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Halophytic and Salt-Tolerant Feedstuffs: Impacts on Nutrition, Physiology and Reproduction of Livestock

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... Halophytes have long been advocated for use as forage, fodder, oil seeds, and pharmaceuticals [27][28][29][30]. The use of halophytes as salad vegetables have commanded a high price [31], although, the choice of species is quite limited. ...
... Selections of Distichlis palmeri have also been investigated encouragingly but inconclusively for this purpose, as it is a true halophyte, is also gluten free, and has a high content of essential amino acids [36][37][38][39]. Halophytes have long been advocated for use as forage, fodder, oil seeds, and pharmaceuticals [27,[28][29][30]. The use of halophytes as salad vegetables have commanded a high price [31], although, the choice of species is quite limited. ...
Article
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Soil salinity is a major threat to the sustainability of agricultural production systems and has defeated civilizations whenever the cost of remediation exceeded the benefits. Among the reasons for this is the complexity of the plant-water-soil nexus and that the causes of salinity are often separated from the damage in time and space. There have been many activities to address salinity, and while good progress has occurred in commercially attractive irrigation areas, many apparently successful techniques, such as intercropping obligate halophytes with conventional crops, processing halophyte meals for human consumption and new uses for saline waters, have not been taken up, although the benefit in ecological terms is understood. There are limited payments available for some ecosystem services, but these are not yet a very recognized market for land users, whose agency is essential for long term success and addressing this requires institutional evolution. We conclude, from Australian experience, that a more concerted effort, perhaps initiated by a philanthropist, is needed to show merchants and agencies how a range of payments for ecosystem services can be turned into true markets in an aggregate way so the ‘knowledge of what can be done can be transformed into benefit’
... The biomass samples from the locality L8-Trešnjevac, which had the highest value in crude protein content, consist of species that had very high values in protein content in individual analyses in other regions of the world: Atriplex nummularia was appointed by 13.68% of the total protein content (Tawfik et al., 2015) to 20.69% in Atriplex repanda (Attia-Ismail, 2015). Atriplex species have good protein content and sites with dominance of this genus could be suitable for grazing. ...
Article
Continental halophytic grasslands are known for performing of range of ecosystem services especially remarkable in the regions where they are much distributed – in arid and semi-arid areas. Continental halophytic grasslands of the Central and South-East Europe are not considered as favourable for arable farming, however, traditional animal husbandry plays a crucial role in maintaining biodiversity and preserving these natural habitats. The particular interest of this study is the assessment of the chemical composition of biomass and the quality of insufficiently studied halophytic grassland communities of the central Balkans. In addition, the differences in pastoral value were monitored along the geographical gradient, i.e., between grasslands situated in the Pannonian plain (grasslands of Alliance Puccinellion limosae) and those distributed on the south Serbia (Alliance Festucion pseudovinae). The study was carried out at 18 representative sites, focusing on the saline grasslands of the two distinct regions – on the north and on the south of Serbia. The obtained results show that the halophytic grasslands have satisfying quality characteristics (average values: dry matter - 93.67%, crude protein - 8.66%, cellulose - 30.36%, crude fat - 2.27%) compared with other studied grasslands of saline habitats. There were no significant differences in quality and chemical composition of grasslands of the two regions, despite differences in floristic composition, indicating that salinity is the key determinant for pastoral value of the halophytic vegetation. The certain variations were attributed to the specific floristic composition related to ecological conditions and halophytic community characteristics.
... Halophytes acquire abiotic compounds from the soil and amalgamate with them to produce various biologically active compounds possessing potent pharmacological activities (Flowers and Colmer, 2015). Therefore, halophytes have great potential for food products, medicine, chemicals, forage and for the production of biomass for renewable energy (El Shaer and Attia-Ismail, 2015). Few halophyte species are used as food, vegetable or salad such as Atriplex balimus, Haloxylon salicornicum, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Chenopodium album, Salicornia europaea, Portulaca oleracea and Suaeda maritime (Joshi et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Sesuvium sesuvioides(Fenzl) Verdc. (Aizoaceae) is commonly known as BarriUlwaiti and used in folklore remedies; i.e. arthritis, gout, epistaxis, hemorrhage, smallpox, chickenpox, cold and flu by the local practitioners in the Cholistan desert. In the current study, fresh and dried plant material was examined macroscopically and microscopically. Transverse sections of plant parts such as leaf, stem, root and flower were also examined. Physico-chemical and fluorescence analysis according to WHO recommendations for standardization of plant material were performed. Phytochemical screening maybe helpful in determining the secondary metabolites responsible for their biological activities. Mineral analysis (Na + , K + , Li + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl ˗ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ and Fe 2+), total fat and crude proteins were estimated to evaluate the nutritional value of the plant. In in-vitro cytotoxic activity, n-hexane fraction (50µg) showed significant results against Human T-lymphoblastic Leukemia CCRF-CEM cell lines followed by methanol and chloroform fractions. This study will be worthwhile for the correct identification and for observing any type of adulteration. This observation will be helpful for differentiating this species from closely related species of the same genus or family.
... In desert area of Egypt, the shortage of ruminant feeds especially in summer and early autumn seasons is the main challenge to increase indigenous animal production and improve livestock productivity (Mansour and Al-Zahar, 2018). In arid and semi-arid regions such as South Sinai, animal husbandry, as the main income resource for pastoralists, is mostly based on the natural vegetation for rearing small ruminates (Squires and El Shaer, 2016). Degradation of the rangeland is evident in many parts of desert Egypt as a result of overgrazing, low erratic rainfall and long drought periods (El-Shesheny et al., 2014). ...
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This experiment was conducted at Ras Sudr Research Station belonging to Desert Research Center to elucidate the effect of feeding salt tolerant plants (Atriplex nummularia, Fodder beet, Pearl millet) silage (STPS) on productive performance ofmale Barki sheep under arid and salinity conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt. Sixteen male Barki sheep (31.42 ±1.79 kg and 4 months age) were randomly divided into two equal groups (8 each). The first group (control) was fed 40% berseem hay (BH) from total ration and served as control. The second group (STPS) was fed ad liptum salt tolerant plants silage (Atriplex nummularia 50%, Fodder beet 35% and Pearl millet 10%) and the final mixture was sprayed with 5% molasses. All experimental lambs were fed concentrate feed mixture (CFM) as 60% percentage for total rations according to nutrient requirements. Results revealed that wide variations in chemical composition of the experimental roughages. It can be seen that STPS have lower contents of Dry matter (DM), Organic matter (OM), Crude protein (CP), Natural detergent fiber (NDF), Acid detergent fiber (ADF), than BH. However, STPS was higher than BH in ash content. Voluntary feed intake showed not significant differences between the two experimental groups of total and CFM intake. However, STPS group had lower (P< 0.05) roughage intake than control group. Animals fed STPS had higher (P<0.05) crude protein digestibility than the control group. Moreover, there were not significant differences between the two experimental groups of DM, CF, NDF and ADF digestibility. Feeding STPS lowered (P<0.05) free drinking, fecal, urinary and total …
... Halophytic plants grow in many arid and semi-arid regions of the world Plantations of large areas of halophyte species have taken place in many parts of the world. The potential areas in the world's arid lands and coastal deserts where halophytes could be grown exceed 150 Mha (Glenn et al. 1997;Squires 1998;Squires and El Shaer 2015). ...
Chapter
Africa’s population is expected to double by 2050 to 2.5 billion. This population growth must be accompanied by improved plant productivity. However, meeting the required levels of plant productivity will be a challenge because of environmental constraints. Indeed, the majority of African countries suffer from water shortage and salinization of agricultural soils, and this will become even more acute in the next few years as a result of climate change. Livestock in Africa suffers from a chronic shortage of feed, especially during the dry periods of the year. Several African countries import a large percentage of their needs for animal feed. Halophytes are remarkable plants that grow in highly saline soils and to some extent in drought conditions. These plants can be used for (i) the elucidation of physiological mechanisms and the genetic basis of salt tolerance; (ii) phytoremediation, desalination, bioenergy production, and culture in association with glycophytes; and (iii) feeding animals as fodder plants. Some halophytes, such as the Chenopodiaceae, contain undesirable compounds. To overcome this drawback, halophytes can be either offered to animals as a supplement or grown in combination with other glycophytes, especially legumes. This chapter deals with the diversity and ecology of halophytes and their uses. This chapter also highlights the beneficial impact of the use of halophytes to feed animals to preserve the fresh water in the African continent.
... The consequence is a lower digestion in the rumen. Large differences in salinity tolerance between animal species or between breeds within species are observed, and it seems that sheep and goats are more tolerant to salt stress than cattle when adapted, and that goats have a slight tolerance advantage over sheep (Dunson, 1974;McGregor, 2004;Squires, 2016). Goats are able to cope without any detrimental effect on digestibility up to levels of 8326 mg TDS (total dissolved solutes) in water (Paiva et al., 2017) but, as in heifers, rumen function and cell wall digestibility decreases with an increase in TDS (Alves et al., 2017). ...
Article
The aim of this Research Reflection is to describe the basic rumen function of goats and its modification in response to environmental factors, as well as to discuss similarities and differences when compared to other ruminants. In so doing we shall reveal the adaptive capacity of goats to harsh environments. The basic rumen function in goats is similar to other species of ruminants, as stressed by the opportunity to apply the updates of feeding systems for ruminants to goats. The rumen epithelium acts as a protective barrier between the rumen and the host, but it can be damaged by toxic compounds or acidosis. The rumen also plays an important role in water balance, both for dehydration and rehydration. Recent studies show that the microbiota exhibits a high fractional stability due to functional redundancy and resilience, but this needs more investigation. The microbial community structure differs between goats and cows, which explains the difference in sensitivity to milk fat depression following intake of high lipid diets. Goats also differ from other ruminants by their enhanced ability to feed-sort, but as with cows they can suffer from acidosis. Nevertheless, goats can be considered to be very resistant to environmental factors such as water stress, salt stress or heat stress, and this is especially so in some endogenous breeds. They also are able to detoxify tannins, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites. Some new trials involving feeding behaviour, microbiota and omics or approaches by meta-analyses or modelling will improve our knowledge of rumen function in goats.
... Livestock should be given all the water they can drink because animals that do not drink enough water may suffer stress or dehydration. Water is especially important when livestock have a saline diet and/or saline drinking water (Squires, 2015). The range of water turnover rates in four livestock species is shown in Table 2. Camels have the lowest turnover, zebu cattle and sheep have comparable rates. ...
Conference Paper
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Productive and fertile soils are becoming scarce in arid and hyper-arid desert environments globally. These areas usually suffer from fresh water resources, which threaten the region food and water securities. Such complex situations necessitates to understand the ecosystem of arid and semi arid lands and to look at both mitigation and adaptation processes carefully, both from environmental and economical perspectives. The process of land degradation, specifically because of salinization has spread over 1 billion hectares in more than 100 countries globally. This has encouraged the scientists and researchers to work more on the plant genetics, agronomical management practices and innovations in agriculture to improve food and water securities. The ICAL2 conference is an initiative by the Government of Uzbekistan and the Samarkand State University. The International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA) being an active international R4D organization is honored to be the co-organizer of the conference. This Forum is built on the outcomes of the research achievements, meetings, workshops and other conferences held in the region in partnership with many national and international organizations, including, USAID, FAO, UNESCO, UNDP, ICARDA and others. The conference is expected to cover different topics related to innovations for food security and will bring many national and international expertise at the event.
Article
Salicornia: spp. are traditionally used in Asia as food, forage and medicine. In the West, its popularity has been increasing as an alternative to salt. Nevertheless, the potential presence of contaminants needs to be considered. Hence this study, which aimed to investigate the presence of potentially mycotoxigenic fungi and the occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in Salicornia sampled in Portugal. Fungi isolation was performed by the direct plating technique in selective media. The mycotoxins contamination levels were determined by an Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ToF-MS). The results suggest that Salicornia is highly susceptible to fungi infestation, e.g. by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Relevant levels of AFB1 > 5 µg/Kg and total aflatoxins (sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) > 10 µg/Kg were found in various samples.
Article
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Vegetation reconstructions in the Dead Sea region based on sediment records are potentially biased, because the vast majority of them derive from the western side of the sea, and only focus on large areas and time spans, while little is known about extra-local (< 1,000 m radius) to local (< 20 m radius) changes. To fill this gap, we compared a vegetation survey with modern pollen assemblages from the “Palm Terrace” oasis ca. 300 m b.s.l. (below sea level), at the eastern edge of the Dead Sea. This revealed how the oasis vegetation is reflected in pollen assemblages. In addition, two sediment cores were collected from the centre and the edge of a mire at the oasis to reconstruct past vegetation dynamics. We analysed sedimentary pollen and microscopic charcoal, as well as the sediment chemistry by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and conductivity, focusing on the past ~ 1,000 years. Pollen results suggest that mesophilous Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) stands and wetland vegetation expanded there around ad 1300–1500 and 1700–1900. During the past ca. 100 years, drought-adapted Chenopodiaceae gained ground, partly replacing the palms. Results from elemental analysis, especially of elements such as chlorine, provide evidence of enhanced evaporative salinization. Increasing desertification and the associated decline of mesophilous date palm stands during the past ca. 50 years is probably related to a decrease in annual precipitation and also corresponds to decreasing water levels in the Dead Sea. These have mainly been caused by increasing extraction of fresh water from tributaries and wells, mainly for local agriculture and industry. In the future, with hotter and drier conditions as well as increased use of water, oasis vegetation along the Dead Sea might be at further risk of contraction or even extinction.
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