trials. Brix-acid ratio is
an index of ripeness in any fruit. Unripe fruit has
low sugar and high acidity, increase in ripeness
leads to increase sugar content due to
degradation of carbohydrates and correspondent
decrease in acidity [21,19]. Therefore, decrease
in brix-acid ratio on 28
th
day showed that ripening
was brought under control due to effect of wood
ash.
3.7 Vitamin C Content
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content of the control
and treated tomato samples ranged from 7.67–
44.25 mg per100 g (Fig. 5). There was no
significant (p>0.05) difference in the vitamin C
contents of control and treated samples (A1 and
A2) at day 0, whereas at day 28, the control (A0)
had significantly (p<0.05) high vitamin C content
compared to
other treatments. This indicates that
wood ash treatment brought about reduction in
vitamin C contents of the treated samples during
28 days storage. Increase in vitamin C content of
the control (A0) may be attributed to progression
in ripening [22].
3.8 Carotenoids Contents
Lycopene and beta-
carotene contents of control
and treated green tomato samples is as shown
Fig. 3.
Effect of wood ash treatment on pH and Titratable acidity (TTA); A0 is control; A1is
1:1(wood ash to tomato); A2 is 2:1(wood ash to tomato). Error bars represent standard error
Fig. 4.
Effect of wood ash treatment on brix
A0 is control; A1is 1:1(wood ash to tomato); A2 is 2:1(wood ash to tomato). Error bars
represent standard error (SE) of the mean
Fashanu et al.; JEAI, 29(4): 1-11, 2019
; Article no.
7
significant (p>0.05) difference in the vitamin C
contents of control and treated samples (A1 and
A2) at day 0, whereas at day 28, the control (A0)
had significantly (p<0.05) high vitamin C content
other treatments. This indicates that
wood ash treatment brought about reduction in
vitamin C contents of the treated samples during
28 days storage. Increase in vitamin C content of
the control (A0) may be attributed to progression
carotene contents of control
and treated green tomato samples is as shown
(Fig. 6). The lycopene content of control and
treated green tomato ranged from 3.09
13.64×10
-3
mg per 100 mL. There was no
significant (p>0.05
) difference in the lycopene
contents of control and treated samples at the
commencement of the study but a significant
(p<0.05) rise was recorded in the lycopene
content of sample A1 at day 28 of the experiment
but no significant (p>0.05) difference betwe
control and sample A2. Indicating that wood ash
treatment had positive effect on treatment A1
only in terms of lycopene content. This might as
well be attributed to the fact that there was
progression in ripening process in that same
treatment according to
Yamaguchi
Effect of wood ash treatment on pH and Titratable acidity (TTA); A0 is control; A1is
1:1(wood ash to tomato); A2 is 2:1(wood ash to tomato). Error bars represent standard error
(SE) of the mean
Effect of wood ash treatment on brix
-
acid ratio of matured green tomato during storage.
A0 is control; A1is 1:1(wood ash to tomato); A2 is 2:1(wood ash to tomato). Error bars
represent standard error (SE) of the mean
; Article no.
JEAI.46042
(Fig. 6). The lycopene content of control and
treated green tomato ranged from 3.09
mg per 100 mL. There was no
) difference in the lycopene
contents of control and treated samples at the
commencement of the study but a significant
(p<0.05) rise was recorded in the lycopene
content of sample A1 at day 28 of the experiment
but no significant (p>0.05) difference betwe
en
control and sample A2. Indicating that wood ash
treatment had positive effect on treatment A1
only in terms of lycopene content. This might as
well be attributed to the fact that there was
progression in ripening process in that same
Yamaguchi
[22].
Effect of wood ash treatment on pH and Titratable acidity (TTA); A0 is control; A1is
1:1(wood ash to tomato); A2 is 2:1(wood ash to tomato). Error bars represent standard error
acid ratio of matured green tomato during storage.
A0 is control; A1is 1:1(wood ash to tomato); A2 is 2:1(wood ash to tomato). Error bars
Fashanu et al.; JEAI, 29(4): 1-11, 2019; Article no.JEAI.46042
8
Fig. 5. Effect of wood ash treatment on Vitamin C content (mg per 100 g) of matured green
tomato during storage. A0 is control; A1is 1:1(wood ash to tomato); A2 is 2:1(wood ash to
tomato). Error bars represent standard error (SE) of the mean
The beta-carotene contents of both control and
treated samples ranged from 1.098–2.075 × 10
-2
mg per 100 mL. There was no significant
(p>0.05) difference in the beta-carotene contents
of control and treated samples at the beginning
of the set up (day 0) whereas the beta-carotene
content of sample A1 was significantly (p>0.05)
higher than that of both control and treatment A2
at day 28. The indication here is that, wood ash
treatment had positive influence on the beta-
carotene content of treatment A1 (ratio 1: 1;
tomato: wood ash) during the 28 days storage.
Generally, in the current study, beta-carotene
contents of control and treated samples were
higher than lycopene contents. This was contrary
to the assumption of [23] who said that lycopene
is the most abundant carotenoid in ripe tomato. It
could then be deduced from the study that, the
ratio of lycopene to beta-carotene in tomato is a
function of cultivar. As stated by [19], lycopene
and beta-carotene are predominantly responsible
for the colour in tomato, thus it was observed in
the study that both control and treated green
tomato got ripened to orange colour after being
stored for 28 days. These results of nutritional
studies (vitamin C, lycopene and beta-carotene)
was in support of an assertion by [24], who
stated that; tomato has a remarkable
combination of antioxidants, which includes
lycopene, beta-carotene, polyphenols and
vitamin C. Notwithstanding, the results in the
current study contradict the idea put forward by
[22] who stated that vitamins A and C increase
as tomato fruits ripen on the vine but does not
increase when matured green fruits ripen off the
vine.
3.9 Mineral Contents
The mineral constituents analyzed in ash
(medium), treated and untreated green tomato
samples (Table 2) consist of both micro and
macro elements including; Sodium (Na),
Potassium (K), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Calcium
(Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn),
Copper (Cu) and components of heavy metals
including; Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and
Chromium (Cr). The results showed that; Na, K,
Zn, Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu ranged from 0.23-
1.04, 76.00-365.00, 0.01-0.30, 0.02-2.46, 0.48-
70.00, 1.60-18.08, 0.01-0.28 and 0.01-0.03 mg
per 100 g respectively. Lead (Pb) was detected
in ash (medium) at 0.01 mg per 100 g but was
not detected in both treated and untreated green
tomatoes while Cr and Cd were not detected at
all in the ash and the samples. The results also
showed that Sodium/Potassium ratio ranged
from 0.0028-0.0034 (Table 2). Sodium and
Potassium were significantly (p<0.05) low in the
ash (medium) but significantly (p<0.05) high in
the green tomato (A) before storage. Conversely,
Zinc, Iron, Calcium, Magnesium and Manganese
were significantly (p<0.05) high in ash (medium)
compared to the treated and untreated samples.
The importance of mineral analysis in the current
study was to ascertain that there was no cross
contamination from the ash to the samples and
these results has clearly demonstrated this
beyond any doubt. Firstly, Na and K were
significantly (p<0.05) higher in some samples
with exception of A2 where there was no
significant (p>0.05) difference in the Na content
compared with ash (medium). In addition, Zn, Fe,
Fashanu et al.; JEAI, 29(4): 1-11, 2019; Article no.JEAI.46042
9
Fig. 6. Effect of wood ash treatment on lycopene (mg per 100 mL) and beta-carotene (mg per
100 mL) of matured green tomato during storage; A0 is control; A1is 1:1(wood ash to tomato);
A2 is 2:1(wood ash to tomato). Each bar represents mean of triplicate readings (n=3). Bars
with unshared alphabet are significantly different (p<0.05). Error bars represent standard error
(SE) of the mean
Table 2. Effects of wood ash treatment on the mineral composition of green tomato
Mineral (mg per 100 g)
Ash
A
A0
A1
A2
Sodium (Na) 0.23
a
±0.00 1.04
c
±0.00 0.29
b
±0.00 0.30
b
±0.07 0.25
a
±0.07
Potassium (K) 76.00
a
±0.00 365.00
e
±7.07 86.00
c
±0.00
90.00
d
±0.00
82.00
b
±0.70
Zinc (Zn) 0.30
e
±0.00 0.01
a
±0.00 0.18
d
±0.00 0.10
b
±0.00 0.12
c
±0.00
Iron (Fe) 2.46
e
±0.01 0.02
a
±0.00 0.11
d
±0.00 0.10
c
±0.00 0.09
b
±0.00
Calcium (Ca) 70.80
e
±0.00 0.60
d
±0.00 0.58
c
±0.00 0.48
a
±0.00 0.53
b
±0.00
Magnesium (Mg) 18.08
e
±0.00 1.60
d
±0.00 1.78
c
±0.00 1.76
b
±0.00 1.64
a
±0.00
Manganese (Mn) 0.28
d
±0.00 0.01
a
±0.00 0.04
c
±0.00 0.04
c
±0.00 0.03
b
±0.00
Copper (Cu) 0.03
c
±0.00 0.01
a
±0.00 0.03
c
±0.00 0.02
b
±0.01 0.02
b
±0.01
Lead (Pb) 0.01
a
±0.00 Nd Nd Nd Nd
Chromium (Cr) Nd Nd Nd Nd Nd
Cadmium (Cd) Nd Nd Nd Nd Nd
Sodium/potassium ratio 0.0030 0.0028 0.0034 0.0030 0.0030
Results showed Mean ± SE of duplicate readings (n=2). Means with unshared superscript in the same row are
significantly (p<0.05) different. Nd=not detected; Ash=medium; A=matured green tomato before storage;
A0=control; A1=1: 1 (tomato: wood ash); A2=1: 2 (tomato: wood ash)
Ca, Mg and Mn were significantly (p<0.05) high
in the ash compared to the samples. It was as
well observed from the results that Na, K, Ca and
Mg were significantly (p<0.05) high in the fresh
green tomato sample (A) before storage than all
the treated samples after the storage period (28
days). Inorganic elements such as Cu, Fe, K,
Mg, Mn and Zn serve as cofactors for enzymes
[25]. This reason may account for reduction in
concentrations of some minerals as the tomato
fruits were undergoing ripening process. Also,
Serafimova et al. [6] stated that components
wood ash includes; CaO, MgO, CaCO
3
(calcite),
K
2
Ca(CO
3
)
2
(faircidite or potassium and
calciumcarbonate). The composition of mineral
elements in wood ash used as a medium in the
present study also showed that K, Ca, and Mg
were present even in abundance in some cases.
4. CONCLUSION
The study showed that groups treated with wood
ash demonstrated good indices of storability in
terms of sensory attributes, moisture or weight
loss, decay incidence and some nutritional
qualities such as lycopene and beta-carotene
Fashanu et al.; JEAI, 29(4): 1-11, 2019; Article no.JEAI.46042
10
especially in the fruits treated with equal portion
of wood ash (A1). Therefore, wood ash could be
applied in the post-harvest handling or storage of
matured green tomatoes at ambient conditions
for 28 days.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors wish to acknowledge the Management of
Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute,
Ilorin Nigeria for the use of laboratory equipment
during the course of this study.
COMPETING INTERESTS
Authors have declared that no competing
interests exist.
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